2,966 results match your criteria Toxicity Fluoride


Sodium fluoride causes oxidative damage to silkworm (Bombyx mori) testis by affecting the oxidative phosphorylation pathway.

Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 2021 May 11;218:112229. Epub 2021 May 11.

School of Biotechnology, Southwest University, Chongqing, China. Electronic address:

Bombyx mori was used to study the molecular mechanism of fluoride induced reproductive toxicity. In our previous study, we confirmed the physiological and biochemical effects of NaF on reproductive toxicity, and we found that the molecular mechanism of NaF induced reproductive damage may be associated with the oxidative phosphorylation pathway. To further study the function of NaF exposure on the oxidative phosphorylation pathway in the testis in Bombyx mori, and the relationship between oxidative phosphorylation and oxidative stress, we measured the changes in the main ROS (O and HO) in the testis, the activity of the main electron transport chain complex enzymes in the oxidative phosphorylation pathway and the transcription levels of the corresponding genes; we additionally performed pathological observations of the silkworm testis after exposure to 200 mg/L NaF solution for different times. Read More

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Identifying fluoride endemic areas and exposure pathways for assessment of non-carcinogenic human health risk associated with groundwater fluoride for Gujarat state, India.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 May 5. Epub 2021 May 5.

Central Ground Water Board, WCR, Department of Water Resources, RD & GR, Ahmedabad, India.

Analytical data of fluoride concentration in groundwater collected from various geological formations in Gujarat, India, have been studied to assess their spatial distribution characteristics and related potential chronic health risks. Decadal analysis of groundwater was attempted for precise quantification and a realistic ground representation of fluoride concentration in the entire state. This exercise involved collection of 6407 samples over a period of 10 years (2009-2018), from 641 representative locations, distributed evenly throughout the state (6407 = 641 locations × 10 years). Read More

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Alleviative Effects of Exercise on Bone Remodeling in Fluorosis Mice.

Biol Trace Elem Res 2021 May 3. Epub 2021 May 3.

Shanxi Key Laboratory of Ecological Animal Science and Environmental Veterinary Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, Shanxi Agricultural University, 030801, Taigu, Shanxi, China.

Fluorine is widely present in nature in the form of fluoride. Prolonged high-dose fluoride exposure can cause skeletal fluorosis, resulting in osteosclerosis, osteoporosis or osteomalacia. It has been proved that exercise is one of the important factors affecting the health of the bone and promoting bone formation. Read More

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Methoxyflurane toxicity: historical determination and lessons for modern patient and occupational exposure.

N Z Med J 2021 Apr 30;134(1534):76-90. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Distinguished Professor, Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Canterbury, New Zealand.

Aim: Historically methoxyflurane was used for anaesthesia. Evidence of nephrotoxicity led to abandonment of this application. Subsequently, methoxyflurane, in lower doses, has re-emerged as an analgesic agent, typically used via the Penthrox inhaler in the ambulance setting. Read More

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Clofibrate, a Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor-Alpha (PPARα) Agonist, and Its Molecular Mechanisms of Action against Sodium Fluoride-Induced Toxicity.

Biol Trace Elem Res 2021 Apr 24. Epub 2021 Apr 24.

Department of Environmental & Interdisciplinary Sciences, College of Science, Engineering & Technology, Vascular Biology Unit, Center for Cardiovascular Diseases, Texas Southern University, Houston, TX, USA.

Sodium fluoride (NaF) is one of the neglected environmental pollutants. It is ubiquitously found in the soil, water, and environment. Interestingly, fluoride has been extensively utilized for prevention of dental caries and tartar formation, and may be added to mouthwash, mouth rinse, and toothpastes. Read More

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The effect of reduced glutathione on the toxicity of silver diamine fluoride in rat pulpal cells.

J Appl Oral Sci 2021 19;29:e20200859. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Department of Cariology and Operative Dentistry, Tokyo, Japan.

Introduction: Due to its ability to arrest untreated dental caries, silver diamine fluoride (SDF) has been advocated for indirect pulp capping procedures. However, the high concentrations of silver and fluoride in SDF raise concerns about its biocompatibility to pulpal tissues.

Objectives: This study aimed to investigate the effect of SDF on the viability, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, and morphology of pulpal-like cells (RPC-C2A) and to evaluate the influence of reduced glutathione (GSH) on SDF-induced cytotoxicity and deposit formation on dentin. Read More

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Sodium fluoride activates the extrinsic apoptosis via regulating NOX4/ROS-mediated p53/DR5 signaling pathway in lung cells both in vitro and in vivo.

Free Radic Biol Med 2021 Apr 20;169:137-148. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Zhengzhou Key Laboratory of Animal Nutrition Metabolic and Poisoning Diseases, College of Veterinary Medicine, Henan University of Animal Husbandry and Economy, Zhengzhou, 450000, Henan, China; Shanxi Key Laboratory of Ecological Animal Science and Environmental Veterinary Medicine, College of Animal Science and Veterinary Medicine, Shanxi Agricultural University, Taigu, 030801, Shanxi, China. Electronic address:

An extensive body of research has demonstrated that pulmonary toxicity induced by fluoride is related to cell apoptosis. Although induction of death receptor-initiated extrinsic apoptosis by sodium fluoride (NaF) has been reported, its mechanism of action is still not clearly defined. Herein, we found that NaF treatment induced activation of caspase-8 in BEAS-2B cells, resulting in apoptosis, which was markedly reduced by blocking caspase-8 using small interfering RNA (siRNA). Read More

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Amyloid beta cleavage by ANA-TA9, a synthetic peptide from the ANA/BTG3 Box A region.

Alzheimers Dement (N Y) 2021 31;7(1):e12146. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

O-Force Co., Ltd Hata-gun Kochi Japan.

Introduction: We recently discovered a short synthetic peptide derived from the ANA/BTG3 protein Box A region called ANA-TA9 (SKGQAYRMI), which possesses catalytic activity. Herein we demonstrated the proteolytic activity of ANA-TA9 against amyloid beta 42 (Aβ42).

Methods: The proteolytic activity of ANA-TA9 against both the authentic soluble form Aβ42 (-Aβ42) and the solid insoluble form Aβ42 (-Aβ42) was analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry. Read More

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The fluoride transporter FLUORIDE EXPORTER (FEX) is the major mechanism of tolerance to fluoride toxicity in plants1.

Plant Physiol 2021 Mar 21. Epub 2021 Mar 21.

Department of Molecular Biophysics and Biochemistry, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06510.

Fluoride is everywhere in the environment, yet it is toxic to living things. How biological organisms detoxify fluoride has been unknown until recently. Fluoride-specific ion transporters in both prokaryotes (Fluoride channel; Fluc) and fungi (Fluoride Exporter; FEX) efficiently export fluoride to the extracellular environment. Read More

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Functional metabolomics reveal the role of AHR/GPR35 mediated kynurenic acid gradient sensing in chemotherapy-induced intestinal damage.

Acta Pharm Sin B 2021 Mar 30;11(3):763-780. Epub 2020 Jul 30.

Key Laboratory of Drug Quality Control and Pharmacovigilance (Ministry of Education), State Key Laboratory of Natural Medicine, China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing 210009, China.

Intestinal toxicity induced by chemotherapeutics has become an important reason for the interruption of therapy and withdrawal of approved agents. In this study, we demonstrated that chemotherapeutics-induced intestinal damage were commonly characterized by the sharp upregulation of tryptophan (Trp)-kynurenine (KYN)-kynurenic acid (KA) axis metabolism. Mechanistically, chemotherapy-induced intestinal damage triggered the formation of an interleukin-6 (IL-6)-indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase 1 (IDO1)-aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) positive feedback loop, which accelerated kynurenine pathway metabolism in gut. Read More

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Maghemite nano-fertilization promotes fluoride tolerance in rice by restoring grain yield and modulating the ionome and physiome.

Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 2021 Jun 23;215:112055. Epub 2021 Mar 23.

Post Graduate Department of Biotechnology, St. Xavier's College (Autonomous), 30, Mother Teresa Sarani, Kolkata 700016, West Bengal, India. Electronic address:

The present manuscript elucidated the ameliorative potential of nano-maghemite (FeNPs) against the hazardous effects of fluoride toxicity in the sensitive rice cultivar, IR-64. Fluoride pollution triggered bioaccumulation in root, shoot and spikelets which inhibited reproduction, agronomic development and mineral uptake. Suppressed activity of enzymatic antioxidants and excessive cobalt translocation manifested severe ROS-induced oxidative injuries. Read More

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The fluoride transporter FLUORIDE EXPORTER (FEX) is the major mechanism of tolerance to fluoride toxicity in plants.

Plant Physiol 2021 Mar 21. Epub 2021 Mar 21.

Molecular Biophysics and Biochemistry, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06510.

Fluoride is everywhere in the environment, yet it is toxic to living things. How biological organisms detoxify fluoride has been unknown until recently. Fluoride-specific ion transporters in both prokaryotes (Fluoride channel; Fluc) and fungi (Fluoride Exporter; FEX) efficiently export fluoride to the extracellular environment. Read More

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Microsecond simulation analysis of carbonic anhydrase - II in complex with (+)-cathechin revealed molecular interactions responsible for its amelioration effect on fluoride toxicity.

J Biomol Struct Dyn 2021 Mar 15:1-14. Epub 2021 Mar 15.

Department of Microbiology, Palamuru University, Mahabubnagar, Telangana, India.

Fluorosis is a chronic condition caused by overexposure to fluoride, marked by impaired dental, skeletal, and non-skeletal health. In presence of excess fluoride ions, in severe cases calcification of the ligaments observed. Earlier studies have suggested that the disruption of carbonic anhydrase activity via ionic homeostasis change was associated with F toxicity. Read More

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Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy as a straightforward bioimaging tool for plant biologists; the case study for assessment of photon-upconversion nanoparticles in Brassica oleracea L. plant.

Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 2021 May 6;214:112113. Epub 2021 Mar 6.

Central European Institute of Technology (CEITEC) Brno University of Technology, Purkyňova 123, 612 00 Brno, Czech Republic; Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Brno University of Technology, Technická 2896/2, 616 69 Brno, Czech Republic.

The main purpose of this work is to thoroughly describe the implementation protocol of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) method in the plant analysis. Numerous feasibility studies and recent progress in instrumentation and trends in chemical analysis make LIBS an established method in plant bioimaging. In this work, we present an easy and straightforward phytotoxicity case study with a focus on LIBS method. Read More

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Global Proteomic Profile Integrated to Quantitative and Morphometric Assessment of Enteric Neurons: Investigation of the Mechanisms Involved in the Toxicity Induced by Acute Fluoride Exposure in the Duodenum.

Neurotox Res 2021 Jun 10;39(3):800-814. Epub 2021 Mar 10.

Department of Biological Sciences, School of Dentistry, University of São Paulo, Bauru, Brazil.

The enteric nervous system is responsible for controlling the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) functions. Enteric neuropathies are highly correlated to the development of several intestinal disturbances. Fluoride (F) is extensively applied for dental health improvement and its ingestion can promote systemic toxicity with mild to severe GIT symptomatology and neurotoxicity. Read More

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Calcium mitigates fluoride-induced kallikrein 4 inhibition via PERK/eIF2α/ATF4/CHOP endoplasmic reticulum stress pathway in ameloblast-lineage cells.

Arch Oral Biol 2021 May 24;125:105093. Epub 2021 Feb 24.

Key Laboratory of Shaanxi Province for Craniofacial Precision Medicine Research, College of Stomatology, Xi'an Jiaotong University, 710004 Shaanxi, China; Clinical Research Center of Shaanxi Province for Dental and Maxillofacial Diseases, College of Stomatology, Xi'an Jiaotong University, 710004 Shaanxi, China; Department of Preventive Dentistry, College of Stomatology, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an, China. Electronic address:

Objectives: The present study aimed to investigated the effect and mechanism of Ca treatment on fluoride in ameloblast-lineage cells (ALCs).

Materials And Methods: The effects of fluoride and different Ca levels treatment on the proliferative activity, cell apoptosis, cell cycle, intracellular free Ca, were firstly determined. Kallikrein 4 (KLK4), glucose-responsive protein 78 (GRP78), Protein kinase R -like endoplasmic reticulum kinase (PERK), the α subunit of eukaryotic initiation factor 2 (eIF2α), activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4), CCAAT enhancer-binding protein homologous protein (CHOP), were investigated in ALCs. Read More

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Fluoride exposure changed the expression of microRNAs in gills of male zebrafish (Danio rerio).

Aquat Toxicol 2021 Apr 25;233:105789. Epub 2021 Feb 25.

SCNU Environmental Research Institute, Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Chemical Pollution and Environmental Safety & MOE Key Laboratory of Environmental Theoretical Chemistry, South China Normal University, Guangzhou, 510006, China. Electronic address:

Fluoride has been found to cause detrimental effects on fish gills. Despite essential roles in various metabolism activities, whether and how miRNAs participate in the course of toxicity caused by fluoride in gills is still unclear. In this study, male zebrafish were exposed to 0, 20, 40 mg/L fluoride for 60 days to study the underlying osmotic regulatory mechanism by determining the influences of fluoride on the miRNAs and regulated genes in gills. Read More

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Phase I dose escalation study of sorafenib plus S-1 for advanced solid tumors.

Sci Rep 2021 Mar 1;11(1):4834. Epub 2021 Mar 1.

National Institute of Cancer Research, National Health Research Institutes, Tainan, Taiwan.

S-1, an oral pyrimidine fluoride-derived agent, is effective against various cancers. Sorafenib, an oral multikinase inhibitor, was found to prolong the survival of various cancers and enhance the cytotoxicity of chemotherapeutic agents. We conducted a phase I dose escalation study to determine dose-limiting toxicity (DLT) and maximal tolerated dose (MTD) of S-1 when combined with sorafenib for refractory solid tumors. Read More

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Genome-wide analysis of fluoride exporter genes in plants.

3 Biotech 2021 Mar 12;11(3):124. Epub 2021 Feb 12.

Department of Biochemistry, Central University of Rajasthan, Bandar Sindri, Ajmer, Rajasthan 305817 India.

Fluoride exporter genes (FEX) are known for the expulsion of cytoplasmic fluoride, thus preventing fluoride toxicity in plants. In this study, 31 FEX genes were identified across 19 plant species. Camphor Resistance (CrcB) domain was found to be present in all the identified FEX genes in plants. Read More

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Co-exposure to inorganic arsenic and fluoride prominently disrupts gut microbiota equilibrium and induces adverse cardiovascular effects in offspring rats.

Sci Total Environ 2021 May 29;767:144924. Epub 2021 Jan 29.

Department of Epidemiology and Environmental Health, School of Public Health and Health Professions, University at Buffalo, Buffalo, NY, USA; Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Jacobs School of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, University at Buffalo, Buffalo, NY, USA.

Co-exposure to inorganic arsenic (iAs) and fluoride (F) and their collective actions on cardiovascular systems have been recognized as a global public health concern. Emerging studies suggest an association between the perturbation of gut bacterial microbiota and adverse cardiovascular effects (CVEs), both of which are the consequence of iAs and F exposure in human and experimental animals. The aim of this study was to fill the gap of understanding the relationship among co-exposure to iAs and F, gut microbiota perturbation, and adverse CVEs. Read More

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Neurobehavioral and neurochemical effects in rats offspring co-exposed to arsenic and fluoride during development.

Neurotoxicology 2021 May 17;84:30-40. Epub 2021 Feb 17.

Laboratorio de Toxicología, Instituto de Investigaciones Biológicas y Biomédicas del Sur (INBIOSUR), Departamento de Biología, Bioquímica y Farmacia, Universidad Nacional del Sur, Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (CONICET), Depto. de Biología, Bioquímica y Farmacia, San Juan 670, 8000, Bahía Blanca, Argentina. Electronic address:

Arsenic (iAs) and fluoride (F) are ubiquitous in the environment. All over the world, in many countries, thousands of people are suffering from the toxic effects of arsenicals ad fluorides. These two elements are recognized worldwide as the most serious inorganic contaminants in drinking water. Read More

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Toxicity and effect of whitening toothpastes on enamel surface.

Braz Oral Res 2021 12;35:e025. Epub 2021 Feb 12.

University of Florida , College of Dentistry , Department of Restorative Dental Sciences , Gainesville , FL , USA .

This in vitro study evaluated the biocompatibility and abrasivity of whitening and conventional toothpastes. Samples of conventional (non-whitening) - Edel White Infant (EWI) - and whitening toothpastes - Edel White Whitening (EWW), Edel White CAREFORTE (EWC), Colgate Total 12 Ò Professional (C), and Oral-B Whitening (OB) - were dissolved in culture medium (0.2 g sample weight per mL). Read More

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February 2021

Welding fume nanoparticles from solid and flux-cored wires: Solubility, toxicity, and role of fluorides.

J Hazard Mater 2021 Jul 5;413:125273. Epub 2021 Feb 5.

KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Department of Chemistry, Division of Surface and Corrosion Science, 10044 Stockholm, Sweden; AIMES - Center for the Advancement of Integrated Medical and Engineering Sciences at Karolinska Institutet and KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden; Department of Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, SE-171 77 Stockholm, Sweden. Electronic address:

Welding fume particles are hazardous. Their toxicity likely depends on their composition and reactivity. This study aimed at exploring the role of sodium or other fluorides (NaF), which are intentionally added to flux-cored wire electrodes for stainless steel welding, on the solubility (in phosphate buffered saline) and toxicity of the generated welding fume particles. Read More

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Site-specific hazard evaluation for improved groundwater risk assessment.

Chemosphere 2021 Jul 22;274:129742. Epub 2021 Jan 22.

CESAM - Centre for Environmental and Marine Studies, Department of Biology, University of Aveiro, Portugal.

Groundwater represents one of the most important natural water resources worldwide. Contamination is a key driver in sustaining water quality to populations and the environment. Therefore, it is crucial to look at contamination and potential effects. Read More

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Oral toxicity to high level sodium fluoride causes impairment of autophagy.

J Physiol Pharmacol 2020 Oct 8;71(5). Epub 2021 Feb 8.

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Nihon University School of Dentistry at Matsudo, Chiba, Japan.

Autophagy is a highly conserved intracellular digestion process that degrades damaged proteins and organelles but the biological roles of autophagy in pathological aspects of oral tissues remain largely unknown. We sought to elucidate the function of autophagy, especially its interplay with apoptosis and oxidative stress, in the oral toxicity induced by exposure to 5 mM sodium fluoride (NaF). Human cementoblasts (HCEM-2) in culture were exposed to 5 mM NaF for 5 min, after which cell viability and cell apoptosis were assessed using the MTS assay and an Annexin V-FITC/PI apoptosis detection kit, respectively. Read More

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October 2020

Lowest aqueous picomolar fluoride ions and in vivo aluminum toxicity detection by an aluminum(iii) binding chemosensor.

Dalton Trans 2021 Feb 11;50(8):3027-3036. Epub 2021 Feb 11.

School of Chemical Sciences, National Institute of Science Education and Research (NISER), HBNI, Bhubaneswar, PO Bhimpur-Padanpur, Via Jatni, District Khurda, Odisha 752050, India.

Aluminum toxicity in biological systems is a well-known issue yet remains as a prevalent and unsolvable problem due to the lack of proper molecular tools that can detect free aluminum(iii) or Al(iii) ions in vivo. Herein, we report a water-soluble photo-induced electron transfer (PET)-based turn-ON/OFF fluorometric chemosensor for the dual detection of Al(iii) and fluoride ions in aqueous media with a nanomolar (∼1.7 × 10 M) and picomolar (∼2 × 10 M, lowest ever detection so far) detection limit, respectively. Read More

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February 2021

Fluorosilicic acid induces DNA damage and oxidative stress in bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells.

Mutat Res 2021 Jan-Feb;861-862:503297. Epub 2020 Nov 21.

Lutheran University of Brazil (ULBRA), Laboratory of Genetic Toxicology, PPGBioSaúde (Postgraduate Program in Cellular and Molecular Biology Applied to Health), 92425-900, Canoas, RS, Brazil; Laboratory of Genetic Toxicology, La Salle University (UniLaSalle), Canoas, RS, Brazil. Electronic address:

Excess fluoride in water can produce changes in tooth enamel mineralization and lead to diseases such as dental or skeletal fluorosis. The present study aimed to assess the genotoxic effects, oxidative stress, and osteoblastic mineralization induced by fluorosilicic acid (FA) in murine bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs). BM-MSCs were isolated from the femurs and tibias of rats and cultured under standard conditions. Read More

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Intestinal changes associated with fluoride exposure in rats: Integrative morphological, proteomic and microbiome analyses.

Chemosphere 2021 Jun 11;273:129607. Epub 2021 Jan 11.

Department of Biological Sciences, Bauru School of Dentistry, University of São Paulo, Bauru, Brazil. Electronic address:

Gastrointestinal signs and symptoms are the first signs of toxicity due to exposure to fluoride (F). This suggests the possibility that lower levels of subchronic F exposure may affect the gut. The aim of this study was to evaluate changes in the morphology, proteome and microbiome of the ileum of rats, after subchronic exposure to F. Read More

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Extracellular vesicles derived from bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells repair functional and structural rat adrenal gland damage induced by fluoride.

Life Sci 2021 Apr 26;270:119122. Epub 2021 Jan 26.

Department of Histology and Cell Biology, Faculty of Medicine for Girls (AFMG), Al-Azhar University, Cairo, Egypt.

The adrenal glands have striking morpho-biochemical features that render them vulnerable to the effects of toxins.

Aims: This study was conducted to explore the therapeutic utility of extracellular vesicles derived from bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSC-EVs) against fluoride-induced adrenal toxicity.

Materials And Methods: The work included isolation and further identification of BMSC-EVs by transmission electron microscopy and flow cytometric analysis. Read More

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