2,811 results match your criteria Toxicity Cocaine


Toxicity of designer benzodiazepines: A case of etizolam and cocaine intoxication.

Forensic Sci Int 2022 Apr 30;336:111324. Epub 2022 Apr 30.

Service de Pharmacologie-Toxicologie et Pharmacovigilance, CHU Angers, Angers, France.

During the last decade, only few cases of acute etizolam intoxication have been detailed. Little is known about the toxic effects of etizolam overdose. Here, the authors report the case of a 42-year-old man who was admitted to the emergency department for intense agitation following etizolam and cocaine consumption. Read More

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Retiform Purpura of the Lower Limbs Associated with Levamisole-Adulterated Cocaine.

Eur J Case Rep Intern Med 2022 28;9(4):003353. Epub 2022 Apr 28.

Department of Dermatology, Mater Dei Hospital, Msida, Malta.

A young man was treated in hospital for sepsis, disseminated intravascular coagulation and multi-organ failure. He was a regular intranasal cocaine user up to 1 day prior to symptom onset. Clinical examination revealed extensive retiform purpura affecting both his lower limbs. Read More

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Cocaine: An Updated Overview on Chemistry, Detection, Biokinetics, and Pharmacotoxicological Aspects including Abuse Pattern.

Toxins (Basel) 2022 Apr 13;14(4). Epub 2022 Apr 13.

UCIBIO-Applied Molecular Biosciences Unit, Laboratory of Toxicology, Department of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Porto, 4050-313 Porto, Portugal.

Cocaine is one of the most consumed stimulants throughout the world, as official sources report. It is a naturally occurring sympathomimetic tropane alkaloid derived from the leaves of , which has been used by South American locals for millennia. Cocaine can usually be found in two forms, cocaine hydrochloride, a white powder, or 'crack' cocaine, the free base. Read More

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Machine Learning Analysis of Cocaine Addiction Informed by DAT, SERT, and NET-Based Interactome Networks.

J Chem Theory Comput 2022 Apr 16;18(4):2703-2719. Epub 2022 Mar 16.

Department of Mathematics, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan 48824, United States.

Cocaine addiction is a psychosocial disorder induced by the chronic use of cocaine and causes a large number of deaths around the world. Despite decades of effort, no drugs have been approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the treatment of cocaine dependence. Cocaine dependence is neurological and involves many interacting proteins in the interactome. Read More

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Drug-induced bowel complications and toxicities: imaging findings and pearls.

Abdom Radiol (NY) 2022 04 23;47(4):1298-1310. Epub 2022 Feb 23.

Department of Internal Medicine, Pratumtani Hospital, 7 Ladlumkaew Muang district, Pratumtani, 12000, Thailand.

The use of diverse types of drugs can result in a variety of acute and chronic complications that affect almost any organ. The bowel is one of the organs impacted by the side effects of medications. Imaging frequently plays a crucial role in the detection and characterization of complications occurring in the bowel. Read More

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HIV-1 Tat and cocaine coexposure impacts piRNAs to affect astrocyte energy metabolism.

Epigenomics 2022 03 16;14(5):261-278. Epub 2022 Feb 16.

Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Irma Lerma Rangel College of Pharmacy, Texas A&M University Health Science Center, Kingsville, TX 78363, USA.

To understand the effect of HIV infection and cocaine exposure on piRNA expression in human primary astrocytes. We used small RNA sequencing analysis to investigate the impacts of HIV-1 Tat and cocaine coexposure on the expression of piRNAs in human primary astrocytes. We identified 27,700 piRNAs and analyzed them by small RNA next-generation sequencing. Read More

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Pharmacological Profiling of Antifentanyl Monoclonal Antibodies in Combination with Naloxone in Pre- and Postexposure Models of Fentanyl Toxicity.

J Pharmacol Exp Ther 2022 05 13;381(2):129-136. Epub 2022 Feb 13.

Department of Pharmacology, University of Minnesota Medical School, Minneapolis, Minnesota (C.A.B., M.M.W., M.P.); Department of Veterinary Population Medicine, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota (M.M.W.); Reno School of Medicine, University of Nevada, Reno, Nevada (S.G.P., J.A.-U., D.A.); University of Minnesota Center for Immunology, Minneapolis, Minnesota (M.P.); and Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, Washington (M.P.).

The incidence of fatal drug overdoses in the United States is an alarming public health threat that has been exacerbated by the COVID-19 pandemic, resulting in over 100,000 deaths between April 2020 and April 2021. A significant portion of this is attributable to widespread access to fentanyl and other synthetic opioids, alone or in combination with heroin or psychostimulants, such as cocaine or methamphetamine. Monoclonal antibodies (mAb) offer prophylactic and therapeutic interventions against opioid overdose by binding opioids in serum, reducing distribution of drug to the brain and other organs. Read More

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Cannabinoid and substance relationships of European congenital anomaly patterns: a space-time panel regression and causal inferential study.

Environ Epigenet 2022 3;8(1):dvab015. Epub 2022 Feb 3.

With reports from Australia, Canada, USA, Hawaii and Colorado documenting a link between cannabis and congenital anomalies (CAs), this relationship was investigated in Europe. Data on 90 CAs were accessed from Eurocat. Tobacco and alcohol consumption and median household income data were from the World Bank. Read More

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February 2022

Emergency department visits and trends related to cocaine, psychostimulants, and opioids in the United States, 2008-2018.

BMC Emerg Med 2022 02 4;22(1):19. Epub 2022 Feb 4.

Department of Medicine, Division of HIV, Infectious Diseases and Global Medicine, School of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, USA.

Background: Drug-related emergency department (ED) visits are escalating, especially for stimulant use (i.e., cocaine and psychostimulants such as methamphetamine). Read More

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February 2022

Geotemporospatial and causal inference epidemiological analysis of US survey and overview of cannabis, cannabidiol and cannabinoid genotoxicity in relation to congenital anomalies 2001-2015.

BMC Pediatr 2022 01 19;22(1):47. Epub 2022 Jan 19.

Division of Psychiatry, University of Western Australia, Crawley, WA, 6009, Australia.

Background: Cannabinoids including cannabidiol have recognized genotoxic activities but their significance has not been studied broadly epidemiologically across the teratological spectrum. We examined these issues including contextual space-time relationships and formal causal inferential analysis in USA.

Methods: State congenital anomaly (CA) rate (CAR) data was taken from the annual reports of the National Birth Defects Prevention Network 2001-2005 to 2011-2015. Read More

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January 2022

Oxidative Stress and Cocaine Intoxication as Start Points in the Pathology of Cocaine-Induced Cardiotoxicity.

Toxics 2021 Nov 24;9(12). Epub 2021 Nov 24.

Department of Medical Chemistry and Biochemistry, Medical Faculty, Trakia University, 11 Armeiska Str., 6000 Stara Zagora, Bulgaria.

Psychomotor stimulants are the most commonly used prohibited substances after cannabis. Globally, their use reaches epidemiological proportions and is one of the most common causes of death in many countries. The use of illicit drugs has negative effects on the cardiovascular system and is one of the causes of serious cardiovascular pathologies, ranging from abnormal heart rhythms to heart attacks and sudden cardiac death. Read More

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November 2021

Development of 3-(4-Chlorophenyl)-1-(phenethyl)urea Analogues as Allosteric Modulators of the Cannabinoid Type-1 Receptor: RTICBM-189 is Brain Penetrant and Attenuates Reinstatement of Cocaine-Seeking Behavior.

J Med Chem 2022 01 20;65(1):257-270. Epub 2021 Dec 20.

Research Triangle Institute, Research Triangle Park, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27709, United States.

We have shown that CB receptor negative allosteric modulators (NAMs) attenuated the reinstatement of cocaine-seeking behaviors in rats. In an effort to further define the structure-activity relationships and assess the druglike properties of the 3-(4-chlorophenyl)-1-(phenethyl)urea-based CB NAMs that we recently reported, we introduced substituents of different electronic properties and sizes to the phenethyl group and evaluated their potency in CB calcium mobilization, cAMP, and GTPγS assays. We found that 3-position substitutions such as Cl, F, and Me afforded enhanced CB potency, whereas 4-position analogues were generally less potent. Read More

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January 2022

Altered cardiac mitochondrial dynamics and biogenesis in rat after short-term cocaine administration.

Sci Rep 2021 12 16;11(1):24129. Epub 2021 Dec 16.

Department of Forensic Medicine, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Tokyo Medical and Dental University (TMDU), 1-5-45 Yushima, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, 113-8519, Japan.

Abuse of the potent psychostimulant cocaine is widely established to have cardiovascular consequences. The cardiotoxicity of cocaine is mainly associated with oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction. Mitochondrial dynamics and biogenesis, as well as the mitochondrial unfolded protein response (UPR), guarantee cardiac mitochondrial homeostasis. Read More

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December 2021

Ibrutinib as a potential therapeutic for cocaine use disorder.

Transl Psychiatry 2021 12 8;11(1):623. Epub 2021 Dec 8.

Behavioral Genetics of Addiction Laboratory, Department of Psychology at Emory University, Atlanta, GA, USA.

Cocaine use presents a worldwide public health problem with high socioeconomic cost. No current pharmacologic treatments are available for cocaine use disorder (CUD) or cocaine toxicity. To explore pharmaceutical treatments for tthis disorder and its sequelae we analyzed gene expression data from post-mortem brain tissue of individuals with CUD who died from cocaine-related causes with matched cocaine-free controls (n = 71, M = 39. Read More

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December 2021

Intravenous Lipid Emulsion for the Treatment of Perioperative Cocaine Intoxication.

Cureus 2021 Oct 30;13(10):e19146. Epub 2021 Oct 30.

Anesthesiology, Detroit Medical Center, NorthStar Anesthesia, Detroit, USA.

Symptomatic cocaine intoxication in the preoperative period is a potentially life-threatening condition, especially before emergent surgery. The anesthesiologist is faced with a dilemma where the patient is deemed unsafe for induction of general anesthesia but also in need of immediate surgical intervention. Cocaine is a local anesthetic and, as such, has been proposed to respond to lipid emulsion treatment as other local anesthetics would. Read More

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October 2021

Sex moderated and RSA mediated effects of prenatal cocaine exposure on behavior problems at age 7.

Neurotoxicol Teratol 2022 Jan-Feb;89:107052. Epub 2021 Nov 23.

Pennsylvania State University, USA.

This study was designed to assess whether prenatal cocaine exposure (PCE) is associated with sex differences in behavior problems in middle childhood and whether there are sex differences in the way in which parasympathetic functioning mediates the relations between PCE and behavior problems within a diverse low-income sample. Participants included 164 high risk mother-child dyads including 89 PC exposed children and 75 control children participating in an ongoing longitudinal study. Respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) was measured to assess parasympathetic functioning at 13 months of age and maternal reports of child behavior problems were collected at 7 years of age. Read More

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Liujunzi Decoction ameliorated cisplatin-induced anorexia by inhibiting the JAK-STAT signaling pathway and coordinating anorexigenic and orexigenic neuropeptides in rats.

J Ethnopharmacol 2022 Mar 17;285:114840. Epub 2021 Nov 17.

School of Chinese Materia Medica, Guangdong Pharmaceutical University, Guangzhou, 510006, PR China. Electronic address:

Ethnopharmacological Relevance: As a traditional Chinese formula, Liujunzi Decoction (LJZD) originated from the Yi Xue Zheng Zhuan, and has a promising effect in treating chemotherapy-induced anorexia (CIA).

Aim Of The Study: The present study aims to investigate whether LJZD acts on interleukin-6 (IL-6)/leptin mediated janus kinase (JAK)-signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) signaling pathway that regulates hypothalamus anorexigenic and orexigenic peptides to ameliorate CIA, and also elucidates the potential mechanism by metabolomic analysis.

Materials And Methods: Network pharmacology analyses were conducted to screen out potential targets and pathways. Read More

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Prevalence, beliefs and impact of drug-drug interactions between antiretroviral therapy and illicit drugs among people living with HIV in Spain.

PLoS One 2021 19;16(11):e0260334. Epub 2021 Nov 19.

Spanish Interdisciplinary AIDS Society (Sociedad Española Interdisciplinaria del Sida, SEISIDA), Madrid, Spain.

Drug use implies important challenges related to HIV management, particularly due to an increased risk of potential interactions between antiretroviral therapy (ART) and illicit drugs (pDDIs). This study analyses the prevalence and severity of pDDIs among people living with HIV (PLHIV). It also explores their awareness of pDDIs and their beliefs about the toxicity that they may cause, as well as the impact of pDDIs on selected health variables. Read More

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January 2022

Proteome-Informed Machine Learning Studies of Cocaine Addiction.

J Phys Chem Lett 2021 Nov 9;12(45):11122-11134. Epub 2021 Nov 9.

Department of Mathematics, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan 48824, United States.

No anti-cocaine addiction drugs have been approved by the Food and Drug Administration despite decades of effort. The main challenge is the intricate molecular mechanisms of cocaine addiction, involving synergistic interactions among proteins upstream and downstream of the dopamine transporter. However, it is difficult to study so many proteins with traditional experiments, highlighting the need for innovative strategies in the field. Read More

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November 2021

Preschool blood lead levels, language competency, and substance use in adolescence.

Environ Res 2022 04 25;206:112273. Epub 2021 Oct 25.

Departments of Population and Quantitative Health Sciences, Psychological Sciences, Psychiatry and Pediatrics, Case Western Reserve University, United States.

Background: Elevated lead levels in children are a persistent public health problem, particularly in urban areas in the United States, yet few prospective studies have examined the association of childhood lead levels with substance use in adolescence.

Objectives: To determine the association of early lead levels with adolescent substance use and whether childhood IQ, language skills, and externalizing (aggressive and disruptive) behavior mediate the association, controlling for confounding biological and environmental factors.

Methods: The participants (N = 265) were a subsample of a prospective birth cohort study on the developmental effects of prenatal cocaine exposure in the Midwest United States. Read More

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The Non-receptor Tyrosine Kinase Pyk2 in Brain Function and Neurological and Psychiatric Diseases.

Front Synaptic Neurosci 2021 6;13:749001. Epub 2021 Oct 6.

Institut du Fer à Moulin, Paris, France.

Pyk2 is a non-receptor tyrosine kinase highly enriched in forebrain neurons. Pyk2 is closely related to focal adhesion kinase (FAK), which plays an important role in sensing cell contacts with extracellular matrix and other extracellular signals controlling adhesion and survival. Pyk2 shares some of FAK's characteristics including recruitment of Src-family kinases after autophosphorylation, scaffolding by interacting with multiple partners, and activation of downstream signaling pathways. Read More

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October 2021

A quantitative trait variant in Gabra2 underlies increased methamphetamine stimulant sensitivity.

Genes Brain Behav 2021 11 22;20(8):e12774. Epub 2021 Oct 22.

Department of Genetics, Genomics and Informatics, University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis, Tennessee, USA.

Psychostimulant (methamphetamine, cocaine) use disorders have a genetic component that remains mostly unknown. We conducted genome-wide quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis of methamphetamine stimulant sensitivity. To facilitate gene identification, we employed a Reduced Complexity Cross between closely related C57BL/6 mouse substrains and examined maximum speed and distance traveled over 30 min following methamphetamine (2 mg/kg, i. Read More

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November 2021

Role of hippocampal NF-κB and GluN2B in the memory acquisition impairment of experiences gathered prior to cocaine administration in rats.

Sci Rep 2021 10 8;11(1):20033. Epub 2021 Oct 8.

Unitat Predepartamental de Medicina, Universitat Jaume I, Avenida de Vicent Sos Baynat, s/n, 12071, Castellón de la Plana, Castellón, Spain.

Cocaine can induce severe neurobehavioral changes, among others, the ones involved in learning and memory processes. It is known that during drug consumption, cocaine-associated memory and learning processes take place. However, much less is known about the effects of this drug upon the mechanisms involved in forgetting. Read More

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October 2021

Environmentally realistic concentrations of cocaine in seawater disturbed neuroendrocrine parameters and energy status in the marine mussel Perna perna.

Comp Biochem Physiol C Toxicol Pharmacol 2022 Jan 30;251:109198. Epub 2021 Sep 30.

Departamento de Ciências do Mar, Universidade Federal de São Paulo, Rua Maria Máximo, 168, PC 11030-100 Santos, Brazil; Laboratório de Ecotoxicologia, Universidade Santa Cecília, Rua Oswaldo Cruz 266, PC 11045-907 Santos, Brazil. Electronic address:

Cocaine (COC) is a powerful illicit drug frequently detected in the aquatic environment. COC acts by inhibiting the reuptake of dopamine (DOPA) and 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT - serotonin) and causes endocrine disturbances in mammals. This study investigated similar effects from cocaine exposure in the marine mussel Perna perna, as well as neurotoxicity and energy imbalances. Read More

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January 2022

Non-fatal stimulant overdose among homeless and unstably housed women in San Francisco, California.

Drug Alcohol Depend 2021 11 22;228:109085. Epub 2021 Sep 22.

Department of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, CA, USA.

Background: US rates of overdose deaths involving stimulants (e.g., cocaine or methamphetamine) have increased, but little is known about non-fatal stimulant overdoses, particularly among vulnerable populations. Read More

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November 2021

Toxicological Analysis of Intoxications with Synthetic Cathinones.

J Anal Toxicol 2021 Oct 1. Epub 2021 Oct 1.

Department of Cytophysiology, Chair of Histology and Embryology, School of Medicine in Katowice, Medical University of Silesia, Katowice, Poland.

Synthetic cathinones (SCs) are currently the second largest and the second most frequently seized group of new psychoactive substances. They are sold as replacements for controlled stimulants such as amphetamine, cocaine and MDMA. Administration of low doses of SCs can cause euphoria and increased alertness, and administration of high doses or chronic use of cathinones can cause serious adverse effects, such as hallucinations, delirium, hyperthermia, and tachycardia. Read More

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October 2021

Qualitative LC/Q-TOF Analysis of Umbilical Cord Tissue via Data-Dependent Acquisition as an Indicator of In Utero Exposure to Toxic Adulterating Substances.

J Anal Toxicol 2021 Sep 30. Epub 2021 Sep 30.

NMS Labs, 200 Welsh Road, Horsham, PA 19044.

Toxic adulterants are drug or chemical agents used to add bulk volume to traditional drugs of abuse such as cocaine, and heroin. These cutting agents include levamisole, metamizole, noxiptillin, phenacetin, and xylazine as well as common legal drugs such as acetaminophen, caffeine, diphenhydramine, lidocaine, quinine, quetiapine, and tramadol. Because they possess pharmacological activity they result in exposure of the user, but also in the case of pregnant women, the developing fetus, to potential drug toxicity. Read More

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September 2021

Ca channel blockade reduces cocaine's vasoconstriction and neurotoxicity in the prefrontal cortex.

Transl Psychiatry 2021 09 6;11(1):459. Epub 2021 Sep 6.

Department of Biomedical Engineering, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY, 11794, USA.

Cocaine profoundly affects both cerebral blood vessels and neuronal activity in the brain. The vasoconstrictive effects of cocaine, concurrently with its effects on neuronal [Ca] accumulation are likely to jeopardize neuronal tissue that in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) could contribute to impaired self-regulation and compulsive cocaine consumption. Here we used optical imaging to study the cerebrovascular and neuronal effects of acute cocaine (1 mg/kg i. Read More

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September 2021

Impact of co-ingestion of ethanol on the clinical symptomatology and severity of patients attended in the emergency department for recreational drug toxicity.

Am J Emerg Med 2021 Dec 23;50:422-427. Epub 2021 Aug 23.

Department of Physical Medicine and Pharmacology, Universidad de La Laguna, Tenerife, Spain. Electronic address:

Objective: Investigate whether there are differences in the drugs involved, symptomatology and severity of drug intoxication in patients with co-ingestion of alcohol attended in hospital emergency departments (ED).

Method: Patients attended in 11 Spanish EDs due to drug intoxication were included. Sociodemographic and clinical characteristics were collected. Read More

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December 2021

Effects of excitotoxicity in the hypothalamus in transgenic mouse models of Huntington disease.

Heliyon 2021 Aug 14;7(8):e07808. Epub 2021 Aug 14.

Translational Neuroendocrine Research Unit, Department of Experimental Medical Science, Lund University, 22184, Lund, Sweden.

Huntington disease (HD) is a fatal neurodegenerative movement disorder caused by an expanded CAG repeat in the huntingtin gene (HTT). The mutant huntingtin protein is ubiquitously expressed, but only certain brain regions are affected. The hypothalamus has emerged as an important area of pathology with selective loss of neurons expressing the neuropeptides orexin (hypocretin), oxytocin and vasopressin in human postmortem HD tissue. Read More

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