3,028 results match your criteria Toxicity Cyanide


Environmental Toxins Found Historically in the Polycythemia Vera Cluster Area and their Potential for Inducing DNA Damage.

J Environ Anal Toxicol 2021 Feb;8(1)

Icahn School of Medicine, Mt. Sinai, New York, NY, USA.

In 2006, the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry received a request to determine whether a cluster of polycythemia vera patients existed in a northeast Pennsylvania community. A significant cluster of PV cases was identified at the nexus of three counties near several hazardous waste sites. The current study evaluated the potential for a select number of environmental contaminants previously detected in the cluster area to induce DNA damage using assays with hematopoietic stem-cell derived progenitor cells. Read More

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February 2021

Theoretical modeling of structure-toxicity relationship of cyanides.

Authors:
Marcin Molski

Toxicol Lett 2021 Jun 3;349:30-39. Epub 2021 Jun 3.

Quantum Chemistry Department, Faculty of Chemistry, Adam Mickiewicz University of Poznań, ul. Uniwersytetu Poznańskiego 8, 61-614 Poznań, Poland. Electronic address:

The global descriptors of chemical activity: ionization potential IP, electron affinity EA, chemical potential μ, absolute electronegativity χ, molecular hardness η and softness S, electrophilicity index ω for cyanides X(CN) with X=H, Na, K, Ag, Cu, Ca, Hg, Cd, Zn in the gas phase and water medium have been determined by taking advantage of the quantum-chemical computations. To this aim, the HOMO and LUMO energy levels were calculated using DFT B3LYP method and QZVP (Valence Quadruple-Zeta Polarization) basis set, which enables precise calculations for hydrogen cyanide and its salts containing both light (H, Na, Ca) and heavy (K, Ag, Cu, Cd, Hg, Zn) atoms. The results obtained indicate that while the EA-parameter roughly determines the LD values for the cyanides considered, the ω-descriptor is related rather to the product of cyanide LD and hydrolysis n-degree. Read More

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Selective and sensitive turn on fluorescence cyanide recognition in aqueous medium based on Zn (II)-hydrazone metal complex chemosensor.

Luminescence 2021 Jun 5. Epub 2021 Jun 5.

Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, American University of Beirut, Beirut, Lebanon.

Detection and quantification of the cyanide ion has attracted considerable attention because of its extreme toxicity. A novel Zn (II)-complex, applicable as a fluorescent chemosensor for cyanide ion recognition, was synthesized in excellent yields from the reaction of zinc sulfate with the novel hydrazone: 3-(6-amino-9H-purin-9-yl)-N'-(2-hydroxybenzylidene) propanehydrazide. The structures of the ligand (L) and complex (L. Read More

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Quercetin upregulates CREM gene expression in cyanide-induced endocrine dysfunction.

Heliyon 2021 May 6;7(5):e06901. Epub 2021 May 6.

Department of Anatomy, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Ekiti State University, Ekiti State, Nigeria.

Cyanide is among the ubiquitous chemicals that humans are usually exposed to and it is well documented that cyanide induces infertility in humans and experimental rodents. However, the pathogenesis remains unknown. Likewise, quercetin is an important nutraceutical that detoxifies reactive oxygen species, but its effects on testicular damage is not clear. Read More

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Amygdalin: Toxicity, Anticancer Activity and Analytical Procedures for Its Determination in Plant Seeds.

Molecules 2021 Apr 13;26(8). Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Division of Organic Chemistry, Centre of Molecular and Macromolecular Studies, Polish Academy of Sciences, Sienkiewicza 112, 90-363 Łódź, Poland.

Amygdalin (d-Mandelonitrile 6--β-d-glucosido-β-d-glucoside) is a natural cyanogenic glycoside occurring in the seeds of some edible plants, such as bitter almonds and peaches. It is a medically interesting but controversial compound as it has anticancer activity on one hand and can be toxic via enzymatic degradation and production of hydrogen cyanide on the other hand. Despite numerous contributions on cancer cell lines, the clinical evidence for the anticancer activity of amygdalin is not fully confirmed. Read More

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Electrodeposition of Copper and Brass Coatings with Olive-Like Structure.

Materials (Basel) 2021 Apr 2;14(7). Epub 2021 Apr 2.

Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Analytical Chemistry and Electrochemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, Silesian University of Technology, B. Krzywoustego Str. 6, 44-100 Gliwice, Poland.

One method of creating a brass coating is through electrodeposition, which is most often completed in cyanide galvanic baths. Due to their toxicity, many investigations focused on the development of more environmentally friendly alternatives. The purpose of the study was to explore a new generation of non-aqueous cyanide-free baths based on 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate ionic liquids. Read More

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Advancement in Benthic Microbial Fuel Cells toward Sustainable Bioremediation and Renewable Energy Production.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 04 6;18(7). Epub 2021 Apr 6.

School of Industrial Technology, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Penang 11800, Malaysia.

Anthropogenic activities are largely responsible for the vast amounts of pollutants such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, cyanides, phenols, metal derivatives, sulphides, and other chemicals in wastewater. The excess benzene, toluene and xylene (BTX) can cause severe toxicity to living organisms in wastewater. A novel approach to mitigate this problem is the benthic microbial fuel cell (BMFC) setup to produce renewable energy and bio-remediate wastewater aromatic hydrocarbons. Read More

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Efficient chemosensors for toxic pollutants based on photoluminescent Zn(ii) and Cd(ii) metal-organic networks.

Dalton Trans 2021 Apr 25;50(13):4470-4485. Epub 2021 Mar 25.

Instituto de Química, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México. Circuito Exterior, Ciudad Universitaria, Ciudad de Mexico, 04510, Mexico.

Optical sensors with high sensitivity and selectivity, as important analytical tools for chemical and environmental research, can be realized by straightforward synthesis of luminescent one-, two- and three-dimensional Zn(ii) and Cd(ii) crystalline coordination arrays (CPs and MOFs). In these materials with emission centers typically based on charge transfer and intraligand emissions, the quantitative detection of specific analytes, as pesticides or anions, is probed by monitoring real-time changes in their photoluminescence and color emission properties. Pesticides/herbicides have extensive uses in agriculture and household applications. Read More

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Alkaline extracted cyanide from cassava wastewater and its sole induction of chromosomal aberrations on L. root tips.

Environ Technol 2021 Apr 10:1-22. Epub 2021 Apr 10.

Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Lagos, Akoka, Lagos, Nigeria.

Cassava, a staple crop in Nigeria, processed by numerous factories in rural and sub-urban locations is known to contain some level of cyano compounds. Lack of stringent environmental regulations on management of cassava wastewater (CWW) from cassava processing factories had led to its indiscriminate discharge on the environment. CWW samples were obtained from cassava processing factories from selected states (Lagos (A), Oyo (B), Ogun 1 (C1), Ogun 2 (C2) and Cross River (D)) in Nigeria to determine the cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of extracted cyanide from the wastewaters. Read More

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Efficacy of oral administration of sodium thiosulfate in a large, swine model of oral cyanide toxicity.

J Med Toxicol 2021 Apr 5. Epub 2021 Apr 5.

Department of Emergency Medicine, University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus, Aurora, CO, USA.

Introduction: Cyanide is a deadly poison, particularly with oral exposure where larger doses can occur before symptoms develop. Prior studies and multiple governmentagencies highlight oral cyanide as an agent with the potential for use in a terrorist attack. Currently, there are no FDA approved antidotes specific to oralcyanide. Read More

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ACTH(6-9)PGP Peptide Protects SH-SY5Y Cells from HO, -Butyl Hydroperoxide, and Cyanide Cytotoxicity via Stimulation of Proliferation and Induction of Prosurvival-Related Genes.

Molecules 2021 Mar 26;26(7). Epub 2021 Mar 26.

Shemyakin-Ovchinnikov Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences, Miklukho-Maklaya 16/10, 117997 Moscow, Russia.

Stabilized melanocortin analog peptide ACTH(6-9)PGP (HFRWPGP) possesses a wide range of neuroprotective activities. However, its mechanism of action remains poorly understood. In this paper, we present a study of the proproliferative and cytoprotective activity of the adrenocorticotropic hormone fragment 6-9 (HFRW) linked with the peptide prolyine-glycyl-proline on the SH-SY5Y cells in the model of oxidative stress-related toxicity. Read More

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Cyanogenic Glycoside Analysis in American Elderberry.

Molecules 2021 Mar 4;26(5). Epub 2021 Mar 4.

Department of Chemistry, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65211, USA.

Cyanogenic glycosides (CNGs) are naturally occurring plant molecules (nitrogenous plant secondary metabolites) which consist of an aglycone and a sugar moiety. Hydrogen cyanide (HCN) is released from these compounds following enzymatic hydrolysis causing potential toxicity issues. The presence of CNGs in American elderberry (AE) fruit, (subsp. Read More

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Silicon- induced nitric oxide burst modulates systemic defensive responses of Salvia officinalis under copper toxicity.

Plant Physiol Biochem 2021 May 17;162:752-761. Epub 2021 Mar 17.

Herbal and Traditional Medicines Research Center, Pharmacognosy Department, Faculty of Pharmacy, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran.

In this study, the role of nitric oxide (NO) burst in modulating Si-induced defensive responses in leaves and roots of Salvia officinalis under copper (Cu) stress were investigated. The result showed that 400 μM Cu markedly reduced shoot dry weight, but increased electrolyte leakage (EL) in leaves and both Si and sodium nitroprusside (SNP as the NO donor) improved these attributes in a dose-dependent manner. Interestingly, Cu toxicity systemically boosted a NO burst in both roots and shoots and applying Si and SNP markedly intensified it. Read More

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Suspected cyanide toxicity in cattle associated with ingestion of laurel - a case report.

Ir Vet J 2021 Mar 24;74(1). Epub 2021 Mar 24.

Kilkenny Regional Veterinary Laboratory, Department of Agriculture, Food and the Marine, Kilkenny, Ireland.

Background: Cyanide is one of the most rapidly acting toxins affecting cattle, with poisoning typically occurring following ingestion of cyanogenic plants. Laurel (Prunus laurocerasus), is one such potentially toxic cyanogenic plant. This case report details fatalities in an Irish herd following the ingestion of laurel and aims to raise awareness of the potential risk that access to laurel hedges poses to farm animals. Read More

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Cyanide-free environment-friendly alternative to copper electroplating for zinc die-cast alloys.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 Mar 16. Epub 2021 Mar 16.

Center of Excellence in Nanotechnology, School of Engineering and Technology, Asian Institute of Technology, PO Box 4, Klong Luang, Pathumthani, 12120, Thailand.

In this paper, a cyanide-free electroplating bath containing glutamate as a complexing agent is investigated as an environment-friendly alternative for copper plating on zinc die-cast alloys. Glutamate reacts with copper in an aqueous solution that exhibits similar copper cyanide properties by forming complexes. The electroplating bath pH is chosen from equilibrium diagrams to avoid the formation of insoluble complexes and oxides at varying copper-to-glutamate molar ratio. Read More

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The crosstalk between mitochondrial dysfunction and endoplasmic reticulum stress promoted ATF4-mediated mitophagy induced by hexavalent chromium.

Environ Toxicol 2021 Jun 2;36(6):1162-1172. Epub 2021 Mar 2.

Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, Dalian Medical University, Dalian, China.

Chromium (Cr) compounds are markedly toxic and carcinogenic. Previously, we found that Cr (VI) induced autophagy in A549 cells. Here, the effect of mitochondrial dysfunction and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress on inducing mitophagy was investigated in both A549 and H1299 cells. Read More

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Effects of physicochemical properties of Au cyanidation tailings on cyanide microbial degradation.

J Environ Sci Health A Tox Hazard Subst Environ Eng 2021 17;56(4):413-433. Epub 2021 Feb 17.

College of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Shandong University of Science and Technology, Qingdao, China.

The initial cyanide (CN) concentration and amount of co-contaminants in GCTs can inhibit bacterial growth and reduce the CN-degrading ability of bacteria. Several microorganisms can biotransform a wide range of organic and inorganic industrial contaminants into nontoxic compounds. However, active enzymatic CN metabolism processes are mostly constrained by the physical and chemical characteristics of GCTs. Read More

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PA23 metabolites protect against protozoan grazing by the predator .

PeerJ 2021 22;9:e10756. Epub 2021 Jan 22.

Department of Microbiology, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada.

Background: strain PA23 is a biocontrol agent that is able to protect canola against the pathogenic fungus . This bacterium secretes a number of metabolites that contribute to fungal antagonism, including pyrrolnitrin (PRN), phenazine (PHZ), hydrogen cyanide (HCN) and degradative enzymes. In order to be successful, a biocontrol agent must be able to persist in the environment and avoid the threat of grazing predators. Read More

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January 2021

Chemical mitochondrial uncouplers share common inhibitory effect on NLRP3 inflammasome activation through inhibiting NFκB nuclear translocation.

Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 2021 03 30;414:115426. Epub 2021 Jan 30.

Department of Pharmacology (the State-Province Key Laboratories of Biomedicine-Pharmaceutics of China, Key Laboratory of Cardiovascular Research, Ministry of Education), College of Pharmacy, Harbin Medical University, Translational Medicine Research and Cooperation Center of Northern China, Heilongjiang Academy of Medical Sciences, Harbin Medical University, People's Republic of China. Electronic address:

Activation of NLRP3 inflammasome is implicated in varieties of pathologies, the aim of the present study is to characterize the effect and mechanism of mitochondrial uncouplers on NLRP3 inflammasome activation by using three types of uncouplers, niclosamide, CCCP and BAM15. Niclosamide, CCCP and BAM15 inhibited LPS plus ATP-induced increases of NLRP3 protein and IL-1β mRNA levels in RAW264.7 macrophages and THP-1 derived macrophages. Read More

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Genetic identification and subsequent LC-QTOF MS analysis of plant remains (Oenanthe spp.) could prove the cause of an undetermined sudden death.

Int J Legal Med 2021 Jan 27. Epub 2021 Jan 27.

Galician Institute of Legal Medicine and Forensic Science, IMELGA, Lalín 4, 36209, Vigo, Spain.

In recent years, recorded cases related to forensic botany and, in particular, of plant poisoning have become rare. We report on the medicolegal characteristics of an undetermined sudden death (USD) of a woman in which scene there were remnants of a vegetal peeling. After the autopsy, macroscopic findings reported multiorgan failure and requested the investigation of the cause of death. Read More

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January 2021

Analysis of the Soil Fumigant, Dimethyl Disulfide, in Swine Blood by Dynamic Headspace Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectroscopy.

J Chromatogr A 2021 Feb 29;1638:461856. Epub 2020 Dec 29.

Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, South Dakota State University, Brookings, SD 57007, USA. Electronic address:

Plant parasites and soilborne pathogens directly reduce the overall yield of crops, vegetables, and fruits, negatively impacting the market demand for these products and their net profitability. While preplant soil fumigation helps maintain the consistent production quality of high-value cash crops, most soil fumigants are toxic to off-target species, including humans. Dimethyl disulfide (DMDS) has recently been introduced as a relatively low toxicity soil fumigant. Read More

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February 2021

Understanding the toxicity effect and mineralization efficiency of in-situ electrogenerated chlorine dioxide for the treatment of priority pollutants of coking wastewater.

Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 2021 Mar 13;211:111907. Epub 2021 Jan 13.

Department of Environmental Science & Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology (Indian School of Mines) Dhanbad, Jharkhand 826004, India. Electronic address:

Oxidation of phenol, cyanide and aniline have been analyzed by the enhanced electro-oxidation process in which sodium chlorite was used as an electrolyte and results were validated using statistical tool based on Box-Behnken design. The mineralization efficiency of 78.4%, and 98. Read More

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Nitric oxide donor, sodium nitroprusside, mitigates mercury toxicity in different cultivars of soybean.

J Hazard Mater 2021 04 14;408:124852. Epub 2020 Dec 14.

University of Wuppertal, School of Architecture and Civil Engineering, Institute of Foundation Engineering, Water, and Waste-Management, Laboratory of Soil, and Groundwater-Management, Pauluskirchstraße 7, 42285 Wuppertal, Germany; Department of Environment, Energy, and Geoinformatics, Sejong University, Seoul 05006, Republic of Korea.

The present study reveals the effect of mercury (Hg) and sodium nitroprusside (SNP) on plant growth and metabolism in soybean cultivars (Pusa-24, Pusa-37and Pusa-40). Mercury stress decreased growth and biomass yield, and gas exchange attributes in all soybean cultivars. External supplementation of SNP mitigated Hg toxicity by improving growth and gas exchange parameters. Read More

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Isolation of cyanide-degrading bacteria and molecular characterization of its cyanide-degrading nitrilase.

Biotechnol Appl Biochem 2020 Dec 30. Epub 2020 Dec 30.

Department of Biotechnology and Life Science, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, Koganei, Tokyo, Japan.

Hydrogen cyanide is an industrially important chemical, and its annual production is more than 1.5 million tons. Because of its toxicity, the cyanide-containing effluents from industries have caused many environmental problems. Read More

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December 2020

Disulfiram-loaded functionalized magnetic nanoparticles combined with copper and sodium nitroprusside in breast cancer cells.

Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl 2021 Feb 27;119:111452. Epub 2020 Aug 27.

Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Atatürk University, 25240 Erzurum, Turkey.

Disulfiram (DSF), one of the members of the dithiocarbamate family, is a reactive species (RS) generator and is capable of inducing cancer cell death in breast cancer. However, it is hydrophobic and highly degradable in blood. Therefore, drug delivery systems would be of great benefit in supporting the selective accumulation of DSF in tumor cells. Read More

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February 2021

PLK1 (polo like kinase 1)-dependent autophagy facilitates gefitinib-induced hepatotoxicity by degrading COX6A1 (cytochrome c oxidase subunit 6A1).

Autophagy 2020 Dec 14:1-17. Epub 2020 Dec 14.

Institute of Pharmacology & Toxicology, College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China.

Liver dysfunction is an outstanding dose-limiting toxicity of gefitinib, an EGFR (epidermal growth factor receptor)-tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI), in the treatment of EGFR mutation-positive non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). We aimed to elucidate the mechanisms underlying gefitinib-induced hepatotoxicity, and provide potentially effective intervention strategy. We discovered that gefitinib could sequentially activate macroautophagy/autophagy and apoptosis in hepatocytes. Read More

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December 2020

Characterization of Stable and Reactive Metabolites of the Anticancer Drug, Ensartinib, in Human Liver Microsomes Using LC-MS/MS: An in silico and Practical Bioactivation Approach.

Drug Des Devel Ther 2020 30;14:5259-5273. Epub 2020 Nov 30.

Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, College of Pharmacy, King Saud University, Riyadh 11451, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

Background: Ensartinib (ESB) is a novel anaplastic lymphoma kinase inhibitor (ALK) with additional activity against Abelson murine leukemia (ABL), met proto-oncogene (MET), receptor tyrosine kinase (AXL), and v-ros UR2 sarcoma virus oncogene homolog 1 (ROS1) and is considered a safer alternative for other ALK inhibitors. ESB chemical structure contains a dichloro-fluorophenyl ring and cyclic tertiary amine rings (piperazine) that can be bioactivated generating reactive intermediates.

Methods: In vitro metabolic study of ESB with human liver microsomes (HLMs) was performed and the hypothesis of generating reactive intermediates during metabolism was tested utilizing trapping agents to capture and stabilize reactive intermediates to facilitate their LC-MS/MS detection. Read More

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November 2020

Motor control and cognition deficits associated with protein carbamoylation in food (cassava) cyanogenic poisoning: Neurodegeneration and genomic perspectives.

Food Chem Toxicol 2021 Feb 6;148:111917. Epub 2020 Dec 6.

Oregon Institute of Occupational Health Sciences, Oregon Health & Science University, Portland, OR, USA; Department of Neurology, University of Kinshasa, Congo; Institut National de Recherche Biomédicale, Congo; Department of Neurology, Oregon Health & Science University, Portland, OR, USA. Electronic address:

A case-control design determined whether konzo, an upper motoneuron disease linked to food (cassava) toxicity was associated with protein carbamoylation and genetic variations. Exon sequences of thiosulfate sulfurtransferase (TST) or mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase (MPST), plasma cyanide detoxification rates, and 2D-LC-MS/MS albumin carbamoylation were assessed in 40 children [21 konzo-affected and 19 putatively healthy controls, mean (SD) age: 9.2 (3. Read More

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February 2021

Extended duration infusion of high-dose hydroxocobalamin for vasoplegic syndrome following cardiac surgery.

Heart Lung 2021 Mar-Apr;50(2):173-176. Epub 2020 Nov 24.

Department of Anesthesiology and Perioperative Medicine, Mayo Clinic, 200 First St SW, Rochester, MN 55905, United States. Electronic address:

Vasoplegic syndrome occurs in 8% to 12% of cases that use cardiopulmonary bypass and carries a high mortality. Although the precise cause of this shock state has yet to determined, it is postulated to be related to abnormal nitric oxide (NO)-mediated dilatation of vascular smooth muscle resulting in arterial and venous vasodilatation. Since its first report in 2014, the off-label use of hydroxocobalmin as a rescue therapy for the treatment of refractory vasodilatory shock has gained attention with a mechanism thought to be primarily mediated by the scavenge, binding to, and prevention of the formation of NO. Read More

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