648,875 results match your criteria Toxicity Cyanide


Possible involvement of Fas/FasL-dependent apoptotic pathway in α-bisabolol induced cardiotoxicity in zebrafish embryos.

Chemosphere 2018 Dec 8;219:557-566. Epub 2018 Dec 8.

Biology Institute, Qilu University of Technology (Shandong Academy of Sciences), 28789 East Jingshi Road, Jinan, 250103, Shandong Province, PR China; Key Laboratory for Drug Screening Technology of Shandong Academy of Sciences, 28789 East Jingshi Road, Jinan, 250103, Shandong Province, PR China. Electronic address:

α-Bisabolol, an unsaturated monocyclic sesquiterpene alcohol, is a common ingredient in many pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs). Despite being widely used, little is known about its toxic effects on organisms and aquatic environment. In this study, we investigated the developmental toxicity of α-Bisabolol, especially its effects on the cardiac development using zebrafish embryos as a model. Read More

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December 2018

Behavioral, molecular and physiological responses of embryo-larval zebrafish exposed to types I and II pyrethroids.

Chemosphere 2018 Dec 6;219:526-537. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Department of Environmental Toxicology, The Institute of Environmental and Human Health, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX 79416, USA.

Pyrethroids are potent neurotoxicants that may elicit multiple pathways of toxicity in non-target organisms. Comparative studies on the mechanistic and developmental effects of types I and II pyrethroids against non-target aquatic species are limited. This study assessed the effects of the two pyrethroid types against embryo-larval zebrafish (Danio rerio) at environmentally relevant and laboratory concentrations. Read More

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December 2018

Developmental toxicity of kresoxim-methyl during zebrafish (Danio rerio) larval development.

Chemosphere 2018 Dec 8;219:517-525. Epub 2018 Dec 8.

Institute of Quality and Standard for Agro-products, Zhejiang Academy of Agricultural Sciences, State Key Laboratory Breeding Base for Zhejiang Sustainable Pest and Disease Control, Hangzhou, 310021, Zhejiang, China. Electronic address:

Kresoxim-methyl (KM) is a broad spectrum strobilurin fungicide that has been used widely on crops around the world. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the toxic effects of KM using various sublethal endpoints during zebrafish (Danio rerio) larval development. Results showed that the LC values of KM to zebrafish at multiple life stages (embryo, larvae, juvenile and adult) were 0. Read More

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December 2018

Proteomic analysis for phenanthrene-elicited wheat chloroplast deformation.

Environ Int 2018 Dec 11;123:273-281. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Stockbridge School of Agriculture, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003, USA.

The exposure of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) can cause wheat leaf chlorosis. Thus, we hypothesize that chloroplast inner structure damage is the reason for leaf chlorosis. This study was conducted with the wheat seedlings exposed to Hoagland nutrient solution containing 1. Read More

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December 2018

Two-dimensional porphyrin-based covalent organic framework: A novel platform for sensitive epidermal growth factor receptor and living cancer cell detection.

Biosens Bioelectron 2018 Dec 7;126:734-742. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

College of Chemistry and Molecular Engineering, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou 450000, PR China. Electronic address:

A porphyrin-based covalent organic framework (denoted as p-COF) was synthesized by a simple oil-bath method and exploited as a novel sensing layer for immobilizing epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-targeting aptamer strands to detect trace EGFR and living michigan cancer foundation-7 (MCF-7) cells for the first time. p-COF presented a nanosheet-like structure, large cavities, rich nitrogen-bearing groups, high electrochemical activity, excellent bioaffinity, low toxicity, and good stability in aqueous solution; the microstructural features of this material enabled strong immobilization of the aptamer strands. Interactions between the aptamer strands and EGFR significantly changed the electrochemical signals of the modified electrode due to the formation of an aptamer-EGFR complex. Read More

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December 2018

Revival of a Potent Therapeutic Maytansinoid Agent using a Strategy that Combines Covalent Drug Conjugation with Sequential Nanoparticle Assembly.

Int J Pharm 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

The First Affiliated Hospital, Collaborative Innovation Center for Diagnosis and Treatment of Infectious Diseases, Key Laboratory of Combined Multi-Organ Transplantation, Ministry of Public Health, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, 310003, PR China. Electronic address:

Maytansine and its related analogues are a class of highly potent anti-proliferation agents that have failed to be exploited as clinical drugs for human therapy due to unacceptable systemic toxicity. Here, we delineate a novel strategy that combines rational drug conjugation with subsequent nanoparticle assembly to systemically deliver this highly potent and toxic drug. To demonstrate this concept, we covalently coupled the thiolated maytansine derivative, the DM1 agent, to amphiphilic block co-polymers, polyethylene glycol (PEG)-block-polylactide (PLA), in varying molecular weights to generate two prodrug constructs (i. Read More

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December 2018

Effects of cellular differentiation in human primary bronchial epithelial cells: Metabolism of 4-(methylnitrosamine)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone.

Toxicol In Vitro 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Division of Genetic and Molecular Toxicology, Division of Biochemical Toxicology, National Center for Toxicological Research, U.S Food and Drug Administration, Jefferson, AR 72079, United States. Electronic address:

Many of the toxicants in tobacco smoke undergo biotransformation in the lungs of smokers, both to reactive and to detoxified derivatives. Human air-liquid-interface (ALI) airway tissue models have emerged as an advanced in vitro model for evaluating the toxicity of inhaled substances; however, the metabolic potential of these cultures has not been evaluated extensively. In this study, we compared the metabolic activities of an ALI tissue model to the undifferentiated normal human primary bronchial epithelial (NHBE) cells from which it was derived. Read More

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December 2018
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Preclinical Evaluation of Dose-Volume Effects and Lung Toxicity Occurring in- and out-of-field.

Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Centre for Cancer Research and Cell Biology, Queen's University Belfast, Northern Ireland, UK.

Purpose: The aim of this study was to define the dose and dose-volume relationship of radiation induced pulmonary toxicities occurring in and out-of-field in mouse models of early inflammatory and late fibrotic response.

Materials And Methods: Early radiation induced inflammation and fibrosis were investigated in C3H/NeJ and C57BL/6J mice respectively. Animals were irradiated with 20 Gy delivered to the upper region of the right lung as a single fraction or as three consecutive fractions using the Small Animal Radiation Research Platform (SARRP, Xstrahl Inc. Read More

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December 2018

The testosterone metabolite 3α-androstanediol inhibits oxidative stress-induced ERK phosphorylation and neurotoxicity in SH-SY5Y cells through an MKP3/DUSP6-dependent mechanism.

Neurosci Lett 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Department of Biomedical Sciences, Ontario Veterinary College, University of Guelph, 50 Stone Road East, Guelph, Ontario, N1G 2W1, Canada. Electronic address:

Testosterone exerts neuroprotective effects on the brain, but the mechanisms by which these effects are exerted appear to be different in males and females. While in females they involve local conversion to estradiol, in males they may be androgen receptor-dependent, or mediated through metabolism to neurosteroids such as 5α-androstane-3α,17β-diol (3α-diol), which acts through different mechanisms than testosterone itself. Recently, we demonstrated that 3α-diol can protect neurons and neuronal-like cells against oxidative stress-induced neurotoxicity associated with prolonged phosphorylation of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK). Read More

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December 2018

Alternative splicing of the vitamin D receptor modulates target gene expression and promotes ligand-independent functions.

Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Department of Environmental and Molecular Toxicology, Oregon State University, 1007 Agriculture & Life Sciences Building, Corvallis, OR 97331; USA; LS Pharma, 884 Park St., Lebanon, OR 97355; USA.

Alternative splicing modulates gene function by creating splice variants with alternate functions or non-coding RNA activity. Naturally occurring variants of nuclear receptor (NR) genes with dominant negative or gain-of-function phenotypes have been documented, but their cellular roles, regulation, and responsiveness to environmental stress or disease remain unevaluated. Informed by observations that class I androgen and estrogen receptor variants display ligand-independent signaling in human cancer tissues, we questioned whether the function of class II NRs, like the vitamin D receptor (VDR), would also respond to alternative splicing regulation. Read More

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December 2018

Resveratrol modulates fibrillogenesis in a poly‑l‑lysine peptide.

Int J Biol Macromol 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Faculty of Chemistry, University of Wroclaw, F. Joliot-Curie 14, 50-383 Wroclaw, Poland.

Resveratrol (Res) is an effective inhibitor of amyloid fibril formation and reduces neuron cell toxicity. The effect of Res on the fibrillogenesis of a polar polypeptide, poly‑l‑lysine (PLL), was studied by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, vibrational circular dichroism and transmission electron microscopy. Res molecules exhibited strong and specific inhibition of β-sheet-rich fibrils formed by PLL. Read More

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December 2018

LeishInDB: a web-accessible resource for small molecule inhibitors against Leishmania sp.

Acta Trop 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Department of Molecular Biology/Bioinformatics Centre, Rajendra Memorial Research Institute of Medical Science, Indian Council for Medical Research, Agamkuan, Patna, Bihar 800007. India.

Despite the availability of drugs to treat Leishmaniasis, various other factors including drug resistance and adverse side effects encourage the researchers to search for new strategies and alternatives for treating Leishmaniasis. Repurposing and devising combination therapy with the existing small molecules would serve as an alternative strategy to address the issue, especially the drug resistance. Hence, here we report LeishInDB, a web-accessible resource of small molecule inhibitors having a varying degree of activity towards Leishmania sp. Read More

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December 2018

The DAHANCA 32 study: Electrochemotherapy for recurrent mucosal head and neck cancer.

Head Neck 2018 Dec 15. Epub 2018 Dec 15.

Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Head & Neck Surgery and Audiology, Copenhagen University Hospital Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, Denmark.

Background: Electrochemotherapy is an established treatment for cutaneous tumors. This study aimed at determining efficacy of electrochemotherapy in recurrent head and neck cancer.

Methods: Phase II clinical trial in patients with recurrent head and neck carcinomas with no curative treatment options. Read More

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December 2018

Prospective instrumental evaluation of swallowing, tongue function, and QOL measures following transoral robotic surgery alone without adjuvant therapy.

Head Neck 2018 Dec 15. Epub 2018 Dec 15.

THANC Foundation, New York, New York.

Background: Transoral robotic surgery (TORS) has been utilized to deintensify treatment. No studies have measured swallow safety and efficiency, nor assessed the functional impact of TORS alone.

Methods: This prospective cohort underwent baseline and 1-month postsurgery assessments including modified barium swallow evaluation, using the Dynamic Imaging Grade of Swallowing Toxicity (DIGEST) rating system, tongue range of motion assessment, the Performance Status Scale (PSS), and quality of life with the MD Anderson Dysphagia Inventory (MDADI). Read More

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December 2018

A newly synthesized oleanolic acid derivative inhibits the growth of osteosarcoma cells in vitro and in vivo by decreasing c-MYC-dependent glycolysis.

J Cell Biochem 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Department of Orthopedics, The First Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, Jiangsu, China.

Osteosarcoma (OS) is the primary malignant bone tumor with a peak incidence in children and adolescents. However, the little molecular mechanism of pathogenesis has been known and it is urgent to develop new therapeutical strategies to improve outcomes for patients. CDDO-NFM (N-formylmorpholine substituent of CDDO) is a newly synthesized triterpenoid, which is a derivative of oleanolic acid. Read More

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December 2018

A three dimensional microfluidized liver system to assess hepatic drug metabolism and hepatotoxicity.

Biotechnol Bioeng 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Center for Advanced Biomaterials for HealthCare@CRIB, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, Largo Barsanti e Matteucci 53, Naples, Italy.

In this work we propose the design and fabrication of a liver system on chip. We first chose the most suitable 3D liver-like model between cell spheroids and microtissue-precursors, both based on the use of hepatocellular carcinoma cells (HepG2) to provide proof-of-concept data. Spheroids displayed high cell density but low expression of the typical hepatic biomarkers, while microtissue-precursors showed stable viability and function over the entire culture time. Read More

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December 2018

Cancer Drug Toxicity: Moving from Patient to Survivor.

Cancer Treat Res 2019 ;171:107-118

Cancer Survivorship Institute, Robert H. Lurie Comprehensive Cancer Center Northwestern University, Chicago, IL, USA.

Millions of individuals worldwide are living with cancer and have remained disease-free for more than 5 years. These individuals are considered to be cancer survivors. The advent of new targeted therapies and personalized treatment modalities have contributed to this increased survivorship. Read More

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January 2019

Cancer Comorbidity: Implications for Drug Safety.

Cancer Treat Res 2019 ;171:21-35

Department of Medicine, Northwestern University, Chicago, IL, USA.

Cancer is primarily a disease of aging. This chapter discusses relevant aspect of the physiology of aging, medication use and toxicity, comorbidities, and specific challenges in treating older adults with cancer. Read More

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January 2019

In vitro characterization of hepatic toxicity of Alternaria toxins.

Mycotoxin Res 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Department of Food Safety, German Federal Institute for Risk Assessment, Max-Dohrn-Str. 8-10, 10589, Berlin, Germany.

Alternaria mycotoxins are secondary fungal metabolites which can contaminate food and feed. They are produced by Alternaria species with alternariol (AOH), alternariol monomethyl ether (AME), tenuazonic acid (TeA), and tentoxin (TEN) as the main representatives for Alternaria mycotoxins in food. Once passing the intestinal barrier, Alternaria toxins can reach the liver to exert yet uncharacterized molecular effects. Read More

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December 2018

Differential effects of nickel dosages on in vitro and in vivo seed germination and expression of a high affinity nickel-transport family protein (AT2G16800) in trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides).

Ecotoxicology 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Department of Biology, Laurentian University, Sudbury, Ontario, P3E 2C6, Canada.

It has been demonstrated that a number of metals including mercury (Hg), zinc (Zn), cadmium (Cd), cobalt (Co), lead (Pb), copper (Cu), and nickel (Ni) decrease seed germination rates and plant growth. The threshold levels of metal toxicity on seed germination, plant development, and gene regulation have not been studied in detail. The main objective of this study was to assess in vitro and in vivo the effects of different doses of nickel on Trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides) seed germination and regulation of the high affinity nickel transporter family protein (AT2G16800) gene. Read More

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December 2018

Acetaminophen cytotoxicity in HepG2 cells is associated with a decoupling of glycolysis from the TCA cycle, loss of NADPH production, and suppression of anabolism.

Arch Toxicol 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Department of Surgery and Cancer, Faculty of Medicine, Imperial College London, London, UK.

Acetaminophen (APAP) is one of the most commonly used analgesics worldwide, and overdoses are associated with lactic acidosis, hepatocyte toxicity, and acute liver failure due to oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction. Hepatoma cell lines typically lack the CYP450 activity to generate the reactive metabolite of APAP observed in vivo, but are still subject to APAP cytotoxicity. In this study, we employed metabolic profiling and isotope labelling approaches to investigate the metabolic impact of acute exposure to cytotoxic doses of APAP on the widely used HepG2 cell model. Read More

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December 2018

Fluorine-free water-in-ionomer electrolytes for sustainable lithium-ion batteries.

Nat Commun 2018 Dec 14;9(1):5320. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Helmholtz Institute Münster - Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH (IEK 12), Corrensstrasse 46, 48149 Münster, D-48149, Münster, Germany.

The continuously increasing number and size of lithium-based batteries developed for large-scale applications raise serious environmental concerns. Herein, we address the issues related to electrolyte toxicity and safety by proposing a "water-in-ionomer" type of electrolyte which replaces organic solvents by water and expensive and toxic fluorinated lithium salts by a non-fluorinated, inexpensive and non-toxic superabsorbing ionomer, lithium polyacrylate. Interestingly, the electrochemical stability window of this electrolyte is extended greatly, even for high water contents. Read More

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December 2018

A combination of linalool, vitamin C, and copper synergistically trigger Reactive Oxygen Species, DNA damage and inhibits subsp. serovar Typhi and .

Appl Environ Microbiol 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Chemical Biology Laboratory, Department of Biotechnology, Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee, Uttarakhand 247 667, India.

Inappropriate and disproportionate use of antibiotics is contributing immensely to the development of antibiotic resistance in bacterial species associated with food contamination. Use of natural products in combination can be a potent alternative hurdle strategy to inactivate foodborne pathogens. Here, we explored pro-oxidant properties of essential oil inalool and itamin C in combination with opper (LVC) in combating foodborne pathogens and a subsp. Read More

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December 2018

Direct-Acting Antivirals in Hepatitis C Virus-Associated Diffuse Large B-cell Lymphomas.

Oncologist 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Department of Molecular Medicine, University of Pavia, Pavia, Italy.

Background: International guidelines suggest hepatitis C virus (HCV) eradication by direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) after first-line immunochemotherapy (I-CT) in patients with HCV-positive diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), although limited experiences substantiate this recommendation. Moreover, only a few data concerning concurrent administration of DAAs with I-CT have been reported.

Subjects, Materials, And Methods: We analyzed hematological and virological outcome and survival of 47 consecutive patients with HCV-positive DLBCL treated at 23 Italian and French centers with DAAs either concurrently (concurrent cohort []: = 9) or subsequently (sequential cohort []: = 38) to first-line I-CT (mainly rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine and prednisone [R-CHOP]-like). Read More

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December 2018

Patient-Reported Toxicities During Chemotherapy Regimens in Current Clinical Practice for Early Breast Cancer.

Oncologist 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

School of Medicine, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, USA.

Background: This study explores the incidence of patient-reported major toxicity-symptoms rated "moderate," "severe," or "very severe"-for chemotherapy regimens commonly used in early breast cancer.

Patients And Methods: Female patients aged 21 years or older completed a validated Patient-Reported Symptom Monitoring instrument and rated 17 symptoms throughout adjuvant or neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Fisher's exact tests compared differences in percentages in symptom ratings, and general linear regression was used to model the incidence of patient-reported major toxicity. Read More

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December 2018

Phase II Randomized Trial of Sequential or Concurrent FOLFOXIRI-Bevacizumab Versus FOLFOX-Bevacizumab for Metastatic Colorectal Cancer (STEAM).

Oncologist 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Sarah Cannon Research Institute/Tennessee Oncology, Nashville, Tennessee, USA.

Background: First-line treatment for metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) typically entails a biologic such as bevacizumab (BEV) with 5-fluorouracil/leucovorin/oxaliplatin (FOLFOX) or 5-fluorouracil/leucovorin/irinotecan (FOLFIRI). STEAM (NCT01765582) assessed the efficacy of BEV plus FOLFOX/FOLFIRI (FOLFOXIRI), administered concurrently (cFOLFOXIRI-BEV) or sequentially (sFOLFOXIRI-BEV, FOLFOX-BEV alternating with FOLFIRI-BEV), versus FOLFOX-BEV for mCRC.

Patients And Methods: Patients with previously untreated mCRC ( = 280) were randomized 1:1:1 to cFOLFOXIRI-BEV, sFOLFOXIRI-BEV, or FOLFOX-BEV and treated with 4-6-month induction followed by maintenance. Read More

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December 2018

Safety and Activity of Sorafenib in Addition to Vinflunine in Post-Platinum Metastatic Urothelial Carcinoma (Vinsor): Phase I Trial.

Oncologist 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Department of Oncology-Pathology, Karolinska Institutet, Solna, Sweden.

Lessons Learned: First trial to report safety and activity of the microtubule inhibitor vinflunine plus the tyrosine kinase inhibitor sorafenib in post-platinum metastatic urothelial cancer (mUC) patients.A recommended phase II dose was identified for the treatment combination of vinflunine plus sorafenib, with main adverse events including fatigue, febrile neutropenia, neutropenia, hypertension, and hyponatremia.An overall response rate of 41% to second-line vinflunine plus sorafenib treatment in patients with platinum-resistant mUC was confirmed. Read More

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December 2018

Are We Choosing Wisely With Autologous Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation Screening? The Utility of Pulmonary Function Testing Prior to Autologous Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation.

Clin Lymphoma Myeloma Leuk 2018 Nov 12. Epub 2018 Nov 12.

Faculty of Medicine, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada; The Ottawa Hospital Blood and Marrow Transplant Program, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada; Ottawa Hospital Research Institute, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada. Electronic address:

Introduction: Despite the risk of morbidity and mortality associated with autologous hematopoietic cell transplantation (ASCT), there are no clear guidelines as to how to screen for these risks. This study sought to determine the utility of pulmonary function tests (PFTs) prior to ASCT on predicting posttransplant clinical outcomes.

Patients And Methods: Patients undergoing ASCT between 2010 and 2012 at the Ottawa Hospital (n = 172) were reviewed. Read More

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November 2018

Muscoloskeletal aging, sarcopenia and cancer.

J Geriatr Oncol 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Rome 00168, Italy.

In the context of the management of the elderly patient with cancer, currently, a key topic may be expressed by sarcopenia. Sarcopenia in its various definitions and ambiguities in the older adult is always related to negative outcomes. A close correlation between sarcopenia and adverse outcomes such as treatment response or toxicity has also been shown in the patient with cancer. Read More

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December 2018

Second-line treatment efficacy and toxicity in older vs. non-older patients with advanced gastric cancer: A multicentre real-world study.

J Geriatr Oncol 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Department of Oncology, University and General Hospital, Udine, Italy; Department of Oncology, San Bortolo General Hospital, ULSS8 Berica - East District, Vicenza, Italy. Electronic address:

Objectives: Although gastric cancer (GC) incidence rises with age, older patients are poorly represented in clinical trials, whose results are therefore difficult to translate into standard management of older patients. Purpose of this study was to compare clinico-pathological features and survival outcomes between older and non-older patients with advanced GC treated with at least two chemotherapy lines.

Materials And Methods: Clinico-pathological characteristics, basal values, and treatment data of older (≥70 years at second-line start) and non-older patients were compared using chi-square test or 2-tailed Fisher exact test. Read More

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December 2018

The role of definitive chemoradiation in patients with non-metastatic oesophageal cancer.

Best Pract Res Clin Gastroenterol 2018 Oct - Dec;36-37:53-59. Epub 2018 Nov 21.

Amsterdam University Medical Centers, Cancer Center Amsterdam, Location Academic Medical Center, Department of Radiation Oncology, Meibergdreef 9; B0-107, 1105 AZ, Amsterdam, Netherlands. Electronic address:

Definitive chemoradiation (dCRT) is a curative treatment option for patients with oesophageal cancer. It is effective in both adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma. However, locoregional control is less after dCRT compared to preoperative CRT (pCRT) followed by surgery. Read More

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November 2018

Transcriptomic analyses uncover emerging roles of mucins, lysosome/secretory addressing and detoxification pathways in insect midguts.

Curr Opin Insect Sci 2018 Oct 5;29:34-40. Epub 2018 Jun 5.

Laboratório de Química e Função de Proteínas e Peptídeos, Centro de Biociências e Biotecnologia, Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense Darcy Ribeiro, Campos dos Goytacazes, Brazil.

The study of insect midgut features has been made possible by the recent availability of transcriptome datasets. These data uncovered the preferential expression of mucus-forming mucins at midgut regions that require protection (e.g. Read More

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October 2018

Polyurethanes as New Excipients in Nail Therapeutics.

Pharmaceutics 2018 Dec 13;10(4). Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Research Institute for Medicine (iMed.ULisboa), Faculty of Pharmacy, Universidade de Lisboa, 1649-003 Lisboa, Portugal.

Onychomycosis affects about 15% of the population. This disease causes physical and psychosocial discomfort to infected patients. Topical treatment (creams, solutions, gels, colloidal carriers, and nail lacquers) is usually the most commonly required due to the high toxicity of oral drugs. Read More

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December 2018

DPYD, TYMS and MTHFR Genes Polymorphism Frequencies in a Series of Turkish Colorectal Cancer Patients.

J Pers Med 2018 Dec 13;8(4). Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Personalized Medicine and Pharmacogenomics/Genomics Research Centre-BIFAGEM, Izmir 35350, Turkey..

Fluoropyrimidine-based chemotherapy is extensively used for the treatment of solid cancers, including colorectal cancer. However, fluoropyrimidine-driven toxicities are a major problem in the management of the disease. The grade and type of the toxicities depend on demographic factors, but substantial inter-individual variation in fluoropyrimidine-related toxicity is partly explained by genetic factors. Read More

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December 2018
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Effect of Coenzyme Q Supplementation on Testosterone.

Biomolecules 2018 Dec 13;8(4). Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Department of Medical Laboratory Sciences, Jordan University of Science and Technology, Irbid 22110, Jordan.

Enhancing testosterone production in males is a continuous research direction for many scientists in the field, due to its role as a principal sex hormone and as a crucial modulator of well-being and general health in humans. Since 1978, there have been more than 30 studies that have connected coenzyme Q and testosterone. Such a link is attributable to the vigorous biological role of coenzyme Q as a crucial member in the energy production route in humans and animals, which is thought to have a positive influence on testosterone production, and hence on infertility, particularly male infertility. Read More

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December 2018

Protective effect of Centella asiatica against -galactose and aluminium chloride induced rats: Behavioral and ultrastructural approaches.

Biomed Pharmacother 2019 Jan 5;109:853-864. Epub 2018 Nov 5.

Department of Human Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Selangor, Malaysia. Electronic address:

Background: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder and the commonest cause of dementia among the aged people. -galactose (D-gal) is a senescence agent, while aluminium is a known neurotoxin linked to pathogenesis of AD. The combined administration of rats with d-gal and aluminium chloride (AlCl) is considered to be an easy and a cheap method to obtain an animal model of AD. Read More

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January 2019

An overview of plant-based interventions to ameliorate arsenic toxicity.

Biomed Pharmacother 2019 Jan 5;109:838-852. Epub 2018 Nov 5.

Centre for Nanotechnology & Advanced Biomaterials (CeNTAB), SASTRA Deemed-to-be University, Thanjavur, 613 401, India. Electronic address:

The industrial and technological advancements in the world have also contributed to the rapid deterioration in the environment quality through introduction of obnoxious pollutants that threaten to destroy the subtle balance in the ecosystem. The environment contaminants cause severe adverse effects to humans, flora and fauna that are mostly irreversible. Chief among these toxicants is arsenic, a metalloid, which is considered among the most dangerous environmental toxins that leads to various diseases which affect the quality of life even when present in small quantities. Read More

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January 2019

In vivo antileishmanial efficacy of a naphthoquinone derivate incorporated into a Pluronic F127-based polymeric micelle system against Leishmania amazonensis infection.

Biomed Pharmacother 2019 Jan 5;109:779-787. Epub 2018 Nov 5.

Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências da Saúde: Infectologia e Medicina Tropical, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, 30130-100, Minas Gerais, Brazil; Departamento de Patologia Clínica, COLTEC, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, 31270-901, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Electronic address:

New therapeutic strategies against leishmaniasis are desirable, since the treatment against disease presents problems, such as the toxicity, high cost and/or parasite resistance. As consequence, new antileishmanial compounds are necessary to be identified, as presenting high activity against Leishmania parasites, but low toxicity in mammalian hosts. Flau-A is a naphthoquinone derivative recently showed to presents an in vitro effective action against Leishmania amazonensis and L. Read More

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January 2019

Cardiac and pulmonary toxicity of mesoporous silica nanoparticles is associated with excessive ROS production and redox imbalance in Wistar rats.

Biomed Pharmacother 2019 Jan 3;109:2527-2538. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Materials Science and Nanotechnology Department, Faculty of Postgraduate Studies for Advanced Sciences (PSAS), Beni-Suef University, Egypt.

Mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) represent one of the most promising drug delivery systems. MSNs have attracted considerable attention in recent years both in industry and biomedicine due to their unique properties. Thus, evaluation of the toxic effects of MSNs is necessary before the biomedical and clinical applications. Read More

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January 2019

The arrival of predictive biomarkers for monitoring therapy response to natural compounds in cancer drug discovery.

Biomed Pharmacother 2019 Jan 1;109:2492-2498. Epub 2018 Dec 1.

Faculty of Medicine and Pharmacy, Mohamed I(st) University, Oujda, Morocco; Department of Medical Oncology, Mohamed VI University Hospital, Oujda, Morocco.

Intrinsic or acquired drug resistance, adverse drug reactions and tumor heterogeneity between and within cancer patients limit the efficacy of clinical management of advanced cancers. To overcome these barriers, predictive biomarkers have recently emerged to guide medical oncologists in the selection of cancer patients who will respond to various anticancer treatments and to improve the toxicity to benefit ratio. Notably, targeted therapy has significantly benefited from these advances, but the application of predictive biomarkers have been a bit slower with some drugs derived from natural sources such as trabectedin, cabazitaxel and alvocidib. Read More

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January 2019

Wild edible onions - Allium flavum and Allium carinatum - successfully prevent adverse effects of chemotherapeutic drug doxorubicin.

Biomed Pharmacother 2019 Jan 1;109:2482-2491. Epub 2018 Dec 1.

University of Belgrade, Faculty of Biology, Studentski trg 16, 11000 Belgrade, Serbia.

The objective of this study was to evaluate potential of two chemically characterized edible wild onion species, Allium flavum and Allium carinatum, to reduce side effects of cytostatic doxorubicin (Dox). Since Dox application is mainly limited due to its high cardiotoxicity, while there are no approved cardioprotective agents for the prevention of Dox adverse effects, new co-treatments are urgently needed. Here, we showed that methanol extracts expressed high antioxidant activity and synergistically increased Dox anticancer activity against human hepatoma (HepG2) and lung carcinoma (A549) cells, while protected normal human fibroblasts (MRC-5) from Dox cytotoxicity. Read More

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January 2019

Differential toxicities of triptolide to immortalized podocytes and the podocytes in vivo.

Biomed Pharmacother 2019 Jan 30;109:2375-2386. Epub 2018 Nov 30.

National Clinical Research Center of Kidney Diseases, Jinling Hospital, Nanjing University School of Medicine, Nanjing, China.

Triptolide (TP) has an anti-proteinuric effect and is used for the treatment of podocytopathies. TP has also been shown to act directly on immortalized podocytes in culture to protect them from injury. In the present study, we examined the effect of TP on healthy podocytes both in vitro and in vivo to better understand the action of TP on podocytes. Read More

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January 2019

Alpinia oxyphylla oil induces apoptosis of hepatocellular carcinoma cells via PI3K/Akt pathway in vitro and in vivo.

Biomed Pharmacother 2019 Jan 30;109:2365-2374. Epub 2018 Nov 30.

Department of Clinical Pharmacy, Shenyang Pharmaceutical University, Shenyang 110016, China; Department of Pharmacy, General Hospital of Shenyang Military Area Command, Shenyang 110840, China. Electronic address:

Background: The anti-tumor properties of Alpinia oxyphylla Miquel (A. oxyphylla) extracts and their petroleum ether (PE) fractions have long attracted scientific attention. These extracts' anti-tumor activity and mechanisms in vivo are still unclear. Read More

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January 2019
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Traditional Chinese medicine Gegen Qinlian decoction ameliorates irinotecan chemotherapy-induced gut toxicity in mice.

Biomed Pharmacother 2019 Jan 28;109:2252-2261. Epub 2018 Nov 28.

School of Pharmacy, Chengdu University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Chengdu 611137, China. Electronic address:

Background: Gegen Qinlian decoction (GQT), is a classic traditional Chinese medicine formula chronicled in Shang Han Lun, and is widely used to treat diarrhea and inflammation symptoms in various gastrointestinal disorders. Although it has been found to inhibit delayed-onset mice diarrhea resulted from irinotecan (CPT-11) administration in preliminary experiments, the underlying mechanisms and chemical components remain elusive.

Methods: The effective fraction of GQT by macroporous resin elution was obtained and screened using a diarrhea mouse model induced by CPT-11 and quantified by UPLC analysis. Read More

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January 2019
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Breast cancer resistance protein is the enemy of hypericin accumulation and toxicity of hypericin-mediated photodynamic therapy.

Biomed Pharmacother 2019 Jan 27;109:2173-2181. Epub 2018 Nov 27.

Institute of Biology and Ecology, Department of Cellular Biology, Faculty of Science, Pavol Jozef Šafárik University in Košice, Šrobárova 2, 041 54 Košice, Slovakia. Electronic address:

Breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) belongs to the family of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters, overexpression of which can confer a multidrug-resistant phenotype in cancer cells and tumors. BCRP mediates efflux of numerous xenobiotics, including various chemotherapeutic agents and photosensitizers. Hypericin (HY) is a naturally-occurring photosensitizer synthesized by plants of the genus Hypericum. Read More

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January 2019

Protective effect of N-acetylcysteine on MK-801-induced testicular oxidative stress in mice.

Biomed Pharmacother 2019 Jan 26;109:1988-1993. Epub 2018 Nov 26.

Bayat Vocational School, Afyon Kocatepe University, Afyonkarahisar, Turkey.

Experimental studies indicate that MK-801 causes organ injury in schizophrenic mice testes although it is molecular mechanism has not been clearly defined. In this study, we investigated the probable protective effect of N-Acetylcysteine (NAC) against MK-801- induced testicular toxicity in mice. In total, 24 Balb/C male mice were divided into 4 equal groups: the animals in the control group (vehicle treated) were intraperitoneally given 10 mL/kg/day saline solution, the animals in the experiment groups were intraperitoneally given 1 mg/kg/day MK-801 alone, 100 mg/kg/day NAC alone and MK-801 by 1 mg/kg/day for 14 days. Read More

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January 2019

Dual-function of triptriolide in podocytes injury: inhibiting of apoptosis and restoring of survival.

Biomed Pharmacother 2019 Jan 26;109:1932-1939. Epub 2018 Nov 26.

The Second Clinical Medical College, and Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Clinical Research on Traditional Chinese Medicine Syndrome, Guangzhou University of Chinese Medicine, Guangzhou, 510006, P.R. China; Guangdong Provincial Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences, Guangzhou, 510006, P.R. China. Electronic address:

Triptriolide (T11) is a natural diterpene diepoxide that derived from Chinese traditional herb medicine (TCHM) Tripterygium wilfordii Hook.F (TWHF). From a structural point of view, T11 is very similar to triptolide (T9), one of the most effectively compounds in TWHF that have already been systematically investigated in the past decades. Read More

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January 2019

Investigation of the antitumor activity and toxicity of long-circulating and fusogenic liposomes co-encapsulating paclitaxel and doxorubicin in a murine breast cancer animal model.

Biomed Pharmacother 2019 Jan 21;109:1728-1739. Epub 2018 Nov 21.

Department of Pharmaceutical Products, Faculty of Pharmacy, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Av. Antônio Carlos, 6627, 31270-901, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Electronic address:

To associate paclitaxel (PTX) with doxorubicin (DXR) is one of the main chemotherapy strategies for breast cancer (BC) management. Despite the high response rates for this combination, it presents a cardiotoxic synergism, attributed to pharmacokinetic interactions between PTX and both DXR and its metabolite, doxorubicinol. One of the main strategies to minimize the cardiotoxicity of the combination is to extend the interval of time between DXR and PTX administration. Read More

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January 2019

Establishment of in vitro and in vivo anti-colon cancer efficacy of essential oils containing oleo-gum resin extract of Mesua ferrea.

Biomed Pharmacother 2019 Jan 15;109:1620-1629. Epub 2018 Nov 15.

EMAN Testing and Research Laboratory, Department of Pharmacology, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Universti Sains Malaysia, Penang, 11800, Malaysia; ACRF Department of Cancer Biology and Therapeutics, The John Curtin School of Medical Research, Australian National University, Australia. Electronic address:

Proven the great potential of essential oils as anticancer agents, the current study intended to explore molecular mechanisms responsible for in vitro and in vivo anti-colon cancer efficacy of essential oil containing oleo-gum resin extract (RH) of Mesua ferrea. MTT cell viability studies showed that RH had broad spectrum cytotoxic activities. However, it induced more profound growth inhibitory effects towards two human colon cancer cell lines i. Read More

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January 2019
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Piperlongumine, a piper alkaloid targets Ras/PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling axis to inhibit tumor cell growth and proliferation in DMH/DSS induced experimental colon cancer.

Biomed Pharmacother 2019 Jan 13;109:1462-1477. Epub 2018 Nov 13.

Department of Biochemistry Basic Medical Science Block-II Sector-25, South Campus, Panjab University, Chandigarh 160014, India. Electronic address:

Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the most common carcinoma of the digestive tract. The slow growing nature of CRC offers a great opportunity for prevention strategies. The concept of chemoprevention of colorectal cancer using plant derived natural products is gaining substantial attention because it is an inherently safe and cost-effective alternative to conventional cancer therapies. Read More

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January 2019
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