2,828 results match your criteria Toxicity Cyanide


Phenylacetonitrile in locusts facilitates an antipredator defense by acting as an olfactory aposematic signal and cyanide precursor.

Sci Adv 2019 Jan 23;5(1):eaav5495. Epub 2019 Jan 23.

State Key Laboratory of Integrated Management of Pest Insects and Rodents, Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100080, P. R. China.

Many aggregating animals use aposematic signals to advertise their toxicity to predators. However, the coordination between aposematic signals and toxins is poorly understood. Here, we reveal that phenylacetonitrile (PAN) acts as an olfactory aposematic signal and precursor of hypertoxic hydrogen cyanide (HCN) to protect gregarious locusts from predation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/sciadv.aav5495DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6357733PMC
January 2019
1 Read

Toxic by design? Formation of thermal degradants and cyanide from carboxamide-type synthetic cannabinoids CUMYL-PICA, 5F-CUMYL-PICA, AMB-FUBINACA, MDMB-FUBINACA, NNEI, and MN-18 during exposure to high temperatures.

Forensic Toxicol 2019 Jan 28;37(1):17-26. Epub 2018 Jun 28.

RTI International, 3040 Cornwallis Road, Research Triangle Park, NC, 27709, USA.

Purpose: The use of novel synthetic cannabinoids as intoxicants continues in spite of associated health risks. These compounds are typically smoked or vaporized, but many synthetic cannabinoids contain thermally labile chemical moieties. This study investigated the thermal stability six carboxamide-type synthetic cannabinoids (CUMYL-PICA, 5F-CUMYL-PICA, AMB-FUBINACA, MDMB-FUBINACA, NNEI, and MN-18) in order to characterise potential user exposure to thermolysis products. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11419-018-0430-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6349387PMC
January 2019
1 Read

Large-scale synthesis of monodisperse Prussian blue nanoparticles for cancer theranostics via an "in situ modification" strategy.

Int J Nanomedicine 2019 27;14:271-288. Epub 2018 Dec 27.

Department of Ultrasound in Medicine, Shanghai Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine, Shanghai Jiao Tong University Affiliated Sixth People's Hospital, Shanghai 200233, China,

Background: The intrinsic properties of Prussian blue (PB) nanoparticles make them an attractive tool in nanomedicine, including magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), photoacoustic imaging (PAI), and photothermal therapy (PTT) properties. However, there still remains the challenge of their poor dispersible stability in the physiological environment. In this study, we developed an efficient hydrothermal method to address the poor dispersible stability of PB nanoparticles in the physiological environment. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/IJN.S183858DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6312061PMC
February 2019
2 Reads

Metabolism of cyanogenic glycosides: A review.

Food Chem Toxicol 2019 Jan 4;125:225-232. Epub 2019 Jan 4.

Science and Risk Assessment Directorate, Ministry for Primary Industries, Wellington, 6140, New Zealand.

Potential toxicity of cyanogenic glycosides arises from enzymatic degradation to produce hydrogen cyanide. Information on the metabolism of cyanogenic glycosides is available from in vitro, animal and human studies. In the absence of β-glucosidase enzymes from the source plant material, two processes appear to contribute to the production of cyanide from cyanogenic glycosides; the proportion of the glycoside dose that reaches the large intestine, where most of the bacterial hydrolysis occurs, and the rate of hydrolysis of cyanogenic glycosides to cyanohydrin and cyanide. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S02786915193000
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fct.2019.01.002DOI Listing
January 2019
3 Reads

The role of redox-dependent mechanisms in heme release from hemoglobin and erythrocyte hemolysates.

Arch Biochem Biophys 2019 Feb 5;662:111-120. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

Department of Pathology and Center for Free Radical Biology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, 35294, U.S.A.. Electronic address:

Toxicity mediated by free heme has emerged as an important element of end organ injuries and adverse outcomes in critically ill disease states. Free heme is thought to be derived from oxidative denaturation of free hemoglobin, secondary to red cell hemolysis. In this study, we evaluated the ability of oxidants (HO, nitrite, peroxynitrite and hypochlorous acid) formed during inflammation to cause heme release from purified hemoglobin and hemolysates, at pH 7. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.abb.2018.12.005DOI Listing
February 2019
2 Reads

Hydrolytic denitrification and decynidation of acrylonitrile in wastewater with Arthrobacter nitroguajacolicus ZJUTB06-99.

AMB Express 2018 Dec 3;8(1):191. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

College of Biotechnology and Bioengineering, Zhejiang University of Technology, Hangzhou, 310014, People's Republic of China.

Acrylonitrile (CHN) widely used in chemical raw materials has biological toxicity with -CN bond, so it is the key to removal of cyanide from acrylonitrile wastewater. In our previous research and investigation, a strain was identified as Arthrobacter nitroguajacolicus named ZJUTB06-99 and was proved to be capable of degrading acrylonitrile. In this paper, the strain ZJUTB06-99 was domesticated with acrylonitrile-containing medium and its decyanidation and denitrification in simulated acrylonitrile wastewater were studied. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13568-018-0719-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6277404PMC
December 2018
2 Reads

Eulophia macrobulbon extract relaxes rat isolated pulmonary artery and protects against monocrotaline-induced pulmonary arterial hypertension.

Phytomedicine 2018 Nov 22;50:157-165. Epub 2018 May 22.

Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medical Science, Naresuan University, Phitsanulok 65000, Thailand. Electronic address:

Background: Extract of the wild orchid, Eulophia macrobulbon (EM) inhibits phosphodiesterase5 (PDE5) suggesting it could preferentially dilate the pulmonary vasculature.

Purpose And Study Design: To pharmacologically characterize the vascular actions of EM ethanolic extract and its active compound, 1-(4'-hydroxybenzyl)-4,8-dimethoxyphenanthrene-2,7-diol using isolated pulmonary arteries (PA) from rats having pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) induced by monocrotaline (MCT). PA were fixed and prepared for histology. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S09447113183017
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.phymed.2018.05.014DOI Listing
November 2018
13 Reads

An RND transporter in the monoterpene metabolism of Castellaniella defragrans.

Biodegradation 2019 Feb 17;30(1):1-12. Epub 2018 Oct 17.

Dept. of Microbiology, Max Planck-Institute for Marine Microbiology, Celsiusstr. 1, 28359, Bremen, Germany.

The betaproteobacterium Castellaniella defragrans 65Phen grows on monoterpenes at concentrations toxic to many bacteria. Tolerance mechanisms include modifications of the membrane fatty acid composition and the mineralization of monoterpenes. In this study, we characterized an efflux transporter associated to the monoterpene metabolism. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10532-018-9857-6DOI Listing
February 2019
2 Reads

Intramuscular dimethyl trisulfide: efficacy in a large swine model of acute severe cyanide toxicity.

Clin Toxicol (Phila) 2018 Oct 11:1-6. Epub 2018 Oct 11.

a Department of Emergency Medicine and Toxicology , University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus , Aurora , C.O , U.S.A.

Background: Cyanide is a deadly compound used as a terrorist agent. Current FDA approved antidotes require intravenous administration, limiting their utility in a mass casualty scenario. Dimethyl trisulfide (DMTS), a sulfur-based molecule, binds cyanide converting it to the less toxic by-product thiocyanate. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15563650.2018.1511800DOI Listing
October 2018
3 Reads

Elucidation of the Amygdalin Pathway Reveals the Metabolic Basis of Bitter and Sweet Almonds ().

Plant Physiol 2018 Nov 8;178(3):1096-1111. Epub 2018 Oct 8.

Plant Biochemistry Laboratory, Department of Plant and Environmental Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Thorvaldsensvej 40, DK-1871, Frederiksberg C, Denmark

Almond () is the principal species in which the consumed and thus commercially important part of the fruit is the kernel. As a result of continued selection, the vast majority of almonds have a nonbitter kernel. However, in the field, there are trees carrying bitter kernels, which are toxic to humans and, consequently, need to be removed. Read More

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http://www.plantphysiol.org/lookup/doi/10.1104/pp.18.00922
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1104/pp.18.00922DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6236625PMC
November 2018
3 Reads

Toxicity and Toxicokinetics of Amygdalin in Maesil ( Prunus mume) Syrup: Protective Effect of Maesil against Amygdalin Toxicity.

J Agric Food Chem 2018 Oct 19;66(43):11432-11440. Epub 2018 Oct 19.

Division of Applied Food System, Major of Food Science & Technology , Seoul Women's University , Seoul 01797 , Republic of Korea.

Maesil ( Prunus mume, green plum)-based products have been widely used in Asian cooking, which may contain amygdalin enzymatically converted to hydrogen cyanide after oral ingestion. In this study, the toxicity of Maesil syrups matured with and without Maesils was evaluated by focusing on relationship between amygdalin toxicity and its metabolic change. The cytotoxicity of amygdalin was highly related to its metabolites converted by β-glucosidase, and the metabolic change was retarded in Maesil syrup. Read More

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http://pubs.acs.org/doi/10.1021/acs.jafc.8b03686
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jafc.8b03686DOI Listing
October 2018
13 Reads

Successful Renal Transplantation after Presumed Cyanide Toxicity Treated with Hydroxocobalamin and Review of the Literature.

Case Rep Transplant 2018 9;2018:3753479. Epub 2018 Sep 9.

University of Massachusetts Medical School, Department of Surgery, Division of Organ Transplantation, USA.

We report two cases of successful renal transplantation with allografts from donors who suffered anoxic brain injury as the primary cause of death from house fires. Each was treated prophylactically with hydroxocobalamin (Cyanokit) for suspected cyanide toxicity. During organ procurement, gross examination was notable for deep discoloration of the parenchymal tissues. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2018/3753479DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6151203PMC
September 2018
19 Reads

Electro-addressable conductive alginate hydrogel for bacterial trapping and general toxicity determination.

Anal Chim Acta 2018 Dec 26;1036:115-120. Epub 2018 Jun 26.

Department of Genetics and Microbiology, Universitat Autonòma de Barcelona (UAB), Bellaterra, Barcelona, Spain.

In biosensors development, alginate hydrogels are a first choice for enabling stable biomolecules entrapment in biocompatible membranes obtained under soft physiological conditions. Although widely exploited, most alginate membranes are isolating and poorly repetitive, which limit their application in biosensing. Significant steps forward on improving repeatability and conductivity have been performed, but to date there is no single protocol for controlled deposition of live cells in replicable conductive alginate layers. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aca.2018.06.062DOI Listing
December 2018
4 Reads

Characterization of a Swine () Model of Oral Potassium Cyanide Intoxication.

Comp Med 2018 Oct 12;68(5):375-379. Epub 2018 Sep 12.

Rocky Mountain Poison and Drug Center, Denver Health and Hospital Authority, Denver, Colorado, Department of Emergency Medicine, University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus, Aurora, Colorado.

Cyanide is a readily available and potentially lethal substance. Oral exposure can result in larger doses, compared with other routes. Currently, there are no antidotes specific for use in the treatment of oral cyanide poisoning, and studies cannot be done in humans. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.30802/AALAS-CM-18-000041DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6200030PMC
October 2018
12 Reads

Development of a hydrogen cyanide inhalation exposure system and determination of the inhaled median lethal dose in the swine model.

Inhal Toxicol 2018 Mar - Apr;30(4-5):195-202. Epub 2018 Sep 10.

a Battelle Biomedical Research Center , Columbus , OH , USA.

Objective: Cyanide is a highly toxic chemical, and acute exposure depletes cells and tissue of oxygen, depressing the respiratory, cardiovascular and neurological systems and potentially leading to death. Cyanide has been used as a weapon since ancient Rome and continues to pose a potential threat today. A well-characterized animal model is necessary for the development of novel methods of rapid detection and treatment. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/08958378.2018.1494764DOI Listing
September 2018
1 Read

Cytochrome C oxidase Inhibition and Cold Plasma-derived Oxidants Synergize in Melanoma Cell Death Induction.

Sci Rep 2018 Aug 24;8(1):12734. Epub 2018 Aug 24.

Leibniz-Institute for Plasma Science and Technology (INP Greifswald), ZIK plasmatis, Felix-Hausdorff-Str. 2, 17489, Greifswald, Germany.

Despite striking advances in the treatment of metastasized melanoma, the disease is often still fatal. Attention is therefore paid towards combinational regimens. Oxidants endogenously produced in mitochondria are currently targeted in pre-clinical and clinical studies. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-018-31031-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6109085PMC
August 2018
12 Reads

Protective efficacy of various carbonyl compounds and their metabolites, and nutrients against acute toxicity of some cyanogens in rats: biochemical and physiological studies.

Interdiscip Toxicol 2017 Sep;10(1):1-10

Division of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Defence Research and Development Establishment, Jhansi Road, Gwalior 474002, (M.P.), India.

Cyanogens are widely used in industries and their toxicity is mainly due to cyanogenesis. The antidotes for cyanide are usually instituted for the management of cyanogen poisoning. The present study reports the protective efficacy of 14 carbonyl compounds and their metabolites, and nutrients (1. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1515/intox-2017-0001DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6096866PMC
September 2017
7 Reads

Nitric oxide alleviates toxicity of hexavalent chromium on tall fescue and improves performance of photosystem II.

Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 2018 Nov 7;164:32-40. Epub 2018 Aug 7.

Key Laboratory of Plant Germplasm Enhancement and Specialty Agriculture, Wuhan Botanical Garden, The Chinese Academy of Science, Wuhan, PR China.

Tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb) was widely studied for phytoremediation of organic or heavy metal contaminated soils. However, there is still little information concerning toxicity of chromium (Cr) to tall fescue and roles of nitric oxide (NO) in plants against Cr(VI) stress. In this study, different Cr(VI) treatments (0, 1, 5 and 10 mg/L Cr(VI)) and NO treatments were applied with different combinations in hydroponics culture and their interactions to tall fescue were studied. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoenv.2018.07.118DOI Listing
November 2018
4 Reads

The utility of HepaRG cells for bioenergetic investigation and detection of drug-induced mitochondrial toxicity.

Toxicol In Vitro 2018 Dec 7;53:136-147. Epub 2018 Aug 7.

MRC Centre for Drug Safety Science, The Department of Clinical and Molecular Pharmacology, The University of Liverpool, Ashton Street, Liverpool L69 3GE, United Kingdom. Electronic address:

The importance of mitochondrial toxicity in drug-induced liver injury is well established. The bioenergetic phenotype of the HepaRG cell line was defined in order to assess their suitability as a model of mitochondrial hepatotoxicity. Bioenergetic phenotyping categorised the HepaRG cells as less metabolically active when measured beside the more energetic HepG2 cells. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S08872333183042
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tiv.2018.08.001DOI Listing
December 2018
15 Reads

Monitoring Dose Response of Cyanide Antidote Dimethyl Trisulfide in Rabbits Using Diffuse Optical Spectroscopy.

J Med Toxicol 2018 Dec 9;14(4):295-305. Epub 2018 Aug 9.

Beckman Laser Institute, University of California, 1002 Health Sciences Rd. East, Irvine, CA, 92612, USA.

Introduction: Cyanide (CN) poisoning is a serious chemical threat from accidental or intentional exposures. Current CN exposure treatments, including direct binding agents, methemoglobin donors, and sulfur donors, have several limitations. Dimethyl trisulfide (DMTS) is capable of reacting with CN to form the less toxic thiocyanate with high efficiency, even without the sulfurtransferase rhodanese. Read More

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http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s13181-018-0680-6
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13181-018-0680-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6242791PMC
December 2018
22 Reads

Genotype-targeted local therapy of glioma.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2018 09 6;115(36):E8388-E8394. Epub 2018 Aug 6.

Department of Neurosurgery, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02114;

Aggressive neurosurgical resection to achieve sustained local control is essential for prolonging survival in patients with lower-grade glioma. However, progression in many of these patients is characterized by local regrowth. Most lower-grade gliomas harbor isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 () or mutations, which sensitize to metabolism-altering agents. Read More

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http://www.pnas.org/lookup/doi/10.1073/pnas.1805751115
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1805751115DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6130372PMC
September 2018
38 Reads
1 Citation
9.810 Impact Factor

Freeze-induced cyanide toxicity does not maintain the cyanogenesis polymorphism in white clover (Trifolium repens).

Am J Bot 2018 Jul 6;105(7):1224-1231. Epub 2018 Aug 6.

Department of Biology, Washington University, St. Louis, MO, 63130, USA.

Premise Of The Study: The maintenance of adaptive polymorphisms within species requires fitness trade-offs reflecting selection for each morph. Cyanogenesis, the ability to produce hydrogen cyanide (HCN) after tissue damage, occurs in >3000 plant species and exists as a discrete polymorphism in white clover. This polymorphism is spatially distributed in recurrent clines, with higher frequencies of cyanogenic plants in warmer climates. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajb2.1134DOI Listing
July 2018
3 Reads

Report- Role of prostaglandin H synthase in activation of acrylonitrile to cyanide.

Pak J Pharm Sci 2018 Jul;31(4):1431-1435

Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.

The present study aimed at investigating the in-vitro oxidation of acrylonitrile (ACN) to cyanide (CN-) by prostaglandin H synthase (PHS). Detection of CN- is considered a marker for free radical intermediates involved in ACN-induced toxicity. First, most favorable circumstances for ACN oxidation were characterized: pH (4. Read More

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July 2018
13 Reads

Cardiac effects of acute administration of a protonophore in a rat model.

J Pharm Pharmacol 2018 Sep 25;70(9):1209-1215. Epub 2018 Jun 25.

Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University, Kyoto City, Kyoto, Japan.

Objectives: Excessive use of uncoupling agents, previously used as weight loss agents, has led to the increase in body temperature and death. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the acute cardiac effects of mitochondrial protonophore in a rat model at a high dose, and its specific influence on cardiac substrate uptake.

Methods: Eight-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were intraperitoneally injected with the protonophore carbonyl cyanide m-chloro phenyl hydrazone (CCCP; 4 mg/kg) or vehicle (dimethyl sulfoxide). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jphp.12956DOI Listing
September 2018
12 Reads

Degradation mechanism of cyanide in water using a UV-LED/HO/Cu system.

Chemosphere 2018 Oct 1;208:441-449. Epub 2018 Jun 1.

Department of Environmental Health Sciences, School of Public Health, Seoul National University, 1Gwanak-ro, Gwanak-gu, Seoul, South Korea. Electronic address:

In this study, we developed a UV-LED/HO/Cu system to remove cyanide, which is typically present in metal electroplating wastewater. The results showed the synergistic effects of UV-LED, HO, and Cu ions on cyanide removal in comparison with UV-LED photolysis, HO oxidation, UV-LED/HO, and HO/Cu systems. Cyanide was removed completely in 30 min in the UV-LED/HO/Cu system, and its loss followed pseudo-first order kinetics. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S00456535183107
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2018.05.198DOI Listing
October 2018
16 Reads
3.340 Impact Factor

Identification of specific metabolic pathways as druggable targets regulating the sensitivity to cyanide poisoning.

PLoS One 2018 7;13(6):e0193889. Epub 2018 Jun 7.

Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, United States of America.

Cyanide is a potent toxic agent, and the few available antidotes are not amenable to rapid deployment in mass exposures. As a result, there are ongoing efforts to exploit different animal models to identify novel countermeasures. We have created a pipeline that combines high-throughput screening in zebrafish with subsequent validation in two mammalian small animal models as well as a porcine large animal model. Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0193889PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5991913PMC
November 2018
7 Reads

Mutagenic effects of spent potliner and derivatives on Allium cepa L. and Lactuca sativa L.: A molecular approach.

Chemosphere 2018 Oct 30;208:257-262. Epub 2018 May 30.

Department of Agronomy, Center of Exact Sciences and Engineering, Federal University of Espírito Santo (Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo), Alegre, ES, 29.500-000, Brazil.

Spent potliner (SPL) is a solid residue generated by the aluminum industry. Its composition is variable and complex, containing fluoride and cyanide salts as well as aluminum, which contributes to its toxicity. SPL is sometimes released directly into the soil, where it is prone to leaching and has the potential to cause alterations and damage to DNA. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2018.05.186DOI Listing
October 2018
4 Reads

Effects of the Gut microbiota on Amygdalin and its use as an anti-cancer therapy: Substantial review on the key components involved in altering dose efficacy and toxicity.

Biochem Biophys Rep 2018 Jul 3;14:125-132. Epub 2018 May 3.

School of Bio-Sciences and Technology, VIT University, Vellore 632014, Tamil Nadu, India.

Conventional and Alternative Medicine (CAM) is popularly used due to side-effects and failure of approved methods, for diseases like Epilepsy and Cancer. Amygdalin, a cyanogenic diglycoside is commonly administered for cancer with other CAM therapies like vitamins and seeds of fruits like apricots and bitter almonds, due to its ability to hydrolyse to hydrogen cyanide (HCN), benzaldehyde and glucose. Over the years, several cases of cyanide toxicity on ingestion have been documented. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbrep.2018.04.008DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5986699PMC
July 2018
2 Reads

Sex differences but no evidence of quantitative honesty in the warning signals of six-spot burnet moths (Zygaena filipendulae L.).

Evolution 2018 May 16. Epub 2018 May 16.

Centre for Ecology and Conservation, College of Life and Environmental Sciences, University of Exeter, Penryn, Cornwall TR10 9FE, United Kingdom.

The distinctive black and red wing pattern of six-spot burnet moths (Zygaena filipendulae, L.) is a classic example of aposematism, advertising their potent cyanide-based defences. While such warning signals provide a qualitatively honest signal of unprofitability, the evidence for quantitative honesty, whereby variation in visual traits could provide accurate estimates of individual toxicity, is more equivocal. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/evo.13505DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6099377PMC
May 2018
4 Reads

Microarray-based expression analysis of phytohormone-related genes in rice seedlings during cyanide metabolism.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2018 Jul 7;25(20):19701-19712. Epub 2018 May 7.

Institut für Radioökologie und Strahlenschutz (IRS), Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz Universität Hannover, Herrenhäuser Str. 2, 30419, Hannover, Germany.

Plants exhibit highly coordinated, dynamic reactions to various abiotic stressors. As cyanide is a non-essential element for plant growth, entry inside plants can exert toxicity at multiple levels. In plant, hormone plays a pivot role under stress conditions. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-018-2118-8DOI Listing
July 2018
6 Reads

Brugada-type electrocardiogram changes associated with nitroprusside toxicity.

HeartRhythm Case Rep 2018 Mar 27;4(3):89-91. Epub 2017 Dec 27.

Wellspan York Hospital, York, Pennsylvania.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.hrcr.2017.09.005DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5918182PMC
March 2018
10 Reads

NXY-059, a Failed Stroke Neuroprotectant, Offers No Protection to Stem Cell-Derived Human Neurons.

J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis 2018 Aug 16;27(8):2158-2165. Epub 2018 Apr 16.

Florey Institute of Neuroscience and Mental Health, Melbourne Brain Centre, Heidelberg, Victoria, Australia; University of Tasmania, School of Medicine, Faculty of Health, Hobart, Tasmania, Australia. Electronic address:

Background: Developing new medicines is a complex process where understanding the reasons for both failure and success takes us forward. One gap in our understanding of most candidate stroke drugs before clinical trial is whether they have a protective effect on human tissues. NXY-059 is a spin-trap reagent hypothesized to have activity against the damaging oxidative biology which accompanies ischemic stroke. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jstrokecerebrovasdis.2018.03.015DOI Listing
August 2018
2 Reads

Dietary cyanogen exposure and early child neurodevelopment: An observational study from the Democratic Republic of Congo.

PLoS One 2018 17;13(4):e0193261. Epub 2018 Apr 17.

Department of Psychiatry, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI, United States of America.

Background: Dietary cyanogen exposure from ingesting bitter (toxic) cassava as a main source of food in sub-Saharan Africa is related to neurological impairments in sub-Saharan Africa. We explored possible association with early child neurodevelopmental outcomes.

Methods: We undertook a cross-sectional neurodevelopmental assessment of 12-48 month-old children using the Mullen Scale of Early Learning (MSEL) and the Gensini Gavito Scale (GGS). Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0193261PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5903613PMC
July 2018
10 Reads
3.230 Impact Factor

Assessing the efficacy of aqueous garlic extract, sodium nitrite and sodium thiosulfate against prolonged oral cyanide exposure in rabbits.

Pak J Pharm Sci 2018 Mar;31(2):411-419

Department of Parasitology, University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore, Pakistan.

This study was aimed to compare the efficacy of aqueous garlic extract, sodium nitrite (SNT), sodium thiosulfate (STS) and hydroxocobalamin against oral cyanide exposure in rabbits. For this purpose, forty two adult male rabbits were divided randomly into 7 groups of 6 animals (A-G) each. Rabbits in group A were offered feed only and served as negative control, while the rabbits in group B received feed plus potassium cyanide (KCN) at 3mg/kg orally and were kept as positive control. Read More

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March 2018
8 Reads

Oxidative damage mediated iNOS and UCP-2 upregulation in rat brain after sub-acute cyanide exposure: dose and time-dependent effects.

Drug Chem Toxicol 2018 Apr 3:1-8. Epub 2018 Apr 3.

a Division of Pharmacology and Toxicology , Defence Research and Development Establishment , Gwalior , India.

Cyanide-induced chemical hypoxia is responsible for pronounced oxidative damage in the central nervous system. The disruption of mitochondrial oxidative metabolism has been associated with upregulation of uncoupling proteins (UCPs). The present study addresses the dose- and time-dependent effect of sub-acute cyanide exposure on various non-enzymatic and enzymatic oxidative stress markers and their correlation with inducible-nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and uncoupling protein-2 (UCP-2) expression. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01480545.2018.1451876DOI Listing
April 2018
5 Reads
1.100 Impact Factor

Metabolism study for CUMYL-4CN-BINACA in human hepatocytes and authentic urine specimens: Free cyanide is formed during the main metabolic pathway.

Drug Test Anal 2018 Mar 25. Epub 2018 Mar 25.

Department of Forensic Genetics and Forensic Toxicology, National Board of Forensic Medicine, Linköping, Sweden.

To further elucidate the metabolism of CUMYL-4CN-BINACA, a new synthetic cannabinoid with a cyano group, and to evaluate biomarkers, we incubated the substance in human hepatocytes and analysed 9 authentic urine specimens. We also quantified CUMYL-4CN-BINACA and cyanide in blood and provide comprehensive data on the 7 autopsy cases, 5 of them determined CUMYL-4CN-BINACA intoxications. For metabolite elucidation, CUMYL-4CN-BINACA was incubated with pooled human hepatocytes for up to 5 hours, urine samples were analysed with and without enzymatic hydrolysis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/dta.2373DOI Listing
March 2018
8 Reads

Quantitative real-time optical imaging of the tissue metabolic rate of oxygen consumption.

J Biomed Opt 2018 Mar;23(3):1-12

Beckman Laser Institute and Medical Clinic, Laser Microbeam and Medical Program, Irvine, California, United States.

The tissue metabolic rate of oxygen consumption (tMRO2) is a clinically relevant marker for a number of pathologies including cancer and arterial occlusive disease. We present and validate a noncontact method for quantitatively mapping tMRO2 over a wide, scalable field of view at 16  frames  /  s. We achieve this by developing a dual-wavelength, near-infrared coherent spatial frequency-domain imaging (cSFDI) system to calculate tissue optical properties (i. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/1.JBO.23.3.036013DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5866507PMC
March 2018
6 Reads

Potential applications of Pseudomonas sp. (strain CPSB21) to ameliorate Cr stress and phytoremediation of tannery effluent contaminated agricultural soils.

Sci Rep 2018 Mar 20;8(1):4860. Epub 2018 Mar 20.

Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology (ISM), Dhanbad, 826 004, Jharkhand, India.

Contamination of agricultural soil with heavy metals has become a serious concern worldwide. In the present study, Cr resistant plant growth promoting Pseudomonas sp. (strain CPSB21) was isolated from the tannery effluent contaminated agricultural soils and evaluated for the plant growth promoting activities, oxidative stress tolerance, and Cr bioremediation. Read More

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http://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-018-23322-5
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-018-23322-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5861048PMC
March 2018
14 Reads

Determinants of Lactic Acidosis in Acute Cyanide Poisonings.

Crit Care Med 2018 Jun;46(6):e523-e529

Adult Intensive Care Unit, Department of anesthesiology and intensive care and SAMU 75, CHU Necker-Enfants Malades.

Objectives: To investigate the magnitude of lactic acidosis in response to cyanide poisoning compared with the secondary response caused by cardiovascular shock.

Design: Retrospective case-control observational study.

Setting: University Hospital of Assistance Publique - Hôpitaux de Paris. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/CCM.0000000000003075DOI Listing
June 2018
4 Reads

Metabolomics-assisted metabolite profiling of itraconazole in human liver preparations.

J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci 2018 Apr 7;1083:68-74. Epub 2018 Mar 7.

BK21 PLUS Team for Creative Leader Program for Pharmacomics-based Future Pharmacy, Integrated Research Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, The Catholic University of Korea, Bucheon 14662, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

Itraconazole (ITZ) is a first-generation triazole-containing antifungal agent that effectively treats various fungal infections. As ITZ has a better safety profile than that of ketoconazole (KCZ), ITZ has been used worldwide for over 25 years. However, few reports have explored the metabolic profile of ITZ, and the underlying mechanism of ITZ-induced liver injury is not clearly understood. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jchromb.2018.02.041DOI Listing
April 2018
16 Reads

A Comparison of the Cyanide-Scavenging Capabilities of Some Cobalt-Containing Complexes in Mice.

Chem Res Toxicol 2018 04 14;31(4):259-268. Epub 2018 Mar 14.

Department of Environmental and Occupational Health, Graduate School of Public Health , The University of Pittsburgh , 100 Technology Drive , Pittsburgh , Pennsylvania 15219 , United States.

Four cobalt-containing macrocyclic compounds previously shown to ameliorate cyanide toxicity have been comparatively evaluated with an acute sublethal toxicity model in conscious (unanesthetized) adult male Swiss-Webster mice. All of the compounds (the cobalt-corrins cobalamin and cobinamide, a cobalt-porphyrin, plus a cobalt-Schiff base macrocycle) given 5 min prior to the toxicant dose significantly decreased the righting-recovery time of cyanide-intoxicated mice, but the doses required for maximal antidotal effect varied. Additionally, all of the compounds tested significantly reduced the righting-recovery time when administered at either 1 or 2 min after cyanide intoxication, but none of the compounds tested significantly reduced the righting-recovery time when delivered 5 min after the toxicant dose. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.chemrestox.7b00314DOI Listing
April 2018
14 Reads

ß-Cyanoalanine Synthase Action in Root Hair Elongation is Exerted at Early Steps of the Root Hair Elongation Pathway and is Independent of Direct Cyanide Inactivation of NADPH Oxidase.

Plant Cell Physiol 2018 May;59(5):1072-1083

Instituto de Bioquímica Vegetal y Fotosíntesis, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas and Universidad de Sevilla, Avenida Américo Vespucio, 49, Sevilla 41092, Spain.

In Arabidopsis thaliana, cyanide is produced concomitantly with ethylene biosynthesis and is mainly detoxified by the ß-cyanoalanine synthase CAS-C1. In roots, CAS-C1 activity is essential to maintain a low level of cyanide for proper root hair development. Root hair elongation relies on polarized cell expansion at the growing tip, and we have observed that CAS-C1 locates in mitochondria and accumulates in root hair tips during root hair elongation, as shown by observing the fluorescence in plants transformed with the translational construct ProC1:CASC1-GFP, containing the complete CAS-C1 gene fused to green fluorescent protein (GFP). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/pcp/pcy047DOI Listing
May 2018
1 Read

Emergency department management of smoke inhalation injury in adults [digest].

Emerg Med Pract 2018 Mar 1;20(3 Suppl Points & Pearls):1-2. Epub 2018 Mar 1.

Department of Emergency Medicine, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY.

Smoke inhalation injury portends increased morbidity and mortality in fire-exposed patients. Upper airway thermal burns, inflammation from lower airway irritants, and systemic effects of carbon monoxide and cyanide can contribute to injury. A standardized diagnostic protocol for inhalation injury is lacking, and management remains mostly supportive. Read More

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March 2018
3 Reads

Emergency department management of smoke inhalation injury in adults.

Emerg Med Pract 2018 Mar 1;20(3):1-24. Epub 2018 Mar 1.

Clinical Assistant Professor, Residency Assistant Program Director, Department of Emergency Medicine, Stony Brook School of Medicine, Stony Brook, NY.

Smoke inhalation injury portends increased morbidity and mortality in fire-exposed patients. Upper airway thermal burns, inflammation from lower airway irritants, and systemic effects of carbon monoxide and cyanide can contribute to injury. A standardized diagnostic protocol for inhalation injury is lacking, and management remains mostly supportive. Read More

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March 2018
2 Reads

Neuroreflex control of cardiovascular function is impaired after acute poisoning with chlorpyrifos, an organophosphorus insecticide: Possible short and long term clinical implications.

Toxicology 2018 04 19;398-399:13-22. Epub 2018 Feb 19.

Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Federal University of Espírito Santo, Vitória, ES, Brazil. Electronic address:

Although it is well-established that severe poisoning by organophosphorus (OP) compounds strongly affects the cardiorespiratory system, the effects of sub-lethal exposure to these compounds on the neural control of cardiovascular function are poorly explored. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of acute sub-lethal exposure to chlorpyrifos (CPF), a commonly used OP insecticide, on three basic reflex mechanisms involved in blood pressure regulation, the peripheral chemoreflex, the baroreflex and the Bezold-Jarisch reflex. Adult male Wistar rats were injected intraperitoneally with a single dose of CPF (30 mg/kg) or saline (0. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tox.2018.02.005DOI Listing
April 2018
12 Reads

Antibacterial Properties of Four Novel Hit Compounds from a Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus-Caenorhabditis elegans High-Throughput Screen.

Microb Drug Resist 2018 Jun 20;24(5):666-674. Epub 2018 Feb 20.

1 Infectious Diseases Division, Department of Medicine, Warren Alpert Medical School of Brown University , Rhode Island Hospital, Providence, Rhode Island.

There is an urgent need for the discovery of effective new antimicrobial agents to combat the rise of bacterial drug resistance. High-throughput screening (HTS) in whole-animal infection models is a powerful tool for identifying compounds that show antibacterial activity and low host toxicity. In this report, we characterize the activities of four novel antistaphylococcal compounds identified from an HTS campaign conducted using Caenorhabditis elegans nematodes infected with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/mdr.2017.0250DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6001862PMC
June 2018
6 Reads
3 Citations
2.524 Impact Factor

Carbon Monoxide and Cyanide Poisoning in the Burned Pregnant Patient: An Indication for Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy.

Ann Plast Surg 2018 Mar;80(3 Suppl 2):S106-S112

Carbon monoxide (CO) is a small molecule poison released as a product of incomplete combustion. Carbon monoxide binds hemoglobin, reducing oxygen delivery. This effect is exacerbated in the burned pregnant patient by fetal hemoglobin that binds CO 2. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/SAP.0000000000001351DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5825244PMC
March 2018
15 Reads

Behavioral toxicity of sodium cyanide following oral ingestion in rats: Dose-dependent onset, severity, survival, and recovery.

Food Chem Toxicol 2018 Apr 16;114:145-154. Epub 2018 Feb 16.

United States Army Medical Research Institute of Chemical Defense, 2900 Ricketts Point Rd, Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD, 21010, United States. Electronic address:

Sodium cyanide (NaCN) is a commonly and widely used industrial and laboratory chemical reagent that is highly toxic. Its availability and rapid harmful/lethal effects combine to make cyanide a potential foodborne/waterborne intentional-poisoning hazard. Thus, laboratory studies are needed to understand the dose-dependent progression of toxicity/lethality following ingestion of cyanide-poisoned foods/liquids. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fct.2018.02.033DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5860990PMC
April 2018
6 Reads