2,587 results match your criteria Toxicity Cocaine


A case off TTP temporally associated with cocaine use: Implications for treatment of suspected DITMA.

J Clin Apher 2019 Feb 18. Epub 2019 Feb 18.

Department of Medicine, West Virginia University Hospital, Morgantown, West Virginia.

Thrombotic microangiopathies are rare diseases associated with significant morbidity and mortality. The treatment of thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP) and drug-induced thrombotic microangiopathy (DITMA) remains a diagnostic dilemma as they present similarly but respond differently to standard treatment with plasma exchange. TTP is a deficiency of a disintegrin and metalloprotease with thrombospondin type 1 motif 13 resulting in von Willebrand factor aggregates. Read More

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http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/jca.21687
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jca.21687DOI Listing
February 2019
3 Reads

Viral vector-mediated Cre recombinase expression in substantia nigra induces lesions of the nigrostriatal pathway associated with perturbations of dopamine-related behaviors and hallmarks of programmed cell death.

J Neurochem 2019 Feb 12. Epub 2019 Feb 12.

Sorbonne Université, INSERM, CNRS, Neuroscience Paris Seine, Institut de Biologie Paris Seine, 75005, Paris, France.

Cre/loxP recombination is a widely used approach to study gene function in vivo, using mice models expressing the Cre recombinase under the control of specific promoters or through viral delivery of Cre-expressing constructs. A profuse literature on transgenic mouse lines points out the deleterious effects of Cre expression in various cell types and tissues, presumably by acting on illegitimate loxP-like sites present in the genome. However, most studies reporting the consequences of Cre-lox gene invalidation often omit adequate controls to exclude the potential toxic effects of Cre, compromising the interpretation of data. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jnc.14684DOI Listing
February 2019
2 Reads

Cocaine Use and Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis: Adherence, Care Engagement, and Kidney Function.

J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 2019 Jan 25. Epub 2019 Jan 25.

Department of Public Health Sciences, University of Miami, FL.

Background: Concomitant use of cocaine and HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) raises important clinical questions around adherence, retention in care, and renal toxicity.

Methods: We assessed the associations of confirmed cocaine use with PrEP adherence (both ascertained via objective measures), care engagement, and renal function in the iPrEx open label extension. Cocaine use was measured in scalp hair samples and categorized as: light (500-3,000 pg/mg) and moderate to heavy (>3,000 pg/mg). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/QAI.0000000000001972DOI Listing
January 2019
2 Reads

Surgical care for ingested cocaine packets: Case report and literature review.

Int J Surg Case Rep 2019 Jan 29;55:84-87. Epub 2019 Jan 29.

Department of Surgery, Kendall Regional Medical Center, Miami, FL, United States; Department of Surgery, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL, United States.

Introduction: Body packing is the use of intra-corporeal packages of illicit drugs for the purpose of smuggling, usually through customs. Clinical cases and experience with body packers has increased since the first report appeared in 1971. These cases remain an uncommon cause of acute drug toxicity and/or bowel obstruction. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijscr.2019.01.013DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6360268PMC
January 2019
2 Reads

Epidemiology, clinical features and management of patients presenting to European emergency departments with acute cocaine toxicity: comparison between powder cocaine and crack cocaine cases.

Clin Toxicol (Phila) 2019 Jan 30:1-9. Epub 2019 Jan 30.

a Emergency Department , Hospital Clínic, Barcelona; IDIBAPS , Barcelona , Spain.

Objective: To analyse the epidemiology, clinical picture and emergency department (ED) management of a large series of patients who presented to European EDs after cocaine consumption, comparing data from powder (C group) and crack (C group) consumers.

Methods: Between October 2013 and December 2016, the Euro-DEN Plus Registry recorded 17,371 consecutive acute recreational drug toxicity presentations to 22 EDs in 14 European countries. Epidemiological and demographic data, co-ingestion of alcohol and other drugs, clinical features, ED management and outcome (death) were analysed for cocaine cases, and comparison of clinical picture in C and C patients were performed adjusting for alcohol and other drug co-ingestion. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15563650.2018.1549735DOI Listing
January 2019
1 Read

Benzimidazolone-based selective σ receptor ligands: Synthesis and pharmacological evaluation.

Eur J Med Chem 2019 Mar 9;165:250-257. Epub 2019 Jan 9.

Department of Medicinal Chemistry, College of Pharmacy, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, 32610, USA; Department of Medicinal Chemistry, School of Pharmacy, The University of Mississippi, University, Mississippi, 38677, USA. Electronic address:

Sigma receptors (σRs) are considered to be a significant and valid target for developing new medications to address several diseases. Their potential involvement in numerous central nervous system disorders, neuropathic pain, addiction, and cancer has been extensively reported. In particular, the σR has been identified as potential target for the development of pharmaceutical agents intended to treat the negative effects associated with drugs of abuse. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejmech.2019.01.019DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6369001PMC
March 2019
5 Reads

Antipsychotics for the treatment of sympathomimetic toxicity: A systematic review.

Am J Emerg Med 2019 Jan 6. Epub 2019 Jan 6.

Department of Emergency Medicine, McGill University Health Centre, Montréal, Québec, Canada; Centre Antipoison Du Québec, Montréal, Québec, Canada; Département d'urgence, Hôpital Charles-Lemoyne, Greenfield Park, Qc, Canada.

Objective: Benzodiazepines are often recommended first-line for management of cocaine and amphetamine toxicity while antipsychotic treatment is discouraged due to the potential for lowering seizure threshold, prolonging the QT interval, and decreasing heat dissipation. We performed a systematic review including animal and human studies to elucidate the efficacy and safety of antipsychotics in managing sympathomimetic toxicity specifically evaluating the effect of treatment on mortality, seizures, hyperthermia, and cardiovascular effects.

Methods: We searched MEDLINE, Embase, BIOSIS Previews, Web of Science, Scopus, CENTRAL and gray literature from inception to 31 May 2017 to answer: Can antipsychotics be used safely and effectively to treat cocaine or amphetamine toxicity? Citations were screened by title and abstract. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajem.2019.01.001DOI Listing
January 2019
2 Reads

Protective effects of minocycline, doxycycline and tetracycline on seizure and lethality in a mice cocaine toxicity model.

Am J Emerg Med 2019 Jan 7. Epub 2019 Jan 7.

Pamukkale University, 20070, Denizli, Turkey.

Introduction: Acute cocaine intoxication is one of the important causes of admission to emergency department, especially in western countries. We aimed to compare the efficacies of tetracycline, minocycline, doxycycline in the prevention of seizures and deaths in mice due to cocaine intoxication.

Methods: In the study, a total of 120 balb-c male mice weighing 25-30 g were randomized into 4 groups as tetracycline 255 mg/kg, minocycline 170 mg/kg, doxycycline 157 mg/kg, 0. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajem.2019.01.003DOI Listing
January 2019
5 Reads

Cardiovascular effects of 3,4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV) in male and female Sprague-Dawley rats.

Drug Alcohol Depend 2019 Feb 4;195:140-147. Epub 2019 Jan 4.

Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, College of Medicine, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, AR 72205, USA. Electronic address:

Background: 3,4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV) toxicity includes intense neurological and cardiovascular events. We examined MDPV-induced cardiovascular, temperature, and locomotor effects following escalating and repeated MDPV administration in adult male and female Sprague-Dawley rats and compared these effects to cocaine in male rats.

Methods: Telemetry devices were surgically implanted to allow continuous measurement of cardiovascular, temperature, and locomotor activity over a 22 h period after dosing. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2018.12.006DOI Listing
February 2019
2 Reads

Detection of Cutting Agents in Drug-Positive Seized Exhibits within the United States.

J Forensic Sci 2018 Nov 28. Epub 2018 Nov 28.

The Center for Forensic Science Research and Education at the Fredric Rieders Family Foundation, 2300 Stratford Ave, Willow Grove, PA, 19090.

The following report summarizes a study performed on seized drug exhibits collected in two U.S. states to evaluate the presence and identification of cutting agents. Read More

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http://doi.wiley.com/10.1111/1556-4029.13968
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1556-4029.13968DOI Listing
November 2018
8 Reads

Metabolomics predicts the pharmacological profile of new psychoactive substances.

J Psychopharmacol 2018 Nov 19:269881118812103. Epub 2018 Nov 19.

1 Integrative Pharmacology and Systems Neuroscience Research Group, Neurosciences Research Program, IMIM (Hospital del Mar Medical Research Institute), Barcelona, Spain.

Background:: The unprecedented proliferation of new psychoactive substances (NPS) threatens public health and challenges drug policy. Information on NPS pharmacology and toxicity is, in most cases, unavailable or very limited and, given the large number of new compounds released on the market each year, their timely evaluation by current standards is certainly challenging.

Aims:: We present here a metabolomics-targeted approach to predict the pharmacological profile of NPS. Read More

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http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/10.1177/0269881118812103
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0269881118812103DOI Listing
November 2018
25 Reads
3.593 Impact Factor

Changes in the gills of the European eel (Anguilla anguilla) after chronic exposure to environmental cocaine concentration.

Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 2019 Mar 13;169:112-119. Epub 2018 Nov 13.

Department of Biology, University of Naples Federico II, Via Cinthia, Edificio 7, 80126 Naples, Italy. Electronic address:

The recent discovery of illicit drugs in the aquatic environment has raised concerns about the possible effects on the aquatic fauna, because of the pharmacological activity of these substances. Cocaine is an illicit drug widespread in surface waters since it is the third most widely used drug in North America, Western and Central Europe, and the second in Latin America and the Caribbean. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of environmental concentrations of cocaine on the gills of the European eel (Anguilla anguilla). Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S01476513183114
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoenv.2018.11.010DOI Listing
March 2019
9 Reads

A Fentanyl Vaccine Alters Fentanyl Distribution and Protects against Fentanyl-Induced Effects in Mice and Rats.

J Pharmacol Exp Ther 2019 Feb 8;368(2):282-291. Epub 2018 Nov 8.

Hennepin Healthcare Research Institute (formerly Minneapolis Medical Research Foundation), Minneapolis, Minnesota (M.D.R., F.B., S.J.P., T.M.H., J.R.V., P.R.P., M.P.); Department of Medicinal Chemistry, University of Minnesota College of Pharmacy Minneapolis, Minnesota (M.L.N.); MLN BioPharma Consulting LLC (M.L.N.) Minneapolis, Minnesota; and Departments of Pharmacology (M.P.) and Medicine (P.R.P., M.P.), and Center for Immunology (M.P.), University of Minnesota Medical School, Minneapolis, Minnesota.

Fentanyl is an extremely potent synthetic opioid that has been increasingly used to adulterate heroin, cocaine, and counterfeit prescription pills, leading to an increase in opioid-induced fatal overdoses in the United States, Canada, and Europe. A vaccine targeting fentanyl could offer protection against the toxic effects of fentanyl in both recreational drug users and others in professions at risk of accidental exposure. This study focuses on the development of a vaccine consisting of a fentanyl-based hapten (F) conjugated to keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH) carrier protein or to GMP-grade subunit KLH (sKLH). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1124/jpet.118.253674DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6346379PMC
February 2019
5 Reads

Protein kinase Cδ knockout mice are protected from cocaine-induced hepatotoxicity.

Chem Biol Interact 2019 Jan 25;297:95-108. Epub 2018 Oct 25.

Neuropsychopharmacology and Toxicology Program, College of Pharmacy, Kangwon National University, Chunchon, 24341, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

We investigated whether protein kinase Cδ (PKCδ) mediates cocaine-induced hepatotoxicity in mice. Cocaine treatment (60 mg/kg, i.p. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S00092797183093
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cbi.2018.10.017DOI Listing
January 2019
6 Reads
2.577 Impact Factor

Cocaine reward is reduced by decreased expression of receptor-type protein tyrosine phosphatase D (PTPRD) and by a novel PTPRD antagonist.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2018 11 22;115(45):11597-11602. Epub 2018 Oct 22.

Addiction Biology, National Institute on Drug Abuse, Baltimore, MD 21224.

Receptor-type protein tyrosine phosphatase D (PTPRD) is a neuronal cell-adhesion molecule/synaptic specifier that has been implicated in addiction vulnerability and stimulant reward by human genomewide association and mouse cocaine-conditioned place-preference data. However, there have been no reports of effects of reduced expression on cocaine self-administration. There have been no reports of PTPRD targeting by any small molecule. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1720446115DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6233130PMC
November 2018
13 Reads

Corrigendum: Yellow and black-stained fingers in a patient with headache.

Pan Afr Med J 2018 28;30:62. Epub 2018 May 28.

Dermatology Division, Department of Medical Clinics, Ribeirão Preto Medical School, University of São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, Brazil.

[This corrects the article DOI: 10.11604/pamj.2017. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.11604/pamj.2018.30.62.16070DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6191259PMC
May 2018
1 Read

Pharmacokinetic And Pharmacodynamic Aspects Of Peyote And Mescaline: Clinical And Forensic Repercussions.

Curr Mol Pharmacol 2018 Oct 10. Epub 2018 Oct 10.

IINFACTS - Institute of Research and Advanced Training in Health Sciences and Technologies, Department of Sciences, University Institute of Health Sciences (IUCS), CESPU, Rua Central de Gandra, 1317, 4585-116 Gandra PRD. Portugal.

Background: Mescaline (3,4,5-trimethoxyphenethylamine), mainly found in the Peyote cactus (Lophophora williamsii), is one of the oldest known hallucinogenic agents that influence human and animal behavior, but its psychoactive mechanisms remain poorly understood.

Objectives: This article aims to fully review pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of mescaline, focusing on the in vivo and in vitro metabolic profile of the drug and its implications for the variability of response.

Methods: Mescaline pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic aspects were searched in books and in PubMed (U. Read More

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http://www.eurekaselect.com/166140/article
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1874467211666181010154139DOI Listing
October 2018
6 Reads

Cocaine-induced ischemia in prefrontal cortex is associated with escalation of cocaine intake in rodents.

Mol Psychiatry 2018 Oct 3. Epub 2018 Oct 3.

Department of Biomedical Engineering, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY, 11794, USA.

Cocaine-induced vasoconstriction reduces blood flow, which can jeopardize neuronal function and in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) it may contribute to compulsive cocaine intake. Here, we used integrated optical imaging in a rat self-administration and a mouse noncontingent model, to investigate whether changes in the cerebrovascular system in the PFC contribute to cocaine self-administration, and whether they recover with detoxification. In both animal models, cocaine induced severe vasoconstriction and marked reductions in cerebral blood flow (CBF) in the PFC, which were exacerbated with chronic exposure and with escalation of cocaine intake. Read More

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http://www.nature.com/articles/s41380-018-0261-8
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41380-018-0261-8DOI Listing
October 2018
7 Reads

Mechanisms of toxic cardiomyopathy.

Authors:
Philippe Hantson

Clin Toxicol (Phila) 2019 Jan 27;57(1):1-9. Epub 2018 Sep 27.

a Department of Intensive Care , Cliniques St-Luc, Université catholique de Louvain , Brussels , Belgium.

Background: Dilated cardiomyopathy is a frequent disease responsible for 40-50% of cases of heart failure. Idiopathic cardiomyopathy is a primary disorder often related to familial/genetic predisposition. Before the diagnosis of idiopathic cardiomyopathy is made, clinicians must not only rule out viral and immune causes, but also toxic causes such as drugs, environmental agents, illicit substances and natural toxins. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15563650.2018.1497172DOI Listing
January 2019
10 Reads

Antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies negative levamisole-induced leukocytoclastic vasculitis: a presumed case and literature review.

Int J Dermatol 2018 Dec 25;57(12):1411-1416. Epub 2018 Sep 25.

Department of Dermatology, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX, USA.

Levamisole-contaminated cocaine toxicity is a serious emerging public health concern, and providers should be aware of its presentation and management. Most cases of levamisole-induced vasculitis/vasculopathy (LIV) are associated with high antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA). We describe a unique case of a cocaine user who presented with an acute purpuric eruption and negative ANCA laboratory findings. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ijd.14249DOI Listing
December 2018
6 Reads

GIRK currents in VTA dopamine neurons control the sensitivity of mice to cocaine-induced locomotor sensitization.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2018 10 18;115(40):E9479-E9488. Epub 2018 Sep 18.

Department of Neuroscience, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY 10029;

GABAR-dependent activation of G protein-gated inwardly rectifying potassium channels (GIRK or K3) provides a well-known source of inhibition in the brain, but the details on how this important inhibitory pathway affects neural circuits are lacking. We used sorting nexin 27 (SNX27), an endosomal adaptor protein that associates with GIRK2c and GIRK3 subunits, to probe the role of GIRK channels in reward circuits. A conditional knockout of SNX27 in both substantia nigra pars compacta and ventral tegmental area (VTA) dopamine neurons leads to markedly smaller GABAR- and dopamine DR-activated GIRK currents, as well as to suprasensitivity to cocaine-induced locomotor sensitization. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1807788115DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6176583PMC
October 2018
4 Reads

A patient full of surprises: a body packer with cocaine intoxication, pneumococcal pneumonia and HIV infection.

BMC Emerg Med 2018 09 4;18(1):29. Epub 2018 Sep 4.

Emergency Department, University Hospital Zurich, Rämistrasse 100, 8091, Zurich, Switzerland.

Background: Smuggling of illegal drugs by hiding them inside one's own body, also called body packing, is a worldwide phenomenon. Cocaine is the most frequently transported drug. Body packing is a potentially lethal practice. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12873-018-0180-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6123965PMC
September 2018
6 Reads

Occurrence of bacterial and toxic metals contamination in illegal opioid-like drugs in Iran: a significant health challenge in drug abusers.

Daru 2018 Sep 29;26(1):77-83. Epub 2018 Jun 29.

Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, School of Pharmacy, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, P.O. Box 8678-3-65178, Hamadan, Iran.

Background: The toxic metals and/or bacterial contaminants in illicit drugs are the main health problems in drug users worldwide. Hence, the potential risks of these contaminants were evaluated in some of the illicit drugs during 2015 and 2016.

Methods: The metals analysis were performed using graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40199-018-0205-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6154484PMC
September 2018
14 Reads

Cocaine alters the mouse testicular epigenome with direct impact on histone acetylation and DNA methylation marks.

Reprod Biomed Online 2018 09 17;37(3):269-278. Epub 2018 Aug 17.

Centro de Estudios Biomédicos, Biotecnológicos, Ambientales y de Diagnóstico (CEBBAD), Universidad Maimónides, Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires, Argentina. Electronic address:

Research Question: Recent evidence suggests that cocaine administration in animal models can trigger non-genetic inheritance of addiction traits from father to offspring, affecting development and behaviour. Is chronic cocaine intake involved in alterations of epigenetic homeostasis in the testis?

Design: Epigenetic marks and mediators in testis and isolated germ cells of adult mice treated with cocaine (10 mg/kg) or vehicle (sterile saline solution) were evaluated in an intermittent binge protocol: three intraperitoneal injections, 1 h apart, one day on/off for 13 days, collecting tissue 24 h after the last binge administration (day 14).

Results: It was shown that chronic cocaine intake in mice disrupts testicular epigenetic homeostasis, increasing global methylated cytosine levels in DNA from germ cells and sperm. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.rbmo.2018.05.014DOI Listing
September 2018
54 Reads
3.015 Impact Factor

Alterations in the Gut Microbiota of Rats Chronically Exposed to Volatilized Cocaine and Its Active Adulterants Caffeine and Phenacetin.

Neurotox Res 2019 Jan 31;35(1):111-121. Epub 2018 Jul 31.

Departamento de Microbiología, Instituto de Investigaciones Biológicas Clemente Estable, Montevideo, Uruguay.

A role of the gut microbiota in influencing brain function and emotional disorders has been suggested. However, only a few studies have investigated the gut microbiota in the context of drug addiction.Cocaine can be smoked (i. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12640-018-9936-9DOI Listing
January 2019
7 Reads

Acute oesophageal necrosis: a rare but potentially fatal association of cocaine use.

BMJ Case Rep 2018 Jul 19;2018. Epub 2018 Jul 19.

Department of Internal Medicine, Griffin Hospital, Derby, Connecticut, USA.

Acute oesophageal necrosis (AON), also known as 'black oesophagus', is a rare condition characterised by the necrosis of the oesophagus usually involving the distal part. It has been associated with various conditions, and the pathogenesis is thought to involve hypovolaemia combined with decreased function of oesophageal protective mucosal barriers and may be compounded by the effect of gastric secretions on oesophageal mucosa. The hallmark of this condition is characteristic circumferential black discolouration of the distal oesophagus that may extend proximally. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bcr-2018-225197DOI Listing
July 2018
13 Reads

Sociodemographic factors, prescription history and opioid overdose deaths: a statewide analysis using linked PDMP and mortality data.

Drug Alcohol Depend 2018 09 13;190:62-71. Epub 2018 Jun 13.

Tennessee Department of Health, Office of Informatics and Analytics, Andrew Johnson Tower, 7th Floor, 710 James Robertson Parkway, Nashville, TN, 37243, United States; Department of Health Policy, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, 2525 West End Ave, Suite 1200, Nashville, TN, 37203, United States.

Background: Opioid overdose deaths have continued to rise in Tennessee (TN) with fentanyl emerging as a major contributor. Current data are needed to identify at-risk populations to guide prevention strategies. We conducted a large statewide observational study among TN adult decedents (2013-2016) to evaluate the association of sociodemographic factors and prescribing patterns with opioid overdose deaths. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2018.05.004DOI Listing
September 2018
9 Reads

Alveolar hemorrhage associated with cocaine consumption.

Heart Lung 2018 Sep - Oct;47(5):525-530. Epub 2018 Jun 27.

University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Department of Neurology, The Netherlands; University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Alzheimer Research Center Groningen, The Netherlands. Electronic address:

Cocaine is an illegal drug; its abuse and toxicity are a public health problem due to its high morbidity and mortality. Cocaine can affect the cardiovascular, central nervous and respiratory systems. The case of a 42-year-old male without history of chronic or degenerative diseases, but previous cocaine consumption is presented in this report. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.hrtlng.2018.05.022DOI Listing
June 2018
14 Reads

Acetyl Fentanyl: Trends and Concentrations in Metro Detroit.

J Forensic Sci 2019 Jan 25;64(1):149-153. Epub 2018 Jun 25.

Michigan Medicine Department of Pathology/Wayne County Medical Examiner's Office, 1300 E Warren Ave, Detroit, MI, 48207.

Acetyl fentanyl (N-[1-phenethylpiperidin-4-yl]-N-phenylacetamide) is a potent opioid analgesic with no medicinal uses. We report deaths between 2016 and 2017 at the Medical Examiner's Office in Detroit, MI where acetyl fentanyl was found in the decedent's blood and compare them to previously published deaths between 2015 and 2016. The recent cases (cohort B) had a mean acetyl fentanyl concentration of 0. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1556-4029.13840DOI Listing
January 2019
8 Reads

Effects of environmental cocaine concentrations on the skeletal muscle of the European eel (Anguilla anguilla).

Sci Total Environ 2018 Nov 5;640-641:862-873. Epub 2018 Jun 5.

Department of Biology, University of Naples Federico II, Via Cinthia, Edificio 7, 80126 Naples, Italy. Electronic address:

The presence of illicit drugs in the aquatic environment represents a new potential risk for aquatic organisms, due to their constant exposure to substances with strong pharmacological activity. Currently, little is known about the ecological effects of illicit drugs. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of environmental concentrations of cocaine, an illicit drug widespread in surface waters, on the skeletal muscle of the European eel (Anguilla anguilla). Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S00489697183200
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2018.05.357DOI Listing
November 2018
15 Reads

Recurrent Levamisole-Induced Agranulocytosis Complicated by Bowel Ischemia in a Cocaine User.

Am J Case Rep 2018 Jun 1;19:630-633. Epub 2018 Jun 1.

Department of Pulmonary, Critical Care and Sleep Medicine, University of Toledo Medical Center, Toledo, OH, USA.

BACKGROUND Levamisole is a common adulterant of cocaine and up to 69% of seized cocaine in United States contains levamisole. It is a synthetic imidazothiazole derivative which was previously used as an immunomodulating agent for treatment of various connective tissue disorders and colorectal carcinoma. However, it was withdrawn later from the market due to significant toxicity associated with it. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.12659/AJCR.908898DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6009213PMC
June 2018
5 Reads

Ethanol addictively enhances the in vitro cardiotoxicity of cocaine through oxidative damage, energetic deregulation, and apoptosis.

Arch Toxicol 2018 Jul 30;92(7):2311-2325. Epub 2018 May 30.

UCIBIO/REQUIMTE, Laboratory of Toxicology, Biological Sciences Department, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Porto, Rua Jorge Viterbo Ferreira, 228, Porto, 4050-313, Portugal.

Cocaine (COC) is frequently consumed in polydrug abuse settings, and ethanol (EtOH) is the most prominent co-abused substance. Clinical data and experimental evidence suggest that the co-administration of COC with EtOH can be more cardiotoxic than EtOH or COC alone, but information on the molecular pathways involved is scarce. Since these data are crucial to potentiate the identification of therapeutic targets to treat intoxications, we sought to (i) elucidate the type of interaction that occurs between both substances, and (ii) assess the mechanisms implicated in the cardiotoxic effects elicited by COC combined with EtOH. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00204-018-2227-7DOI Listing
July 2018
4 Reads

Importance of Toxicokinetics to Assess the Utility of Zebrafish Larvae as Model for Psychoactive Drug Screening Using Meta-Chlorophenylpiperazine (mCPP) as Example.

Front Pharmacol 2018 26;9:414. Epub 2018 Apr 26.

Department of Forensic Pharmacology and Toxicology, Zurich Institute of Forensic Medicine, University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland.

The number of new psychoactive substances (NPS) increases rapidly, harming society and fuelling the need for alternative testing strategies. These should allow the ever-increasing number of drugs to be tested more effectively for their toxicity and psychoactive effects. One proposed strategy is to complement rodent models with zebrafish () larvae. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphar.2018.00414DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5932571PMC
April 2018
6 Reads

Non-fatal Overdose with U-47700: Identification in Biological Matrices.

Curr Pharm Biotechnol 2018 ;19(2):180-187

Department of Cardiological, Thoracic and Vascular Sciences, Legal Medicine and Toxicology, University Hospital of Padova, Via Falloppio 50, I-35121 Padova, Italy.

Background/objective: We report on a case of severe intoxication after insufflation of U-47700, a synthetic opioid that acts as a selective agonist of the μ-opioid receptor, and is several times more potent than morphine. A man in his 30s was found irresponsive in his apartment and was brought to the emergency department of a local hospital. A comatose state and severe respiratory depression were present. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1389201019666180509164240DOI Listing
October 2018
14 Reads

Basis of genetic adaptation to heavy metal stress in the acidophilic green alga Chlamydomonas acidophila.

Aquat Toxicol 2018 Jul 27;200:62-72. Epub 2018 Apr 27.

INIA Forest Research Centre (INIA-CIFOR), Department Forest Ecology and Genetics, Carretera de la Coruña km 7.5, 28040 Madrid, Spain; Department Agricultural Sciences, P.O. Box 27, 00014 University of Helsinki, Finland. Electronic address:

To better understand heavy metal tolerance in Chlamydomonas acidophila, an extremophilic green alga, we assembled its transcriptome and measured transcriptomic expression before and after Cd exposure in this and the neutrophilic model microalga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Genes possibly related to heavy metal tolerance and detoxification were identified and analyzed as potential key innovations that enable this species to live in an extremely acid habitat with high levels of heavy metals. In addition we provide a data set of single orthologous genes from eight green algal species as a valuable resource for comparative studies including eukaryotic extremophiles. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aquatox.2018.04.020DOI Listing
July 2018
4 Reads

Yellow and black-stained fingers in a patient with headache.

Pan Afr Med J 2017 27;28:318. Epub 2017 Dec 27.

Department of Nefrology, VHP Saúde, Ribeirão Preto, São Paulo, Brazil.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.11604/pamj.2017.28.318.14333DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5927559PMC
December 2017
1 Read

DARK Classics in Chemical Neuroscience: Cathinone-Derived Psychostimulants.

ACS Chem Neurosci 2018 Oct 11;9(10):2379-2394. Epub 2018 May 11.

Department of Psychology , Arizona State University , Tempe , Arizona 85281 , United States.

Cathinone is a plant alkaloid found in khat leaves of perennial shrubs grown in East Africa. Similar to cocaine, cathinone elicits psychostimulant effects which are in part attributed to its amphetamine-like structure. Around 2010, home laboratories began altering the parent structure of cathinone to synthesize derivatives with mechanisms of action, potencies, and pharmacokinetics permitting high abuse potential and toxicity. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acschemneuro.8b00147DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6197900PMC
October 2018
10 Reads

IL-6 knockout mice are protected from cocaine-induced kindling behaviors; possible involvement of JAK2/STAT3 and PACAP signalings.

Food Chem Toxicol 2018 Jun 16;116(Pt B):249-263. Epub 2018 Apr 16.

Neuropsychopharmacology and Toxicology Program, College of Pharmacy, Kangwon National University, Chunchon, 24341, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

IL-6 has been recognized as an anticonvulsant against certain neuroexcitotoxicities. We aimed to investigate on the interactive role between IL-6 and PACAP in cocaine-induced kindling behaviors. Although we found that cocaine (45 mg/kg, i. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S02786915183023
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fct.2018.04.031DOI Listing
June 2018
15 Reads

Environmental enrichment reduces cocaine neurotoxicity during cocaine-conditioned place preference in male rats.

Pharmacol Biochem Behav 2018 06 5;169:10-15. Epub 2018 Apr 5.

Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências da Saúde de Porto Alegre, Laboratório de Neuropsicofarmacologia, Universidade Federal de Ciências da Saúde de Porto Alegre - UFCSPA, Brazil.

Environmental enrichment (EE) has a neuroprotective role and prevents the development of cocaine addiction behavior in rats. Studies showing the role of EE in cocaine toxicity are nonexistent. We hypothesized that rats exposed to EE are protected from cocaine-induced changes in the redox profile and DNA damage after undergoing conditioned place preference (CPP). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pbb.2018.04.001DOI Listing
June 2018
3 Reads

[Acute kidney injury and rhabdomyolysis after cocaine overdose: case report and literature review].

G Ital Nefrol 2018 Mar;35(2)

U.O Nefrologia e Dialisi - Ospedale "Card. G. Panico" - Tricase, Lecce, Italy.

Cocaine, a natural alkaloid derived from the coca plant, is one of the most commonly used illicit drugs. Cocaine abuse causes systemic adverse effects like stroke, myocardic infarction, arterial dissection, vascular thrombosis and rhabdomyolysis. Cocaine use is, also, associated with renal complications such as acute kidney injury, vasculitis, acute interstitial nephritis, chronic kidney disease, malignant hypertension with thrombotic microangiopathy. Read More

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March 2018
13 Reads

Dopamine D1 and D3 receptor polypharmacology as a potential treatment approach for substance use disorder.

Neurosci Biobehav Rev 2018 06 22;89:13-28. Epub 2018 Mar 22.

The Graduate Center of the City University of New York, 365 Fifth Avenue, New York, NY 10016, USA; Department of Psychology, Queens College, City University of New York, 65-30 Kissena Blvd, Flushing NY 11367, USA. Electronic address:

In the search for efficacious pharmacotherapies to treat cocaine addiction much attention has been given to agents targeting dopamine D1 or D3 receptors because of the involvement of these receptors in drug-related behaviors. D1-like and D3 receptor partial agonists and antagonists have been shown to reduce drug reward, reinstatement of drug seeking and conditioned place preference in rodents and non-human primates. However, translation of these encouraging results to clinical settings has been limited due to a number of factors including toxicity, poor pharmacokinetic properties and extrapyramidal and sedative side effects. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neubiorev.2018.03.020DOI Listing
June 2018
15 Reads

The Influence of High and Low Doses of Bisphenol A (BPA) on the Enteric Nervous System of the Porcine Ileum.

Int J Mol Sci 2018 Mar 20;19(3). Epub 2018 Mar 20.

Department of Clinical Physiology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Warmia and Mazury, Oczapowskiego Str. 13, 10-719 Olsztyn, Poland.

Bisphenol A, used in the production of plastic, is able to leach from containers into food and cause multidirectional adverse effects in living organisms, including neurodegeneration and metabolic disorders. Knowledge of the impact of BPA on enteric neurons is practically non-existent. The destination of this study was to investigate the influence of BPA at a specific dose (0. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms19030917DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5877778PMC
March 2018
8 Reads

Analytical evidence to show letters impregnated with novel psychoactive substances are a means of getting drugs to inmates within the UK prison service.

Ann Clin Biochem 2018 Nov 30;55(6):673-678. Epub 2018 Mar 30.

SWBH NHS Trust, Birmingham, West Midlands, UK.

Introduction Novel psychotropic substances also known as legal highs are a major concern in UK prisons, fuelling violence and putting a strain on resources for inmates requiring medical treatment for adverse effects. We provide a clinical toxicology service including routine screening for novel psychoactive substances. In 2015, we were approached by Her Majesty Prison Service search dog training team to advise on which novel psychoactive substances to target, and again in 2016 to further provide analytical support to test five letters which the dogs positively identified for novel psychotropic substances during routine searches of prison mail rooms. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0004563218767462DOI Listing
November 2018
9 Reads

Cracking the Crack Dance: A Case Report on Cocaine-induced Choreoathetosis.

Cureus 2017 Dec 22;9(12):e1981. Epub 2017 Dec 22.

Pulmonary and Critical Care, Staten Island University Hospital.

Movement disorders represent one of the less common presentations of cocaine toxicity observed in clinical practice. Given the magnitude of crack cocaine use, it is vital to understand the underlying pathogenesis. We present a case of a patient who clinically exhibited cocaine-induced choreoathetosis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.7759/cureus.1981DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5826744PMC
December 2017
3 Reads

Cross-sectional cause of death comparisons for stimulant and opioid mortality in San Francisco, 2005-2015.

Drug Alcohol Depend 2018 04 21;185:305-312. Epub 2018 Feb 21.

San Francisco Department of Public Health, 25 Van Ness Avenue, Suite 500, San Francisco, CA, United States; Department of Medicine, Division of HIV, Infectious Disease and Global Health, University of California, San Francisco, CA, United States.

Background: Opioids and stimulants (e.g., cocaine or methamphetamine/amphetamine [MAMP]) are major contributors to acute substance toxicity deaths. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2017.12.030DOI Listing
April 2018
10 Reads

An index of fatal toxicity for new psychoactive substances.

J Psychopharmacol 2018 Jul 27;32(7):793-801. Epub 2018 Feb 27.

2 Psychopharmacology, Drug Misuse & Novel Psychoactive Substances Research Unit, Department of Pharmacy, Pharmacology & Post-graduate Medicine, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield, UK.

An index of fatal toxicity for new psychoactive substances has been developed based solely on information provided on death certificates. An updated index of fatal toxicity (T), as first described in 2010, was calculated based on the ratio of deaths to prevalence and seizures for the original five substances (amphetamine, cannabis, cocaine/crack, heroin and 3,4-methylenedioxymethylamphetamine). These correlated well with the 2010 index. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0269881118754709DOI Listing
July 2018
15 Reads
3.593 Impact Factor

In vitro model to study cocaine and its contaminants.

Chem Biol Interact 2018 Apr 21;285:1-7. Epub 2018 Feb 21.

Laboratório de Genética Toxicológica, Universidade Federal de Ciências da Saúde de, Porto Alegre, RS, 90050-170, Brazil. Electronic address:

Cocaine is one of the most popular illicit drug worldwide. Due its great addictive potential, which leads to euphoria and hyperactivity, it is considered a public health concern. At the central nervous system, the drug acts inhibiting catecholamine re-uptake. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cbi.2018.01.017DOI Listing
April 2018
11 Reads
2.580 Impact Factor

Bioavailability and Pharmacokinetics of Oral Cocaine in Humans.

J Anal Toxicol 2018 Jun;42(5):285-292

Department of Pharmacology, College of Medicine, University of Kentucky, UK Medical Center MN 150, Lexington, KY 40536, USA.

The pharmacokinetic profile of oral cocaine has not been fully characterized and prospective data on oral bioavailability are limited. A within-subject study was performed to characterize the bioavailability and pharmacokinetics of oral cocaine. Fourteen healthy inpatient participants (six males) with current histories of cocaine use were administered two oral doses (100 and 200 mg) and one intravenous (IV) dose (40 mg) of cocaine during three separate dosing sessions. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jat/bky007DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5952935PMC
June 2018
3 Reads