2,442 results match your criteria Toxicity Hallucinogen


Pharmacology and adverse effects of new psychoactive substances: synthetic cannabinoid receptor agonists.

Arch Pharm Res 2021 Apr 2;44(4):402-413. Epub 2021 Apr 2.

College of Pharmacy and Medical Research Center, Chungbuk National University, 194-31 Osongsaengmyong 1-ro, Osong-eup, Heungdeok-gu, Cheongju-si, Chungbuk, 28160, Republic of Korea.

Over the last decade, new psychoactive substances (NPS) have continuously been the focus of the international society since their emergence on the illicit drug market. NPS can be classified into six groups including; synthetic cannabinoid receptor agonists (SCRAs), stimulants, opioids, dissociatives, sedatives/hypnotics, and classic hallucinogens with psychoactive effects. These are sold as "herbal incense," "bath salts," "legal highs," and "research chemicals". Read More

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Variation of drugs involved in acute drug toxicity presentations based on age and sex: an epidemiological approach based on European emergency departments.

Clin Toxicol (Phila) 2021 Mar 16:1-13. Epub 2021 Mar 16.

Emergency Department, Hospital Clínic, IDIBAPS, Barcelona, Spain.

Objective: To analyse the relative percentage of acute recreational drug toxicity emergency department (ED) presentations involving the main drug groups according to age and sex and investigate different patterns based on sex and age strata.

Methods: We analysed all patients with acute recreational drug toxicity included by the Euro-DEN Plus dataset (22 EDs in 14 European countries) between October 2013 and December 2016 (39 months). Drugs were grouped as: opioids, cocaine, cannabis, amphetamines, gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB), hallucinogens, new psychoactive substances (NPS), benzodiazepines and ketamine. Read More

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Gene alteration in zebrafish exposed to a mixture of substances of abuse.

Environ Pollut 2021 Jun 24;278:116777. Epub 2021 Feb 24.

Department of Biology, Murray State University, Murray, KY, United States.

A recent surge in the use and abuse of diverse prescribed psychotic and illicit drugs necessitates the surveillance of drug residues in source water and the associated ecological impacts of chronic exposure to the aquatic organism. Thirty-six psychotic and illicit drug residues were determined in discharged wastewater from two centralized municipal wastewater treatment facilities and two wastewater receiving creeks for seven consecutive days in Kentucky. Zebrafish (Danio rerio) larvae were exposed to the environmental relevant mixtures of all drug residues, all illicit drugs, and all prescribed psychotic drugs. Read More

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Nixing the nightshades: Traditional knowledge of intoxicating members of the Solanaceae among hallucinogenic plant and mushroom users in Slovenia.

PLoS One 2021 22;16(2):e0247688. Epub 2021 Feb 22.

Univerza v Ljubljani, Fakulteta za farmacijo, Ljubljana, Slovenia.

Anticholinergic plants of the family Solanaceae have a long history of use as medicines, poisons, and recreational drugs. Though they were the intoxicating substances of choice throughout Europe for centuries, their use for these purposes has declined with the globalisation of other recreational drugs. The present study sought to examine the level of knowledge surrounding these plants among individuals who had used other hallucinogenic plants or mushrooms in Slovenia. Read More

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February 2021

Zebrafish and evaluation of the recreational 25C-NBOMe drug demonstrates its high toxicity.

Toxicol Rep 2021 27;8:315-323. Epub 2021 Jan 27.

Laboratory of Developmental Biology, Department of Biological Sciences, Universidad de los Andes, Cra. 1 # 18A-12, Bloque A, Oficina 308, Bogotá D.C, 111711, Colombia.

The NBOMe (N-2-methoxybenzyl-phenethylamines) family of compounds are synthetic hallucinogens derived from the 2C series. Although this family of compounds has been responsible for multiple cases of acute toxicity and several deaths around the world, to date there are few studies. These compounds act as potent 5-HT receptor agonists, including the hallucinogen 25C-NBOMe (2-(4-chloro-2,5-dimethoxyphenyl)-N-[(2-methoxyphenyl)methyl]ethanamine). Read More

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January 2021

Review on the genus Brugmansia: Traditional usage, phytochemistry, pharmacology, and toxicity.

J Ethnopharmacol 2021 Feb 8:113910. Epub 2021 Feb 8.

Key Laboratory of Chinese Materia Medica, Heilongjiang University of Chinese Medicine, Ministry of Education, Harbin, 150040, China. Electronic address:

Ethnopharmacological Relevance: The genus Brugmansia belongs to the Solanaceae family and contains approximately 7-8 species distributed in America, Europe, Africa, and Asia. The genus Brugmansia plants are used in the traditional medicine of different parts of the world for the treatment of inflammations, rheumatic arthritis, wounds, skin infections, headache, asthma, colic, aches, and so on.

Aim Of The Review: To the best of our knowledge, this is the first review study that focuses on the phytochemistry, pharmacology, toxicity, and traditional uses of Brugmansia species in order to understand the link between the traditional uses, phytochemistry, and modern therapeutic uses, and provide a scientific fundamental for further research in the phytochemical and pharmacological activities of their species. Read More

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February 2021

Prenatal THC Does Not Affect Female Mesolimbic Dopaminergic System in Preadolescent Rats.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Feb 7;22(4). Epub 2021 Feb 7.

Department of Biomedical Sciences, Division of Neuroscience and Clinical Pharmacology, University of Cagliari, 09042 Monserrato, Italy.

Cannabis use among pregnant women is increasing worldwide along with permissive sociocultural attitudes toward it. Prenatal cannabis exposure (PCE), however, is associated with adverse outcome among offspring, ranging from reduced birth weight to child psychopathology. We have previously shown that male rat offspring prenatally exposed to Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), a rat model of PCE, exhibit extensive molecular, cellular, and synaptic changes in dopamine neurons of the ventral tegmental area (VTA), resulting in a susceptible mesolimbic dopamine system associated with a psychotic-like endophenotype. Read More

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February 2021

Cellular Uptake of Psychostimulants - Are High- and Low-Affinity Organic Cation Transporters Drug Traffickers?

Front Pharmacol 2020 20;11:609811. Epub 2021 Jan 20.

Institute of Clinical Pharmacology, University Medical Center Göttingen, Göttingen, Germany.

Psychostimulants are used therapeutically and for illegal recreational purposes. Many of these are inhibitors of the presynaptic noradrenaline, dopamine, and serotonin transporters (NET, DAT, and SERT). According to their physicochemical properties, some might also be substrates of polyspecific organic cation transporters (OCTs) that mediate uptake in liver and kidneys for metabolism and excretion. Read More

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January 2021

Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics of Salvinorin A and : Clinical and Forensic Aspects.

Pharmaceuticals (Basel) 2021 Feb 3;14(2). Epub 2021 Feb 3.

IINFACTS-Institute of Research and Advanced Training in Health Sciences and Technologies, Department of Sciences, University Institute of Health Sciences (IUCS), CESPU, CRL, 4585-116 Gandra, Portugal.

Epling and Játiva is a perennial mint from the Lamiaceae family, endemic to Mexico, predominantly from the state of Oaxaca. Due to its psychoactive properties, had been used for centuries by Mazatecans for divinatory, religious, and medicinal purposes. In recent years, its use for recreational purposes, especially among adolescents and young adults, has progressively increased. Read More

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February 2021

The acute effects of classic psychedelics on memory in humans.

Authors:
C J Healy

Psychopharmacology (Berl) 2021 Mar 9;238(3):639-653. Epub 2021 Jan 9.

Department of Psychology, The New School for Social Research, 80 5th Ave, 6th Floor, New York, NY, USA.

Rationale: Memory plays a central role in the psychedelic experience. The spontaneous recall and immersive reliving of autobiographical memories has frequently been noted by researchers and clinicians as a salient phenomenon in the profile of subjective effects of classic psychedelic drugs such as psilocybin, LSD, and ayahuasca. The ability for psychedelics to provoke vivid memories has been considered important to their clinical efficacy. Read More

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New psychoactive substances: a review and updates.

Ther Adv Psychopharmacol 2020 17;10:2045125320967197. Epub 2020 Dec 17.

Consultant Psychiatrist, Oxleas NHS Foundation Trust, London, UK.

New psychoactive substances (NPS) are a heterogeneous group of substances. They are associated with a number of health and social harms on an individual and societal level. NPS toxicity and dependence syndromes are recognised in primary care, emergency departments, psychiatric inpatient and community care settings. Read More

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December 2020

Novel Psychoactive Phenethylamines: Impact on Genetic Material.

Int J Mol Sci 2020 Dec 17;21(24). Epub 2020 Dec 17.

Department of Pharmacy and Biotechnology, Alma Mater Studiorum University of Bologna, 40126 Bologna, Italy.

Psychedelic and stimulating phenethylamines belong to the family of new psychoactive substances (NPS). The acute toxicity framework has begun to be investigated, while studies showing genotoxic potential are very limited or not available. Therefore, in order to fill this gap, the aim of the present work was to evaluate the genotoxicity by treating TK6 cells with 2C-H, 2C-I, 2C-B, 25B-NBOMe, and the popular 3,4-Methylenedioxymethylamphetamine (MDMA). Read More

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December 2020

Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinolic Acid markedly alleviates liver fibrosis and inflammation in mice.

Phytomedicine 2021 Jan 30;81:153426. Epub 2020 Nov 30.

Maimónides Biomedical Research Institute of Córdoba (IMIBIC), Menéndez Pidal s/n. 14004. Córdoba, Spain; Department of Cell Biology, Physiology and Immunology, University of Córdoba, Campus de Rabanales, Ctra. Madrid-Cádiz, Km. 396. 14071. Córdoba, Spain; University Hospital Reina Sofía, Menéndez Pidal s/n. 14004. Córdoba, Spain. Electronic address:

Background: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common liver disease in the Western world, and it is closely associated to obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and dyslipidemia. Medicinal cannabis and some neutral cannabinoids have been suggested as a potential therapy for liver diseases.

Hypothesis: Δ-tetrahydrocannabinolic acid (Δ-THCA), the non-psychotropic precursor of Δ-THC, is one of the most abundant cannabinoids presents in Cannabis Sativa. Read More

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January 2021

Eutylone Intoxications-An Emerging Synthetic Stimulant in Forensic Investigations.

J Anal Toxicol 2021 Feb;45(1):8-20

NMS Labs, Toxicology Department, Horsham, PA 19044, USA.

Synthetic stimulants are the largest class of novel psychoactive substances identified each year by forensic laboratories internationally. While hundreds of these drugs appear in drug powders, only a few proliferate in use among forensically relevant populations and eventually emerge in postmortem and clinical investigations. Beta-keto-methylenedioxyamphetamines (i. Read More

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February 2021

A non-hallucinogenic psychedelic analogue with therapeutic potential.

Nature 2021 01 9;589(7842):474-479. Epub 2020 Dec 9.

Department of Chemistry, University of California, Davis, Davis, CA, USA.

The psychedelic alkaloid ibogaine has anti-addictive properties in both humans and animals. Unlike most medications for the treatment of substance use disorders, anecdotal reports suggest that ibogaine has the potential to treat addiction to various substances, including opiates, alcohol and psychostimulants. The effects of ibogaine-like those of other psychedelic compounds-are long-lasting, which has been attributed to its ability to modify addiction-related neural circuitry through the activation of neurotrophic factor signalling. Read More

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January 2021

The effect of cannabis toxicity on a model microbiome bacterium epitomized by a panel of bioluminescent E. coli.

Chemosphere 2021 Jan 3;263:128241. Epub 2020 Sep 3.

Department of Postharvest Science, Institute of Postharvest and Food Sciences, The Volcani Center, Agricultural Research Organization, Bet Dagan, 50250, Israel. Electronic address:

The world acceptance of medical cannabis slowly widens. Cannabinoids are known as the main therapeutic active compounds in the cannabis plant, yet their bioactive physiological effects are still unknown. In this study, the mode of action of nine selected cannabinoids was examined using a bioluminescent bacterial panel, as well as the extracts of six different cannabis varieties and cannabinoids standards artificial mixtures. Read More

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January 2021

l-Theanine Prevents Long-Term Affective and Cognitive Side Effects of Adolescent Δ-9-Tetrahydrocannabinol Exposure and Blocks Associated Molecular and Neuronal Abnormalities in the Mesocorticolimbic Circuitry.

J Neurosci 2021 01 2;41(4):739-750. Epub 2020 Dec 2.

Addiction Research Group, Schulich School of Medicine & Dentistry, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario N6A 5C1, Canada

Chronic adolescent exposure to Δ-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is linked to elevated neuropsychiatric risk and induces neuronal, molecular and behavioral abnormalities resembling neuropsychiatric endophenotypes. Previous evidence has revealed that the mesocorticolimbic circuitry, including the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and mesolimbic dopamine (DA) pathway are particularly susceptible to THC-induced pathologic alterations, including dysregulation of DAergic activity states, loss of PFC GABAergic inhibitory control and affective and cognitive abnormalities. There are currently limited pharmacological intervention strategies capable of preventing THC-induced neuropathological adaptations. Read More

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January 2021

Preventive role of regular low-intensity exercise during adolescence in schizophrenia model mice with abnormal behaviors.

Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2021 01 20;534:610-616. Epub 2020 Nov 20.

Laboratory of Exercise Biochemistry and Neuroendocrinology, Faculty of Health and Sport Sciences, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, 305-8574, Ibaraki, Japan; Department of Sport Neuroscience, Advanced Research Initiative for Human High Performance (ARIHHP), Faculty of Health and Sport Sciences, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, 305-8574, Ibaraki, Japan. Electronic address:

Schizophrenia is probably ascribed to perinatal neurodevelopmental deficits, and its onset might be affected by environmental factors. Hypofrontality with glutamatergic and dopaminergic neuronal dysfunction are known factors, but a way to mitigate abnormalities remains unfound. An early enriched environment such as a wheel running in rodents may contribute to the prevention, but its clinical applicability is very limited. Read More

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January 2021

Harmine Combined with Knockdown Inhibits the Viability of by Enhancing DNA Damage.

DNA Cell Biol 2021 Jan 10;40(1):1-9. Epub 2020 Nov 10.

First Affiliated Hospital of Xinjiang Medical University, Urumqi, Xinjiang, China.

This study aimed at exploring the role of and the effect of harmine (HM) or HM derivatives (HMDs) on DNA damage in DNA damage in protoscoleces (PSCs) was assessed by using a comet assay, after treatment with HM or HMDs. Efficiency of electroporation-based transfection of PSCs and subsequent knockdown was evaluated by using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) and fluorescence intensity. Viability of PSCs was determined via eosin exclusion test, and expression of related genes was analyzed via RT-qPCR. Read More

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January 2021

Neonatal phencyclidine and social isolation in the rat: effects of clozapine on locomotor activity, social recognition, prepulse inhibition, and executive functions deficits.

Psychopharmacology (Berl) 2021 Feb 9;238(2):517-528. Epub 2020 Nov 9.

Porsolt SAS, ZA de Glatigné, 53940, Le Genest-Saint-Isle, France.

Rationale: There is a need to develop animal models of schizophrenia-like behaviors that have both construct and predictive validity. Recently, a neonatal phencyclidine (PCP) and post-weaning social isolation dual-hit model was developed; however, its face and predictive validities need to be further investigated.

Objective: The aims of this study were to extend the characterization of the behavioral changes occurring in the neonatal PCP and post-weaning social isolation dual-hit rat model and to evaluate the effects of chronic treatment with clozapine on signs related to schizophrenia. Read More

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February 2021

Intravenous self-administration of delta-9-THC in adolescent rats produces long-lasting alterations in behavior and receptor protein expression.

Psychopharmacology (Berl) 2021 Jan 27;238(1):305-319. Epub 2020 Oct 27.

Department of Psychiatry, University of Pittsburgh, 450 Technology Drive, Suite 223, Pittsburgh, PA, 15219, USA.

Rationale: Initial exposure to cannabinoids, including Δ-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), often occurs during adolescence. Considerable neurodevelopmental alterations occur throughout adolescence, and the environmental insult posed by exogenous cannabinoid exposure may alter natural developmental trajectories. Multiple studies suggest that long-lasting deficits in cognitive function occur as a result of adolescent cannabis use, but considerable variability exists in the magnitude of these effects. Read More

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January 2021

Evidence for side effects of cannabidiol (CBD) products and their non-conformity on the European food market - response to the European Industrial Hemp Association.

F1000Res 2020 26;9:1051. Epub 2020 Aug 26.

Chemisches und Veterinäruntersuchungsamt (CVUA) Karlsruhe, Karlsruhe, 76187, Germany.

An interesting and valuable discussion has arisen from our recent article (Lachenmeier et al., 2020) and we are pleased to have the opportunity to expand on the various points we made. Equally important, we wish to correct several important misunderstandings that were made by Kruse and Beitzke (2020) on behalf of the European Industrial Hemp Association (EIHA) that possibly contributed to their concerns about the validity of our data, toxicological assessment and conclusions regarding regulatory status of cannabidiol (CBD) products. Read More

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Vaping cartridge heating element compositions and evidence of high temperatures.

PLoS One 2020 19;15(10):e0240613. Epub 2020 Oct 19.

Cannabis Testing Section, Food and Drug Laboratory Branch, California Department of Public Health, Richmond, California, United States of America.

Background: Identifying the functional materials inside vaping devices can help inform efforts to understand risk. While nicotine E-cigarette components and metals have been characterized in several previous studies, the internal component compositions of tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) cartridge designs are not as well known. The 2019-20 e-cigarette or vaping product use associated lung injury (EVALI) outbreak has been associated with THC devices containing vitamin E acetate (VEA), possibly mediated by chemical reactions with internal cartridge components and high filament temperatures. Read More

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December 2020

Toxin-Induced Acute Delirium.

Neurol Clin 2020 11;38(4):781-798

Department of Neurology, Tufts Medical Center, Boston, MA 02111, USA; Department of Neurosurgery, Tufts Medical Center, Boston, MA 02111, USA. Electronic address:

Acute delirium is a transient state of cerebral dysfunction reflecting an underlying medical decompensation. Toxicity from medications and other substances are a common cause of delirium. History and laboratory testing may be limited by alteration and lack of specific tests for certain compounds. Read More

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November 2020

The clinical toxicology of cannabis.

N Z Med J 2020 10 9;133(1523):96-103. Epub 2020 Oct 9.

Emergency Department, Christchurch Hospital, Christchurch.

Cannabis is one of the most widely used recreational drugs in the world. Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is the psychoactive principal constituent of the cannabis plant (Cannabis sativa). It is taken either orally or by inhalation, resulting in sedation, euphoria, relaxation and loss of social inhibition. Read More

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October 2020

A critical review on the detection, occurrence, fate, toxicity, and removal of cannabinoids in the water system and the environment.

Environ Pollut 2021 Jan 14;268(Pt A):115642. Epub 2020 Sep 14.

Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada, T6G 1H9. Electronic address:

Cannabinoids are a group of organic compounds found in cannabis. Δ-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD), the two major constituents of cannabinoids, and their metabolites are contaminants of emerging concern due to the limited information on their environmental impacts. As well, their releases to the water systems and environment are expected to increase due to recent legalization. Read More

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January 2021

Protracted hyperthermia and delayed rhabdomyolysis in ecstasy toxicity: A case report.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2020 Oct;99(41):e21842

University of Hawai'i at Mānoa, John A. Burns School of Medicine, Honolulu, HI.

Rationale: Despite toxicity and unpredictable adverse effects, ecstasy use has increased in the United States. Onset of hyperpyrexia, rhabdomyolysis, disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC), among other symptoms, occurs within hours of ingestion. Moreover, patients who experience hyperpyrexia, altered mental status, DIC, and multiorgan failure, rarely survive. Read More

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October 2020

Increased behavioral and neuronal responses to a hallucinogenic drug after adolescent toluene exposure in mice: Effects of antipsychotic treatment.

Toxicology 2020 12 24;445:152602. Epub 2020 Sep 24.

Center for Neuropsychiatric Research, National Health Research Institutes, 35 Keyan Rd. Zhunan, Miaoli, 35053, Taiwan; Institute of Neuroscience, National Chengchi University, NO. 64, Sec. 2, Zhinan Rd., Taipei, 11605, Taiwan; Ph.D. Program in Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine, National Chung Hsing University, No. 145, Xingda Rd., Taichung, 40227, Taiwan. Electronic address:

Toluene has been characterized as a non-classical hallucinogen drug through activation of 5-HT receptors and antagonism of NMDA receptors. It remains unclear whether psychotic symptoms after long-term and intense toluene exposure are associated with abnormalities in 5-HT receptor function. The present study examined whether the responses to a hallucinogenic 5-HT receptor agonist 2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodoamphetamine (DOI) were altered in a mouse model of toluene psychosis. Read More

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December 2020

Neuropsychiatric Effects of Antiviral Drugs.

Cureus 2020 Aug 3;12(8):e9536. Epub 2020 Aug 3.

Department of Internal Medicine, University of Patras, School of Health Sciences, Patras, GRC.

The adverse events of antiviral drugs are dose-dependent and often reversible. The nervous system is often affected and to date, many studies have been published regarding the central nervous system toxicity of antiviral agents. They may cause significant neuropsychiatric complications, which range from mild symptoms such as irritability and difficulty sleeping to severe complications such as depression, psychosis, and painful peripheral neuropathy, side effects which may necessitate discontinuation of treatment. Read More

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E-cigarette or Vaping Product Use-Associated Lung Injury Produced in an Animal Model From Electronic Cigarette Vapor Exposure Without Tetrahydrocannabinol or Vitamin E Oil.

J Am Heart Assoc 2020 09 8;9(18):e017368. Epub 2020 Sep 8.

HMRI Cardiovascular Research InstituteHuntington Medical Research Institutes Pasadena CA.

E-cigarette or vaping product use-associated lung injury was recognized in the United States in the summer of 2019 and is typified by acute respiratory distress, shortness of breath, chest pain, cough, and fever, associated with vaping. It can mimic many of the manifestations of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Some investigators have suggested that E-cigarette or vaping product use-associated lung injury was due to tetrahydrocannabinol or vitamin E acetate oil mixed with the electronic cigarette liquid. Read More

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September 2020