2,740 results match your criteria Toxicity Cocaine

Advantages and disadvantages of disulfiram coadministered with popular addictive substances.

Eur J Pharmacol 2021 May 7:174143. Epub 2021 May 7.

Military Institute of Hygiene and Epidemiology, 01-163 Warsaw, Poland; Department of Experimental and Clinical Pharmacology, Centre for Preclinical Research (CBP), Medical University of Warsaw, 02-097 Warsaw, Poland.

Disulfiram (DSF) is a well-known anti-alcohol agent that inhibits aldehyde dehydrogenase and results in extreme 'hangover' symptoms when consumed with alcohol. This drug, however, has been suggested as useful in other forms of drug addiction due to its beneficial potential in both drug abuse reduction and withdrawal. However, among other drugs used in alcohol dependence, it carries the greatest risk of pharmacological interactions. Read More

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Acetylcholine Signaling Genes are Required for Cocaine-Stimulated Egg Laying in Caenorhabditis elegans.

G3 (Bethesda) 2021 Apr 29. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Neuroscience Interdisciplinary Program, Davidson College, Davidson, North Carolina 28035. United states.

The toxicity and addictive liability associated with cocaine abuse are well known. However, its mode of action is not completely understood, and effective pharmacotherapeutic interventions remain elusive. The cholinergic effects of cocaine on acetylcholine receptors, synthetic enzymes, and degradative enzymes have been the focus of relatively little empirical investigation. Read More

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A cluster of lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) poisonings following insufflation of a white powder sold as cocaine.

Clin Toxicol (Phila) 2021 Apr 13:1-6. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

NSW Poisons Information Centre, Sydney Children's Hospitals Network, Westmead, Australia.

Objective: Adulteration, substitution or contamination of illicit substances can have clinically significant implications when other illicit substances are included. Such circumstances can present as clusters of poisonings, including severe toxicity and death following exposure to unexpected illicit substances. We report a cluster of laboratory-confirmed lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) in a powder that was sold as cocaine and used recreationally. Read More

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Synthetic cannabinoids and cathinones cardiotoxicity: evidences actualities and perspectives.

Curr Neuropharmacol 2021 Apr 11. Epub 2021 Apr 11.

Department of Medicine, Surgery and Health, University of Trieste. Italy.

New psychoactive substances (NPS) constitute a group of psychotropic substances, designed to mimic the effects of traditional substances like cannabis, cocaine, MDMA, khat, which is not regulated by the 1961 United Nations Convention on Narcotics or the 1971 United Nations Convention on Psychotropic Substances. Illegal laboratories responsible for their production regularly develop new substances and place them on the market to replace the ones that have been banned; for this reason, during the last decade this class of substances has represented a great challenge for the public health and forensic toxicologists. The spectrum of side effects caused by the intake of these drugs of abuse is very wide since they act on different systems with various mechanisms of action. Read More

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Use of levamisole-adulterated cocaine is associated with increased load of white matter lesions.

J Psychiatry Neurosci 2021 Apr 12;46(2):E281-E291. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

From the Department of Neurology, University Hospital Zurich, University of Zurich, Switzerland (Conrad, Wegener); the Department of Psychiatry, Psychotherapy, and Psychosomatics, Psychiatric University Hospital, University of Zurich, Switzerland (Hirsiger, Stämpfli, Seifritz, Quednow); the Department of Neuroradiology, University Hospital Zürich, University of Zurich, Switzerland (Winklhofer); the Center of Forensic Hair Analytics, Institute of Forensic Medicine, University of Zurich, Switzerland (Baumgartner); and the Neuroscience Center Zurich, University of Zurich and Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Zurich, Switzerland (Seifritz, Wegener, Quednow).

Background: Cocaine use has been associated with vascular pathologies, including cerebral white matter hyperintensities. Street cocaine is most often adulterated with levamisole, an anthelminthic drug that may also be associated with vascular toxicity. However, whether levamisole exposure from cocaine consumption further accelerates the development of white matter lesions remains unknown. Read More

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Psychoactive Drugs-From Chemical Structure to Oxidative Stress Related to Dopaminergic Neurotransmission. A Review.

Antioxidants (Basel) 2021 Mar 4;10(3). Epub 2021 Mar 4.

Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, George Emil Palade University of Medicine, Pharmacy, Science and Technology of Târgu Mureș, 540142 Târgu Mureș, Romania.

Nowadays, more and more young people want to experience illegal, psychoactive substances, without knowing the risks of exposure. Besides affecting social life, psychoactive substances also have an important effect on consumer health. We summarized and analyzed the published literature data with reference to the mechanism of free radical generation and the link between chemical structure and oxidative stress related to dopaminergic neurotransmission. Read More

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Cardiovascular and temperature adverse actions of stimulants.

Br J Pharmacol 2021 Mar 30. Epub 2021 Mar 30.

Department of Physiology, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.

The vast majority of illicit stimulants act at monoaminergic systems, causing both psychostimulant and adverse effects. Stimulants can interact as substrates or antagonists at the nerve terminal monoamine transporter that mediates the reuptake of monoamines across the nerve synaptic membrane and at the vesicular monoamine transporter (VMAT-2) that mediates storage of monoamines in vesicles. Stimulants can act directly at presynaptic or postsynaptic receptors for monoamines or have indirect monoamine-mimetic actions due to the release of monoamines. Read More

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Cocaine potentiates an inflammatory response in C6 astroglia-like cells.

Biomed Rep 2021 May 16;14(5):45. Epub 2021 Mar 16.

College of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Florida Agricultural and Mechanical University, Tallahassee, FL 32307, USA.

Cocaine is a highly addictive drug that mediates its effect through altering dopamine metabolism in the central nervous system (CNS), resulting in a feeling of euphoria. Owing to its high lipophilicity, cocaine easily crosses the blood brain barrier of the CNS and reaches various domains of the brain, where it can trigger cellular damage. Cocaine-induced CNS damage may arise due to increased levels of free radicals and nitric oxide (NO) in immunecompetent astroglial cells. Read More

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Functional characterization of N-octyl 4-methylamphetamine variants and related bivalent compounds at the dopamine and serotonin transporters using Ca channels as sensors.

Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 2021 05 27;419:115513. Epub 2021 Mar 27.

Department of Physiology and Biophysics, School of Medicine, Virginia Commonwealth University, United States of America. Electronic address:

The early characterization of ligands at the dopamine and serotonin transporters, DAT and SERT, respectively, is important for drug discovery, forensic sciences, and drug abuse research. 4-Methyl amphetamine (4-MA) is a good example of an abused drug whose overdose can be fatal. It is a potent substrate at DAT and SERT where its simplest secondary amine (N-methyl 4-MA) retains substrate activity at them. Read More

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Trends in MDMA-related mortality across four countries.

Addiction 2021 Mar 19. Epub 2021 Mar 19.

European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction (EMCDDA), Lisbon, Portugal.

Aims: To determine trends in 3,4 methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA)-related death rates across Australia, Finland, Portugal and Turkey and to analyse the toxicology and causes of death across countries.

Design: Analysis of MDMA-related deaths extracted from a national coronial database in Australia (2001-19) and national forensic toxicology databases in Finland (2001-17), Portugal (2008-19) and Turkey (2007-17). Presentation of MDMA use and seizure data (market indicators). Read More

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Variation of drugs involved in acute drug toxicity presentations based on age and sex: an epidemiological approach based on European emergency departments.

Clin Toxicol (Phila) 2021 Mar 16:1-13. Epub 2021 Mar 16.

Emergency Department, Hospital Clínic, IDIBAPS, Barcelona, Spain.

Objective: To analyse the relative percentage of acute recreational drug toxicity emergency department (ED) presentations involving the main drug groups according to age and sex and investigate different patterns based on sex and age strata.

Methods: We analysed all patients with acute recreational drug toxicity included by the Euro-DEN Plus dataset (22 EDs in 14 European countries) between October 2013 and December 2016 (39 months). Drugs were grouped as: opioids, cocaine, cannabis, amphetamines, gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB), hallucinogens, new psychoactive substances (NPS), benzodiazepines and ketamine. Read More

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Rhabdomyolysis related to acute recreational drug toxicity-A Euro-DEN study.

PLoS One 2021 11;16(3):e0246297. Epub 2021 Mar 11.

Department of Clinical Toxicology, Medical University of Gdansk, Gdansk, Poland.

Background: This study was conducted to retrospectively assess the relationships between: rhabdomyolysis (quantified by creatine kinase (CK) activity) and kidney injury (quantified by serum creatinine concentration), sex, age, body temperature on admission, presence of seizures, and agitation or aggression in patients presenting to the Emergency Department with acute recreational drug toxicity. We also investigated the association with the substances ingested.

Methods: All presentations to the 16 sentinel Euro-DEN centres in 10 European countries with acute recreational drug toxicity during the first year of the Euro-DEN study (October 2013 to September 2014) were considered. Read More

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Gene alteration in zebrafish exposed to a mixture of substances of abuse.

Environ Pollut 2021 Jun 24;278:116777. Epub 2021 Feb 24.

Department of Biology, Murray State University, Murray, KY, United States.

A recent surge in the use and abuse of diverse prescribed psychotic and illicit drugs necessitates the surveillance of drug residues in source water and the associated ecological impacts of chronic exposure to the aquatic organism. Thirty-six psychotic and illicit drug residues were determined in discharged wastewater from two centralized municipal wastewater treatment facilities and two wastewater receiving creeks for seven consecutive days in Kentucky. Zebrafish (Danio rerio) larvae were exposed to the environmental relevant mixtures of all drug residues, all illicit drugs, and all prescribed psychotic drugs. Read More

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Cocaine Induces Cytoskeletal Changes in Cardiac Myocytes: Implications for Cardiac Morphology.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Feb 24;22(5). Epub 2021 Feb 24.

School of Life Sciences, Pharmacy and Chemistry, Kingston University, Penrhyn Road, Kingston upon Thames, London, KT1 2EE, UK.

Cocaine is one of the most widely abused illicit drugs worldwide and has long been recognised as an agent of cardiac dysfunction in numerous cases of drug overdose. Cocaine has previously been shown to up-regulate cytoskeletal rearrangements and morphological changes in numerous tissues; however, previous literature observes such changes primarily in clinical case reports and addiction studies. An investigation into the fundamental cytoskeletal parameters of migration, adhesion and proliferation were studied to determine the cytoskeletal and cytotoxic basis of cocaine in cardiac cells. Read More

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February 2021

A geospatiotemporal and causal inference epidemiological exploration of substance and cannabinoid exposure as drivers of rising US pediatric cancer rates.

BMC Cancer 2021 Feb 25;21(1):197. Epub 2021 Feb 25.

Division of Psychiatry, University of Western Australia, Crawley, Western Australia, 6009, Australia.

Background: Age-adjusted US total pediatric cancer incidence rates (TPCIR) rose 49% 1975-2015 for unknown reasons. Prenatal cannabis exposure has been linked with several pediatric cancers which together comprise the majority of pediatric cancer types. We investigated whether cannabis use was related spatiotemporally and causally to TPCIR. Read More

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February 2021

Reducing alcohol and/or cocaine-induced reward and toxicity via an epidermal stem cell-based gene delivery platform.

Mol Psychiatry 2021 Feb 22. Epub 2021 Feb 22.

Department of Anesthesia and Critical Care, The University of Chicago, Chicago, IL, USA.

Alcohol use disorder (AUD) is one of the foremost public health problems. Alcohol is also frequently co-abused with cocaine. There is a huge unmet need for the treatment of AUD and/or cocaine co-abuse. Read More

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February 2021

CART mitigates oxidative stress and DNA damage in memory deficits of APP/PS1 mice via upregulating β‑amyloid metabolism‑associated enzymes.

Mol Med Rep 2021 04 19;23(4). Epub 2021 Feb 19.

Department of Neurology, Affiliated Drum Tower Clinical Medical College of Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210000, P.R. China.

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia that is primarily characterized by progressive cognitive deficits. The toxicity of amyloid β‑protein (Aβ) serves an important role in the progression of AD, resulting in neuronal loss via a number of possible mechanisms, including oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, energy depletion, apoptosis and neuroinflammation. Previous studies have reported that cocaine amphetamine regulated transcript (CART) treatment improves memory and synaptic structure in APP/PS1 mice. Read More

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Acute intranasal intoxication with mercuric chloride taken accidently instead of cocaine - A case report.

J Forensic Leg Med 2021 Feb 5;78:102129. Epub 2021 Feb 5.

Department of Forensic Medicine, Wroclaw Medical University, Mikulicza-Radeckiego 4, Wroclaw, PL 50-345, Poland. Electronic address:

Context: Mercuric chloride (mercury (II) chloride) belongs to inorganic mercury compounds characterized by good water solubility and associated high toxicity. The paper describes an unusual case of intranasal intoxication with corrosive sublimate confused with cocaine by a young male.

Case Report: Intranasal administration of corrosive sublimate caused severe local symptoms of chemical burn within the nasal cavity. Read More

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February 2021

Cocaine and Levamisole Cerebral Toxicity.

Ann Neurol 2021 Feb 2. Epub 2021 Feb 2.

Department of Neurology, University Hospital of Bicêtre, Le Kremlin-Bicêtre, France.

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February 2021

Local Anesthetics: A Century of Progress.

John A Yagiela

Anesth Prog 2020 12;67(4):235-244

Section of Oral Biology, UCLA School of Dentistry, Los Angeles, California.

One century after the clinical introduction of cocaine, local anesthesia remains the most important method of pain control in dentistry. Many local anesthetics have been marketed since 1884, and it is likely that attempts to produce drugs that enhance anesthetic efficacy, reduce systemic and local toxicity, and increase nociceptive selectivity, will continue. In addition, new methods of drug administration have been and will be developed to achieve these goals. Read More

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December 2020

Estimation of community-wide multi-chemical exposure via water-based chemical mining: Key research gaps drawn from a comprehensive multi-biomarker multi-city dataset.

Environ Int 2021 02 30;147:106331. Epub 2020 Dec 30.

Department of Chemistry, University of Bath, Bath BA2 7AY, UK; Wessex Water, Bath BA2 7WW, UK.

This paper explores the strong potential of chemical mining of wastewater for markers of community-wide intake of wide-ranging harmful chemicals belonging to several usage groups: industrial chemicals, personal care products, pesticides, illicit drugs, lifestyle chemicals and prescription pharmaceuticals as a proxy for multi-chemical community-wide exposure. An estimation of chemical intake in five contrasting town/cities based in the Avon River catchment in the South-West UK was undertaken. High-resolution spatiotemporal pharmaceutical prescription databases were used for system calibration, both in terms of biomarker selection and its correction factor, as well as for the overall system performance evaluation, both spatially and temporality. Read More

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February 2021

Fatal intoxication involving 4-methylpentedrone (4-MPD) in a context of chemsex.

Forensic Sci Int 2021 Feb 11;319:110659. Epub 2020 Dec 11.

Hospices Civils de Lyon, Edouard Herriot Hospital, Service of Forensic Medicine, Lyon, France; University of Lyon, UCBL1, Faculty of Medicine Lyon-Est, Lyon, France.

4-methylpentedrone (4-MPD) is a new psychoactive substance (NPS) belonging to the cathinone class. We report an original case of death mainly involving 4-MPD, along with cocaine, sildenafil, bromazepam and nevirapine. The investigation data and the autopsy findings indicated fatal intoxication in a chemsex context (drug use during sex). Read More

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February 2021

Fentanyl-contaminated cocaine outbreak with laboratory confirmation in New York City in 2019.

Am J Emerg Med 2021 02 7;40:103-105. Epub 2020 Dec 7.

Division of Medical Toxicology, Ronald O. Perelman Department of Emergency Medicine, NYU Grossman School of Medicine, 455 1(st) Ave, Rm 124, New York, NY 10016, USA; Department of Health and Mental Hygiene, New York City Poison Control Center, 455 1(st) Ave, Rm 124, New York, NY, 10016, USA.

Background: Illicitly manufactured fentanyl and fentanyl analogues (IMFs) are being increasingly suspected in overdose deaths. However, few prior outbreaks have been reported thus far of patients with laboratory-confirmed IMF toxicity after reporting intent to use only nonopioid substances. Herein we report a case series of nine patients without opioid use disorder who presented to two urban emergency departments (EDs) with opioid toxicity after insufflating a substance they believed to be cocaine. Read More

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February 2021

High prevalence of co-occurring substance use in individuals with opioid use disorder.

Addict Behav 2021 03 4;114:106752. Epub 2020 Dec 4.

West Virginia University School of Medicine (WVU SOM), Morgantown, WV 26505, USA; West Virginia Clinical and Translational Science Institute, Morgantown, WV 26505, USA.

Objective: Funding to address the current opioid epidemic has focused on treatment of opioid use disorder (OUD); however, rates of other substance use disorders (SUDs) remain high and non-opioid related overdoses account for nearly 30% of overdoses. This study assesses the prevalence of co-occurring substance use in West Virginia (WV) to inform treatment strategies. The objective of this study was to assess the prevalence of, and demographic and clinical characteristics (including age, gender, hepatitis C virus (HCV) status) associated with, co-occurring substance use among patients with OUD in WV. Read More

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Levamisole-a Toxic Adulterant in Illicit Drug Preparations: a Review.

Ther Drug Monit 2021 04;43(2):221-228

NMS Labs, Horsham, Pennsylvania.

Abstract: Discovered in the 1960s, the common anthelminthic levamisole has seen widespread use in veterinary applications. Its use rapidly expanded thereafter to include human medical treatments for a variety of acute and chronic disorders. Because of reports of severe adverse effects, the US Food and Drug Administration withdrew levamisole's approval for human use in 2000; however, medical options outside the United States and illicit options worldwide allow continued accessibility to levamisole. Read More

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Cocaine Body Packing: A New Record.

Cureus 2020 Nov 27;12(11):e11728. Epub 2020 Nov 27.

Surgery, London North West University Healthcare NHS Trust, London, GBR.

We present a case of a 39-year-old man who was brought in by ambulance to the ED after ingesting 103 packets of cocaine prior to return to the United Kingdom (UK) from Holland. He presented with a persistent sinus tachycardia and mild abdominal pain but no evidence of peritonitis on examination. Contrast-enhanced CT showed widespread distribution of packets from the stomach to the sigmoid colon. Read More

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November 2020

Long-term outcomes of psychoactive drug use in trauma patients: A multicenter patient-reported outcomes study.

J Trauma Acute Care Surg 2021 02;90(2):319-324

From the Division of Trauma, Emergency Surgery, and Surgical Critical Care (M.E.M., K.B., G.V., H.M.A.K.), Massachusetts General Hospital; Department of Surgery (J.P.H.-E., A.S.), Division of Trauma, Burn and Surgical Critical Care, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School; Center for Surgery and Public Health (J.P.H.-E., C.O., A.N.H., A.S.), Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health; Department of Psychiatry (N.C.L.-C.), Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts; Division of Trauma, Burn and Critical Care Surgery (D.N.), Harborview Medical Center, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington; Division of Trauma, Acute Care Surgery and Surgical Critical Care (S.E.S.), Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts.

Introduction: Psychoactive drug use (PDU) is reported in up to 40% of trauma patients and is associated with a higher rate of in-hospital complications. However, little is known about its long-term impact on trauma patients. We aimed to assess the long-term functional, mental, and psychosocial outcomes of PDU in trauma patients 6 to 12 months after injury. Read More

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February 2021

Shifts in the neurobiological mechanisms motivating cocaine use with the development of an addiction-like phenotype in male rats.

Psychopharmacology (Berl) 2021 Mar 25;238(3):811-823. Epub 2020 Nov 25.

Department of Psychiatry and Neurobehavioral Sciences, University of Virginia, PO Box 801402, Charlottesville, VA, 22904, USA.

Rationale: The development of addiction is accompanied by a shift in the mechanisms motivating cocaine use from nucleus accumbens (NAc) dopamine D receptor (DR) signaling to glutamate AMPA-kainate receptor (AMPA-R) signaling.

Objective: Here, we determined whether similar shifts occur for NAc-DR signaling and following systemic manipulation of DR, DR, and AMPA-R signaling.

Methods: Male rats were given short-access (20 infusions/day) or extended-access to cocaine (24 h/day, 96 infusions/day, 10 days). Read More

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PATH: A Tool That Facilitates the Searching for Heterologous Biosynthetic Routes.

ACS Synth Biol 2020 12 16;9(12):3217-3227. Epub 2020 Nov 16.

Computer, Electrical and Mathematical Sciences and Engineering (CEMSE) Division, Computational Bioscience Research Center (CBRC), King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST), Thuwal 23955-6900, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

Developing computational tools that can facilitate the rational design of cell factories producing desired products at increased yields is challenging, as the tool needs to take into account that the preferred host organism usually has compounds that are consumed by competing reactions that reduce the yield of the desired product. On the other hand, the preferred host organisms may not have the native metabolic reactions needed to produce the compound of interest; thus, the computational tool needs to identify the metabolic reactions that will most efficiently produce the desired product. In this regard, we developed the generic tool PATH to facilitate an optimized search for heterologous biosynthetic pathway routes. Read More

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December 2020

Increased negative affect when combining early-life maternal deprivation with adolescent, but not adult, cocaine exposure in male rats: regulation of hippocampal FADD.

Psychopharmacology (Berl) 2021 Feb 27;238(2):411-420. Epub 2020 Oct 27.

IUNICS, University of the Balearic Islands, Cra. de Valldemossa km 7.5, E-07122, Palma, Spain.

Rationale: Besides early drug initiation during adolescence, another vulnerability factor associated with increased risk for substance abuse later in life is early-life stress. One way of assessing such combined risk is by evaluating the emergence of increased negative affect during withdrawal (i.e. Read More

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February 2021