648,893 results match your criteria Toxicity Cyclic Antidepressants


Effects of Selenium-Enriched Yeast Improved Aflatoxin B1-Induced Changes in Growth Performance, Antioxidation Capacity, IL-2 and IFN-γ Contents, and Gene Expression in Mice.

Biol Trace Elem Res 2018 Dec 15. Epub 2018 Dec 15.

College of Animal Science and Veterinary Medicine, Tianjin Agricultural University, Tianjin, 300384, China.

Sixty Kunming mice were randomly assigned into three groups. Mice in a control group were fed a basal diet, while mice in AFB1 group and AFB1-Se group were fed the basal diet supplemented with 250 μg/kg AFB1 or the basal diet supplemented with 250 μg/kg AFB1 and 0.2 mg/kg selenium as selenium-enriched yeast, respectively. Read More

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December 2018

Low Skeletal Muscle Mass before Salvage-Line Chemotherapy Is a Poor Prognostic Factor in Patients with Refractory Metastatic Colorectal Cancer.

Digestion 2018 Dec 14;99(1):79-85. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Background: Regorafenib and TAS-102 are standard salvage-line treatment options for patients with chemorefractory metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC). We aimed to evaluate the prognostic significance of skeletal muscle mass in mCRC patients receiving these salvage-line therapies.

Methods: We conducted a retrospective analysis of 52 patients with mCRC who received regorafenib or TAS-102 as salvage-line treatment. Read More

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December 2018

Preoperative stereotactic radiosurgery before planned resection of brain metastases: updated analysis of efficacy and toxicity of a novel treatment paradigm.

Authors:

J Neurosurg 2018 Dec 14:1-8. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

OBJECTIVEPreoperative stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) is a feasible alternative to postoperative SRS and may lower the risk of radiation necrosis (RN) and leptomeningeal disease (LMD) recurrence. The study goal was to report the efficacy and toxicity of preoperative SRS in an expanded patient cohort with longer follow-up period relative to prior reports.METHODSThe records for patients with brain metastases treated with preoperative SRS and planned resection were reviewed. Read More

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December 2018

Synthesis, structure activity relationship and in vitro anti-influenza virus activity of novel polyphenol-pentacyclic triterpene conjugates.

Eur J Med Chem 2018 Dec 7;163:560-568. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

State Key Laboratory of Natural and Biomimetic Drugs, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Peking University, Beijing 100191, China; State Key Laboratory of Phytochemistry and Plant Resources in West China, Kunming Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming 650201, China. Electronic address:

It is urgently necessary to develop more effective anti-influenza agents due to the continuous emergence of drug-resistant strains of influenza virus. Our earlier studies have identified that certain pentacyclic triterpene derivatives are effective inhibitors of influenza virus infection. In the present study, a series of C-28 modified pentacyclic triterpene derivatives via conjugation with a series of polyphenols were synthesized, and their antiviral activities against influenza A/WSN/33 (H1N1) virus in MDCK (Madin-Darby canine kidney) cells were evaluated. Read More

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December 2018

The ketogenic diet as a potential treatment and prevention strategy for Alzheimer's disease.

Nutrition 2018 Oct 10;60:118-121. Epub 2018 Oct 10.

Department of Psychology, University of Canterbury, Christchurch, New Zealand.

The prevalence of Alzheimer's disease, a chronic neurodegenerative condition, is increasing as is the need for effective treatments and preventions. The underlying pathology of Alzheimer's is not yet fully understood, so existing research has focused on understanding the prominent features of the disease. These include amyloid plaques, which accumulate in the brains of those with Alzheimer's disease; impaired glucose metabolism; and neuronal cell death. Read More

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October 2018

Bioaccumulation and morphological traits in a multi-generation test with two Daphnia species exposed to lead.

Chemosphere 2018 Dec 7;219:636-644. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

Department of Biology & CESAM, University of Aveiro, 3810-193, Portugal.

Anthropic pressure negatively affects natural environments. Lead (Pb) is a non-essential highly toxic metal that is present in aquatic ecosystems. Two daphnid species from two different latitudes, the temperate Daphnia magna and the tropical Daphnia similis were used as test-organisms to evaluate a long-term Pb exposure. Read More

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December 2018

Uranium distribution in groundwater and assessment of age dependent radiation dose in Amritsar, Gurdaspur and Pathankot districts of Punjab, India.

Chemosphere 2018 Dec 7;219:607-616. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

Department of Physics, Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar, Punjab, 143005, India. Electronic address:

A comprehensive study of seasonal variation of uranium distribution in groundwater of Amritsar, Gurdaspur and Pathankot districts of Punjab, India and assessment of associated radiological risks, chemical risks and effective radiation dose for different age groups, was conducted to determine its health impact on humans residing in these regions. Physicochemical parameters such as pH, EC, TDS, total hardness and contents of various anions such as carbonates/bicarbonates, chlorides, fluorides, nitrates, sulphates and phosphates in groundwater were also analysed to determine correlation between groundwater chemistry and uranium distribution. The average values of uranium concentration in ground water samples of Amritsar, Gurdaspur and Pathankot districts were found to be 8. Read More

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December 2018

Self-assembling and biological properties of single-chain dicationic pyridinium-based surfactants.

Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces 2018 Dec 6;175:351-357. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Arbuzov Institute of Organic and Physical Chemistry, FRC Kazan Scientific Center of RAS, 8 Arbuzov str., Kazan, 420088, Russia; Kazan National Research Technological University, 68 K. Marks str., Kazan, 420015, Russia.

In this work, the dicationic surfactants containing viologen and vinylbipyridinium moieties and hexadecyl chains were synthesized, and their aggregation behavior in water solutions was investigated by surface tension, conductivity measurements, hydrophobic probe solubilization, dynamic light scattering and electrophoretic measurements. Effect of UV-light on cis-trans isomerism of vinylbipyridinium derivative was determined. Antimicrobial activity and the influence of these surfactants on cell viability depended on the concentration and type of surfactant used. Read More

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December 2018

Improving In Vitro Photodynamic Therapy through the Development of a Novel Iron Chelating Aminolaevulinic Acid Prodrug.

Photodiagnosis Photodyn Ther 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Biosciences, College of Life and Environmental Sciences, University of Exeter, Geoffrey Pope Building, Stocker Road, Exeter, Devon, EX4 4QD, UK.

Background: Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a light activated drug therapy that can be used to treat a number of cancers and precancers. It is particularly useful in its topical form in dermatology but improvement of efficacy is required to widen its application.

Methods: An ester between aminolaevulinic acid (ALA) and CP94 was synthesised (AP2-18) and experimentally evaluated to determine whether protoporphyrin IX (PpIX)-induced PDT effectiveness could be improved. Read More

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December 2018

A prospective, multicentre study of involved-field radiotherapy with autologous stem cell transplantation for patients with Hodgkin lymphoma and aggressive non-Hodgkin lymphoma (ALLG HDNHL04/TROG 03.03).

Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Dept. Haematology, Westmead Hospital, Westmead, University of Sydney, NSW, Australia.

Purpose: The role of involved-field radiotherapy (IFRT) with autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) for lymphomas remains uncertain.

Methods: and materials; In this prospective, multicentre study, patients undergoing ASCT for relapsed/refractory lymphoma received peri-transplant IFRT to disease sites identified at study registration (SR) (before salvage chemotherapy (SC)). Radiation dose was adapted to SC response. Read More

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December 2018

The response of maize protoplasts to cadmium stress mitigated by silicon.

Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 2018 Dec 13;170:488-494. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Department of Glycobiotechnology, Institute of Chemistry, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Dúbravská cesta 9, 845 38 Bratislava, Slovakia.

The aim of this article was to evaluate the viability of maize protoplasts, cell wall regeneration, Cd uptake by protoplasts, and the impact of silicon under cadmium cations (Cd) stress in two maize hybrids with contrasting tolerances to Cd toxicity. The differences in protoplast viability between the sensitive (Novania) and tolerant (Almansa) hybrids were noticeable even at the beginning of culture. The percentage of living protoplasts in the presence of Cd was higher in the tolerant hybrid. Read More

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December 2018

The concentration of dissolved organic matter impacts the metabolic response in Daphnia magna exposed to 17α-ethynylestradiol and perfluorooctane sulfonate.

Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 2018 Dec 13;170:468-478. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Department of Chemistry, University of Toronto, 80 St. George Street, Toronto, ON, Canada M5S 3H6; Environmental NMR Centre and Department of Physical and Environmental Sciences, University of Toronto Scarborough, 1265 Military Trail, Toronto, ON, Canada M1C 1A4. Electronic address:

The pharmaceutical 17α-ethynylestradiol (EE2) and the industrial chemical perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) are organic contaminants frequently detected in freshwater environments. It is hypothesized that hydrophobic organic contaminants can sorb to dissolved organic matter (DOM) and this may reduce the toxicity of these contaminants by reducing the contaminants' bioavailability. To investigate this hypothesis, H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-based metabolomics was used to determine how the metabolome of Daphnia magna changes when a range of DOM concentrations are added during EE2 and PFOS exposure experiments. Read More

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December 2018

Biodegradation of Cibacron Blue 3GA by insolubilized laccase and identification of enzymatic byproduct using MALDI-ToF-MS: Toxicity assessment studies by Daphnia magna and Chlorella vulgaris.

Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 2018 Dec 13;170:453-460. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Biochemical Processing and Biomaterial Research Laboratory, Gazi University, 06500 Teknikokullar, Ankara, Turkey.

The presented paper describes a detailed study on the use of immobilized laccase for effective degradation of Cibacron Blue 3GA dye. The amount of laccase loading on the cyclic carbonate groups containing poly(hydroxyethyl methacrylate-co-vinylene carbonate), p(HEMA-co-VC), microbeads was 27.8 mg g, and the retained immobilized enzyme activity was 73% compared to free enzyme. Read More

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December 2018

A novel computational solution to the health risk assessment of air pollution via joint toxicity prediction: A case study on selected PAH binary mixtures in particulate matters.

Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 2018 Dec 13;170:427-435. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085, PR China; College of Resources and Environment, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190, PR China; Institute of Environment and Health, Jianghan University, Wuhan 430056, PR China. Electronic address:

Regional haze episode has already caused overwhelming public concern. Unraveling the health effects of the representative composition mixtures of atmospheric fine particulate matters (PM) becomes a top priority. In this study, a novel computational solution integrating chemical-induced genomic residual effect prediction with in vitro-based risk assessment is proposed to obtain the cumulative health risk of typical chemical mixtures of particulate matters (PM). Read More

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December 2018

Dynamin-1-like protein inhibition drives megamitochondria formation as an adaptive response in alcohol-induced hepatotoxicity.

Am J Pathol 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Institute of Hepatology London, Foundation for Liver Research, London, United Kingdom; King's College London, Faculty of Life Sciences and Medicine, London, United Kingdom. Electronic address:

Despite the growing global burden of alcoholic liver diseases, therapeutic options are limited and novel targets are urgently needed. Accumulating evidence suggests that mitochondria adapt in response to ethanol and formation of megamitochondria in the livers of patients is recognized as a hallmark of alcoholic liver diseases. The processes involved in ethanol-induced hepatic mitochondrial changes, the impact on mitochondria-shaping proteins, and the significance of megamitochondria formation remain unknown. Read More

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December 2018

Radiation therapy after sentinel lymph node biopsy for early stage breast cancer using a magnetic tracer: Results of a single institutional prospective study of tolerance.

Cancer Radiother 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Department of radiation oncology, institut Curie, 25, rue d'Ulm, 75005 Paris, France.

Purpose: . The aim of the study was, through a single institutional analysis of a large population of breast cancer patients, to assess the feasibility of and the tolerance to radiotherapy after the use of magnetic detection method for sentinel lymph node biopsy.

Material And Methods: The super paramagnetic iron oxide particles database was collected prospectively and identified 520 cases from October 2013 to December 2016 at our institution. Read More

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December 2018

Use of pyrrolobenzodiazepines and related covalent-binding DNA-interactive molecules as ADC payloads: Is mechanism related to systemic toxicity?

Drug Discov Today Technol 2018 Dec 6;30:71-83. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Femtogenix Ltd., Biopark, Broadwater Road, Welwyn Garden City AL7 3AX, United Kingdom; Institute for Pharmaceutical Science, King's College London, Faculty of Life Sciences and Medicine, Franklin Wilkins Building, London SE1 9NH, United Kingdom. Electronic address:

Antibody-drug conjugates (ADCs) consist of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) or antibody fragments conjugated to biologically active molecules (usually highly cytotoxic small molecules) through chemical linkers. Although no ADCs containing covalent-binding DNA-interactive payloads have yet been approved (although two containing the DNA-cleaving payload calicheamicin have), of those in clinical trials systemic toxicities are beginning to emerge. This article discusses the observed toxicities in relation to the structures and mechanisms of action of payload type. Read More

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December 2018

Neonicotinoids: molecular mechanisms of action, insights into resistance and impact on pollinators.

Curr Opin Insect Sci 2018 Dec 27;30:86-92. Epub 2018 Sep 27.

Department of Applied Biological Chemistry, Faculty of Agriculture, Kindai University, 3327-204 Nakamachi, Nara 631-8505, Japan; Agricultural Technology and Innovation Research Institute, Kindai University, 3327-204 Nakamachi, Nara 631-8505, Japan. Electronic address:

Neonicotinoids are insecticides that target insect nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs), exhibiting high selective toxicity to insects over vertebrates and good systemic activity in crop plants. For these reasons, neonicotinoids currently make up ∼30% of insecticide sales worldwide. However, due to their adverse impact on pollinators such as honey bees and bumble bees, neonicotinoids are being banned from the EU, and other countries may follow. Read More

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December 2018

Possible involvement of Fas/FasL-dependent apoptotic pathway in α-bisabolol induced cardiotoxicity in zebrafish embryos.

Chemosphere 2018 Dec 8;219:557-566. Epub 2018 Dec 8.

Biology Institute, Qilu University of Technology (Shandong Academy of Sciences), 28789 East Jingshi Road, Jinan, 250103, Shandong Province, PR China; Key Laboratory for Drug Screening Technology of Shandong Academy of Sciences, 28789 East Jingshi Road, Jinan, 250103, Shandong Province, PR China. Electronic address:

α-Bisabolol, an unsaturated monocyclic sesquiterpene alcohol, is a common ingredient in many pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs). Despite being widely used, little is known about its toxic effects on organisms and aquatic environment. In this study, we investigated the developmental toxicity of α-Bisabolol, especially its effects on the cardiac development using zebrafish embryos as a model. Read More

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December 2018

Behavioral, molecular and physiological responses of embryo-larval zebrafish exposed to types I and II pyrethroids.

Chemosphere 2018 Dec 6;219:526-537. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Department of Environmental Toxicology, The Institute of Environmental and Human Health, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX 79416, USA.

Pyrethroids are potent neurotoxicants that may elicit multiple pathways of toxicity in non-target organisms. Comparative studies on the mechanistic and developmental effects of types I and II pyrethroids against non-target aquatic species are limited. This study assessed the effects of the two pyrethroid types against embryo-larval zebrafish (Danio rerio) at environmentally relevant and laboratory concentrations. Read More

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December 2018

Developmental toxicity of kresoxim-methyl during zebrafish (Danio rerio) larval development.

Chemosphere 2018 Dec 8;219:517-525. Epub 2018 Dec 8.

Institute of Quality and Standard for Agro-products, Zhejiang Academy of Agricultural Sciences, State Key Laboratory Breeding Base for Zhejiang Sustainable Pest and Disease Control, Hangzhou, 310021, Zhejiang, China. Electronic address:

Kresoxim-methyl (KM) is a broad spectrum strobilurin fungicide that has been used widely on crops around the world. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the toxic effects of KM using various sublethal endpoints during zebrafish (Danio rerio) larval development. Results showed that the LC values of KM to zebrafish at multiple life stages (embryo, larvae, juvenile and adult) were 0. Read More

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December 2018
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Proteomic analysis for phenanthrene-elicited wheat chloroplast deformation.

Environ Int 2018 Dec 11;123:273-281. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Stockbridge School of Agriculture, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003, USA.

The exposure of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) can cause wheat leaf chlorosis. Thus, we hypothesize that chloroplast inner structure damage is the reason for leaf chlorosis. This study was conducted with the wheat seedlings exposed to Hoagland nutrient solution containing 1. Read More

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December 2018
4 Reads

Two-dimensional porphyrin-based covalent organic framework: A novel platform for sensitive epidermal growth factor receptor and living cancer cell detection.

Biosens Bioelectron 2018 Dec 7;126:734-742. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

College of Chemistry and Molecular Engineering, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou 450000, PR China. Electronic address:

A porphyrin-based covalent organic framework (denoted as p-COF) was synthesized by a simple oil-bath method and exploited as a novel sensing layer for immobilizing epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-targeting aptamer strands to detect trace EGFR and living michigan cancer foundation-7 (MCF-7) cells for the first time. p-COF presented a nanosheet-like structure, large cavities, rich nitrogen-bearing groups, high electrochemical activity, excellent bioaffinity, low toxicity, and good stability in aqueous solution; the microstructural features of this material enabled strong immobilization of the aptamer strands. Interactions between the aptamer strands and EGFR significantly changed the electrochemical signals of the modified electrode due to the formation of an aptamer-EGFR complex. Read More

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December 2018

Revival of a Potent Therapeutic Maytansinoid Agent using a Strategy that Combines Covalent Drug Conjugation with Sequential Nanoparticle Assembly.

Int J Pharm 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

The First Affiliated Hospital, Collaborative Innovation Center for Diagnosis and Treatment of Infectious Diseases, Key Laboratory of Combined Multi-Organ Transplantation, Ministry of Public Health, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, 310003, PR China. Electronic address:

Maytansine and its related analogues are a class of highly potent anti-proliferation agents that have failed to be exploited as clinical drugs for human therapy due to unacceptable systemic toxicity. Here, we delineate a novel strategy that combines rational drug conjugation with subsequent nanoparticle assembly to systemically deliver this highly potent and toxic drug. To demonstrate this concept, we covalently coupled the thiolated maytansine derivative, the DM1 agent, to amphiphilic block co-polymers, polyethylene glycol (PEG)-block-polylactide (PLA), in varying molecular weights to generate two prodrug constructs (i. Read More

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December 2018
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Effects of cellular differentiation in human primary bronchial epithelial cells: Metabolism of 4-(methylnitrosamine)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone.

Toxicol In Vitro 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Division of Genetic and Molecular Toxicology, Division of Biochemical Toxicology, National Center for Toxicological Research, U.S Food and Drug Administration, Jefferson, AR 72079, United States. Electronic address:

Many of the toxicants in tobacco smoke undergo biotransformation in the lungs of smokers, both to reactive and to detoxified derivatives. Human air-liquid-interface (ALI) airway tissue models have emerged as an advanced in vitro model for evaluating the toxicity of inhaled substances; however, the metabolic potential of these cultures has not been evaluated extensively. In this study, we compared the metabolic activities of an ALI tissue model to the undifferentiated normal human primary bronchial epithelial (NHBE) cells from which it was derived. Read More

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December 2018
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Preclinical Evaluation of Dose-Volume Effects and Lung Toxicity Occurring in- and out-of-field.

Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Centre for Cancer Research and Cell Biology, Queen's University Belfast, Northern Ireland, UK.

Purpose: The aim of this study was to define the dose and dose-volume relationship of radiation induced pulmonary toxicities occurring in and out-of-field in mouse models of early inflammatory and late fibrotic response.

Materials And Methods: Early radiation induced inflammation and fibrosis were investigated in C3H/NeJ and C57BL/6J mice respectively. Animals were irradiated with 20 Gy delivered to the upper region of the right lung as a single fraction or as three consecutive fractions using the Small Animal Radiation Research Platform (SARRP, Xstrahl Inc. Read More

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December 2018

The testosterone metabolite 3α-androstanediol inhibits oxidative stress-induced ERK phosphorylation and neurotoxicity in SH-SY5Y cells through an MKP3/DUSP6-dependent mechanism.

Neurosci Lett 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Department of Biomedical Sciences, Ontario Veterinary College, University of Guelph, 50 Stone Road East, Guelph, Ontario, N1G 2W1, Canada. Electronic address:

Testosterone exerts neuroprotective effects on the brain, but the mechanisms by which these effects are exerted appear to be different in males and females. While in females they involve local conversion to estradiol, in males they may be androgen receptor-dependent, or mediated through metabolism to neurosteroids such as 5α-androstane-3α,17β-diol (3α-diol), which acts through different mechanisms than testosterone itself. Recently, we demonstrated that 3α-diol can protect neurons and neuronal-like cells against oxidative stress-induced neurotoxicity associated with prolonged phosphorylation of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK). Read More

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December 2018

Alternative splicing of the vitamin D receptor modulates target gene expression and promotes ligand-independent functions.

Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Department of Environmental and Molecular Toxicology, Oregon State University, 1007 Agriculture & Life Sciences Building, Corvallis, OR 97331; USA; LS Pharma, 884 Park St., Lebanon, OR 97355; USA.

Alternative splicing modulates gene function by creating splice variants with alternate functions or non-coding RNA activity. Naturally occurring variants of nuclear receptor (NR) genes with dominant negative or gain-of-function phenotypes have been documented, but their cellular roles, regulation, and responsiveness to environmental stress or disease remain unevaluated. Informed by observations that class I androgen and estrogen receptor variants display ligand-independent signaling in human cancer tissues, we questioned whether the function of class II NRs, like the vitamin D receptor (VDR), would also respond to alternative splicing regulation. Read More

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December 2018

Resveratrol modulates fibrillogenesis in a poly‑l‑lysine peptide.

Int J Biol Macromol 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Faculty of Chemistry, University of Wroclaw, F. Joliot-Curie 14, 50-383 Wroclaw, Poland.

Resveratrol (Res) is an effective inhibitor of amyloid fibril formation and reduces neuron cell toxicity. The effect of Res on the fibrillogenesis of a polar polypeptide, poly‑l‑lysine (PLL), was studied by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, vibrational circular dichroism and transmission electron microscopy. Res molecules exhibited strong and specific inhibition of β-sheet-rich fibrils formed by PLL. Read More

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December 2018

LeishInDB: a web-accessible resource for small molecule inhibitors against Leishmania sp.

Acta Trop 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Department of Molecular Biology/Bioinformatics Centre, Rajendra Memorial Research Institute of Medical Science, Indian Council for Medical Research, Agamkuan, Patna, Bihar 800007. India.

Despite the availability of drugs to treat Leishmaniasis, various other factors including drug resistance and adverse side effects encourage the researchers to search for new strategies and alternatives for treating Leishmaniasis. Repurposing and devising combination therapy with the existing small molecules would serve as an alternative strategy to address the issue, especially the drug resistance. Hence, here we report LeishInDB, a web-accessible resource of small molecule inhibitors having a varying degree of activity towards Leishmania sp. Read More

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December 2018
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The DAHANCA 32 study: Electrochemotherapy for recurrent mucosal head and neck cancer.

Head Neck 2018 Dec 15. Epub 2018 Dec 15.

Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Head & Neck Surgery and Audiology, Copenhagen University Hospital Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, Denmark.

Background: Electrochemotherapy is an established treatment for cutaneous tumors. This study aimed at determining efficacy of electrochemotherapy in recurrent head and neck cancer.

Methods: Phase II clinical trial in patients with recurrent head and neck carcinomas with no curative treatment options. Read More

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December 2018

Prospective instrumental evaluation of swallowing, tongue function, and QOL measures following transoral robotic surgery alone without adjuvant therapy.

Head Neck 2018 Dec 15. Epub 2018 Dec 15.

THANC Foundation, New York, New York.

Background: Transoral robotic surgery (TORS) has been utilized to deintensify treatment. No studies have measured swallow safety and efficiency, nor assessed the functional impact of TORS alone.

Methods: This prospective cohort underwent baseline and 1-month postsurgery assessments including modified barium swallow evaluation, using the Dynamic Imaging Grade of Swallowing Toxicity (DIGEST) rating system, tongue range of motion assessment, the Performance Status Scale (PSS), and quality of life with the MD Anderson Dysphagia Inventory (MDADI). Read More

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December 2018

A newly synthesized oleanolic acid derivative inhibits the growth of osteosarcoma cells in vitro and in vivo by decreasing c-MYC-dependent glycolysis.

J Cell Biochem 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Department of Orthopedics, The First Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, Jiangsu, China.

Osteosarcoma (OS) is the primary malignant bone tumor with a peak incidence in children and adolescents. However, the little molecular mechanism of pathogenesis has been known and it is urgent to develop new therapeutical strategies to improve outcomes for patients. CDDO-NFM (N-formylmorpholine substituent of CDDO) is a newly synthesized triterpenoid, which is a derivative of oleanolic acid. Read More

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December 2018

A three dimensional microfluidized liver system to assess hepatic drug metabolism and hepatotoxicity.

Biotechnol Bioeng 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Center for Advanced Biomaterials for HealthCare@CRIB, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, Largo Barsanti e Matteucci 53, Naples, Italy.

In this work we propose the design and fabrication of a liver system on chip. We first chose the most suitable 3D liver-like model between cell spheroids and microtissue-precursors, both based on the use of hepatocellular carcinoma cells (HepG2) to provide proof-of-concept data. Spheroids displayed high cell density but low expression of the typical hepatic biomarkers, while microtissue-precursors showed stable viability and function over the entire culture time. Read More

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December 2018

Cancer Drug Toxicity: Moving from Patient to Survivor.

Cancer Treat Res 2019 ;171:107-118

Cancer Survivorship Institute, Robert H. Lurie Comprehensive Cancer Center Northwestern University, Chicago, IL, USA.

Millions of individuals worldwide are living with cancer and have remained disease-free for more than 5 years. These individuals are considered to be cancer survivors. The advent of new targeted therapies and personalized treatment modalities have contributed to this increased survivorship. Read More

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January 2019

Cancer Comorbidity: Implications for Drug Safety.

Cancer Treat Res 2019 ;171:21-35

Department of Medicine, Northwestern University, Chicago, IL, USA.

Cancer is primarily a disease of aging. This chapter discusses relevant aspect of the physiology of aging, medication use and toxicity, comorbidities, and specific challenges in treating older adults with cancer. Read More

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January 2019

In vitro characterization of hepatic toxicity of Alternaria toxins.

Mycotoxin Res 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Department of Food Safety, German Federal Institute for Risk Assessment, Max-Dohrn-Str. 8-10, 10589, Berlin, Germany.

Alternaria mycotoxins are secondary fungal metabolites which can contaminate food and feed. They are produced by Alternaria species with alternariol (AOH), alternariol monomethyl ether (AME), tenuazonic acid (TeA), and tentoxin (TEN) as the main representatives for Alternaria mycotoxins in food. Once passing the intestinal barrier, Alternaria toxins can reach the liver to exert yet uncharacterized molecular effects. Read More

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December 2018
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Differential effects of nickel dosages on in vitro and in vivo seed germination and expression of a high affinity nickel-transport family protein (AT2G16800) in trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides).

Ecotoxicology 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Department of Biology, Laurentian University, Sudbury, Ontario, P3E 2C6, Canada.

It has been demonstrated that a number of metals including mercury (Hg), zinc (Zn), cadmium (Cd), cobalt (Co), lead (Pb), copper (Cu), and nickel (Ni) decrease seed germination rates and plant growth. The threshold levels of metal toxicity on seed germination, plant development, and gene regulation have not been studied in detail. The main objective of this study was to assess in vitro and in vivo the effects of different doses of nickel on Trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides) seed germination and regulation of the high affinity nickel transporter family protein (AT2G16800) gene. Read More

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December 2018

Acetaminophen cytotoxicity in HepG2 cells is associated with a decoupling of glycolysis from the TCA cycle, loss of NADPH production, and suppression of anabolism.

Arch Toxicol 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Department of Surgery and Cancer, Faculty of Medicine, Imperial College London, London, UK.

Acetaminophen (APAP) is one of the most commonly used analgesics worldwide, and overdoses are associated with lactic acidosis, hepatocyte toxicity, and acute liver failure due to oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction. Hepatoma cell lines typically lack the CYP450 activity to generate the reactive metabolite of APAP observed in vivo, but are still subject to APAP cytotoxicity. In this study, we employed metabolic profiling and isotope labelling approaches to investigate the metabolic impact of acute exposure to cytotoxic doses of APAP on the widely used HepG2 cell model. Read More

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December 2018

Fluorine-free water-in-ionomer electrolytes for sustainable lithium-ion batteries.

Nat Commun 2018 Dec 14;9(1):5320. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Helmholtz Institute Münster - Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH (IEK 12), Corrensstrasse 46, 48149 Münster, D-48149, Münster, Germany.

The continuously increasing number and size of lithium-based batteries developed for large-scale applications raise serious environmental concerns. Herein, we address the issues related to electrolyte toxicity and safety by proposing a "water-in-ionomer" type of electrolyte which replaces organic solvents by water and expensive and toxic fluorinated lithium salts by a non-fluorinated, inexpensive and non-toxic superabsorbing ionomer, lithium polyacrylate. Interestingly, the electrochemical stability window of this electrolyte is extended greatly, even for high water contents. Read More

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December 2018

A combination of linalool, vitamin C, and copper synergistically trigger Reactive Oxygen Species, DNA damage and inhibits subsp. serovar Typhi and .

Appl Environ Microbiol 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Chemical Biology Laboratory, Department of Biotechnology, Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee, Uttarakhand 247 667, India.

Inappropriate and disproportionate use of antibiotics is contributing immensely to the development of antibiotic resistance in bacterial species associated with food contamination. Use of natural products in combination can be a potent alternative hurdle strategy to inactivate foodborne pathogens. Here, we explored pro-oxidant properties of essential oil inalool and itamin C in combination with opper (LVC) in combating foodborne pathogens and a subsp. Read More

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December 2018

Direct-Acting Antivirals in Hepatitis C Virus-Associated Diffuse Large B-cell Lymphomas.

Oncologist 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Department of Molecular Medicine, University of Pavia, Pavia, Italy.

Background: International guidelines suggest hepatitis C virus (HCV) eradication by direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) after first-line immunochemotherapy (I-CT) in patients with HCV-positive diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), although limited experiences substantiate this recommendation. Moreover, only a few data concerning concurrent administration of DAAs with I-CT have been reported.

Subjects, Materials, And Methods: We analyzed hematological and virological outcome and survival of 47 consecutive patients with HCV-positive DLBCL treated at 23 Italian and French centers with DAAs either concurrently (concurrent cohort []: = 9) or subsequently (sequential cohort []: = 38) to first-line I-CT (mainly rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine and prednisone [R-CHOP]-like). Read More

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December 2018
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Patient-Reported Toxicities During Chemotherapy Regimens in Current Clinical Practice for Early Breast Cancer.

Oncologist 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

School of Medicine, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, USA.

Background: This study explores the incidence of patient-reported major toxicity-symptoms rated "moderate," "severe," or "very severe"-for chemotherapy regimens commonly used in early breast cancer.

Patients And Methods: Female patients aged 21 years or older completed a validated Patient-Reported Symptom Monitoring instrument and rated 17 symptoms throughout adjuvant or neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Fisher's exact tests compared differences in percentages in symptom ratings, and general linear regression was used to model the incidence of patient-reported major toxicity. Read More

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December 2018

Phase II Randomized Trial of Sequential or Concurrent FOLFOXIRI-Bevacizumab Versus FOLFOX-Bevacizumab for Metastatic Colorectal Cancer (STEAM).

Oncologist 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Sarah Cannon Research Institute/Tennessee Oncology, Nashville, Tennessee, USA.

Background: First-line treatment for metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) typically entails a biologic such as bevacizumab (BEV) with 5-fluorouracil/leucovorin/oxaliplatin (FOLFOX) or 5-fluorouracil/leucovorin/irinotecan (FOLFIRI). STEAM (NCT01765582) assessed the efficacy of BEV plus FOLFOX/FOLFIRI (FOLFOXIRI), administered concurrently (cFOLFOXIRI-BEV) or sequentially (sFOLFOXIRI-BEV, FOLFOX-BEV alternating with FOLFIRI-BEV), versus FOLFOX-BEV for mCRC.

Patients And Methods: Patients with previously untreated mCRC ( = 280) were randomized 1:1:1 to cFOLFOXIRI-BEV, sFOLFOXIRI-BEV, or FOLFOX-BEV and treated with 4-6-month induction followed by maintenance. Read More

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December 2018

Safety and Activity of Sorafenib in Addition to Vinflunine in Post-Platinum Metastatic Urothelial Carcinoma (Vinsor): Phase I Trial.

Oncologist 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Department of Oncology-Pathology, Karolinska Institutet, Solna, Sweden.

Lessons Learned: First trial to report safety and activity of the microtubule inhibitor vinflunine plus the tyrosine kinase inhibitor sorafenib in post-platinum metastatic urothelial cancer (mUC) patients.A recommended phase II dose was identified for the treatment combination of vinflunine plus sorafenib, with main adverse events including fatigue, febrile neutropenia, neutropenia, hypertension, and hyponatremia.An overall response rate of 41% to second-line vinflunine plus sorafenib treatment in patients with platinum-resistant mUC was confirmed. Read More

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December 2018

Are We Choosing Wisely With Autologous Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation Screening? The Utility of Pulmonary Function Testing Prior to Autologous Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation.

Clin Lymphoma Myeloma Leuk 2018 Nov 12. Epub 2018 Nov 12.

Faculty of Medicine, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada; The Ottawa Hospital Blood and Marrow Transplant Program, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada; Ottawa Hospital Research Institute, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada. Electronic address:

Introduction: Despite the risk of morbidity and mortality associated with autologous hematopoietic cell transplantation (ASCT), there are no clear guidelines as to how to screen for these risks. This study sought to determine the utility of pulmonary function tests (PFTs) prior to ASCT on predicting posttransplant clinical outcomes.

Patients And Methods: Patients undergoing ASCT between 2010 and 2012 at the Ottawa Hospital (n = 172) were reviewed. Read More

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November 2018

Muscoloskeletal aging, sarcopenia and cancer.

J Geriatr Oncol 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Rome 00168, Italy.

In the context of the management of the elderly patient with cancer, currently, a key topic may be expressed by sarcopenia. Sarcopenia in its various definitions and ambiguities in the older adult is always related to negative outcomes. A close correlation between sarcopenia and adverse outcomes such as treatment response or toxicity has also been shown in the patient with cancer. Read More

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December 2018

Second-line treatment efficacy and toxicity in older vs. non-older patients with advanced gastric cancer: A multicentre real-world study.

J Geriatr Oncol 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Department of Oncology, University and General Hospital, Udine, Italy; Department of Oncology, San Bortolo General Hospital, ULSS8 Berica - East District, Vicenza, Italy. Electronic address:

Objectives: Although gastric cancer (GC) incidence rises with age, older patients are poorly represented in clinical trials, whose results are therefore difficult to translate into standard management of older patients. Purpose of this study was to compare clinico-pathological features and survival outcomes between older and non-older patients with advanced GC treated with at least two chemotherapy lines.

Materials And Methods: Clinico-pathological characteristics, basal values, and treatment data of older (≥70 years at second-line start) and non-older patients were compared using chi-square test or 2-tailed Fisher exact test. Read More

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December 2018

The role of definitive chemoradiation in patients with non-metastatic oesophageal cancer.

Best Pract Res Clin Gastroenterol 2018 Oct - Dec;36-37:53-59. Epub 2018 Nov 21.

Amsterdam University Medical Centers, Cancer Center Amsterdam, Location Academic Medical Center, Department of Radiation Oncology, Meibergdreef 9; B0-107, 1105 AZ, Amsterdam, Netherlands. Electronic address:

Definitive chemoradiation (dCRT) is a curative treatment option for patients with oesophageal cancer. It is effective in both adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma. However, locoregional control is less after dCRT compared to preoperative CRT (pCRT) followed by surgery. Read More

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November 2018

Transcriptomic analyses uncover emerging roles of mucins, lysosome/secretory addressing and detoxification pathways in insect midguts.

Curr Opin Insect Sci 2018 Oct 5;29:34-40. Epub 2018 Jun 5.

Laboratório de Química e Função de Proteínas e Peptídeos, Centro de Biociências e Biotecnologia, Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense Darcy Ribeiro, Campos dos Goytacazes, Brazil.

The study of insect midgut features has been made possible by the recent availability of transcriptome datasets. These data uncovered the preferential expression of mucus-forming mucins at midgut regions that require protection (e.g. Read More

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October 2018
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