136 results match your criteria Toxicity Gamma-Hydroxybutyrate


GHB Pharmacology and Toxicology: From Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics to Applications: In Clinical and Forensic Toxicology.

Curr Drug Metab 2018 ;19(13):1054-1055

Department of Biomedical and Neuromotor Sciences, University of Bologna, Bologna, Italy; IRCCS Istituto delle Scienze Neurologiche, Bologna, Italy.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/138920021913181029122146DOI Listing
February 2019
6 Reads

Replacing GHB with GBL in Recreational Settings: A New Trend in Chemsex.

Curr Drug Metab 2018 ;19(13):1080-1085

Unit of Forensic Toxicology (UoFT), Department of Anatomical, Histological, Forensic and Orthopedic Sciences, Sapienza University of Rome, V.Le Regina Elena 336, 00161, Rome, Italy.

Background: Recently, Gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) consumption in the recreational setting has been replaced by that of its prodrug Gamma-butyrolactone (GBL), cheaper and easier to obtain due to several legal industrial applications.

Objective: The aim of the present paper was to report the most authoritative literature on the pharmacology and toxicology of GBL, dependence and abuse potential and the related public health issues together with the results of the analyses of several illicit liquid preparations containing GHB/GBL generally sold as "G".

Method: International literature concerning "Gamma-butyrolactone", "GBL" "toxicology", "pharmacology", "abuse", "dependence" and "GHB has been reviewed and liquid preparations containing GHB/GBL analysed by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled to the tandem mass spectrometry validated methodology. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1389200219666180925090834DOI Listing
February 2019
10 Reads

Production of high molecular weight poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-4-hydroxybutyrate) copolymer by Cupriavidus malaysiensis USMAA1020 utilising substrate with longer carbon chain.

Int J Biol Macromol 2018 Sep 1;116:217-223. Epub 2018 May 1.

School of Biological Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 Minden, Penang, Malaysia; Malaysian Institute of Pharmaceuticals and Nutraceuticals, NIBM, 11700 Gelugor, Penang, Malaysia; Centre for Chemical Biology, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11900 Bayan Lepas, Penang, Malaysia. Electronic address:

Long carbon chain alkanediols are used in the production of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-4-hydroxybutyrate) [P(3HB-co-4HB)], however these substrates possess high toxicity towards bacterial cells. This study demonstrated the effective utilisation of a long carbon chain alkanediol, namely 1,8-octanediol, to enhance the yield and production of a copolymer with a high molecular weight of over 1000 kDa, which is desirable for novel applications in medical and biopharmaceuticals. The increased PHA content (47-61 wt%) and concentration (1. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S01418130183119
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2018.04.148DOI Listing
September 2018
8 Reads

An index of fatal toxicity for new psychoactive substances.

J Psychopharmacol 2018 Jul 27;32(7):793-801. Epub 2018 Feb 27.

2 Psychopharmacology, Drug Misuse & Novel Psychoactive Substances Research Unit, Department of Pharmacy, Pharmacology & Post-graduate Medicine, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield, UK.

An index of fatal toxicity for new psychoactive substances has been developed based solely on information provided on death certificates. An updated index of fatal toxicity (T), as first described in 2010, was calculated based on the ratio of deaths to prevalence and seizures for the original five substances (amphetamine, cannabis, cocaine/crack, heroin and 3,4-methylenedioxymethylamphetamine). These correlated well with the 2010 index. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0269881118754709DOI Listing
July 2018
21 Reads
3.593 Impact Factor

Baclofen in gamma-hydroxybutyrate withdrawal: patterns of use and online availability.

Eur J Clin Pharmacol 2018 Mar 3;74(3):349-356. Epub 2017 Dec 3.

Clinical Toxicology, Guy's and St Thomas' NHS Foundation Trust and King's Health Partners, London, UK.

Purpose: Gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) withdrawal is a life-threatening condition that does not always respond to standard treatment with benzodiazepines. Baclofen has potential utility as a pharmacological adjunct and anecdotal reports suggest that it is being used by drug users to self-manage GHB withdrawal symptoms. Here, we investigate current patterns of use and the online availably of baclofen. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00228-017-2387-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5808054PMC
March 2018
7 Reads

Deaths in the Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender United Kingdom Communities Associated with GHB and Precursors.

Curr Drug Metab 2018 ;19(13):1086-1099

Psychopharmacology, Drug Misuse and Novel Psychoactive Substances Research Unit, Department of Pharmacy, Pharmacology and Postgraduate Medicine, University of Hertfordshire, Hertfordshire, United Kingdom.

Background: Misuse of gammahydroxybutrate (GHB) and its prodrugs gammabutyrolactone (GBL) and 1,4 butanediol (1,4-BD) has increased greatly since the early 1990s, particularly amongst lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) individuals in recreational and sexual settings, e.g. 'chemsex'. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1389200218666171108163817DOI Listing
February 2019
18 Reads

Toxicologic/transport properties of NCS-382, a γ-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) receptor ligand, in neuronal and epithelial cells: Therapeutic implications for SSADH deficiency, a GABA metabolic disorder.

Toxicol In Vitro 2018 Feb 12;46:203-212. Epub 2017 Oct 12.

Department of Pharmacotherapy, College of Pharmacy, Washington State University, Spokane, WA, United States. Electronic address:

We report the in vitro assessment of pharmacotoxicity for the high-affinity GHB receptor ligand, NCS-382, using neuronal stem cells derived from mice with a targeted deletion of the aldehyde dehydrogenase 5a1 gene (succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase(SSADH)-deficient mice). These animals represent a phenocopy of the human disorder of GABA metabolism, SSADH deficiency, that metabolically features accumulation of both GABA and the GABA-analog γ-hydroxybutyric acid in conjunction with a nonspecific neurological phenotype. We demonstrate for the first time using MDCK cells that NCS-382 is actively transported and capable of inhibiting GHB transport. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tiv.2017.10.015DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5842807PMC
February 2018
7 Reads

Home Manufacture of Drugs: An Online Investigation and a Toxicological Reality Check of Online Discussions on Drug Chemistry.

J Psychoactive Drugs 2017 Sep-Oct;49(4):279-288. Epub 2017 May 23.

f Director of Research CVO , Addiction Research Centre , Utrecht , Netherlands.

Emerging trends in market dynamics and the use of new psychoactive substances are both a public health concern and a complex regulatory issue. One novel area of investigation is the availability of homemade opioids, amphetamines and dissociatives, and the potential fueling of interest in clandestine home manufacture of drugs via the Internet. We illustrate here how online communal folk pharmacology of homemade drugs on drug website forums may actually inform home manufacture practices or contribute to the reduction of harms associated with this practice. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02791072.2017.1320735DOI Listing
May 2018
18 Reads

In vitro toxicological evaluation of NCS-382, a high-affinity antagonist of γ-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) binding.

Toxicol In Vitro 2017 Apr 22;40:196-202. Epub 2017 Jan 22.

Department of Pharmacotherapy, College of Pharmacy, Washington State University, Spokane, WA, United States. Electronic address:

γ-Hydroxybutyric acid (GHB), a minor metabolite of the inhibitory neurotransmitter GABA, can accumulate to significant concentrations in the heritable disorder of GABA degradation, succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase (SSADH) deficiency (SSADHD). Moreover, GHB may be employed in therapeutic settings (treatment of narcolepsy), as well as instances of illicit activity, including acquaintance sexual assault and the induction of euphoria. High-affinity binding sites for GHB in the brain have been identified, although the absolute identity of these receptors remains unclear. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S08872333173001
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tiv.2017.01.013DOI Listing
April 2017
8 Reads

When "Chems" Meet Sex: A Rising Phenomenon Called "ChemSex".

Curr Neuropharmacol 2017 ;15(5):762-770

Unit of Forensic Toxicology (UoFT), Department of Anatomical, Histological, Forensic and Orthopedic Sciences, Sapienza University of Rome. 0.

Background: The term "chemsex" was coined to indicate the voluntary intake of psychoactive and non psychoactive drugs in the context of recreational settings to facilitate and/or to enhance sexual intercourses mostly among men who have sex with other men (MSM).

Objective: The authors aimed to review the mechanisms of action, the toxicity and the pattern of use and abuse of substances involved in "chemsex" practice together with the sociocultural background underlying it and the health-related consequences that they may have.

Results: Gamma-hydroxybutyrate, gamma-butyrolactone,1,4-butanediol, mephedrone, methamphetamine, sildenafil, tadalafil, vardenafil and alkyl nitrites have been described in their role of "chemsex drugs" including pharmacological action and in their implication to impair capacities to chose sexual partners and consensual sex. Read More

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http://www.eurekaselect.com/147471/article
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1570159X15666161117151148DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5771052PMC
March 2018
37 Reads

Serum Metabolomic Profiles in Neonatal Mice following Oral Brominated Flame Retardant Exposures to Hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) Alpha, Gamma, and Commercial Mixture.

Environ Health Perspect 2017 04 4;125(4):651-659. Epub 2016 Nov 4.

National Human Environmental Exposure Research Laboratory, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Research Triangle Park, North Carolina, USA.

Background: Hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) is a high production volume brominated flame retardant added to building insulation foams, electronics, and textiles. HBCD is a commercial mixture (CM-HBCD) composed of three main stereoisomers: α-HBCD (10%), β-HBCD (10%), and γ-HBCD (80%). A shift from the dominant stereoisomer γ-HBCD to α-HBCD is detected in humans and wildlife. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/EHP242DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5381977PMC
April 2017
31 Reads

Presentations to an urban emergency department in Switzerland due to acute γ-hydroxybutyrate toxicity.

Scand J Trauma Resusc Emerg Med 2016 Aug 31;24(1):107. Epub 2016 Aug 31.

Division of Clinical Pharmacology and Toxicology, University Hospital Basel and University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland.

Background: γ-Hydroxybutyrate (GHB) is a drug of abuse with dose-dependent sedative effects. Systematic data on the acute toxicity of GHB from emergency department (ED) presentations over a long period of time are currently missing from the literature. The present study described the clinical features of GHB toxicity. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13049-016-0299-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5007834PMC
August 2016
13 Reads

Improvement in γ-hydroxybutyrate-induced contextual fear memory deficit by systemic administration of NCS-382.

Neuroreport 2016 06;27(9):627-31

aDepartment of Psychology, The City College of New York, CUNY bAlbert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx cFeinstein Institute for Medical Research, Manhasset dResearch Institute on Addictions, University at Buffalo, Buffalo, New York, USA.

Low, nonsedative doses of γ-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) produce short-term anterograde amnesia in humans and memory impairments in experimental animals. We have previously shown that acute systemic treatment of GHB in adolescent female rats impairs the acquisition, but not the expression, of contextual fear memory while sparing both the acquisition and the expression of auditory cued fear memory. In the brain, GHB binds to specific GHB-binding sites as well as to γ-aminobutyric acid type B (GABAB) receptors. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/WNR.0000000000000586DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4878282PMC
June 2016
7 Reads

The Neurobiological Mechanisms of Gamma-Hydroxybutyrate Dependence and Withdrawal and Their Clinical Relevance: A Review.

Neuropsychobiology 2016 23;73(2):65-80. Epub 2016 Mar 23.

Nijmegen Institute for Scientist-Practitioners in Addiction (NISPA), Nijmegen, The Netherlands.

Objective: x03B3;-Hydroxybutyrate (GHB) has gained popularity as a drug of abuse. In the Netherlands the number of patients in treatment for GHB dependence has increased sharply. Clinical presentation of GHB withdrawal can be life threatening. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000443173DOI Listing
December 2016
10 Reads
5 Citations
2.261 Impact Factor

Detection of gamma hydroxybutyrate in emergency department: Nice to have or a valuable diagnostic tool?

Hum Exp Toxicol 2016 Jul 21;35(7):785-92. Epub 2015 Sep 21.

Emergency Department, University Hospital of Leipzig, Leipzig, Germany

Background: Many patients present to emergency departments (EDs) with an altered state of consciousness. Fast exclusion of gamma hydroxybutyrate (GHB)-associated intoxication in these patients may optimize diagnostic and therapeutic algorithms and decisions in the ED.

Methods: Between January and March 2014, a novel enzymatic test system was used to quantify GHB in blood and urine samples of suspected intoxicated patients in the ED of the University Hospital. Read More

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http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/10.1177/0960327115606790
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0960327115606790DOI Listing
July 2016
7 Reads

GHB pharmacology and toxicology: acute intoxication, concentrations in blood and urine in forensic cases and treatment of the withdrawal syndrome.

Curr Neuropharmacol 2015 Jan;13(1):47-70

Department of Clinical Pharmacology, University of Linköping, Linköping, Sweden.

The illicit recreational drug of abuse, γ-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) is a potent central nervous system depressant and is often encountered during forensic investigations of living and deceased persons. The sodium salt of GHB is registered as a therapeutic agent (Xyrem®), approved in some countries for the treatment of narcolepsy-associated cataplexy and (Alcover®) is an adjuvant medication for detoxification and withdrawal in alcoholics. Trace amounts of GHB are produced endogenously (0. Read More

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http://www.eurekaselect.com/openurl/content.php?genre=articl
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1570159X13666141210215423DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4462042PMC
January 2015
11 Reads

Gamma hydroxybutyrate (GHB), gamma butyrolactone (GBL) and 1,4-butanediol (1,4-BD; BDO): A literature review with a focus on UK fatalities related to non-medical use.

Neurosci Biobehav Rev 2015 Jun 3;53:52-78. Epub 2015 Apr 3.

National Programme on Substance Abuse Deaths, St George's University of London, UK; Centre for Clinical Practice, Safe Medicines and Drug Misuse Research, Department of Pharmacy, University of Hertfordshire, UK.

Misuse of gamma hydroxybutrate (GHB) and gamma butyrolactone (GBL) has increased greatly since the early 1990s, being implicated in a rising number of deaths. This paper reviews knowledge on GHB and derivatives, and explores the largest series of deaths associated with their non-medical use. Descriptive analyses of cases associated with GHB/GBL and 1,4-butanediol (1,4-BD) use extracted from the UK's National Programme on Substance Abuse Deaths database. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neubiorev.2015.03.012DOI Listing
June 2015
68 Reads
4 Citations
8.802 Impact Factor

A Novel Monocarboxylate Transporter Inhibitor as a Potential Treatment Strategy for γ-Hydroxybutyric Acid Overdose.

Pharm Res 2015 Jun 6;32(6):1894-906. Epub 2014 Dec 6.

Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University at Buffalo, State University of New York, 352 Kapoor Hall, Buffalo, New York, 14214-8033, USA.

Purpose: Monocarboxylate transporter (MCT) inhibition represents a potential treatment strategy for γ-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) overdose by blocking its renal reabsorption in the kidney. This study further evaluated the effects of a novel, highly potent MCT inhibitor, AR-C155858, on GHB toxicokinetics/toxicodynamics (TK/TD).

Methods: Rats were administered GHB (200, 600 or 1500 mg/kg i. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11095-014-1583-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4425608PMC
June 2015
19 Reads

Effect of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine on the toxicokinetics and sedative effects of the drug of abuse, γ-hydroxybutyric acid.

J Pharm Sci 2014 Oct 29;103(10):3310-5. Epub 2014 Aug 29.

Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University at Buffalo, SUNY, Buffalo, New York, 14214-8033.

γ-Hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) is widely abused in combination with other club drugs such as 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA). The objectives of this study were to characterize the effects of MDMA on GHB toxicokinetics/toxicodynamics (TK/TD) and evaluate the use of monocarboxylate transporter (MCT) inhibition as a potential treatment strategy for GHB overdose when GHB is abused with MDMA. Rats were administered GHB 400 mg/kg i. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jps.24122DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4175056PMC
October 2014
8 Reads

Gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB): a scoping review of pharmacology, toxicology, motives for use, and user groups.

J Psychoactive Drugs 2014 Jul-Aug;46(3):243-51

a Post-graduate student (RB) , Coordinator Substance Abuse Research Centre (MCVH) , Waterford , Ireland.

Gamma hydroxybutyrate (GHB) is a central nervous system depressant with euphoric and relaxant effects. Documentation of GHB prevalence and the underreporting of abuse remains problematic, given the availability of GHB and its precursors γ-butyrolactone (GBL) and 1,4-butanediol (1,4-BD) and the ease of synthesis from kits available on the Internet. The continued abuse of and dependence on GHB, and associated fatalities, present an on-going public health problem. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02791072.2014.921746DOI Listing
October 2014
15 Reads

Mechanistic modeling of monocarboxylate transporter-mediated toxicokinetic/toxicodynamic interactions between γ-hydroxybutyrate and L-lactate.

AAPS J 2014 Jul 23;16(4):756-70. Epub 2014 May 23.

Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University at Buffalo, State University of New York, 352 Kapoor Hall, Buffalo, New York, 14214-8033, USA,

Overdose of γ-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) can result in severe respiratory depression. Monocarboxylate transporter (MCT) inhibitors, including L-lactate, increase GHB clearance and represent a potential treatment for GHB intoxication. GHB can also affect L-lactate clearance, and L-lactate has been reported to affect respiration. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1208/s12248-014-9593-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4070269PMC
July 2014
2 Reads

Symptoms and signs in interpreting gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) intoxication - an explorative study.

Scand J Trauma Resusc Emerg Med 2014 Apr 23;22:27. Epub 2014 Apr 23.

Gothenburg University, Sahlgrenska Academy, the Institute of Health and Care Sciences, Gothenburg, Sweden.

Background: Acute poisoning with gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) has been a serious medical and social problem in different parts of the world including Sweden. GHB is a drug of abuse which acts primarily as central nervous system (CNS) depressants. GHB has serious toxicity, although many young users do not recognise GHB as a dangerous drug. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1757-7241-22-27DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4012517PMC
April 2014
4 Reads

Club drugs: coming to a patient near you.

Nurse Pract 2014 Mar;39(3):20-5; quiz 25-6

JeanAnne Talbert is medical director at Steps Recovery Systems, Payson, Utah; Owner, JTC Advanced Practice, Lindon, Utah; and Assistant Professor at Utah Valley University, Orem, Utah.

Club drugs have become increasingly popular with young adults and adolescents. Although users report similar effects of these drugs, they are pharmacologically and physiologically different. Understanding these differences and recognizing trends and effects of club drugs is essential for nurse practitioners. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/01.NPR.0000443227.72357.72DOI Listing
March 2014
8 Reads

Mechanisms of intracellular defense and activity of free radical oxidation in rat myocardium in the dynamics of chronic fluorine intoxication.

Bull Exp Biol Med 2013 Dec;156(2):224-7

Research Institute for Complex Problems of Hygiene and Occupational Diseases, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Medical Sciences; Kuzbass State Pedagogical Academy, Novokuznetsk; Faculty of Fundamental Medicine, M. V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia.

The mechanisms of intracellular defense and activity of free radical oxidation in the myocardium were studied in the dynamics of chronic fluorine intoxication. At the early stages of fluorine intoxication (day 3-week 3), the concentrations of defense proteins HIF-1α, HSC73, and HOx-2 and activity of the main metabolic enzymes increased, which promoted maintenance of cardiomyocyte structure and function at the normal physiological level. At late stages of fluorine intoxication (weeks 6 and 9), metabolic changes in the myocardium attest to high strain of the adaptive mechanisms. Read More

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December 2013
10 Reads

Effects of triphenyltin on growth and development of the wood frog (Lithobates sylvaticus).

Aquat Toxicol 2013 Nov 6;144-145:155-61. Epub 2013 Oct 6.

Toxicology Centre, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK, Canada S7N 5B3.

Exposure to contaminants in the environment has been suggested as a contributing cause of ongoing declines in populations of amphibians reported in certain locations around the world. In the current study, responses of the wood frog (Lithobates sylvaticus) to exposure to triphenyltin (TPT), a commonly used fungicide, during the larval period were characterized. Exposure of L. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aquatox.2013.09.029DOI Listing
November 2013
5 Reads

Toxicokinetics/Toxicodynamics of γ-hydroxybutyrate-ethanol intoxication: evaluation of potential treatment strategies.

J Pharmacol Exp Ther 2013 Sep 28;346(3):504-13. Epub 2013 Jun 28.

Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University at Buffalo, State University of New York, Buffalo, New York 14214, USA.

γ-Hydroxybutyrate (GHB), a common drug of abuse, is often coingested with ethanol. Increasing renal clearance via monocarboxylate transporter (MCT) inhibition represents a potential therapeutic strategy in GHB overdose, as does inhibition of GABAB receptors. In this study, we investigate toxicokinetic/toxicodynamic interactions between GHB-ethanol and efficacy of treatment options for GHB-ethanol intoxication in rats. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1124/jpet.113.206250DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3876779PMC
September 2013
22 Reads

Effects of monocarboxylate transporter inhibition on the oral toxicokinetics/toxicodynamics of γ-hydroxybutyrate and γ-butyrolactone.

J Pharmacol Exp Ther 2013 Apr 7;345(1):102-10. Epub 2013 Feb 7.

Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University at Buffalo, State University of New York, Buffalo, New York 14214, USA.

Respiratory depression and death secondary to respiratory arrest have occurred after oral overdoses of γ-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) and its precursor γ-butyrolactone (GBL). GHB is a substrate for monocarboxylate transporters (MCTs), and increasing GHB renal clearance or decreasing GHB absorption via MCT inhibition represents a potential treatment strategy for GHB/GBL overdose. In these studies, GHB and GBL were administered in doses of 1. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1124/jpet.112.202796DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3608444PMC
April 2013
16 Reads

Brain extracellular γ-hydroxybutyrate concentrations are decreased by L-lactate in rats: role in the treatment of overdoses.

Pharm Res 2013 May 15;30(5):1338-48. Epub 2013 Jan 15.

Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, State University of New York, Buffalo, Buffalo, New York 14214-8033, USA.

Purpose: L-lactate represents a potential treatment for GHB overdose by inhibiting GHB renal reabsorption mediated by monocarboxylate transporters. Our objective was to assess the dose-dependence of L-lactate treatment, with and without D-mannitol, on GHB toxicokinetics/toxicodynamics (TK/TD).

Methods: Rats were administered GHB 600 mg/kg i. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11095-013-0973-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3618608PMC
May 2013
7 Reads

Poly (3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyhexanoate)/collagen hybrid scaffolds for tissue engineering applications.

Tissue Eng Part C Methods 2013 Aug 14;19(8):577-85. Epub 2013 Feb 14.

Institute for Science and Technology in Medicine, Keele University, Guy Hilton Research Centre, Stoke-on-Trent, United Kingdom.

The benefits associated with polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) in tissue engineering include high immunotolerance, low toxicity, and biodegradability. Poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyhexanoate) (PHBHHx), a molecule from the PHA family of biopolymers, shares these features. In this study, the applicability of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs), spontaneously differentiated hESCs (SDhESCs), and mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) in conjunction with PHBHHx and collagen as a biocompatible replacement strategy for damaged tissues was exploited. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/ten.TEC.2012.0457DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3689929PMC
August 2013
9 Reads
4 Citations

[Gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) and its lactone (GBL) as psychoactive substances].

Przegl Lek 2012 ;69(8):544-7

Samodzielny Publiczny Szpital Wojewódzki im. Jana Bozego w Lublinie, Regionalny Ośrodek Toksykologii Klinicznej.

Gammabutyrolactone is included in the solvent such as wheel cleaners, pesticides, cosmetics, drugs. After ingestion GBL is converted to gamma-hydroxybutyrate. Both substances are classified as so called "club drugs" and their action is characterized by euphoria, sedation, and induction of retrograde amnesia of events. Read More

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January 2013
19 Reads

Comparative study of equimolar doses of gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB), 1,4-butanediol (1,4-BD) and gamma-butyrolactone (GBL) on catalepsy after acute and chronic administration.

Food Chem Toxicol 2013 Jan 24;51:337-42. Epub 2012 Oct 24.

Department of Pharmacology and Physiology, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330, Thailand.

Gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB), and its precursors 1,4-butanediol (1,4-BD) and gamma-butyrolactone (GBL) are known drugs of abuse. The ability of acute and chronic administration of equimolar doses of GHB (200mg/kg), 1,4-BD (174mg/kg) and GBL (166mg/kg) to produce catalepsy in male Swiss Webster mice was examined. GHB, 1,4-BD, GBL produced catalepsy when injected acutely. Read More

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http://ac.els-cdn.com/S0278691512007466/1-s2.0-S027869151200
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http://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S027869151200746
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fct.2012.10.009DOI Listing
January 2013
22 Reads

Activated charcoal for GHB intoxication: an in vitro study.

Eur J Pharm Sci 2012 Dec 24;47(5):801-3. Epub 2012 Sep 24.

Department of Pharmacy, University Medical Centre Utrecht, The Netherlands.

Context: Intoxications with gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) are occurring more frequently. Patients are primarily treated symptomatically. The use of activated charcoal (AC) has been suggested in several guidelines and in literature, although the clinical value of AC in GHB intoxication is a matter of debate. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejps.2012.09.004DOI Listing
December 2012
14 Reads

γ-Hydroxybutyrate toxicity mimicking basilar artery stroke.

Br J Hosp Med (Lond) 2012 Jul;73(7):412-3

Guy's and St Thomas' NHS Foundation Trust, London, UK.

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July 2012
7 Reads

Five-year trends in self-reported recreational drugs associated with presentation to a UK emergency department with suspected drug-related toxicity.

Eur J Emerg Med 2013 Aug;20(4):263-7

Department of Clinical Toxicology, Guy's and St Thomas' NHS Foundation Trust and King's Health Partners, London, UK.

Objective: User surveys show that there have been significant changes over the last decade in the recreational drugs that are available and being used. This study aims to determine whether there have been similar trends in the drug(s) used by individuals presenting to the emergency department (ED) with acute recreational drug toxicity.

Methods: Data on all poisoned patients presenting to our large inner-city ED are recorded prospectively on a dedicated clinical toxicology database. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MEJ.0b013e3283573115DOI Listing
August 2013
20 Reads

The clinical toxicology of γ-hydroxybutyrate, γ-butyrolactone and 1,4-butanediol.

Clin Toxicol (Phila) 2012 Jul;50(6):458-70

National Poisons Centre, Department of Preventive and Social Medicine, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand.

Introduction: Gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) and its precursors, gamma-butyrolactone (GBL) and 1,4-butanediol (1,4-BD), are drugs of abuse which act primarily as central nervous system (CNS) depressants. In recent years, the rising recreational use of these drugs has led to an increasing burden upon health care providers. Understanding their toxicity is therefore essential for the successful management of intoxicated patients. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/15563650.2012.702218DOI Listing
July 2012
17 Reads

γ-Hydroxybutyrate (GHB)-induced respiratory depression: combined receptor-transporter inhibition therapy for treatment in GHB overdose.

Mol Pharmacol 2012 Aug 4;82(2):226-35. Epub 2012 May 4.

University at Buffalo, 352 Kapoor Hall, Buffalo, NY 14214, USA.

Overdose of γ-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) frequently causes respiratory depression, occasionally resulting in death; however, little is known about the dose-response relationship or effects of potential overdose treatment strategies on GHB-induced respiratory depression. In these studies, the parameters of respiratory rate, tidal volume, and minute volume were measured using whole-body plethysmography in rats administered GHB. Intravenous doses of 200, 600, and 1500 mg/kg were administered to assess the dose-dependent effects of GHB on respiration. Read More

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http://molpharm.aspetjournals.org/cgi/doi/10.1124/mol.112.07
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1124/mol.112.078154DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3400846PMC
August 2012
9 Reads

[Club drugs].

Acta Med Port 2011 Sep-Oct;24(5):739-56. Epub 2011 Dec 29.

Departamento de Psiquiatria e Saúde Mental, Hospital de Santa Maria, Lisboa, Portugal.

Club drugs are the following substances: Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA); Methamphetamine; Lysergic Acid Diethylamide (LSD); Ketamine; Gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) and Flunitrazepam. These substances are mainly used by adolescents and young adults, mostly in recreational settings like dance clubs and rave parties. These drugs have diverse psychotropic effects, are associated with several degrees of toxicity, dependence and long term adverse effects. Read More

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August 2012
9 Reads

Possible long-term effects of γ-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) due to neurotoxicity and overdose.

Neurosci Biobehav Rev 2012 Apr 10;36(4):1217-27. Epub 2012 Feb 10.

National Institute of Public Health and the Environment (RIVM), P.O. Box 1, 3720 BA Bilthoven, The Netherlands.

In several countries, including the Netherlands, the use of GHB seems to be rising. GHB is regarded by recreational users as an innocent drug without any side effects. Recently, the number of patients in treatment due to GHB addiction sharply increased. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neubiorev.2012.02.002DOI Listing
April 2012
58 Reads
6 Citations
8.802 Impact Factor

Drug interactions between common illicit drugs and prescription therapies.

Am J Drug Alcohol Abuse 2012 Jul 5;38(4):334-43. Epub 2012 Jan 5.

Department of Pharmacy Practice, Drug Information and Learning Resource Center, Harrison School of Pharmacy, Auburn University, Auburn, AL 36849, USA.

Objective: The aim was to summarize the clinical literature on interactions between common illicit drugs and prescription therapies.

Methods: Medline, Iowa Drug Information Service, International Pharmaceutical Abstracts, EBSCO Academic Search Premier, and Google Scholar were searched from date of origin of database to March 2011. Search terms were cocaine, marijuana, cannabis, methamphetamine, amphetamine, ecstasy, N-methyl-3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine, methylenedioxymethamphetamine, heroin, gamma-hydroxybutyrate, sodium oxybate, and combined with interactions, drug interactions, and drug-drug interactions. Read More

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http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.3109/00952990.2011.64
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/00952990.2011.643997DOI Listing
July 2012
6 Reads

Acute toxicity and withdrawal syndromes related to γ-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) and its analogues γ-butyrolactone (GBL) and 1,4-butanediol (1,4-BD).

Drug Test Anal 2011 Jul-Aug;3(7-8):417-25. Epub 2011 May 6.

Guy's and St Thomas' NHS Foundation Trust, London, UK.

Gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) has been used as a recreational drug since the 1990s and over the last few years there has been increasing use of its analogues gamma-butyrolactone (GBL) and to a lesser extent 1,4-butanediol (1,4BD). This review will summarize the literature on the pharmacology of these compounds; the patterns and management of acute toxicity associated with their use; and the clinical patterns of presentation and management of chronic dependency associated with GHB and its analogues. Read More

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http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/dta.292
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/dta.292DOI Listing
November 2011
9 Reads

Cocaine and the club drugs.

Int Anesthesiol Clin 2011 ;49(1):79-101

Department of Anesthesiology, The Mount Sinai Hospital New York, New York, NY, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/AIA.0b013e3181ffc0cbDOI Listing
April 2011
7 Reads

Case series of 226 γ-hydroxybutyrate-associated deaths: lethal toxicity and trauma.

Am J Emerg Med 2011 Mar 28;29(3):319-32. Epub 2010 Apr 28.

Department of Emergency Medicine, Hennepin County Medical Center, Minneapolis, MN 55415, USA.

γ-Hydroxybutyrate (GHB) and its prodrugs are drugs of abuse that were also sold as "dietary supplements." Users present to emergency departments with overdose, impaired driving, withdrawal, and associated trauma. We compiled a series of GHB-associated deaths to elucidate lethal risks, GHB concentrations, cointoxicants, products, uses, and medical interventions. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajem.2009.11.008DOI Listing
March 2011
7 Reads

Residual social, memory and oxytocin-related changes in rats following repeated exposure to γ-hydroxybutyrate (GHB), 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) or their combination.

Psychopharmacology (Berl) 2010 Dec 21;212(4):663-74. Epub 2010 Aug 21.

School of Psychology, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW, 2006, Australia.

Rationale: There has been little investigation of the possible lasting adverse effects of γ-hydroxybutyrate (GHB).

Objectives: This study aims to study whether GHB produces residual adverse effects on memory and social behaviour in rats and lasting changes in brain monoamines and oxytocin-related gene expression.

Methods: Rats received daily intraperitoneal injections of GHB (500 mg/kg), methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA; 5 mg/kg) or their combination (GHB/MDMA) over ten consecutive days. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00213-010-1986-5DOI Listing
December 2010
5 Reads

Twenty-three deaths with gamma-hydroxybutyrate overdose in western Sweden between 2000 and 2007.

Acta Anaesthesiol Scand 2010 Sep;54(8):987-92

Department of Anesthesia and Intensive Care Medicine, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg, Sweden.

Background: gamma-Hydroxybutyrate (GHB) is a drug of abuse with a status as being safe. In spite of a reputation of low toxicity, a huge number of deaths associated with this drug have been recorded during recent years in Sweden. It is unclear whether coingestion with other drugs or ethanol causes death in GHB overdoses or whether GHB itself is the main cause of death. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1399-6576.2010.02278.xDOI Listing
September 2010
8 Reads

Methadone, buprenorphine, and street drug interactions with antiretroviral medications.

Curr HIV/AIDS Rep 2010 Aug;7(3):152-60

San Francisco General Hospital, University of California San Francisco, 1001 Potrero Avenue, Ward 93/95, San Francisco, CA 94110, USA.

While street drugs appear unlikely to alter the metabolism of antiretroviral (ARV) medications, several ARVs may induce or inhibit metabolism of various street drugs. However, research on these interactions is limited. Case reports have documented life-threatening overdoses of ecstasy and gamma-hydroxybutyrate after starting ritonavir, an ARV that inhibits several metabolic enzymes. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11904-010-0048-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2892618PMC
August 2010
6 Reads

Immunomodulating properties of gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB), flunitrazepam and ethanol in 'club drugs' users.

Addict Biol 2010 Jul 29;15(3):336-45. Epub 2010 Apr 29.

Department of Therapeutic Research and Medicines Evaluation, Istituto Superiore di Sanitá, Italy.

Despite the increasing concern about gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) toxicity in users, no studies have addressed GHB and other club drugs effects on the immune system under controlled administration. Lymphocyte subsets and functional responsiveness of lymphocytes to mitogenic stimulation were measured in 10 healthy male recreational users of GHB who participated in five experimental sessions within the framework of a clinical trial. The study was randomized, double blind, double dummy and cross-over. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1369-1600.2010.00210.xDOI Listing
July 2010
8 Reads

A long hangover from party drugs: residual proteomic changes in the hippocampus of rats 8 weeks after γ-hydroxybutyrate (GHB), 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) or their combination.

Neurochem Int 2010 Jul 19;56(8):871-7. Epub 2010 Mar 19.

School of Psychology, University of Sydney, Camperdown, Sydney, NSW 2006, Australia.

3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) and gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) are popular party drugs that are used for their euphoric and prosocial effects, and sometimes in combination. Both drugs increase markers of oxidative stress in the hippocampus and can cause lasting impairments in hippocampal-dependent forms of memory. To gain further information on the biochemical mechanisms underlying these effects, the current study examined residual changes in hippocampal protein expression measured 8 weeks after chronic administration of GHB (500mg/kg), MDMA (5mg/kg) or their combination (GHB/MDMA). Read More

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http://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S019701861000088
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuint.2010.03.002DOI Listing
July 2010
12 Reads

Concentration-effect relationships for the drug of abuse gamma-hydroxybutyric acid.

J Pharmacol Exp Ther 2010 Jun 9;333(3):764-71. Epub 2010 Mar 9.

Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University at Buffalo, The State University of New York, Amherst, New York, USA.

gamma-Hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) is an endogenous neurotransmitter that is abused because of its sedative/hypnotic and euphoric effects. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the concentration-effect relationships of GHB in plasma, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), brain (whole and discrete brain regions), and brain frontal cortex extracellular fluid. This information is crucial for future studies to evaluate effects of therapeutic interventions on the toxicodynamics of GHB. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1124/jpet.109.165381DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2879942PMC
June 2010
25 Reads