2,787 results match your criteria Toxicity Ethylene Glycol


Nanomedicine for acute respiratory distress syndrome: The latest application, targeting strategy, and rational design.

Acta Pharm Sin B 2021 May 7. Epub 2021 May 7.

Tongji School of Pharmacy, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430030, China.

Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is characterized by the severe inflammation and destruction of the lung air-blood barrier, leading to irreversible and substantial respiratory function damage. Patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) have been encountered with a high risk of ARDS, underscoring the urgency for exploiting effective therapy. However, proper medications for ARDS are still lacking due to poor pharmacokinetics, non-specific side effects, inability to surmount pulmonary barrier, and inadequate management of heterogeneity. Read More

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Cryopreservation Studies on Silver Carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) Embryos.

Cryo Letters 2021 May-Jun;42(3):178-187

3Department of Animal and Fish Production, College of Agricultural and Food Sciences, King Faisal University, Al-Ahsa, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

Background: Cryopreservation is an effective tool for the preservation of live biological materials.

Objective: This study examined the suitability of cryopreservation protocols and the effectiveness of ultrasound for silver carp embryos.

Materials And Methods: Embryos at three developmental stages were exposed to 10, 15, 20, and 25% of five cryoprotectants (CPAs), namely propylene glycol (PG), dimethylformamide (DFA), DMSO, MeOH, and ethylene glycol (EG) for 20 min. Read More

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Toxicology and Pharmacokinetics Study of Intradiscal Injection of Simvastatin in Rabbits.

Front Pharmacol 2021 23;12:582309. Epub 2021 Apr 23.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, College of Medicine, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH, United States.

To test the pharmacokinetics and toxicology of whole organs and tissues after intradiscal injection of simvastatin in rabbits. To provide the information needed to support human clinical trials. Twelve male and twelve female rabbits were randomly divided into four groups: control group (0 mg/ml), low dose group (0. Read More

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Biodegradable zwitterionic poly(carboxybetaine) microgel for sustained delivery of antibodies with extended stability and preserved function.

Soft Matter 2021 May 6. Epub 2021 May 6.

School of Chemical Engineering, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, OK 74078, USA.

Many recent innovative treatments are based on monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) and other protein therapies. Nevertheless, sustained subcutaneous, oral or pulmonary delivery of such therapeutics is limited by the poor stability, short half-life, and non-specific interactions between the antibody (Ab) and delivery vehicle. Protein stabilizers (osmolytes) such as carboxybetaine can prevent non-specific interactions within proteins. Read More

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Repurposing Vorinostat for the Treatment of Disorders Affecting Brain.

Neuromolecular Med 2021 May 4. Epub 2021 May 4.

Applied Biology Division, CSIR- Indian Institute of Chemical Technology, Tarnaka, Uppal Road, Hyderabad, 500007, Telangana, India.

Based on the findings in recent years, we summarize the therapeutic potential of vorinostat (VOR), the first approved histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor, in disorders of brain, and strategies to improve drug efficacy and reduce side effects. Scientific evidences provide a strong case for the therapeutic utility of VOR in various disorders affecting brain, including stroke, Alzheimer's disease, frontotemporal dementia, Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, spinal muscular atrophy, X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy, epilepsy, Niemann-Pick type C disease, and neuropsychiatric disorders. Further elucidation of the neuroprotective and neurorestorative properties of VOR using proper clinical study designs could provide momentum towards its clinical application. Read More

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Dual-Function Potentiation by PEG-BPEI Restores Activity of Carbapenems and Penicillins against Carbapenem-Resistant .

ACS Infect Dis 2021 May 4. Epub 2021 May 4.

Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Stephenson Life Sciences Research Center, University of Oklahoma, 101 Stephenson Parkway, Norman, Oklahoma 73019, United States.

The rise of life-threatening carbapenem-resistant (CRE) infections has become a critical medical threat. Some of the most dangerous CRE bacteria can produce enzymes that degrade a wide range of antibiotics, including carbapenems and β-lactams. Infections by CRE have a high mortality rate, and survivors can have severe morbidity from treatment with toxic last-resort antibiotics. Read More

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Molecular Targeted Agent and Immune Checkpoint Inhibitor Co-Loaded Thermosensitive Hydrogel for Synergistic Therapy of Rectal Cancer.

Front Pharmacol 2021 16;12:671611. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Department of Gastrointestinal Colorectal and Anal Surgery, China-Japan Union Hospital of Jilin University, Changchun, China.

Molecular targeted therapy has been proved effective in treatment of rectal cancer. Up-regulated expression of programmed death ligand-1 (PD-L1) was observed after the management of molecular targeted therapy, which made the therapeutic effect discounted. Tumors with higher PD-L1 expression were more sensitive and responsive to treatment of PD-L1 inhibitor. Read More

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Pharmacological Evaluation of Safoof-e-Pathar Phori- A Polyherbal Unani Formulation for Urolithiasis.

Front Pharmacol 2021 14;12:597990. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Bioactive Natural Product Laboratory, Department of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry, School of Pharmaceutical Education and Research, Jamia Hamdard, India.

Safoof-e-Pathar phori (SPP) is an Unani poly-herbomineral formulation, which has for a long time been used as a medicine due to its antiurolithiatic activity, as per the Unani Pharmacopoeia. This powder formulation is prepared using six different plant/mineral constituents. In this study, we explored the antiurolithiatic and antioxidant potentials of SPP (at 700 and 1,000 mg/kg) in albino Wistar rats with urolithiasis induced by 0. Read More

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Construction of hyperbranched and pH-responsive polymeric nanocarriers by yne-phenol click-reaction for tumor synergistic chemotherapy.

Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces 2021 Apr 26;204:111790. Epub 2021 Apr 26.

School of Chemistry, MOE Key Laboratory for Non-equilibrium Synthesis and Modulation of Condensed Matter, Xi'an Key Laboratory of Sustainable Energy Material Chemistry, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an, 710049, PR China; Instrumental Analysis Center, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an, 710049, PR China. Electronic address:

In past decades, to improve the chemotherapeutic efficiency and reduce the systemic toxicity of small molecule anti-cancer drugs, polymer-based drug delivery systems (DDSs) have attracted great attention for tumor treatment due to their remarkable biocompatibility and responsive degradation in tumor microenvironment (TME). Herein, we developed a kind of pH-responsive and degradable hyperbranched polymeric nanocarriers via yne-phenol click-reaction of resveratrol (RSV) with bifunctional n-butyl dipropiolate (BDP) for efficient doxorubicin (DOX) delivery. The natural product RSV with three phenol groups has excellent antioxidant activity and synergetic enhancement for some anticancer drugs such as DOX. Read More

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Equilibrium Swelling of Biocompatible Thermo-Responsive Copolymer Gels.

Gels 2021 Apr 1;7(2). Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Department of Materials and Production, Aalborg University, Fibigerstraede 16, 9220 Aalborg, Denmark.

Biomedical applications of thermo-responsive (TR) hydrogels require these materials to be biocompatible, non-cytotoxic, and non-immunogenic. Due to serious concerns regarding potential toxicity of poly(-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAm), design of alternative homo- and copolymer gels with controllable swelling properties has recently become a hot topic. This study focuses on equilibrium swelling of five potential candidates to replace PNIPAm in biomedical and biotechnological applications: poly(-vinylcaprolactam), poly(vinyl methyl ether), poly(N,N-dimethyl amino ethyl methacrylate), and two families of poly(2-oxazoline)s, and poly(oligo(ethylene glycol) methacrylates). Read More

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AuNPs Decorated PLA Stereocomplex Micelles for Synergetic Photothermal and Chemotherapy.

Macromol Biosci 2021 Apr 19:e2100062. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Institute of Materials Research and Engineering, A*STAR (Agency for Science, Technology and Research), 2 Fusionopolis Way, Innovis, #08-03, Singapore, 138634.

A unique platform for combined photothermal and chemotherapy using PLA stereocomplex (PLA SC) micelles-induced hybrid gold nanocarriers is designed. The PLA SC micelles, made from the self-assembly of poly(ethylene glycol)-block-poly(l-lactide) (PEG-PLLA) and poly(2-(dimethylamino) ethyl methacrylate)-block-poly(d-lactide) (PDMAEMA-PDLA), for the first time are used as a template to fabricate the hybrid PLA SC@Au core-shell nanocarriers, in which the anticancer drugs are encapsulated within the core, while the Au nanoparticles are tethered in the shell via the in situ reduction of AuCl by PDMAEMA. The obtained PLA SC@Au hybrid nanocarriers exhibit low toxicity and remarkable photothermal effect. Read More

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Stealth PEGylated chitosan polyelectrolyte complex nanoparticles as drug delivery carrier.

J Biomater Sci Polym Ed 2021 Apr 16:1-15. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Department of Pharmacy, Xi'an Medical University, Xi'an 710021, China.

PEGylated stealth nanoparticles have emerged as promising drug delivery carrier for cancer therapy. In this study, natural polycationic chitosan was grafted with poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) to improve the water-solubility and long-circulation. Then PEGylated chitosan nanoparticles were formed by electrostatic interaction between sulfonic acid group of anionic functional polymer and protic amino group of PEGylated chitosan, using polyelectrolyte complex method. Read More

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Nonionic and Water-Soluble Poly(d/l-serine) as a Promising Biomedical Polymer for Cryopreservation.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021 Apr 15;13(16):18454-18461. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Key Laboratory of Advanced Materials (MOE), Department of Chemical Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China.

Water-soluble, biodegradable, nonionic, and biocompatible polymers with multiple functional groups are highly desired for biomedical applications. Here, we report that water-soluble nonionic poly(d/l-serine) is chirality-controllable, biodegradation-controllable, and non-cytotoxic. Hence, it can be a highly sought-after alternative to the widely used poly(ethylene glycol), with an additional advantage of having multiple hydroxyl groups for further functionalization. Read More

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Pharmacokinetics of 2-phenoxyethanol and its major metabolite, phenoxyacetic acid, after dermal and inhaled routes of exposure: application to development PBPK model in rats.

Arch Toxicol 2021 Apr 12. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences Seoul, Nowon-ro 75, Nowon-Gu, Seoul, Korea.

2-Phenoxyethanol (PE), ethylene glycol monophenyl ether, is widely used as a preservative in cosmetic products as well as in non-cosmetics. Since PE has been used in many types of products, it can be absorbed via dermal or inhaled route for systemic exposures. In this study, the pharmacokinetic (PK) studies of PE and its major metabolite, phenoxyacetic acid (PAA), after dermal (30 mg and 100 mg) and inhaled administration (77 mg) of PE in rats were performed. Read More

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Nanogels with High Loading of Anesthetic Nanocrystals for Extended Duration of Sciatic Nerve Block.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021 Apr 6;13(15):17220-17235. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

Instituto de Nanociencia y Materiales de Aragón (INMA), CSIC-Universidad de Zaragoza, Zaragoza 50009, Spain.

The development of thermoresponsive nanogels loaded with nanocrystals of the local anesthetic bupivacaine nanocrystals (BNCs) for prolonged peripheral nerve pain relief is reported here. BNCs were prepared using the antisolvent precipitation method from the hydrophobic form of bupivacaine (bupivacaine free base). The as-prepared BNCs were used stand-alone or encapsulated in temperature-responsive poly(ethylene glycol) methyl ether methacrylate (OEGMA)-based nanogels, resulting in bupivacaine NC-loaded nanogels (BNC-nanogels) of monodisperse size. Read More

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PEGylation of poly(amine-co-ester) polyplexes for tunable gene delivery.

Biomaterials 2021 May 24;272:120780. Epub 2021 Mar 24.

Department of Chemical & Environmental Engineering, Yale University, New Haven, CT, 06511, USA; Department of Biomedical Engineering, Yale University, New Haven, CT, 06511, USA; Department of Cellular & Molecular Physiology, Yale University, New Haven, CT, 06511, USA; Department of Dermatology, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, 06510, USA. Electronic address:

There is growing interest in PEGylation of cationic polymeric vehicles for gene delivery in order to improve vehicle stability and reduce toxicity, but little is known about the effects of PEG coatings on transfection. We used a polymer from the poly(amine-co-ester) (PACE) family blended with PEG-conjugated PACE at different ratios in order to explore the effects of polyplex PEGylation on the transfection efficiency of plasmid DNA, mRNA, and siRNA in vitro and mRNA in vivo. We discovered that concentrations of PACE-PEG as low as 0. Read More

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Intravitreal Polymeric Nanocarriers with Long Ocular Retention and Targeted Delivery to the Retina and Optic Nerve Head Region.

Pharmaceutics 2021 Mar 26;13(4). Epub 2021 Mar 26.

Drug Research Program, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Helsinki, Viikinkaari 5 E, 00790 Helsinki, Finland.

Posterior eye tissues, such as retina, are affected in many serious eye diseases, but drug delivery to these targets is challenging due to various anatomical eye barriers. Intravitreal injections are widely used, but the intervals between invasive injections should be prolonged. We synthesized and characterized (H NMR, gel permeation chromatography) block copolymers of poly(ethylene glycol), poly(caprolactone), and trimethylene carbonate. Read More

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Poly(oligo(ethylene glycol) methyl ether methacrylate) Capped pH-Responsive Poly(2-(diethylamino)ethyl methacrylate) Brushes Grafted on Mesoporous Silica Nanoparticles as Nanocarrier.

Polymers (Basel) 2021 Mar 8;13(5). Epub 2021 Mar 8.

Department of Chemistry, College of Science, King Saud University, Riyadh 11451, Saudi Arabia.

In this paper, a new pH-responsive nanosystem based on mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) was developed for cancer therapy. Poly(2-(diethylamino) ethyl methacrylate) (PDEAEMA) was grafted on their outer surface and acts as a gatekeeper, followed by subsequent modification of the polymer by cysteine (MSN-PDEAEMA-Cys) and poly(oligo(ethylene glycol) methyl ether methacrylate) (MSN-PDEAEMA-Cys-POEGMEMA). The physicochemical properties of these nanocarriers were characterized using scanning and transmission electron microscopies (SEM and TEM), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and dynamic light scattering (DLS). Read More

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Improvement of the pharmacokinetic characteristics of liposomal doxorubicin using CD47 biomimickry.

J Pharm Pharmacol 2021 Mar;73(2):169-177

Biotechnology Research Center, Pharmaceutical Technology Institute, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran.

Objectives: In view of their biodegradability, biocompatibility, encapsulation efficiency and targeted release, as well as low toxicity, liposomes are being widely used in the context of drug delivery. However, the efficiency of such drug delivery systems might face limitations by macrophage-mediated clearance (CL), which reduces circulation half-life (T½). This problem can be resolved through surface functionalization via poly (ethylene glycol) (PEG) in the process of PEGylation. Read More

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Genetic Fusion of Transacting Activator of Transcription Peptide to Cyclized Green Fluorescence Protein Improves Stability, Intracellular Delivery, and Tumor Retention.

ACS Omega 2021 Mar 12;6(11):7931-7940. Epub 2021 Mar 12.

Department of Medical Research Center, State Key Laboratory of Complex Severe and Rare Diseases, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Science and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing 100730, China.

Therapeutic proteins such as enzymes, hormones, and cytokines suffer from poor stability, inefficient cellular penetration, and rapid clearance from circulation. Conjugation with polymers (such as poly(ethylene glycol)) and fusion with long-acting proteins (such as albumin and Fc fragments) have been utilized to partially address the delivery issues, but these strategies require the introduction of new macromolecular substances, resulting in potential immunogenicity and toxicity. Herein, we report an easy strategy to increase the intracellular delivery efficiency and stability of proteins by combining of sortase-mediated protein cyclization and cell-penetrating peptide (CPP)-mediated intracellular delivery. Read More

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Chronic exposure of industrial grade calcium carbide and ethylene glycol alter histological architecture of systemic organs by disrupting redox balance in rat.

J Basic Clin Physiol Pharmacol 2021 Mar 29. Epub 2021 Mar 29.

Department of Biochemistry, Amala Cancer Research Centre, Thrissur, India.

Objectives: The threat to human health or the surroundings by the use of artificial fruit ripening agents has become a global concern. Calcium carbide (CaC) and ethylene glycol (EG) are the two widely using ripening agents. The present study evaluates the toxic effect of chronic exposures of CaC and EG in rats. Read More

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Efficacy and Toxicity of Curcumin Nanoparticles in Breast Cancer Treatment: A Systematic Review.

Front Oncol 2021 9;11:612903. Epub 2021 Mar 9.

Laboratory of Bioactive Compounds and Nanobiotechnology (LBCNano), University of Brasilia, Brasilia, Brazil.

Breast cancer is one of the most prevalent types of malignant tumors in the world, resulting in a high incidence of death. The development of new molecules and technologies aiming to apply more effective and safer therapy strategies has been intensively explored to overcome this situation. The association of nanoparticles with known antitumor compounds (including plant-derived molecules such as curcumin) has been considered an effective approach to enhance tumor growth suppression and reduce adverse effects. Read More

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Reversing the Chirality of Surface Ligands Can Improve the Biosafety and Pharmacokinetics of Cationic Gold Nanoclusters.

Angew Chem Int Ed Engl 2021 Mar 23. Epub 2021 Mar 23.

Department of Biomedical Engineering, Southern University of Science and Technology, No. 1088 Xueyuan Rd, Nanshan District, Shenzhen, Guangdong, 518055, P. R. China.

Severe toxicity and rapid in vivo clearance of cationic nanomaterials seriously hinder their clinical translation. Present strategies to improve the biosafety and in vivo performance of cationic nanomaterials require neutralization of positive charge, which often compromises their efficacy. Herein, we report that substituting L-glutathione (L-GSH) on cationic gold nanoclusters (GNCs) with its D-counterpart can effectively improve the biosafety and pharmacokinetics. Read More

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Stimuli-Responsive Proteinosomes Based on Biohybrid Shell Cross-Linked Micelles.

Langmuir 2021 04 22;37(13):3950-3959. Epub 2021 Mar 22.

School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Hebei University of Technology, Tianjin 300130, China.

A new method of stimuli-responsive proteinosome fabrication with the shell cross-linked micelle as a template is reported in this research. A thermoresponsive diblock copolymer poly[di(ethylene glycol) methyl ether methacrylate]--poly[poly(ethylene glycol) methyl ether methacrylate--pyridyl disulfide methacrylamide] [PDEGMA--P(PEGMA--PDSMA)] was synthesized and self-assembled into micelles with PDEGMA cores and P(PEGMA--PDSMA) shells at the temperature above its lower critical solution temperature (LCST). Reduced bovine serum albumin (BSA) molecules with six thiol groups were used to cross-link the shells of the micelles by reacting with the pendant pyridyl disulfide groups on the P(PEGMA--PDSMA) block. Read More

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Polymeric micelles with anti-virulence activity against Candida albicans in a single- and dual-species biofilm.

Drug Deliv Transl Res 2021 Mar 13. Epub 2021 Mar 13.

UniSA Clinical and Health Sciences, University of South Australia, Adelaide, SA, 5000, Australia.

Infections caused by fungal biofilms with rapidly evolving resistance against the available antifungal agents are difficult to manage. These difficulties demand new strategies for effective eradication of biofilms from both biological and inert surfaces. In this study, polymeric micelles comprised of di-block polymer, poly-(ethylene glycol) methyl ether methacrylate and poly 2-(N,N-diethylamino) ethyl methacrylate polymer, P(PEGMA-b-DEAEMA), were observed to exhibit remarkable inhibitory effects on hyphal growth of Candida albicans (C. Read More

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Ethylene glycol butyl ether deteriorates oocyte quality via impairing mitochondrial function.

FASEB J 2021 Apr;35(4):e21280

College of Animal Science and Technology, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing, China.

Ethylene glycol butyl ether (EGBE) is a ubiquitous environmental pollutant that is commonly used in maquillage, industrial, and household products. EGBE has been shown to cause blood toxicity, carcinogenicity, and organ malformations. However, little is known about the impact of EGBE on the female reproductive system, especially oocyte quality. Read More

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Disposition and metabolism of ethylene glycol 2-ethylhexyl ether in Sprague Dawley rats, B6C3F1/N mice, and in rat hepatocytes.

Xenobiotica 2021 Jun 26;51(6):689-702. Epub 2021 Mar 26.

National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, NC, USA.

Ethylene glycol 2-ethylhexyl ether (EGEHE) is a solvent used in a variety of applications.We report disposition and metabolism of EGEHE following a single gavage or dermal administration of 50, 150 or 500 mg/kg [C]EGEHE in rats and mice and in vitro in rat hepatocytes.EGEHE was cleared rapidly in rat hepatocytes (half-life ∼4 min) with no sex difference. Read More

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Loss of consciousness in a little traveler.

Caspian J Intern Med 2021 ;12(1):103-106

Department of Pediatrics, Faculty of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran.

Background: Loss of consciousness in children can be caused by a wide spectrum of factors, including infection, metabolic disorders, trauma, and poisoning which requires timely and accurate evaluation.

Case Presentation: In this paper, we introduce a three-year-old boy who was first referred to the Emergency ward of Mashhad Imam Reza Hospital due to unconsciousness. Having spent a few days in a hotel, this boy, who was a visitor to Mashhad, lost consciousness. Read More

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January 2021

Blood circulation stable doxorubicin prodrug nanoparticles containing hydrazone and thioketal moieties for antitumor chemotherapy.

Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces 2021 May 19;201:111632. Epub 2021 Feb 19.

Key Laboratory of Advanced Mass Spectrometry and Molecular Analysis of Zhejiang Province, School of Materials Science and Chemical Engineering, Ningbo University, Ningbo, 315211, China. Electronic address:

Prodrug nanoparticles with cleavable moieties sensitive to intracellular stimuli have drawn great attention on cancer chemotherapy. Herein, a reactive oxygen species (ROS)-responsive doxorubicin prodrug mPEG-Phe-TK-Phe-hyd-DOX was synthesized, in which hydrophilic methoxy poly(ethylene glycol) (mPEG) and hydrophobic anticancer drug doxorubicin (DOX) were conjugated with hydrazone (hyd) and ROS-responsive thioketal (TK) moieties. The ROS-responsiveness of prodrug was confirmed by proton nuclear magnetic resonance (H NMR) and dynamic light scattering (DLS). Read More

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