10,372 results match your criteria Toxicity Hydrocarbon Insecticides


Jojoba Oil: An Updated Comprehensive Review on Chemistry, Pharmaceutical Uses, and Toxicity.

Polymers (Basel) 2021 May 24;13(11). Epub 2021 May 24.

Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Pharmacy Program, Batterjee Medical College, P.O. Box 6231, Jeddah 21442, Saudi Arabia.

Jojoba is a widely used medicinal plant that is cultivated worldwide. Its seeds and oil have a long history of use in folklore to treat various ailments, such as skin and scalp disorders, superficial wounds, sore throat, obesity, and cancer; for improvement of liver functions, enhancement of immunity, and promotion of hair growth. Extensive studies on Jojoba oil showed a wide range of pharmacological applications, including antioxidant, anti-acne and antipsoriasis, anti-inflammatory, antifungal, antipyretic, analgesic, antimicrobial, and anti-hyperglycemia activities. Read More

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Partial Agonist Activity of Neonicotinoids on Rat Nicotinic Receptors: Consequences over Epinephrine Secretion and In Vivo Blood Pressure.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 May 12;22(10). Epub 2021 May 12.

University of Angers, INSERM U1083, CNRS UMR 6015, MITOVASC, SFR ICAT, 49000 Angers, France.

Neonicotinoid insecticides are nicotine-derived molecules which exert acute neurotoxic effects over the insect central nervous system by activating nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). However, these receptors are also present in the mammalian central and peripheral nervous system, where the effects of neonicotinoids are faintly known. In mammals, cholinergic synapses are crucial for the control of vascular tone, blood pressure and skeletal muscle contraction. Read More

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Hexachlorocyclohexane toxicity in water bodies of Pakistan: challenges and possible reclamation technologies.

Water Sci Technol 2021 May;83(10):2345-2362

Department of Environmental Sciences, COMSATS Institute of Information and Technology, Abbotabad 22010, Pakistan.

Pakistan is an agro-economy country where hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) pesticides are being used to improve crop productivity, as a result the risk of contamination of soil and sediment has been increased. HCH exhibits all the characteristics of persistent organic pollutants (POP), and was therefore added to the list of 'new POPs' in 2009. This review report revealed that the major rivers of Pakistan such as the Indus Basin, River Ravi, River Chenab and their tributaries all are contaminated with HCH and the highest residual concentration (4,090 ng/g) was detected in a pesticide burial ground in Hyderabad city. Read More

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Resistance Risk Assessment of the Ryanoid Anthranilic Diamide Insecticide Cyantraniliprole in Glover.

J Agric Food Chem 2021 Jun 20;69(21):5849-5857. Epub 2021 May 20.

College of Plant Science, Jilin University, Changchun 130062, P.R. China.

Cyantraniliprole targets the ryanodine receptor and shows cross-spectrum activity against a broad range of chewing and sucking pests. In this study, a cyantraniliprole-resistant cotton aphid strain (CyR) developed resistance 17.30-fold higher than that of a susceptible (SS) strain. Read More

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Plant essential oil constituents enhance deltamethrin toxicity in a resistant population of bed bugs (Cimex lectularius L.) by inhibiting cytochrome P450 enzymes.

Pestic Biochem Physiol 2021 Jun 20;175:104829. Epub 2021 Mar 20.

Center for Urban and Industrial Pest Management, Department of Entomology, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907, USA. Electronic address:

Plant essential oils (EOs) are secondary metabolites derived from aromatic plants that are composed of complex mixtures of chemical constituents. EOs have been proposed as one of the alternative methods for bed bug (Cimex lectularius L.) control. Read More

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Differential state-dependent effects of deltamethrin and tefluthrin on sodium channels in central neurons of Helicoverpa armigera.

Pestic Biochem Physiol 2021 Jun 27;175:104836. Epub 2021 Mar 27.

Key Laboratory of Bioactive Materials, Ministry of Education, College of Life Sciences, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071, China. Electronic address:

The cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera is one of the worldwide pests. Electrophysiological properties of voltage-gated sodium channels in central neurons of sensitive and pyrethroid resistant H. armigera were investigated using whole-cell patch clamp technique. Read More

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Thermal plasticity and sensitivity to insecticides in populations of an invasive beetle: Cyfluthrin increases vulnerability to extreme temperature.

Chemosphere 2021 Jul 8;274:129905. Epub 2021 Feb 8.

University of Rennes, CNRS, ECOBIO [(Ecosystèmes, Biodiversité, évolution)], UMR 6553, F-35000, Rennes, France; Institut Universitaire de France, 1 Rue Descartes, Paris, France.

Climate change increases average temperatures and the occurrence of extreme weather events, in turn accentuating the risk of organism exposure to temperature stress. When thermal conditions become stressful, the sensitivity of insects toward insecticides can be exacerbated. Likewise, exposure of insects to insecticides can subsequently influence their ability to handle stressful temperatures. Read More

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Transcriptomic analysis reveals pronounced changes in gene expression due to sub-lethal pyrethroid exposure and ageing in insecticide resistance Anopheles coluzzii.

BMC Genomics 2021 May 10;22(1):337. Epub 2021 May 10.

Department of Vector Biology, Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, Liverpool, L35QA, UK.

Background: Malaria control is heavily reliant on the use of insecticides that target and kill the adult female Anopheline vector. The intensive use of insecticides of the pyrethroid class has led to widespread resistance in mosquito populations. The intensity of pyrethroid resistance in some settings in Africa means mosquitoes can contact bednets treated with this insecticide class multiple times with minimal mortality effects. Read More

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The inter-individual variance can provide additional information for the ecotoxicologists beside the mean.

Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 2021 Jul 25;217:112260. Epub 2021 Apr 25.

Department of Zoology and Animal Ecology, Szent István University, Páter K. st. 1, 2100 Gödöllő, Hungary.

The hypothesis that the inter-individual parameter variability is an unexploited area of ecotoxicology was proposed several decades ago. Although some illustrative examples were presented to support this hypothesis in the last decades, it has never been tested on an extensive, coherent database. In this study, variance changes of 105 dose-response curves were analysed. Read More

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Bifenthrin reduces pregnancy potential via induction of oxidative stress in porcine trophectoderm and uterine luminal epithelial cells.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Aug 16;784:147143. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Institute of Animal Molecular Biotechnology and Department of Biotechnology, College of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, Korea University, Seoul 02841, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

Exposure to pesticides has become a serious concern for the environment and human health. Bifenthrin, a synthetic pyrethroid pesticide, is one of the most frequently used pesticides worldwide. Despite the toxic potential of bifenthrin, no studies have elucidated the cytotoxic response of bifenthrin in maternal and fetal cells that are involved in the implantation process. Read More

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Comparative sensitivity of Neoseiulus cucumeris and its prey Tetranychus cinnabarinus, after exposed to nineteen pesticides.

Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 2021 Jul 14;217:112234. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

College of Chemistry and Environment Engineering, China University of Mining & Technology, Beijing 100083, China. Electronic address:

The toxicity tests of nineteen commonly used pesticides were carried out to compare the sensitivity differences between predatory mite Neoseiulus cucumeris and its prey Tetranychus cinnabarinus by a "leaf spray method" in laboratory microcosms. For two avermectins, emamectin benzoate and abamectin, exhibited high bioactivity against T. cinnabarinusf with LR values of 0. Read More

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Trans-ovo permethrin exposure affects growth, brain morphology and cardiac development in quail.

Environ Toxicol 2021 Jul 12;36(7):1447-1456. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

School of Biological Sciences and Center for Reproductive Biology, Washington State University, Pullman, Washington, USA.

Permethrin is a commonly used, highly effective pesticide in poultry agriculture, and has recently been trialed in conservation efforts to protect Galápagos finch hatchlings from an invasive ectoparasite. Although permethrin is considered safe for adults, pesticides can have health consequences when animals are exposed during early life stages. The few studies that have examined permethrin's effects in embryonic chicks and rats have shown hydrocephaly, anencephaly, reduced cellular energy conversion, and disruption of developing heart muscle. Read More

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Pyrrole-2 carboxamides - A novel class of insect ryanodine receptor activators.

Pestic Biochem Physiol 2021 May 21;174:104798. Epub 2021 Feb 21.

FMC, Agricultural Solutions Discovery Biology, Stine Research Center, 1090 Elkton Road, Newark, DE 19711, USA.

The ryanodine receptor (RyR) is an intracellular calcium channel critical to the regulation of insect muscle contraction and the target site of diamide insecticides such as chlorantraniliprole, cyantraniliprole and flubendiamide. To-date, diamides are the only known class of synthetic molecules with high potency against insect RyRs. Target-based screening of an informer library led to discovery of a novel class of RyR activators, pyrrole-2-carboxamides. Read More

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Characterisation of a copper/zinc superoxide dismutase from Pieris rapae and its role in protecting against oxidative stress induced by chlorantraniliprole.

Pestic Biochem Physiol 2021 May 10;174:104825. Epub 2021 Mar 10.

Anhui Provincial Key Laboratory of Integrated Pest Management on Crops, Key Laboratory of Biology and Sustainable Management of Plant Diseases and Pests of Anhui Higher Education Institutes, School of Plant Protection, Anhui Agricultural University, Hefei 230036, China. Electronic address:

Insecticide exposure typically leads to abnormally high levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and oxidative damage in insects. Superoxide dismutases (SODs) are potent antioxidant enzymes for ROS scavenging that are essential to protect insects against insecticide-induced oxidative injury. The small white butterfly, Pieris rapae, is an economically important lepidopteran pest of cruciferous crops, and the anthranilic diamide insecticide chlorantraniliprole is widely used to control this organism. Read More

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Sublethal effects of bistrifluron on key biological traits, macronutrients contents and vitellogenin (SeVg) expression in Spodoptera exigua (Hübner).

Pestic Biochem Physiol 2021 May 23;174:104802. Epub 2021 Feb 23.

State Key Laboratory Breeding Base for Zhejiang Sustainable Pest and Disease Control, Zhejiang Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Institute of Plant Protection and Microbiology, Hangzhou 310021, PR China. Electronic address:

The beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua, is a highly polyphagous pest originated from Southeast Asia but has spread globally, attacking economically important crops and fruits. Bistrifluron insecticide is one of the highly active insect growth regulators that has been reported to inhibit development and longevity in other lepidopteran species and could be used in the control of S. exigua. Read More

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Biocidal efficacy of tutin and its influence on immune cells and expression of growth-blocking and neuroglian peptides in Mythimna separata (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

Arch Insect Biochem Physiol 2021 May 9;107(1):e21767. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

College of Forestry, Northwest A&F University, Yangling, Shaanxi, China.

Mythimna separata Walker (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) is one of the major pests that can cause severe damage to grain crops. The development of low-toxicity and high-performance botanical insecticides is becoming the focus of new pesticide research to control M. separata. Read More

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Toxicity Assessment of Transfluthrin, Benzyl Butyl Phthalate, and 17β-Estradiol on the Primary Fibroblast of the Striped Field Mouse, Apodemus agrarius.

J Environ Pathol Toxicol Oncol 2021 ;40(2):65-79

Department of Laboratory Animal Medicine, Research Institute for Veterinary Science, BK21 PLUS Program for Creative Veterinary Science Research, College of Veterinary Medicine, Seoul National University, Seoul 08826, Republic of Korea.

Environmental pollution (EP) is a well-known threat to wild animals, but its toxicological impact is poorly understood. In vitro toxicity evaluation using cells of lower predators could be a promising way to assess and monitor the effects of EPs on whole wildlife populations that are related in the food web. Here, we describe EPs' toxic effect and mechanism in the primary fibroblast derived from the embryo of the striped field mouse, Apodemus agrarius. Read More

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In Vitro Antioxidant Activity of Root Extract and Its Hepatoprotective Effect on Chlorpyrifos-Induced Toxicity in Rats.

Molecules 2021 Mar 28;26(7). Epub 2021 Mar 28.

Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200, Thailand.

In Thailand, people in the highland communities whose occupational exposure to pesticides used the root of as a detoxifying agent. However, the scientific data to support the traditional use of this plant are insufficient. This study aimed to evaluate the antioxidant activity and anti-pesticide potential of root extract. Read More

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Genetics and mechanism of resistance to chlorantraniliprole in Musca domestica L. (Diptera: Muscidae).

Ecotoxicology 2021 May 1;30(4):552-559. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Department of Entomology, Faculty of Agricultural Sciences & Technology, Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan, 60800, Pakistan.

The house fly, Musca domestica L. is an important mechanical vector of different pathogens of medical and veterinary importance. It is an organism well-known for its ability to develop insecticide resistance. Read More

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Applied pesticide toxicity shifts toward plants and invertebrates, even in GM crops.

Science 2021 04;372(6537):81-84

iES Landau, Institute for Environmental Sciences, University Koblenz-Landau, 76829 Landau, Germany.

Pesticide impacts are usually discussed in the context of applied amounts while disregarding the large but environmentally relevant variations in substance-specific toxicity. Here, we systemically interpret changes in the use of 381 pesticides over 25 years by considering 1591 substance-specific acute toxicity threshold values for eight nontarget species groups. We find that the toxicity of applied insecticides to aquatic invertebrates and pollinators has increased considerably-in sharp contrast to the applied amount-and that this increase has been driven by highly toxic pyrethroids and neonicotinoids, respectively. Read More

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Linalool Alleviates A42-Induced Neurodegeneration via Suppressing ROS Production and Inflammation in Fly and Rat Models of Alzheimer's Disease.

Oxid Med Cell Longev 2021 10;2021:8887716. Epub 2021 Mar 10.

Department of Biological Sciences, Konkuk University, Seoul 05029, Republic of Korea.

Terpenes are vital metabolites found in various plants and animals and known to be beneficial in the treatment of various diseases. Previously, our group identified terpenes that increased the survival of Alzheimer's disease (AD) model flies expressing human amyloid (A) and identified linalool as a neuroprotective terpene against A toxicity. Linalool is a monoterpene that is commonly present as a constituent in essential oils from aromatic plants and is known to have anti-inflammatory, anticancer, antihyperlipidemia, antibacterial, and neuroprotective properties. Read More

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Flufenoxuron suppresses the proliferation of testicular cells by targeting mitochondria in mice.

Pestic Biochem Physiol 2021 Mar 9;173:104773. Epub 2021 Jan 9.

Institute of Animal Molecular Biotechnology and Department of Biotechnology, College of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, Korea University, Seoul 02841, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

Flufenoxuron is a benzoylurea pesticide that is used to eradicate insects and acarids in the farmland. Even though it specifically works on target animals, the possibilities of its bioaccumulation and harmful effects on non-target animals cannot be denied. As the usage and application of pesticides increases, exposure to them also increases through ingestion of food residues, inhalation, or dermal contact. Read More

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Combined over-expression of two cytochrome P450 genes exacerbates the fitness cost of pyrethroid resistance in the major African malaria vector Anopheles funestus.

Pestic Biochem Physiol 2021 Mar 9;173:104772. Epub 2021 Jan 9.

LSTM Research Unit, Centre for Research in Infectious Diseases (CRID), P.O. BOX 13591, Yaoundé, Cameroon; Department of Vector Biology, Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, Pembroke Place, L35QA Liverpool, UK. Electronic address:

Metabolic resistance driven by multiple P450 genes is worsening insecticide resistance in malaria vectors. However, it remains unclear whether such multiple over-expression imposes an additive fitness cost in the vectors. Here, we showed that two highly over-expressed P450 genes (CYP6P9a and CYP6P9b) combine to impose additive fitness costs in pyrethroid-resistant Anopheles funestus. Read More

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The insecticide permethrin induces transgenerational behavioral changes linked to transcriptomic and epigenetic alterations in zebrafish (Danio rerio).

Sci Total Environ 2021 Jul 17;779:146404. Epub 2021 Mar 17.

Man-Technology-Environment Research Centre (MTM), School of Science and Technology, Örebro University, Fakultetsgatan 1, S-701 82 Örebro, Sweden.

The pyrethroid insecticide permethrin is widely used for agricultural and domestic purposes. Previous data indicated that it acts as a developmental neurotoxicant and can induce transgenerational effects in non-target organisms. However, associated underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Read More

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Assessment of respiratory exposure to cypermethrin among farmers and farm workers of Shiraz, Iran.

Environ Monit Assess 2021 Mar 13;193(4):187. Epub 2021 Mar 13.

Department of Occupational Health Engineering, School of Health, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran.

Cypermethrin, a member of the synthetic pyrethroids group, is a popular insecticide used to eliminate a broad range of common bugs in agricultural lands and households. However, studies of farmers' exposure to this insecticide are limited. The present study aimed to measure the respiratory exposure to cypermethrin among farmers and farm workers of Shiraz, as one of the biggest cities in Fars province, Iran. Read More

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Developmental exposure to chlordecone induces transgenerational effects in somatic prostate tissue which are associated with epigenetic histone trimethylation changes.

Environ Int 2021 07 10;152:106472. Epub 2021 Mar 10.

Univ. Rennes, EHESP, Inserm, Irset (Institut de recherche en santé, environnement et travail) - UMR_S 1085, F-35000 Rennes, France. Electronic address:

Background: Chlordecone (CD), also known as Kepone, is an organochlorine insecticide that has been used in banana crops in the French West Indies. Due to long-term contamination of soils and water, the population is still exposed to CD. Exposure to CD in adulthood is associated with an increased risk of prostate cancer (PCa). Read More

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Social disruption: Sublethal pesticides in pollen lead to Apis mellifera queen events and brood loss.

Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 2021 May 6;214:112105. Epub 2021 Mar 6.

University of Maryland, College Park, MD, USA.

Eusocial Apis mellifera colonies depend on queen longevity and brood viability to survive, as the queen is the sole reproductive individual and the maturing brood replenishes the shorter-lived worker bees. Production of many crops rely on both pesticides and bee pollination to improve crop quantity and quality, yet sublethal impacts of this pesticide exposure is often poorly understood. We investigated the resiliency of queens and their brood after one month of sublethal exposure to field relevant doses of pesticides that mimic exposure during commercial pollination contracts. Read More

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Pyrethroid Exposure Reduces Growth and Development of Monarch Butterfly (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) Caterpillars.

J Insect Sci 2021 Mar;21(2)

Department of Entomology, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE, USA.

Insecticide exposure has been identified as a contributing stressor to the decline in the North American monarch butterfly Danaus plexippus L. (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) population. Monarch toxicity data are currently limited and available data focuses on lethal endpoints. Read More

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Sodium selenite-carbon dots nanocomposites enhance acaricidal activity of fenpropathrin: Mechanism and application.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Jul 27;777:145832. Epub 2021 Feb 27.

Key Laboratory of Entomology and Pest Control Engineering, College of Plant Protection, Southwest University, 400716 Chongqing, China; Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Southwest University, 400716 Chongqing, China; State Cultivation Base of Crop Stress Biology for Southern Mountainous Land of Southwest University, Southwest University, 400716 Chongqing, China. Electronic address:

As an essential trace element, selenium can be used to protect crops from pests, while, in nature, most crops cannot accumulate enough selenium from the soil to reach the effective dose for pest control. In this study, carbon dots modified with arginine in nano-scale was prepared and characterized, then, it was combined with sodium selenite to form selenium-carbon dots (Se-CDs). Function evaluation of Se-CDs showed that it could increase the absorption of selenium in plant leaves, promote the control efficiency of fenpropathrin, and protect plant from damage caused by Tetranychus cinnabarinus. Read More

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Stereoisomeric selectivity in the endocrine-disrupting potential of cypermethrin using in vitro, in vivo, and in silico assays.

J Hazard Mater 2021 07 20;414:125389. Epub 2021 Feb 20.

Key Laboratory of Microbial Technology for Industrial Pollution Control of Zhejiang Province, College of Environment, Zhejiang University of Technology, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310032, PR China.

Despite the ubiquity of cypermethrin (CYP) stereoisomers in environment biota, the stereoisomeric selectivity of endocrine-disrupting potency of α-CYP, β-CYP, and θ-CYP has not been well studied. In this study, dual-luciferase reporter gene assays were adopted to analyze their potential endocrine-disrupting effects via four receptors (ERα, GRα, MR and RXR). The results showed that α-CYP was antagonistic to ERα, GRα, and MR with RIC of 9. Read More

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