2,845 results match your criteria Toxicity Cyanide


Comparing the protective effects of three sulfur compounds against acrylonitrile-induced acute toxicity in CYP2E1-induced rats.

Toxicol Ind Health 2019 Apr 16:748233719839847. Epub 2019 Apr 16.

1 School of Medicine, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang, Jiangsu, China.

Cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1) can be induced by diabetes mellitus, nonalcoholic liver disease, and obesity. This study assessed the protective effects of three sulfur compounds, namely phenethyl isothiocyanate (PEITC), dimethyl trisulfide (DMTS), and sodium thiosulfate (STS), on acrylonitrile (ACN)-induced acute toxicity in rats enriched with CYP2E1. PEITC and DMTS were administered intragastrically (i. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0748233719839847DOI Listing

User-oriented independent analysis of the toxic load model's ability to predict the effects of time-varying toxic inhalation exposures.

Regul Toxicol Pharmacol 2019 Apr 9. Epub 2019 Apr 9.

Institute for Defense Analyses, 4850 Mark Center Drive, Alexandria, VA, 22311-1882, USA.

Toxic industrial chemicals and chemical warfare agents present an acute inhalation hazard to exposed populations. The hazardous materials consequence assessment modeling community requires toxicity models to estimate these hazards. One popular phenomenological toxicity model is the toxic load model. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.yrtph.2019.04.003DOI Listing

Rapid detection of heavy metal-induced toxicity in water using a fed-batch sulfur-oxidizing bacteria (SOB) bioreactor.

J Microbiol Methods 2019 Apr 9. Epub 2019 Apr 9.

Department of Biological Environment, Kangwon National University, 192-1 Hyoja-dong, Gangwon-do, Chuncheon-si 200-701, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

A fed-batch bioreactor based on sulfur-oxidizing bacteria (SOB) was tested for rapid detection of heavy metal-induced toxicity in water. For this evaluation, SOB were exposed to water contaminated by selenium, mercury, hexavalent chromium, arsenic, cyanide, cadmium, and lead for 2 h and their inhibition rates were analyzed based on changes in electrical conductivity (EC). The results demonstrate that SOB were highly inhibited by selenium, mercury, hexavalent chromium, and arsenic but not by cyanide, cadmium, and lead. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mimet.2019.04.007DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Photochemical Degradation of Cyanides and Thiocyanates from an Industrial Wastewater.

Molecules 2019 Apr 8;24(7). Epub 2019 Apr 8.

CEMHTI, CNRS (UPR 3079), Université d'Orléans, 45071 Orléans, France.

We have explored the simultaneous degradation of cyanides and thiocyanate present in wastewaters from a cokemaking factory using photoassisted methods under varied illumination conditions (from simulated solar light to UV light). Overall, the photochemical degradation of cyanides was more efficient than that of thiocyanates, regardless of the illumination conditions, the effect being more pronounced in the absence of a photocatalyst. This is due to their different degradation mechanism that in the case of thiocyanates is dominated by fast recombination reactions and/or charge transfer reactions to electron scavengers. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules24071373DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Behavioural and physiological assessments of dimethyl trisulfide treatment for acute oral sodium cyanide poisoning.

Basic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol 2019 Mar 6. Epub 2019 Mar 6.

United States Army Medical Research Institute of Chemical Defense, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland.

Sodium cyanide (NaCN) is a commonly and widely used industrial and laboratory chemical that is highly toxic. Its availability and rapid harmful/lethal effects combine to make cyanide a potential foodborne/waterborne intentional-poisoning hazard. Effective antidotes to cyanide poisoning are currently approved only for intravenous administration. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bcpt.13220DOI Listing
March 2019
3 Reads

Modulatory Role of Vitamins A and E on Memory and Motor Functions of Cyanide Induced Neurotoxicity in Adult Swiss Mice.

Niger J Physiol Sci 2018 Dec 30;33(2):183-189. Epub 2018 Dec 30.

Department of Nursing, College of Nursing and Midwifery Sciences, Sokoto.

Cyanide is a potent neurotoxic substance that can initiate series of intracellular reactions leading to oxidativestress. To evaluate effect of sublethal administration of potassium cyanide (KCN) on sensorimotor functions and long termvisuo-spatial learning and memory in adult Swiss mice and possible ameliorative role of vitamins A and E. These vitaminsA and E (dietary) are antioxidants that have scavenging properties against free radicals and reactive oxygen species as aresult of oxidative stress induced by cyanide. Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

Assessing modulators of cytochrome c oxidase activity in Galleria mellonella larvae.

Comp Biochem Physiol C Toxicol Pharmacol 2019 May 22;219:77-86. Epub 2019 Feb 22.

Department of Environmental and Occupational Health, University of Pittsburgh Graduate School of Public Health, 130 DeSoto Street, Pittsburgh, PA 15219, USA. Electronic address:

Caterpillars of the greater wax moth, Galleria mellonella, are shown to be a useful invertebrate organism for examining mitochondrial toxicants (inhibitors of electron transport) and testing putative antidotes. Administration of sodium azide, sodium cyanide, or sodium (hydro)sulfide by intra-haemocoel injection (through a proleg) results in a dose-dependent paralysed state in the larvae lasting from <1 to ~40 min. The duration of paralysis is easily monitored, because if turned onto their backs, the larvae right themselves onto their prolegs once they are able to move again. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cbpc.2019.02.009DOI Listing
May 2019
1 Read

Phenylacetonitrile in locusts facilitates an antipredator defense by acting as an olfactory aposematic signal and cyanide precursor.

Sci Adv 2019 Jan 23;5(1):eaav5495. Epub 2019 Jan 23.

State Key Laboratory of Integrated Management of Pest Insects and Rodents, Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100080, P. R. China.

Many aggregating animals use aposematic signals to advertise their toxicity to predators. However, the coordination between aposematic signals and toxins is poorly understood. Here, we reveal that phenylacetonitrile (PAN) acts as an olfactory aposematic signal and precursor of hypertoxic hydrogen cyanide (HCN) to protect gregarious locusts from predation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/sciadv.aav5495DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6357733PMC
January 2019
2 Reads

Toxic by design? Formation of thermal degradants and cyanide from carboxamide-type synthetic cannabinoids CUMYL-PICA, 5F-CUMYL-PICA, AMB-FUBINACA, MDMB-FUBINACA, NNEI, and MN-18 during exposure to high temperatures.

Forensic Toxicol 2019 Jan 28;37(1):17-26. Epub 2018 Jun 28.

RTI International, 3040 Cornwallis Road, Research Triangle Park, NC, 27709, USA.

Purpose: The use of novel synthetic cannabinoids as intoxicants continues in spite of associated health risks. These compounds are typically smoked or vaporized, but many synthetic cannabinoids contain thermally labile chemical moieties. This study investigated the thermal stability six carboxamide-type synthetic cannabinoids (CUMYL-PICA, 5F-CUMYL-PICA, AMB-FUBINACA, MDMB-FUBINACA, NNEI, and MN-18) in order to characterise potential user exposure to thermolysis products. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11419-018-0430-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6349387PMC
January 2019
3 Reads

Inhibition of Classical and Alternative Modes of Respiration in Leads to Cell Wall Remodeling and Increased Macrophage Recognition.

MBio 2019 01 29;10(1). Epub 2019 Jan 29.

Kent Fungal Group, School of Biosciences, University of Kent, Kent, United Kingdom

The human fungal pathogen requires respiratory function for normal growth, morphogenesis, and virulence. Mitochondria therefore represent an enticing target for the development of new antifungal strategies. This possibility is bolstered by the presence of characteristics specific to fungi. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/mBio.02535-18DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6355986PMC
January 2019
4 Reads

Remediation of phenanthrene contaminated soil by g-CN/FeO composites and its phytotoxicity evaluation.

Chemosphere 2019 Apr 11;221:554-562. Epub 2019 Jan 11.

School of the Environment, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013, PR China.

This work is a premier demonstrating the technical feasibility of remediation of PAHs-contaminated soil by g-CN/FeO. g-CN/FeO has been synthesized by typical two steps involved the synthesis of g-CN and the subsequent in situ co-precipitation of FeO nanoparticles. g-CN/FeO exhibits excellent visible-light-driven photocatalytic activity for the degradation of phenanthrene in soil at circumneutral pH. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S00456535193007
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2019.01.078DOI Listing
April 2019
12 Reads

Large-scale synthesis of monodisperse Prussian blue nanoparticles for cancer theranostics via an "in situ modification" strategy.

Int J Nanomedicine 2019 27;14:271-288. Epub 2018 Dec 27.

Department of Ultrasound in Medicine, Shanghai Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine, Shanghai Jiao Tong University Affiliated Sixth People's Hospital, Shanghai 200233, China,

Background: The intrinsic properties of Prussian blue (PB) nanoparticles make them an attractive tool in nanomedicine, including magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), photoacoustic imaging (PAI), and photothermal therapy (PTT) properties. However, there still remains the challenge of their poor dispersible stability in the physiological environment. In this study, we developed an efficient hydrothermal method to address the poor dispersible stability of PB nanoparticles in the physiological environment. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/IJN.S183858DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6312061PMC
February 2019
4 Reads

Metabolism of cyanogenic glycosides: A review.

Food Chem Toxicol 2019 Mar 4;125:225-232. Epub 2019 Jan 4.

Science and Risk Assessment Directorate, Ministry for Primary Industries, Wellington, 6140, New Zealand.

Potential toxicity of cyanogenic glycosides arises from enzymatic degradation to produce hydrogen cyanide. Information on the metabolism of cyanogenic glycosides is available from in vitro, animal and human studies. In the absence of β-glucosidase enzymes from the source plant material, two processes appear to contribute to the production of cyanide from cyanogenic glycosides; the proportion of the glycoside dose that reaches the large intestine, where most of the bacterial hydrolysis occurs, and the rate of hydrolysis of cyanogenic glycosides to cyanohydrin and cyanide. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S02786915193000
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fct.2019.01.002DOI Listing
March 2019
11 Reads

The potential use of 2-aminothiazoline-4-carboxylic acid (ATCA) as a forensic marker for cyanide exposure in medicolegal death investigation: A review.

Forensic Sci Rev 2019 Jan;31(1):45-58

Department of Forensic Science, Sam Houston State University, Huntsville, Texas, United States of America.

Cyanide (CN) is one of the most toxic of all substances and can be found in various natural and anthropogenic sources. Sensitive and effective methods for the confirmation of CN exposure are crucial in medical, military, and forensic settings. Due to its high volatility and reactivity, direct detection of CN from postmortem samples could raise inconclusive interpretation issues that may hinder accurate determination of the cause of death. Read More

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January 2019
2 Reads

A novel injectable in situ forming gel based on carboxymethyl hexanoyl chitosan/hyaluronic acid polymer blending for sustained release of berberine.

Carbohydr Polym 2019 Feb 19;206:664-673. Epub 2018 Nov 19.

Graduate Institute of Biomedical Materials and Tissue Engineering, College of Biomedical Engineering, Taipei Medical University, Taipei City 11031, Taiwan, ROC; Graduate Institute of Medical Sciences, College of Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 110, Taiwan, ROC; Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Cell Biology, School of Medicine, College of Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 11031, Taiwan, ROC; Graduate Institute of Nanomedicine and Medical Engineering, College of Biomedical Engineering, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 11031, Taiwan, ROC. Electronic address:

An in situ forming gel based on simply blending carboxymethyl hexanoyl chitosan (CHC) with low molecular weight hyaluronic acid (LMW HA) was developed, without needing cross-linking, photopolymerization or thermal treatments. The CHC/LMW HA blends formed nanoparticles and then rapidly transformed into supermolecular hydrogels under stirring. The gel formation mechanism was examined by Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET). Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S01448617183138
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.carbpol.2018.11.050DOI Listing
February 2019
14 Reads

Immobilized bacterial biosensor for rapid and effective monitoring of acute toxicity in water.

Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 2019 Apr 6;170:205-209. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Health Sciences, Jenderal Soedirman University, Purwokerto 53123, Indonesia.

The use of biosensors by using microorganisms such as bacteria have short life cycles and provide other advantages. One colorimetric biosensor technique that has been developed is the use of a biosensor utilizing the incorporation of Prussian blue formation reactions mediated by E. coli bioreactors with ferricyanide. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoenv.2018.11.141DOI Listing
April 2019
4 Reads

The role of redox-dependent mechanisms in heme release from hemoglobin and erythrocyte hemolysates.

Arch Biochem Biophys 2019 Feb 5;662:111-120. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

Department of Pathology and Center for Free Radical Biology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, 35294, U.S.A.. Electronic address:

Toxicity mediated by free heme has emerged as an important element of end organ injuries and adverse outcomes in critically ill disease states. Free heme is thought to be derived from oxidative denaturation of free hemoglobin, secondary to red cell hemolysis. In this study, we evaluated the ability of oxidants (HO, nitrite, peroxynitrite and hypochlorous acid) formed during inflammation to cause heme release from purified hemoglobin and hemolysates, at pH 7. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.abb.2018.12.005DOI Listing
February 2019
2 Reads

Hydrolytic denitrification and decynidation of acrylonitrile in wastewater with Arthrobacter nitroguajacolicus ZJUTB06-99.

AMB Express 2018 Dec 3;8(1):191. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

College of Biotechnology and Bioengineering, Zhejiang University of Technology, Hangzhou, 310014, People's Republic of China.

Acrylonitrile (CHN) widely used in chemical raw materials has biological toxicity with -CN bond, so it is the key to removal of cyanide from acrylonitrile wastewater. In our previous research and investigation, a strain was identified as Arthrobacter nitroguajacolicus named ZJUTB06-99 and was proved to be capable of degrading acrylonitrile. In this paper, the strain ZJUTB06-99 was domesticated with acrylonitrile-containing medium and its decyanidation and denitrification in simulated acrylonitrile wastewater were studied. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13568-018-0719-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6277404PMC
December 2018
2 Reads

Eulophia macrobulbon extract relaxes rat isolated pulmonary artery and protects against monocrotaline-induced pulmonary arterial hypertension.

Phytomedicine 2018 Nov 22;50:157-165. Epub 2018 May 22.

Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medical Science, Naresuan University, Phitsanulok 65000, Thailand. Electronic address:

Background: Extract of the wild orchid, Eulophia macrobulbon (EM) inhibits phosphodiesterase5 (PDE5) suggesting it could preferentially dilate the pulmonary vasculature.

Purpose And Study Design: To pharmacologically characterize the vascular actions of EM ethanolic extract and its active compound, 1-(4'-hydroxybenzyl)-4,8-dimethoxyphenanthrene-2,7-diol using isolated pulmonary arteries (PA) from rats having pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) induced by monocrotaline (MCT). PA were fixed and prepared for histology. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S09447113183017
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.phymed.2018.05.014DOI Listing
November 2018
22 Reads

An RND transporter in the monoterpene metabolism of Castellaniella defragrans.

Biodegradation 2019 02 17;30(1):1-12. Epub 2018 Oct 17.

Dept. of Microbiology, Max Planck-Institute for Marine Microbiology, Celsiusstr. 1, 28359, Bremen, Germany.

The betaproteobacterium Castellaniella defragrans 65Phen grows on monoterpenes at concentrations toxic to many bacteria. Tolerance mechanisms include modifications of the membrane fatty acid composition and the mineralization of monoterpenes. In this study, we characterized an efflux transporter associated to the monoterpene metabolism. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10532-018-9857-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6394551PMC
February 2019
3 Reads

Intramuscular dimethyl trisulfide: efficacy in a large swine model of acute severe cyanide toxicity.

Clin Toxicol (Phila) 2019 Apr 11;57(4):265-270. Epub 2018 Oct 11.

a Department of Emergency Medicine and Toxicology , University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus , Aurora , C.O , U.S.A.

Background: Cyanide is a deadly compound used as a terrorist agent. Current FDA approved antidotes require intravenous administration, limiting their utility in a mass casualty scenario. Dimethyl trisulfide (DMTS), a sulfur-based molecule, binds cyanide converting it to the less toxic by-product thiocyanate. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15563650.2018.1511800DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6451663PMC
April 2019
4 Reads

Elucidation of the Amygdalin Pathway Reveals the Metabolic Basis of Bitter and Sweet Almonds ().

Plant Physiol 2018 11 8;178(3):1096-1111. Epub 2018 Oct 8.

Plant Biochemistry Laboratory, Department of Plant and Environmental Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Thorvaldsensvej 40, DK-1871, Frederiksberg C, Denmark

Almond () is the principal species in which the consumed and thus commercially important part of the fruit is the kernel. As a result of continued selection, the vast majority of almonds have a nonbitter kernel. However, in the field, there are trees carrying bitter kernels, which are toxic to humans and, consequently, need to be removed. Read More

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http://www.plantphysiol.org/lookup/doi/10.1104/pp.18.00922
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1104/pp.18.00922DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6236625PMC
November 2018
4 Reads

Toxicity and Toxicokinetics of Amygdalin in Maesil ( Prunus mume) Syrup: Protective Effect of Maesil against Amygdalin Toxicity.

J Agric Food Chem 2018 Oct 19;66(43):11432-11440. Epub 2018 Oct 19.

Division of Applied Food System, Major of Food Science & Technology , Seoul Women's University , Seoul 01797 , Republic of Korea.

Maesil ( Prunus mume, green plum)-based products have been widely used in Asian cooking, which may contain amygdalin enzymatically converted to hydrogen cyanide after oral ingestion. In this study, the toxicity of Maesil syrups matured with and without Maesils was evaluated by focusing on relationship between amygdalin toxicity and its metabolic change. The cytotoxicity of amygdalin was highly related to its metabolites converted by β-glucosidase, and the metabolic change was retarded in Maesil syrup. Read More

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http://pubs.acs.org/doi/10.1021/acs.jafc.8b03686
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jafc.8b03686DOI Listing
October 2018
14 Reads

Successful Renal Transplantation after Presumed Cyanide Toxicity Treated with Hydroxocobalamin and Review of the Literature.

Case Rep Transplant 2018 9;2018:3753479. Epub 2018 Sep 9.

University of Massachusetts Medical School, Department of Surgery, Division of Organ Transplantation, USA.

We report two cases of successful renal transplantation with allografts from donors who suffered anoxic brain injury as the primary cause of death from house fires. Each was treated prophylactically with hydroxocobalamin (Cyanokit) for suspected cyanide toxicity. During organ procurement, gross examination was notable for deep discoloration of the parenchymal tissues. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2018/3753479DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6151203PMC
September 2018
24 Reads

Electro-addressable conductive alginate hydrogel for bacterial trapping and general toxicity determination.

Anal Chim Acta 2018 Dec 26;1036:115-120. Epub 2018 Jun 26.

Department of Genetics and Microbiology, Universitat Autonòma de Barcelona (UAB), Bellaterra, Barcelona, Spain.

In biosensors development, alginate hydrogels are a first choice for enabling stable biomolecules entrapment in biocompatible membranes obtained under soft physiological conditions. Although widely exploited, most alginate membranes are isolating and poorly repetitive, which limit their application in biosensing. Significant steps forward on improving repeatability and conductivity have been performed, but to date there is no single protocol for controlled deposition of live cells in replicable conductive alginate layers. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aca.2018.06.062DOI Listing
December 2018
5 Reads

Characterization of a Swine () Model of Oral Potassium Cyanide Intoxication.

Comp Med 2018 Oct 12;68(5):375-379. Epub 2018 Sep 12.

Rocky Mountain Poison and Drug Center, Denver Health and Hospital Authority, Denver, Colorado, Department of Emergency Medicine, University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus, Aurora, Colorado.

Cyanide is a readily available and potentially lethal substance. Oral exposure can result in larger doses, compared with other routes. Currently, there are no antidotes specific for use in the treatment of oral cyanide poisoning, and studies cannot be done in humans. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.30802/AALAS-CM-18-000041DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6200030PMC
October 2018
12 Reads

Development of a hydrogen cyanide inhalation exposure system and determination of the inhaled median lethal dose in the swine model.

Inhal Toxicol 2018 Mar - Apr;30(4-5):195-202. Epub 2018 Sep 10.

a Battelle Biomedical Research Center , Columbus , OH , USA.

Objective: Cyanide is a highly toxic chemical, and acute exposure depletes cells and tissue of oxygen, depressing the respiratory, cardiovascular and neurological systems and potentially leading to death. Cyanide has been used as a weapon since ancient Rome and continues to pose a potential threat today. A well-characterized animal model is necessary for the development of novel methods of rapid detection and treatment. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/08958378.2018.1494764DOI Listing
March 2019
3 Reads

Cytochrome C oxidase Inhibition and Cold Plasma-derived Oxidants Synergize in Melanoma Cell Death Induction.

Sci Rep 2018 Aug 24;8(1):12734. Epub 2018 Aug 24.

Leibniz-Institute for Plasma Science and Technology (INP Greifswald), ZIK plasmatis, Felix-Hausdorff-Str. 2, 17489, Greifswald, Germany.

Despite striking advances in the treatment of metastasized melanoma, the disease is often still fatal. Attention is therefore paid towards combinational regimens. Oxidants endogenously produced in mitochondria are currently targeted in pre-clinical and clinical studies. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-018-31031-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6109085PMC
August 2018
18 Reads

Protective efficacy of various carbonyl compounds and their metabolites, and nutrients against acute toxicity of some cyanogens in rats: biochemical and physiological studies.

Interdiscip Toxicol 2017 Sep;10(1):1-10

Division of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Defence Research and Development Establishment, Jhansi Road, Gwalior 474002, (M.P.), India.

Cyanogens are widely used in industries and their toxicity is mainly due to cyanogenesis. The antidotes for cyanide are usually instituted for the management of cyanogen poisoning. The present study reports the protective efficacy of 14 carbonyl compounds and their metabolites, and nutrients (1. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1515/intox-2017-0001DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6096866PMC
September 2017
9 Reads

Nitric oxide alleviates toxicity of hexavalent chromium on tall fescue and improves performance of photosystem II.

Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 2018 Nov 7;164:32-40. Epub 2018 Aug 7.

Key Laboratory of Plant Germplasm Enhancement and Specialty Agriculture, Wuhan Botanical Garden, The Chinese Academy of Science, Wuhan, PR China.

Tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb) was widely studied for phytoremediation of organic or heavy metal contaminated soils. However, there is still little information concerning toxicity of chromium (Cr) to tall fescue and roles of nitric oxide (NO) in plants against Cr(VI) stress. In this study, different Cr(VI) treatments (0, 1, 5 and 10 mg/L Cr(VI)) and NO treatments were applied with different combinations in hydroponics culture and their interactions to tall fescue were studied. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoenv.2018.07.118DOI Listing
November 2018
7 Reads

The utility of HepaRG cells for bioenergetic investigation and detection of drug-induced mitochondrial toxicity.

Toxicol In Vitro 2018 Dec 7;53:136-147. Epub 2018 Aug 7.

MRC Centre for Drug Safety Science, The Department of Clinical and Molecular Pharmacology, The University of Liverpool, Ashton Street, Liverpool L69 3GE, United Kingdom. Electronic address:

The importance of mitochondrial toxicity in drug-induced liver injury is well established. The bioenergetic phenotype of the HepaRG cell line was defined in order to assess their suitability as a model of mitochondrial hepatotoxicity. Bioenergetic phenotyping categorised the HepaRG cells as less metabolically active when measured beside the more energetic HepG2 cells. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S08872333183042
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tiv.2018.08.001DOI Listing
December 2018
16 Reads

Monitoring Dose Response of Cyanide Antidote Dimethyl Trisulfide in Rabbits Using Diffuse Optical Spectroscopy.

J Med Toxicol 2018 Dec 9;14(4):295-305. Epub 2018 Aug 9.

Beckman Laser Institute, University of California, 1002 Health Sciences Rd. East, Irvine, CA, 92612, USA.

Introduction: Cyanide (CN) poisoning is a serious chemical threat from accidental or intentional exposures. Current CN exposure treatments, including direct binding agents, methemoglobin donors, and sulfur donors, have several limitations. Dimethyl trisulfide (DMTS) is capable of reacting with CN to form the less toxic thiocyanate with high efficiency, even without the sulfurtransferase rhodanese. Read More

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http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s13181-018-0680-6
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13181-018-0680-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6242791PMC
December 2018
27 Reads

Genotype-targeted local therapy of glioma.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2018 09 6;115(36):E8388-E8394. Epub 2018 Aug 6.

Department of Neurosurgery, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02114;

Aggressive neurosurgical resection to achieve sustained local control is essential for prolonging survival in patients with lower-grade glioma. However, progression in many of these patients is characterized by local regrowth. Most lower-grade gliomas harbor isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 () or mutations, which sensitize to metabolism-altering agents. Read More

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http://www.pnas.org/lookup/doi/10.1073/pnas.1805751115
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1805751115DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6130372PMC
September 2018
52 Reads
1 Citation
9.810 Impact Factor

Freeze-induced cyanide toxicity does not maintain the cyanogenesis polymorphism in white clover (Trifolium repens).

Am J Bot 2018 Jul 6;105(7):1224-1231. Epub 2018 Aug 6.

Department of Biology, Washington University, St. Louis, MO, 63130, USA.

Premise Of The Study: The maintenance of adaptive polymorphisms within species requires fitness trade-offs reflecting selection for each morph. Cyanogenesis, the ability to produce hydrogen cyanide (HCN) after tissue damage, occurs in >3000 plant species and exists as a discrete polymorphism in white clover. This polymorphism is spatially distributed in recurrent clines, with higher frequencies of cyanogenic plants in warmer climates. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajb2.1134DOI Listing
July 2018
3 Reads

Report- Role of prostaglandin H synthase in activation of acrylonitrile to cyanide.

Pak J Pharm Sci 2018 Jul;31(4):1431-1435

Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.

The present study aimed at investigating the in-vitro oxidation of acrylonitrile (ACN) to cyanide (CN-) by prostaglandin H synthase (PHS). Detection of CN- is considered a marker for free radical intermediates involved in ACN-induced toxicity. First, most favorable circumstances for ACN oxidation were characterized: pH (4. Read More

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July 2018
18 Reads

Cardiac effects of acute administration of a protonophore in a rat model.

J Pharm Pharmacol 2018 Sep 25;70(9):1209-1215. Epub 2018 Jun 25.

Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University, Kyoto City, Kyoto, Japan.

Objectives: Excessive use of uncoupling agents, previously used as weight loss agents, has led to the increase in body temperature and death. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the acute cardiac effects of mitochondrial protonophore in a rat model at a high dose, and its specific influence on cardiac substrate uptake.

Methods: Eight-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were intraperitoneally injected with the protonophore carbonyl cyanide m-chloro phenyl hydrazone (CCCP; 4 mg/kg) or vehicle (dimethyl sulfoxide). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jphp.12956DOI Listing
September 2018
15 Reads

Degradation mechanism of cyanide in water using a UV-LED/HO/Cu system.

Chemosphere 2018 Oct 1;208:441-449. Epub 2018 Jun 1.

Department of Environmental Health Sciences, School of Public Health, Seoul National University, 1Gwanak-ro, Gwanak-gu, Seoul, South Korea. Electronic address:

In this study, we developed a UV-LED/HO/Cu system to remove cyanide, which is typically present in metal electroplating wastewater. The results showed the synergistic effects of UV-LED, HO, and Cu ions on cyanide removal in comparison with UV-LED photolysis, HO oxidation, UV-LED/HO, and HO/Cu systems. Cyanide was removed completely in 30 min in the UV-LED/HO/Cu system, and its loss followed pseudo-first order kinetics. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S00456535183107
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2018.05.198DOI Listing
October 2018
17 Reads
3.340 Impact Factor

Identification of specific metabolic pathways as druggable targets regulating the sensitivity to cyanide poisoning.

PLoS One 2018 7;13(6):e0193889. Epub 2018 Jun 7.

Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, United States of America.

Cyanide is a potent toxic agent, and the few available antidotes are not amenable to rapid deployment in mass exposures. As a result, there are ongoing efforts to exploit different animal models to identify novel countermeasures. We have created a pipeline that combines high-throughput screening in zebrafish with subsequent validation in two mammalian small animal models as well as a porcine large animal model. Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0193889PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5991913PMC
November 2018
8 Reads

Mutagenic effects of spent potliner and derivatives on Allium cepa L. and Lactuca sativa L.: A molecular approach.

Chemosphere 2018 Oct 30;208:257-262. Epub 2018 May 30.

Department of Agronomy, Center of Exact Sciences and Engineering, Federal University of Espírito Santo (Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo), Alegre, ES, 29.500-000, Brazil.

Spent potliner (SPL) is a solid residue generated by the aluminum industry. Its composition is variable and complex, containing fluoride and cyanide salts as well as aluminum, which contributes to its toxicity. SPL is sometimes released directly into the soil, where it is prone to leaching and has the potential to cause alterations and damage to DNA. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2018.05.186DOI Listing
October 2018
5 Reads

Effects of the Gut microbiota on Amygdalin and its use as an anti-cancer therapy: Substantial review on the key components involved in altering dose efficacy and toxicity.

Biochem Biophys Rep 2018 Jul 3;14:125-132. Epub 2018 May 3.

School of Bio-Sciences and Technology, VIT University, Vellore 632014, Tamil Nadu, India.

Conventional and Alternative Medicine (CAM) is popularly used due to side-effects and failure of approved methods, for diseases like Epilepsy and Cancer. Amygdalin, a cyanogenic diglycoside is commonly administered for cancer with other CAM therapies like vitamins and seeds of fruits like apricots and bitter almonds, due to its ability to hydrolyse to hydrogen cyanide (HCN), benzaldehyde and glucose. Over the years, several cases of cyanide toxicity on ingestion have been documented. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbrep.2018.04.008DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5986699PMC
July 2018
4 Reads

Sex differences but no evidence of quantitative honesty in the warning signals of six-spot burnet moths (Zygaena filipendulae L.).

Evolution 2018 May 16. Epub 2018 May 16.

Centre for Ecology and Conservation, College of Life and Environmental Sciences, University of Exeter, Penryn, Cornwall TR10 9FE, United Kingdom.

The distinctive black and red wing pattern of six-spot burnet moths (Zygaena filipendulae, L.) is a classic example of aposematism, advertising their potent cyanide-based defences. While such warning signals provide a qualitatively honest signal of unprofitability, the evidence for quantitative honesty, whereby variation in visual traits could provide accurate estimates of individual toxicity, is more equivocal. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/evo.13505DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6099377PMC
May 2018
4 Reads

Microarray-based expression analysis of phytohormone-related genes in rice seedlings during cyanide metabolism.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2018 Jul 7;25(20):19701-19712. Epub 2018 May 7.

Institut für Radioökologie und Strahlenschutz (IRS), Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz Universität Hannover, Herrenhäuser Str. 2, 30419, Hannover, Germany.

Plants exhibit highly coordinated, dynamic reactions to various abiotic stressors. As cyanide is a non-essential element for plant growth, entry inside plants can exert toxicity at multiple levels. In plant, hormone plays a pivot role under stress conditions. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-018-2118-8DOI Listing
July 2018
10 Reads

Brugada-type electrocardiogram changes associated with nitroprusside toxicity.

HeartRhythm Case Rep 2018 Mar 27;4(3):89-91. Epub 2017 Dec 27.

Wellspan York Hospital, York, Pennsylvania.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.hrcr.2017.09.005DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5918182PMC
March 2018
17 Reads

NXY-059, a Failed Stroke Neuroprotectant, Offers No Protection to Stem Cell-Derived Human Neurons.

J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis 2018 Aug 16;27(8):2158-2165. Epub 2018 Apr 16.

Florey Institute of Neuroscience and Mental Health, Melbourne Brain Centre, Heidelberg, Victoria, Australia; University of Tasmania, School of Medicine, Faculty of Health, Hobart, Tasmania, Australia. Electronic address:

Background: Developing new medicines is a complex process where understanding the reasons for both failure and success takes us forward. One gap in our understanding of most candidate stroke drugs before clinical trial is whether they have a protective effect on human tissues. NXY-059 is a spin-trap reagent hypothesized to have activity against the damaging oxidative biology which accompanies ischemic stroke. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jstrokecerebrovasdis.2018.03.015DOI Listing
August 2018
3 Reads

Dietary cyanogen exposure and early child neurodevelopment: An observational study from the Democratic Republic of Congo.

PLoS One 2018 17;13(4):e0193261. Epub 2018 Apr 17.

Department of Psychiatry, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI, United States of America.

Background: Dietary cyanogen exposure from ingesting bitter (toxic) cassava as a main source of food in sub-Saharan Africa is related to neurological impairments in sub-Saharan Africa. We explored possible association with early child neurodevelopmental outcomes.

Methods: We undertook a cross-sectional neurodevelopmental assessment of 12-48 month-old children using the Mullen Scale of Early Learning (MSEL) and the Gensini Gavito Scale (GGS). Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0193261PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5903613PMC
July 2018
11 Reads
3.230 Impact Factor

On the Efficacy of Cardio-Pulmonary Resuscitation and Epinephrine Following Cyanide- and HS Intoxication-Induced Cardiac Asystole.

Cardiovasc Toxicol 2018 10;18(5):436-449

Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Medicine, College of Medicine, Pennsylvania State University, 500 University Drive, H041, Hershey, PA, 17033, USA.

This study was aimed at determining the efficacy of epinephrine, followed by chest compressions, in producing a return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) during cyanide (CN)- or hydrogen sulfide (HS)-induced toxic cardiac pulseless electrical activity (PEA) in the rat. Thirty-nine anesthetized rats were exposed to either intravenous KCN (n = 27) or HS solutions (n = 12), at a rate that led to a PEA within less than 10 min. In the group intoxicated by CN, 20 rats were mechanically ventilated and received either epinephrine (0. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12012-018-9454-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6126935PMC
October 2018
10 Reads

Assessing the efficacy of aqueous garlic extract, sodium nitrite and sodium thiosulfate against prolonged oral cyanide exposure in rabbits.

Pak J Pharm Sci 2018 Mar;31(2):411-419

Department of Parasitology, University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore, Pakistan.

This study was aimed to compare the efficacy of aqueous garlic extract, sodium nitrite (SNT), sodium thiosulfate (STS) and hydroxocobalamin against oral cyanide exposure in rabbits. For this purpose, forty two adult male rabbits were divided randomly into 7 groups of 6 animals (A-G) each. Rabbits in group A were offered feed only and served as negative control, while the rabbits in group B received feed plus potassium cyanide (KCN) at 3mg/kg orally and were kept as positive control. Read More

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March 2018
20 Reads

Oxidative damage mediated iNOS and UCP-2 upregulation in rat brain after sub-acute cyanide exposure: dose and time-dependent effects.

Drug Chem Toxicol 2018 Apr 3:1-8. Epub 2018 Apr 3.

a Division of Pharmacology and Toxicology , Defence Research and Development Establishment , Gwalior , India.

Cyanide-induced chemical hypoxia is responsible for pronounced oxidative damage in the central nervous system. The disruption of mitochondrial oxidative metabolism has been associated with upregulation of uncoupling proteins (UCPs). The present study addresses the dose- and time-dependent effect of sub-acute cyanide exposure on various non-enzymatic and enzymatic oxidative stress markers and their correlation with inducible-nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and uncoupling protein-2 (UCP-2) expression. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01480545.2018.1451876DOI Listing
April 2018
6 Reads
1.100 Impact Factor

Metabolism study for CUMYL-4CN-BINACA in human hepatocytes and authentic urine specimens: Free cyanide is formed during the main metabolic pathway.

Drug Test Anal 2018 Mar 25. Epub 2018 Mar 25.

Department of Forensic Genetics and Forensic Toxicology, National Board of Forensic Medicine, Linköping, Sweden.

To further elucidate the metabolism of CUMYL-4CN-BINACA, a new synthetic cannabinoid with a cyano group, and to evaluate biomarkers, we incubated the substance in human hepatocytes and analysed 9 authentic urine specimens. We also quantified CUMYL-4CN-BINACA and cyanide in blood and provide comprehensive data on the 7 autopsy cases, 5 of them determined CUMYL-4CN-BINACA intoxications. For metabolite elucidation, CUMYL-4CN-BINACA was incubated with pooled human hepatocytes for up to 5 hours, urine samples were analysed with and without enzymatic hydrolysis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/dta.2373DOI Listing
March 2018
9 Reads