2,554 results match your criteria Toxicity Hallucinogen


Psychedelics: Alternative and Potential Therapeutic Options for Treating Mood and Anxiety Disorders.

Molecules 2022 Apr 14;27(8). Epub 2022 Apr 14.

Brigham and Women's Hospital, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02215, USA.

The word "psychedelic" (psyche (i.e., the mind or soul) and delos (i. Read More

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Hallucinogen persisting perceptual disorder: a scoping review covering frequency, risk factors, prevention, and treatment.

Expert Opin Drug Saf 2022 May 3:1-11. Epub 2022 May 3.

Mood Disorders Psychopharmacology Unit, Poul Hansen Depression Centre, University Health Network Toronto, ON, Canada.

Introduction: Hallucinogen persisting perception disorder (HPPD) affects a subset of persons who use hallucinogens and is defined as the repeated experience of hallucinations and other perceptual disturbances as a result of prior intoxications. As select hallucinogens are under development for the treatment of selectmental disorders, there is a need to better characterize this disorder.

Areas Covered: A scoping review of the literature on HPPD was completed from inception to July 2021. Read More

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ClO pre-oxidation changes dissolved organic matter at the molecular level and reduces chloro-organic byproducts and toxicity of water treated by the UV/chlorine process.

Water Res 2022 Jun 21;216:118341. Epub 2022 Mar 21.

School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275, China; Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Environmental Pollution Control and Remediation Technology, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275, China. Electronic address:

The formation of undesirable chloro-organic byproducts is of great concern in the UV/chlorine process. In this study, chlorine dioxide (ClO) pre-oxidation was applied to control the formation of chloro-organic byproducts and the toxicity in UV/chlorine-treated water. The molecular-level changes in dissolved organic matter (DOM) were tracked by using Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR-MS) and ClO pre-oxidation was found to preferentially react with DOM moieties with high aromaticity level and with a carbon number of > 18, producing compounds with a higher degree of oxidation and lower aromaticity. Read More

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A cluster of 25B-NBOH poisonings following exposure to powder sold as lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD).

Clin Toxicol (Phila) 2022 Mar 28:1-4. Epub 2022 Mar 28.

Victorian Poisons Information Centre, Austin Health, Melbourne, Australia.

Introduction: 25B-NBOH is a synthetic hallucinogen closely related to the "NBOMe" family of N-substituted 2C phenethylamine derivatives. There have been no published reports documenting the clinical toxicity of NBOH derivatives.

Case Series: Five patients presented to the Emergency Department (ED) with altered conscious state following exposure to powder sold as "powdered LSD" at a party. Read More

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Synthesis of harmine-nitric oxide donor derivatives as potential antitumor agents.

Bioorg Med Chem Lett 2022 06 24;65:128698. Epub 2022 Mar 24.

College of Pharmacy, Xinjiang Medical University, Urumqi 830000, China. Electronic address:

To further improve the anti-tumor activity of Harmine (HM), we took the hybridization approach and synthesized harmine derivatives-furoxan hybrids containing nitric oxide (NO) releasing parts by connecting NO donors with anti-tumor active fragments to harmine. Then, the synthesized compounds were evaluated for their in vitro cytotoxicity against five human cancer cell lines. Among them, compound 10 was found to have the strongest antiproliferative activity against HepG2 (IC = 1. Read More

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The effects of prenatal nicotine and THC E-cigarette exposure on motor development in rats.

Psychopharmacology (Berl) 2022 May 26;239(5):1579-1591. Epub 2022 Mar 26.

Center for Behavioral Teratology, Department of Psychology, San Diego State University, CA, San Diego, USA.

Rationale: In the USA, nicotine and cannabis are the most common licit and illicit drugs used among pregnant women. Importantly, nicotine and cannabis are now being combined for consumption via e-cigarettes, an increasingly popular delivery device. Both nicotine and tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the primary psychoactive component of cannabis, cross the placenta barrier. Read More

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Botanically-Derived Δ-Tetrahydrocannabinol and Cannabidiol, and Their 1:1 Combination, Modulate Toll-like Receptor 3 and 4 Signalling in Immune Cells from People with Multiple Sclerosis.

Molecules 2022 Mar 8;27(6). Epub 2022 Mar 8.

Discipline of Physiology, School of Medicine, Trinity Biomedical Sciences Institute, Trinity College Dublin, University of Dublin, D02 R590 Dublin, Ireland.

The innate immune response to bacterial and viral molecules involves the coordinated production of cytokines, chemokines, and type I interferons (IFNs), which is orchestrated by toll-like receptors (TLRs). TLRs, and their intracellular signalling intermediates, are closely associated with multiple sclerosis (MS) pathogenesis. Recent data from our laboratory reported that the plant-derived cannabinoids, Δ-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD), regulate viral and bacterial inflammatory signalling pathways controlled by TLR3 and TLR4 in macrophages. Read More

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Neurotoxic and cardiotoxic effects of -methyl-1-(naphthalen-2-yl)propan-2-amine (methamnetamine) and 1-phenyl-2-pyrrolidinylpentane (prolintane).

Drug Chem Toxicol 2022 Mar 16:1-11. Epub 2022 Mar 16.

Pharmacological Research Division, Toxicological Evaluation and Research Department, National Institute of Food and Drug Safety Evaluation, Ministry of Food and Drug Safety, Chungju-shi, Republic of Korea.

Two synthetic phenylethylamines, N-methyl-1-(naphthalen-2-yl)propan-2-amine (MNA) and 1-phenyl-2-pyrrolidinylpentane (prolintane), are being abused by people seeking hallucinogens for pleasure. These new psychotropic substances may provoke problems because there is no existing information about their toxicity and pharmacological behaviors. Therefore, we evaluated the safety of nerves and cardiovascular systems by determining toxicity after MNA and prolintane drugs administrations to mice and rat. Read More

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Green synthesis of PEG-coated MIL-100(Fe) for controlled release of dacarbazine and its anticancer potential against human melanoma cells.

Int J Pharm 2022 Apr 11;618:121647. Epub 2022 Mar 11.

Venom and Biotherapeutics Molecules Lab., Medical Biotechnology Department, Biotechnology Research Center, Pasteur Institute of Iran, Tehran, Iran. Electronic address:

In this study, the potential of using MIL-100(Fe) metal-organic framework (MOF) for loading and controlling the release of dacarbazine (DTIC) was evaluated for in vitro treatment of melanoma. The drug loading was performed during the green synthesis of MIL-100(Fe) in an aqueous media without using any harmful solvents, to obtain MIL-DTIC. The surface of this structure was then coated with polyethylene glycol (PEG) in the same aqueous solution to synthesize MIL-DTIC-PEG. Read More

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Characterization of mercury binding to different molecular weight fractions of dissolved organic matter.

J Hazard Mater 2022 06 2;431:128593. Epub 2022 Mar 2.

College of Life Science, Northeast Agricultural University, Heilongjiang 150030, China. Electronic address:

Dissolved organic matter (DOM) can strongly complex with various contaminants. Therefore, DOM was deemed as an environmentally friendly substance for controlling the mobility, bioavailability, speciation, toxicity, and fate of metal contaminants in environment. In this study, composting-derived DOM was categorized into three fractions based on different molecular weights (MWs). Read More

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Synthesis of MIL-Modified FeO Magnetic Nanoparticles for Enhancing Uptake and Efficiency of Temozolomide in Glioblastoma Treatment.

Int J Mol Sci 2022 Mar 6;23(5). Epub 2022 Mar 6.

Dipartimento di Scienze Chimiche, Università di Catania, Viale Andrea Doria 6, 95125 Catania, Italy.

A nanometric hybrid system consisting of a FeO magnetic nanoparticles modified through the growth of Fe-based Metal-organic frameworks of the MIL (Materials Institute Lavoiser) was developed. The obtained system retains both the nanometer dimensions and the magnetic properties of the FeO nanoparticles and possesses increased the loading capability due to the highly porous Fe-MIL. It was tested to load, carry and release temozolomide (TMZ) for the treatment of glioblastoma multiforme one of the most aggressive and deadly human cancers. Read More

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The First Fatal Intoxication with 3-MeO-PCP in the UK and a Review of the Literature.

J Anal Toxicol 2022 May;46(5):461-470

School of Chemistry, University of Lincoln, Brayford Pool, Lincoln LN6 7TS, UK.

The phencyclidine derivative 3-methoxyphencyclidine (3-MeO-PCP) is a potent dissociative hallucinogen. Sought for recreational use as a novel psychoactive substance, it can also induce acute psychological agitation and pathophysiological cardiorespiratory effects. Due to the harms associated with its use, 3-MeO-PCP was added to the "Green List" of materials covered by the 1971 Convention on Psychotropic Substances as a Schedule II substance by the United Nations Commission on Narcotic Drugs in April 2021. Read More

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Lagrangian profiles of riverine autotrophy, organic matter transformation, and micropollutants at extreme drought.

Sci Total Environ 2022 Jul 1;828:154243. Epub 2022 Mar 1.

Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ, Department of River Ecology, Brückstraße 3a, D-39114 Magdeburg, Germany.

On their way from inland to the ocean, flowing water bodies, their constituents and their biotic communities are exposed to complex transport and transformation processes. However, detailed process knowledge as revealed by Lagrangian measurements adjusted to travel time is rare in large rivers, in particular at hydrological extremes. To fill this gap, we investigated autotrophic processes, heterotrophic carbon utilization, and micropollutant concentrations applying a Lagrangian sampling design in a 600 km section of the River Elbe (Germany) at historically low discharge. Read More

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The characteristics of dissolved organic matter release from UV-aged microplastics and its cytotoxicity on human colonic adenocarcinoma cells.

Sci Total Environ 2022 Jun 26;826:154177. Epub 2022 Feb 26.

College of Natural Resources and Environment, Northwest A&F University, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100, China; Key Laboratory of Plant Nutrition and the Agro-environment in Northwest China, Ministry of Agriculture, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100, China. Electronic address:

There are a large number of microplastic (MPs) in the sea or on land, most of which undergo physical, chemical or biological processes leading to the release of dissolved organic matter (DOM). In this study, we analyzed the change of Polyurethane microplastic (PU-MPs) valence bond under different aging conditions thanks to Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and its surface characteristics using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and also described the characteristics of DOM dissolved from PU (PU-DOM) under UV aging process in two different medium (water and air), based on Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) measurements, UV-visible spectrometer and Three-dimensional excitation emission matrices (3D-EEMs). The DOC data both showed that Under UV aging of different systems, PU-DOM concentration increases with the extension of aging time, and correspondingly, its toxicity to human colon adenocarcinoma cells also increases, but the release amount of PU-DOM under air aging is higher than that of PU-DOM in water. Read More

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Photodegradation of propranolol in surface waters: An important role of carbonate radical and enhancing toxicity phenomenon.

Chemosphere 2022 Jun 25;297:134106. Epub 2022 Feb 25.

School of Water Resources and Hydropower Engineering, North China Electric Power University, Beijing, 102206, China.

Antihypertensive propranolol (PRO) is frequently detected in surface waters and has adverse effects on aquatic organisms. In this study, its photochemical fate in surface water with the aspect of kinetics, products and toxicity were investigated employing steady-state photochemistry experiments and ecotoxicity tests. The results showed that photodegradation of PRO was enhanced in river water than that in phosphate buffer where dissolved organic matter (DOM), NO, and HCO played important roles. Read More

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Caffeine and MDMA (Ecstasy) Exacerbate ER Stress Triggered by Hyperthermia.

Int J Mol Sci 2022 Feb 10;23(4). Epub 2022 Feb 10.

Molecular Mechanisms of Cellular Stress and Inflammation Section, Intramural Research Program, National Institute on Drug Abuse, National Institutes of Health, Baltimore, MD 21224, USA.

Drugs of abuse can cause local and systemic hyperthermia, a known trigger of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and the unfolded protein response (UPR). Another trigger of ER stress and UPR is ER calcium depletion, which causes ER exodosis, the secretion of ER-resident proteins. In rodent models, club drugs such as 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, 'ecstasy') can create hyperthermic conditions in the brain and cause toxicity that is affected by the environmental temperature and the presence of other drugs, such as caffeine. Read More

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February 2022

Metabolites of Synthetic Cannabinoid 5F-MDMB-PINACA Retain Affinity, Act as High Efficacy Agonists and Exhibit Atypical Pharmacodynamic Properties at CB1 Receptors.

Toxicol Sci 2022 04;187(1):175-185

Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, Arkansas 72205, USA.

Synthetic cannabinoid receptor agonists (SCRAs) are a large group of abused psychoactive compounds that elicit numerous toxic effects not observed with cannabis, including death. Abuse of third-generation SCRA 5F-MDMB-PINACA (also known as 5F-ADB) has been associated with over 40 fatalities. This SCRA is metabolized to several active phase I metabolites, including excessively high post-mortem serum concentrations of an ester hydrolysis metabolite, 5F-MDMB-PINACA-M7 (M7). Read More

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PDA-coated [email protected](Fe)-based theranostic nanoplatform for pH-responsive and MRI-guided chemotherapy.

J Mater Chem B 2022 03 16;10(11):1821-1832. Epub 2022 Mar 16.

The Education Ministry Key Lab of Resource Chemistry, Joint International Research Laboratory of Resource Chemistry, Ministry of Education, Shanghai Frontiers Science Center of Biomimetic Catalysis, and Shanghai Key Laboratory of Rare Earth Functional Materials, College of Chemistry and Materials Science, Shanghai Normal University, Shanghai 200234, China.

Theranostic nanoplatforms for multimodal diagnosis and treatment of tumors are a current research hotspot in the field of nanomedicine. MOF-based theranostic nanoplatforms integrating drug delivery with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) have attracted broad attention in cancer diagnosis and therapy. However, due to the poor chemical and colloidal stability of MOFs, as well as their poor biocompatibility, MOF-based theranostic nanoplatforms still face critical challenges in cancer treatment applications. Read More

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Neurotoxicological profile of the hallucinogenic compound 25I-NBOMe.

Sci Rep 2022 02 21;12(1):2939. Epub 2022 Feb 21.

Department of Pharmacology, Maj Institute of Pharmacology, Polish Academy of Sciences, 12 Smętna, 31-343, Kraków, Poland.

4-Iodo-2,5-dimethoxy-N-(2-methoxybenzyl)phenethylamine (25I-NBOMe) is a new psychoactive substance with strong hallucinogenic properties. Our previous data reported increased release of dopamine, serotonin, and glutamate after acute injections and a tolerance development in the neurotransmitters release and rats' behavior after chronic treatment with 25I-NBOMe. The recreational use of 25I-NBOMe is associated with severe intoxication and deaths in humans. Read More

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February 2022

MDMA and memory, addiction, and depression: dose-effect analysis.

Psychopharmacology (Berl) 2022 Mar 18;239(3):935-949. Epub 2022 Feb 18.

Molecular Cognition Laboratory, Department of Psychology, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA, USA.

Rationale: ±3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) is a recreational drug that shows substantial promise as a psychotherapeutic agent. Still, there is some concern regarding its behavioral toxicity, and its dose-effect relationship is poorly understood. We previously explored the role of dose in the cognitive effects of MDMA in a systematic review of existing literature and found no evidence in animals that MDMA impairs memory at low doses (< 3 mg/kg) but mixed results at high doses (≥ 3 mg/kg). Read More

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Metabolites of Cannabis Induce Cardiac Toxicity and Morphological Alterations in Cardiac Myocytes.

Int J Mol Sci 2022 Jan 26;23(3). Epub 2022 Jan 26.

School of Life Sciences, Pharmacy and Chemistry, Kingston University, Penrhyn Road, Kingston upon Thames, London KT1 2EE, UK.

Cannabis is one of the most commonly used recreational drugs worldwide. Rrecent epidemiology studies have linked increased cardiac complications to cannabis use. However, this literature is predominantly based on case incidents and post-mortem investigations. Read More

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January 2022

Efficient ofloxacin degradation via photo-Fenton process over eco-friendly MIL-88A(Fe): Performance, degradation pathways, intermediate library establishment and toxicity evaluation.

Environ Res 2022 Jul 11;210:112937. Epub 2022 Feb 11.

Institute of Analysis and Testing, Beijing Academy of Science and Technology (Beijing Center for Physical & Chemical Analysis), Beijing Engineering Research Center of Food Safety Analysis, Beijing, 100089, China.

The high-throughput production of the eco-friendly MIL-88A(Fe) was achieved under mild reaction conditions with normal pressure and temperature. The as-prepared MIL-88A(Fe) exhibited efficient photo-Fenton catalytic ofloxacin (OFL) degradation upon visible light irradiation with good stability and reusability. The OFL (20. Read More

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Chemical Emissions From Heated Vitamin E Acetate-Insights to Respiratory Risks From Electronic Cigarette Liquid Oil Diluents Used in the Aerosolization of Δ-THC-Containing Products.

Front Public Health 2021 21;9:765168. Epub 2022 Jan 21.

Respiratory Health Division, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Morgantown, WV, United States.

As of February 18, 2020, the e-cigarette, or vaping, product use associated lung injury (EVALI) outbreak caused the hospitalization of a total of 2,807 patients and claimed 68 lives in the United States. Though investigations have reported a strong association with vitamin E acetate (VEA), evidence from reported EVALI cases is not sufficient to rule out the contribution of other chemicals of concern, including chemicals in either THC or non-THC products. This study characterized chemicals evolved when diluent oils were heated to temperatures that mimic e-cigarette, or vaping, products (EVPs) to investigate production of potentially toxic chemicals that might have caused lung injury. Read More

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Remembering Molly: Immediate and delayed false memory formation after acute MDMA exposure.

Eur Neuropsychopharmacol 2022 Apr 3;57:59-68. Epub 2022 Feb 3.

Faculty of Psychology and Neuroscience, Maastricht University, the Netherlands. Electronic address:

The entactogen 3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) is increasingly being recognized for its therapeutic potential but is also widespread in nightlife settings where it may co-occur with crime. Since previous research detected impaired verbal memory during acute MDMA intoxication, understanding the drug's ramifications in an applied legal context becomes crucial. We conducted a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial to examine acute and delayed effects of MDMA (75 mg) on false memory in 60 healthy volunteers with a history of MDMA use, using three well-established false memory methods: a basic, associative word list (Deese/Roediger-McDermott (DRM)) paradigm and two applied misinformation tasks using a virtual reality crime. Read More

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Adverse effects of psychedelics: From anecdotes and misinformation to systematic science.

J Psychopharmacol 2022 Mar 2;36(3):258-272. Epub 2022 Feb 2.

Drug Science, London, UK.

Background: Despite an increasing body of research highlighting their efficacy to treat a broad range of medical conditions, psychedelic drugs remain a controversial issue among the public and politicians, tainted by previous stigmatisation and perceptions of risk and danger.

Objective: This narrative review examines the evidence for potential harms of the classic psychedelics by separating anecdotes and misinformation from systematic research.

Methods: Taking a high-level perspective, we address both psychological and psychiatric risks, such as abuse liability and potential for dependence, as well as medical harms, including toxicity and overdose. Read More

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Chronic exposure to delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol impacts testicular volume and male reproductive health in rhesus macaques.

Fertil Steril 2022 04 25;117(4):698-707. Epub 2022 Jan 25.

Division of Reproductive and Developmental Sciences, Oregon National Primate Research Center, Oregon Health & Science University, Beaverton, Oregon; Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Division of Maternal Fetal Medicine, Oregon Health & Science University, Portland, Oregon. Electronic address:

Objective: To determine the dose-dependent effect of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) exposure on male testes and reproductive health in a nonhuman primate model.

Design: Research animal study.

Setting: Research institute. Read More

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Marijuana toxicosis in 2 donkeys.

J Vet Diagn Invest 2022 May 17;34(3):539-542. Epub 2022 Jan 17.

Department of Anatomy and Physiology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS, USA.

Marijuana toxicosis is typically seen by companion animal veterinarians. However, with increased marijuana availability, there is a greater potential for toxicosis in other species. Herein we describe a case of suspected marijuana toxicosis in a female and a male American Mammoth donkey, aged 8 y and 20 y, respectively, fed cannabis buds. Read More

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Characteristics of dissolved organic matter in surface water and sediment and its ecological indication in a typical mining-affected river-Le'an River, China.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2022 May 15;29(25):37115-37128. Epub 2022 Jan 15.

State Environmental Protection Key Laboratory of Source Apportionment and Control of Aquatic Pollution, Hubei Key Laboratory of Yangtze Catchment Environmental Aquatic Science, China University of Geosciences, Wuhan, 430078, China.

Dissolved organic matter (DOM) plays an important role in the cycling and toxicity of heavy metals in aquatic systems. However, most studies have focused only on DOM in either water or sediments. This study aimed to analyze the source, composition, and structural characteristics of DOM in both surface water and bottom sediments of the Le'an River and its major tributaries. Read More

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MDMA related neuro-inflammation and adenosine receptors.

Neurochem Int 2022 02 3;153:105275. Epub 2022 Jan 3.

Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine, Alborz University of Medical Sciences, Karaj, Iran. Electronic address:

3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) is a world-wide abused psychostimulant, which has the neurotoxic effects on dopaminergic and serotonergic neurons in both rodents and non-human primates. Adenosine acts as a neurotransmitter in the brain through the activation of four specific G-protein-coupled receptors and it acts as a neuromodulator of dopamine neurotransmission. Recent studies suggest that stimulation of adenosine receptors oppose many behavioral effects of methamphetamines. Read More

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February 2022

Cytotoxic, genotoxic, and oxidative stress-related effects of lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) and phencyclidine (PCP) in the human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cell line.

Arh Hig Rada Toksikol 2021 Dec 30;72(4):333-342. Epub 2021 Dec 30.

1Institute for Medical Research and Occupational Health, Zagreb, Croatia.

Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) is a classic hallucinogen, widely abused for decades, while phencyclidine (PCP) has increased in popularity in recent years, especially among the adolescents. Very little is known about the general toxicity of these compounds, especially about their possible neurotoxic effects at the cell level. The aim of this study was to address these gaps by assessing the toxic effects of 24-hour exposure to LSD and PCP in the concentration range of 0. Read More

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December 2021