3,113 results match your criteria Toxicity Cyanide


Secretion of the siderophore rhizoferrin is regulated by the cAMP-PKA pathway and is involved in the virulence of Mucor lusitanicus.

Sci Rep 2022 Jun 23;12(1):10649. Epub 2022 Jun 23.

Instituto de Investigaciones Químico Biológicas, Universidad Michoacana de San Nicolás de Hidalgo (UMSNH), Morelia, Michoacán, Mexico.

Mucormycosis is a fungal infection caused by Mucorales, with a high mortality rate. However, only a few virulence factors have been described in these organisms. This study showed that deletion of rfs, which encodes the enzyme for the biosynthesis of rhizoferrin, a siderophore, in Mucor lusitanicus, led to a lower virulence in diabetic mice and nematodes. Read More

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Recent Development in Coordination Compounds as a Sensor for Cyanide Ions in Biological and Environmental Segments.

Crit Rev Anal Chem 2022 Jun 7:1-21. Epub 2022 Jun 7.

Department of Chemistry, University of Okara, Okara, Punjab, Pakistan.

Rapid detection of toxic ions has taken great attention in the last few decades due to its importance in maintaining a greener environment for human beings. The extreme toxicity of cyanide (CN) ions is a great environmental concern as its continued industrial use generates interest in facile and sensitive methods for CN ions detection. Since CN ions act as a ligand in coordination chemistry which rapidly coordinates with suitable metals and forms complexes, this ability was mainly explored in its detection. Read More

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Potential cyanide poisoning reported to the UK national poisons information service: 2008-2019.

Clin Toxicol (Phila) 2022 May 30:1-8. Epub 2022 May 30.

National Poisons Information Service, Cardiff Unit, University Hospital Llandough, Penarth, UK.

Introduction: Cyanide is a prevalent, lethal chemical. Possible sources of exposure include products of combustion, plant material, industry, chemical warfare and terrorism.

Methods: Retrospective review of UK Poisons Information Database of telephone enquiries to the National Poisons Information Service between 1 January 2008 and 31 December 2019 where cyanide poisoning was considered a possibility. Read More

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The Complex Role of Lactic Acid Bacteria in Food Detoxification.

Nutrients 2022 May 12;14(10). Epub 2022 May 12.

Institute of Chemical Engineering, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, 1113 Sofia, Bulgaria.

Toxic ingredients in food can lead to serious food-related diseases. Such compounds are bacterial toxins (Shiga-toxin, listeriolysin, Botulinum toxin), mycotoxins (aflatoxin, ochratoxin, zearalenone, fumonisin), pesticides of different classes (organochlorine, organophosphate, synthetic pyrethroids), heavy metals, and natural antinutrients such as phytates, oxalates, and cyanide-generating glycosides. The generally regarded safe (GRAS) status and long history of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) as essential ingredients of fermented foods and probiotics make them a major biological tool against a great variety of food-related toxins. Read More

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Cyanide Content of Cassava Food Products Available in Australia.

Foods 2022 May 11;11(10). Epub 2022 May 11.

School of Biological Sciences, Monash University, Clayton, VIC 3800, Australia.

In 2009, Food Standards Australia New Zealand set a total cyanide content limit of 10 ppm for ready-to-eat cassava products to address food safety concerns about cyanogenic glucosides in cassava. This study surveys a range of cassava food products available in Melbourne, Australia, ten years after the implementation of these regulations. Of all the products tested, the mean cyanide content was greatest in ready-to-eat cassava chips (48. Read More

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Evaluation of interactions in chemical mixtures containing cyanides.

Regul Toxicol Pharmacol 2022 Jul 21;132:105187. Epub 2022 May 21.

Office of the Associate Director for Science, Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Atlanta, 30333, Georgia.

Cyanides are highly toxic chemicals found indoors and outdoors, in air, water, and soil. Environmental exposures often are to mixtures of cyanides with other environmental pollutants. Interactive toxicology is the study of the toxicity of a chemical when it occurs with other chemicals or stressors. Read More

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Elevated methemoglobin levels in patients treated with hydroxocobalamin: a case series and analysis.

Clin Toxicol (Phila) 2022 May 12:1-7. Epub 2022 May 12.

Wright State Boonshoft School of Medicine, Dayton, OH, USA.

Background: Historically, the first step in treating cyanide (CN) toxicity utilized antidotes to induce methemoglobinemia. This is concerning in patients who are already hypoxemic or have elevated carboxyhemoglobin. Hydroxocobalamin (OHCbl) is now the first-line antidote for CN toxicity and is not known to induce methemoglobinemia. Read More

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Peptide-based colorimetric and fluorescent dual-functional probe for sequential detection of copper(Ⅱ) and cyanide ions and its application in real water samples, test strips and living cells.

Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc 2022 Aug 6;276:121222. Epub 2022 Apr 6.

Key Laboratory for Tibet Plateau Phytochemistry of Qinghai Province, College of Pharmacy, Qinghai Nationalities University, Xining 810007, PR China. Electronic address:

A novel dual-functional peptide probe FLH based on fluorescent "on-off-on" strategy and colorimetric visualization method was designed and synthesized. This new probe exhibited highly selective and rapid detection of Cu with significant fluorescent "turn-off" response, with a visible colorimetric change from yellow to orange. The combination ratio of FLH to Cu (1:1) was determined using ESI-HRMS spectra and Job's plot. Read More

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Oxidative Stress and DNA Damage Effect of Dennst. on Placental Tissues of Rats.

Molecules 2022 Mar 28;27(7). Epub 2022 Mar 28.

Herbal Medicine Research Centre, Institute for Medical Research, National Institutes of Health, Jalan Setia Murni U13/52, Seksyen U13, Setia Alam, Shah Alam 40170, Selangor, Malaysia.

Dennst. locally known as "ubi gadung" has been used as a traditional remedy and source of carbohydrate among Malaysians. To assess the effect of aqueous extract (DHAE) on the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and their effects on DNA damage in Sprague Dawley rat's placental tissues, pregnant rats were randomly divided into four groups. Read More

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β-Cyanoalanine Synthase Protects Mites against Arabidopsis Defenses.

Plant Physiol 2022 Mar 28. Epub 2022 Mar 28.

Department of Biology, The University of Western Ontario, 1151 Richmond Street, London, ON N6A 5B7, Canada.

Glucosinolates are antiherbivory chemical defense compounds in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). Specialist herbivores that feed on brassicaceous plants have evolved various mechanisms aimed at preventing the formation of toxic isothiocyanates. By contrast, generalist herbivores typically detoxify isothiocyanates through glutathione conjugation upon exposure. Read More

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Quinoline based thiosemicarbazones as colorimetric chemosensors for fluoride and cyanide ions and DFT studies.

Sci Rep 2022 03 23;12(1):4927. Epub 2022 Mar 23.

Institute of Chemical Sciences, Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan, 60800, Pakistan.

High toxicity and extensive accessibility of fluoride and cyanide ions in diverse environmental media encouraged attention for scheming well-organized probes for their detection. Keeping in mind we have designed and synthesized thiosemicarbazone-based chemosensors RB-1, RB-2 and RB-3 for the detection of fluoride and cyanide ions. The structural elucidation of the synthesized chemosensors is done by employing different analytical techniques including nuclear magnetic resonance and electronic absorption specrtoscopies. Read More

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Glyoxylate protects against cyanide toxicity through metabolic modulation.

Sci Rep 2022 03 23;12(1):4982. Epub 2022 Mar 23.

Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, College of Pharmacy, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT, 84112, USA.

Although cyanide's biological effects are pleiotropic, its most obvious effects are as a metabolic poison. Cyanide potently inhibits cytochrome c oxidase and potentially other metabolic enzymes, thereby unleashing a cascade of metabolic perturbations that are believed to cause lethality. From systematic screens of human metabolites using a zebrafish model of cyanide toxicity, we have identified the TCA-derived small molecule glyoxylate as a potential cyanide countermeasure. Read More

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Thiocyanate toxicity: a teaching case.

Clin Toxicol (Phila) 2022 Mar 4:1-6. Epub 2022 Mar 4.

Harvard Medical Toxicology Program, Boston Children's Hospital, Boston, MA, USA.

Thiocyanate can cause gastrointestinal, neurologic, and cardiovascular toxicity. Additionally, it interferes with multiple laboratory assays. We present a case of acute thiocyanate toxicity. Read More

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Extending the benefits of PGPR to bioremediation of nitrile pollution in crop lands for enhancing crop productivity.

Sci Total Environ 2022 Jun 25;826:154170. Epub 2022 Feb 25.

Department of Mycology and Plant Pathology, Institute of Agricultural Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 221110, India. Electronic address:

Incessant release of nitrile group of compounds such as cyanides into agricultural land through industrial effluents and excessive use of nitrile pesticides has resulted in increased nitrile pollution. Release of nitrile compounds (NCs) as plant root exudates is also contributing to the problem. The released NCs interact with soil elements and persists for a long time. Read More

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Treatment of pyridine in industrial liquid waste by atmospheric DC water plasma.

J Hazard Mater 2022 05 31;430:128381. Epub 2022 Jan 31.

Department of Chemical Engineering, Kyushu University, Fukuoka 819-0395, Japan. Electronic address:

Pyridine is a basic heterocyclic compound with high toxicity, widely found in liquid waste from industrial processes. The treatment of highly-concentrated pyridine was demonstrated using a novel mist-type water thermal plasma torch. Decomposition rate and TOC removal rate were more than 94% in all conditions, while the max energy efficiency reached about 23 g/kWh. Read More

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The adenosine A receptor antagonist protects against retinal mitochondrial injury in association with an altered network of competing endogenous RNAs.

Neuropharmacology 2022 05 9;208:108981. Epub 2022 Feb 9.

The Molecular Neuropharmacology Laboratory and the Eye-Brain Research Center, The State Key Laboratory of Ophthalmology, Optometry and Vision Science, School of Optometry and Ophthalmology, Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou, 325000, China. Electronic address:

Blockade of adenosine A receptors (ARs) protects against neuronal damage caused by various brain insults including mitochondrial toxicity, but the precise neuroprotective mechanisms are unclear. Here, we studied the effects of the AR antagonist KW6002 on retinal injury induced by the mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation uncoupler, carbonylcyanide m-chlorophenyl hydrazine (CCCP) and alterations in competing endogenous RNA (ceRNA) network. We found that KW6002 treatment partially reversed CCCP-induced reduction in retinal thickness and retinal ganglia cell number by increasing mitochondrial content and reducing retinal ganglia cells apoptosis. Read More

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Albumin binds to uncoupler CCCP to diminish depolarization of mitochondria.

Toxicol In Vitro 2022 Apr 1;80:105325. Epub 2022 Feb 1.

Department of Biochemistry, Sree Chitra Tirunal Institute for Medical Sciences and Technology, Trivandrum 695011, Kerala, India. Electronic address:

Mitochondria are at the core of cellular energy metabolism and are also involved in the oxidative stress response and programmed cell death pathways. Mitochondrial dysfunction is found to be associated with many disease conditions like metabolic syndrome, neurodegenerative disorders, coronary artery diseases, cancer, etc. This has generated considerable interest in the scientific community over the assessment of mitochondrial function and mitochondrial damage. Read More

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Smoke inhalation injury: a narrative review.

Authors:
Rita Galeiras

Mediastinum 2021 25;5:16. Epub 2021 Jun 25.

Complexo Hospitalario Universitario, A Coruna, Spain; Burn Unit, Instituto de Investigacion Biomedica de A Coruna, A Coruna, Spain.

Burn Units frequently provide care to patients who have burn injuries and concomitant smoke inhalation injury. Inhalation damage is a complex multifaceted lung and systemic disease process, and the leading cause of mortality and morbidity in victims of fire tragedies. The degree of airway injury depends on the composition of smoke and the duration of smoke exposure. Read More

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Nitric oxide alleviates salt-induced stress damage by regulating the ascorbate-glutathione cycle and Na/K homeostasis in Nitraria tangutorum Bobr.

Plant Physiol Biochem 2022 Jan 21;173:46-58. Epub 2022 Jan 21.

Key Laboratory of Forage and Endemic Crop Biotechnology, Ministry of Education, School of Life Sciences, Inner Mongolia University, Hohhot, China; State Key Laboratory of Reproductive Regulation and Breeding of Grassland Livestock, Hohhot, China. Electronic address:

Nitric oxide (NO) is an important signaling molecule involved in mediation of salt stress induced physiological responses in plants. In this study, we investigated the effect of NO on Nitraria tangutorum seedlings exposed to salt stress. Exogenous application of NO donor, sodium nitroprusside (SNP) increased fresh weight, shoot and root elongation and decreased electrolyte leakage and malondialdehyde (MDA) content in N. Read More

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January 2022

Colorimetric and turn-on fluorescent chemosensor with large stokes shift for sensitively probing cyanide anion in real samples and living systems.

Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc 2022 Apr 10;271:120882. Epub 2022 Jan 10.

Co-Innovation Center of Efficient Processing and Utilization of Forest Resources, International Innovation Center for Forest Chemicals and Materials, College of Light Industry and Food, College of Chemical Engineering, Nanjing Forestry University, Nanjing 210037, China. Electronic address:

Cyanide anion is a ubiquitous chemical substance in the ecosystem, however, human daily life is severely threatened by its toxicity at any time. In this paper, a novel colorimetric and turn-on chemosensor 4-(4-(2,2-difluoro-6-methyl-2H-1,3,2-dioxaborinin-4-yl)buta-1,3-dien-1-yl)-N,N-dimethylaniline (NBF) for detecting cyanide anion was synthesized based on the 4-(dimethylamino)cinnamaldehyde and β-diketone difluoroboron complex. This fluorescent probe exhibited excellent spectroscopy properties such as large stokes shift, long emission wavelength, and good sensitivity. Read More

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Early detection of cyanide, organophosphate and rodenticide pollution based on locomotor activity of zebrafish larvae.

PeerJ 2021 22;9:e12703. Epub 2021 Dec 22.

The Department of Criminal Science and Technology, Zhejiang Police College, Key Laboratory of Drug Prevention and Control Technology of Zhejiang Province, Hangzhou, Zhejiang province, People's Republic of China.

Cyanide, organophosphate and rodenticides are highly toxic substances widely used in agriculture and industry. These toxicants are neuro- and organotoxic to mammals at low concentrations, thus early detection of these chemicals in the aqueous environment is of utmost importance. Here, we employed the behavioral toxicity test with wildtype zebrafish larvae to determine sublethal concentrations of the above mentioned common environmental pollutants. Read More

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December 2021

Multifunctional Biodegradable Prussian Blue Analogue for Synergetic Photothermal/Photodynamic/Chemodynamic Therapy and Intrinsic Tumor Metastasis Inhibition.

ACS Appl Bio Mater 2021 09 19;4(9):7081-7093. Epub 2021 Aug 19.

Department of Nutrition and Food Hygiene, Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Tropical Disease Research, School of Public Health, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou 510515, China.

To date, various Prussian blue analogues (PBAs) have been prepared for biomedical applications due to their unique structural advantages. However, the safety and effectiveness of tumor treatment still need further exploration. This contribution reports a facile synthesis of PBA with superior tumor synergetic therapeutic effects and a detailed mechanistic evaluation of their intrinsic tumor metastasis inhibition activity. Read More

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September 2021

Efficacy of citric acid chelate and Bacillus sp. in amelioration of cadmium and chromium toxicity in wheat.

Chemosphere 2022 Mar 16;290:133342. Epub 2021 Dec 16.

Botany and Microbiology Department, College of Science, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

Heavy metals contamination in agricultural soil is a major issue having drastic effects on plants and human health. To solve this issue, we have formulated and tested a new approach of fusion of inorganic (citric acid chelate) and organic (Bacillus sp.) amelioration methods for heavy metals. Read More

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Interactions Between and : From Stereoselectivity to Deamination as a Metabolic Detoxification Mechanism of Amygdalin.

Front Pharmacol 2021 26;12:744624. Epub 2021 Nov 26.

Inflammation and Immune Mediated Diseases Laboratory of Anhui Province, School of Pharmacy, Anhui Institute of Innovative Drugs, Institute for Liver Diseases of Anhui Medical University, Anhui Medical University, Hefei, China.

Mahuang-Xingren (MX, Stapf- L.) is a classic herb pair used in traditional Chinese medicine. This combined preparation reduces the toxicity of Xingren through the stereoselective metabolism of its amygdalin. Read More

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November 2021

CDK9 inhibition blocks the initiation of PINK1-PRKN-mediated mitophagy by regulating the SIRT1-FOXO3-BNIP3 axis and enhances the therapeutic effects involving mitochondrial dysfunction in hepatocellular carcinoma.

Autophagy 2021 Dec 10:1-19. Epub 2021 Dec 10.

State Key Laboratory of Natural Medicines, Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Carcinogenesis and Intervention, School of Basic Medical Sciences and Clinical Pharmacy, China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing, The People's Republic of China.

Mitophagy is a type of selective macroautophagy/autophagy that degrades dysfunctional or excessive mitochondria. Regulation of this process is critical for maintaining cellular homeostasis and has been closely implicated in acquired drug resistance. However, the regulatory mechanisms and influences of mitophagy in cancer are still unclear. Read More

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December 2021

Cyanide removal from aqueous environment by resting cells and PTFE immobilized cells of Sphingobacterium spp.

J Basic Microbiol 2022 Mar 6;62(3-4):444-454. Epub 2021 Dec 6.

Clinical Laboratory Sciences Department, College of Applied Medical Sciences, Taif University, Taif, Saudi Arabia.

Microbial detoxification of cyanide offered an inexpensive, safe, and viable alternative to physiochemical processes for the treatment of cyanide in industrial effluents or contaminated sites. This study involved isolation of novel strain with high resistance against cyanide toxicity and able to degrade the cyanide radical. The strain was isolated from rocky area and identified as Sphingobacterium multivorium using 16S ribosomal RNA. Read More

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Benzoindoxazine derivatives containing carbazole for detection of CN and its application in plant seed extracts and cell imaging.

Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc 2022 Mar 19;268:120644. Epub 2021 Nov 19.

School of Chemistry and Pharmaceutical Engineering, Shandong First Medical University & Shandong Academy of Medical Sciences, Taian 271016, PR China. Electronic address:

Cyanide (CN) is a highly toxic compound that exists in many substances and is harmful to the environment and human health. Therefore, it is of great significance to develop excellent CN ion probes, especially solvent-induced on-off fluorescent probes. Based on the condensation reaction of indolo[2,1-b][1,3]oxazine molecules with aldehydes, probes (E)-13a-(2-(9-ethyl-9H-carbazol-3-yl)vinyl)-14,14-dimethyl-10-nitro-13a,14-dihydro-8H-benzo[e]benzo[5,6][1,3]oxazino[3,2-a]indole (NCO) and (E)-13a-(2-(9-benzyl-9H-carbazol-3-yl)vinyl)-14,14-dimethyl-10-nitro-13a,14-dihydro-8H-benzo[e]benzo[5,6][1,3]oxazino[3,2-a]indole (NBO) were synthesized to detect CN. Read More

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Cavitas electrochemical sensors for the direct determination of salivary thiocyanate levels.

Mikrochim Acta 2021 11 9;188(12):415. Epub 2021 Nov 9.

Center of Excellence for Trace Analysis and Biosensor, Prince of Songkla University, Hat Yai, Songkhla, 90110, Thailand.

Noninvasive diagnosis using salivary samples to detect thiocyanate provides vital information on individual health. This article demonstrates the first example of a wearable sensing device to noninvasively assess thiocyanate levels. The customized screen-printed electrode system is integrated into a form of a mouthguard squarewave-voltammetric sensor toward the convenient and fast detection of the salivary biomarker within 15 s. Read More

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November 2021

Hydroxocobalamin Administration After Inhalation Injury Is Not Associated With Mesenteric Ischemia.

Ann Burns Fire Disasters 2021 Sep;34(3):240-244

Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, South Carolina, USA.

Hydroxocobalamin has been administered in the United States since 2006 by first responders and burn centers as a safe antidote for cyanide toxicity, a serious complication of smoke inhalation. There are no current contraindications to the use of this rescue measure. A recent retrospective French publication reported a potential correlation between hydroxcobalamin administration and acute mesenteric ischemia (AMI) in critically ill burn and inhalation injury patients. Read More

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September 2021

The ReSnO (Re = Nd, Sm, Gd) on the enhancement of fire safety and physical performance of Polyolefin/IFR cable materials.

J Colloid Interface Sci 2022 Feb 21;608(Pt 2):1652-1661. Epub 2021 Oct 21.

State Key Laboratory of Fire Science, University of Science and Technology of China, 96 Jinzhai Road, Hefei, Anhui 230026, PR China. Electronic address:

Polyolefin (PO) cables used in confined spaces need to have low smoke, low heat release, low toxic gas release and excellent physical properties. In this work, a series of rare earth stannates ReSnO (RES, Re = Nd, Sm, Gd) with high temperature catalytic performance were prepared by hydrothermal method for synergistic flame retardant PO/IFR. The flame retardancy, heat release, smoke density, toxic gas release and physical properties of PO composites were thoroughly studied in detail. Read More

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February 2022