411 results match your criteria Toxicity Clonidine


Amphetamine and Clonidine Toxicity Resulting in Posterior Reversible Encephalopathy Syndrome.

Pediatr Emerg Care 2019 Apr 9. Epub 2019 Apr 9.

Emergency Medicine, and.

Amphetamine toxicity typically presents with hypertension and tachycardia. Conversely, clonidine acts as an agonist at central α2 and imidazoline receptors, which may cause brief initial hypertension followed by hypotension and bradycardia in overdose. We report a case of mixed ingestion resulting in posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) successfully treated with phentolamine. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/PEC.0000000000001819DOI Listing
April 2019
3 Reads

Caudal epidural blocks in paediatric patients: a review and practical considerations.

Br J Anaesth 2019 Apr 1;122(4):509-517. Epub 2019 Feb 1.

Department of Paediatric Anesthesia and Intensive Care, Section of Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden; Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.

Caudal epidural blockade in children is one of the most widely administered techniques of regional anaesthesia. Recent clinical studies have answered major pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic questions, thus providing the scientific background for safe and effective blocks in daily clinical practice and demonstrating that patient selection can be expanded to range from extreme preterm births up to 50 kg of body weight. This narrative review discusses the main findings in the current literature with regard to patient selection (sub-umbilical vs mid-abdominal indications, contraindications, low-risk patients with spinal anomalies); anatomical considerations (access problems, age and body positioning, palpation for needle insertion); technical considerations (verification of needle position by ultrasound vs landmarks vs 'whoosh' or 'swoosh' testing); training and equipment requirements (learning curve, needle types, risk of tissue spreading); complications and safety (paediatric regional anaesthesia, caudal blocks); local anaesthetics (bupivacaine vs ropivacaine, risk of toxicity in children, management of toxic events); adjuvant drugs (clonidine, dexmedetomidine, opioids, ketamine); volume dosing (dermatomal reach, cranial rebound); caudally accessed lumbar or thoracic anaesthesia (contamination risk, verifying catheter placement); and postoperative pain. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bja.2018.11.030DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6435837PMC
April 2019
1 Read

Evaluation of Antidepressant Effects on Recovery of Electrical Field Stimulation-Induced Contractions that have been Suppressed by Clonidine in Isolated Rat Vas Deferens.

Pharmacology 2019 29;103(3-4):189-201. Epub 2019 Jan 29.

Department of Chemical Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Toho University, Funabashi, Japan,

Background: A report examining whether clinically available antidepressants increase urethral smooth muscle contraction via antagonistic effects on the α2-adrenoceptor (α2-AR) is lacking.

Objectives: The present study was performed to evaluate the potential of clinically available antidepressants to reverse α2-AR-mediated contractile inhibition in rat vas deferens, in order to predict whether they can induce voiding impairment.

Method: The effects of 18 antidepressants of different classes on electrical field stimulation (EFS)-induced contractions suppressed by 10-8 mol/L clonidine (a selective α2-AR agonist) in isolated rat vas deferens were investigated and related to their respective clinical blood concentrations. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000495616DOI Listing
March 2019
1 Read

Cross-sectional survey of off-label and unlicensed prescribing for inpatients at a paediatric teaching hospital in Western Australia.

PLoS One 2019 8;14(1):e0210237. Epub 2019 Jan 8.

School of Pharmacy and Biomedical Sciences, Curtin University, Perth, Western Australia, Australia.

Objectives: To evaluate the prevalence of off-label and unlicensed prescribing in inpatients at a major paediatric teaching hospital in Western Australia and to identify which drugs are commonly prescribed off-label or unlicensed, including factors influencing such prescribing.

Methods: A retrospective cross-sectional study was conducted in June, 2013. Patient and prescribing data were collected from 190 inpatient medication chart records which had been randomly selected from all admissions during the second week of February 2013. Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0210237PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6324807PMC
January 2019
3 Reads

Antiasthmatic potential of Zizyphus jujuba Mill and Jujuboside B. - Possible role in the treatment of asthma.

Respir Physiol Neurobiol 2019 02 3;260:28-36. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

R.C. Patel Institute of Pharmaceutical Education & Research, Shirpur, Dhule, 425405, India.

Zizyphus jujuba Mill, a famous oriental traditional medicine, has been reported to exhibit diverse activities in biological systems including the respiratory system. However, a little information is available on its antiasthmatic activity. Jujuboside B (JB) is a natural saponin and one of the active constituent of fruits of Zizyphus jujuba. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.resp.2018.12.001DOI Listing
February 2019
4 Reads

Clonidine exposures in children under 6 (2004-2017): a retrospective study.

Arch Dis Child 2019 Mar 13;104(3):287-291. Epub 2018 Nov 13.

New South Wales Poisons Information Centre, The Children's Hospital at Westmead, Westmead, New South Wales, Australia.

Objective: To describe trends in clonidine exposures in children under 6. Clonidine has become increasingly popular for management of paediatric behavioural disorders. Clonidine has a narrow therapeutic index, and toxicity can occur with inadvertent double dosing. Read More

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http://adc.bmj.com/lookup/doi/10.1136/archdischild-2018-3160
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/archdischild-2018-316026DOI Listing
March 2019
14 Reads

Pharmacologic Treatment of Opioid Use Disorder: a Review of Pharmacotherapy, Adjuncts, and Toxicity.

J Med Toxicol 2018 Dec 30;14(4):306-322. Epub 2018 Oct 30.

Harvard Medical Toxicology Program, Boston Children's Hospital, 300 Longwood Avenue, Boston, MA, 02115, USA.

Opioid use disorder continues to be a significant source of morbidity and mortality in the USA and the world. Pharmacologic treatment with methadone and buprenorphine has been shown to be effective at retaining people in treatment programs, decreasing illicit opioid use, decreasing rates of hepatitis B, and reducing all cause and overdose mortality. Unfortunately, barriers exist in accessing these lifesaving medications: users wishing to start buprenorphine therapy require a waivered provider to prescribe the medication, while some states have no methadone clinics. Read More

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http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s13181-018-0685-1
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13181-018-0685-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6242798PMC
December 2018
15 Reads

Clonidine Protects Against Neurotoxicity Induced by Sevoflurane Through NF-κB Signaling Inhibition and Proinflammatory Cytokine Release in Rats.

J Mol Neurosci 2018 Aug 2;65(4):507-513. Epub 2018 Aug 2.

Department of Anesthesia, the Second Affiliated Hospital of Nanchang University, Nanchang, Jiangxi, China.

Exposure of neonatal animals to anesthetics may cause developmental functional changes and acute structural anomalies in the brain. Clonidine, an α2-adrenoceptor agonist, functions as an analgesic and sedative and protects against brain injury. Nevertheless, whether clonidine protects the developing brain from damage caused by sevoflurane (SEVO) anesthesia remains unclear. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12031-018-1117-zDOI Listing
August 2018
5 Reads

Naloxone reversal of clonidine toxicity: dose, dose, dose.

Clin Toxicol (Phila) 2018 Oct 16;56(10):873-879. Epub 2018 Mar 16.

b Tennessee Poison Center , Nashville , TN , USA.

Context: Following clonidine ingestion, naloxone is seldom administered as it is considered ineffective in reversing somnolence, bradycardia, or hypotension. However, this conclusion has been based on administration of small doses (2 mg or less) of naloxone. The somnolence is frequently treated with endotracheal intubation (ETI), a procedure with significant morbidity. Read More

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https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/15563650.2018.1
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15563650.2018.1450986DOI Listing
October 2018
14 Reads

Carrier-mediated uptake of clonidine in cultured human lung cells.

Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol 2018 04 19;391(4):361-369. Epub 2018 Jan 19.

Institut de Recherches en Santé, Environnement et Travail (IRSET), UMR INSERM U1085, Université de Rennes 1, 2 Avenue du Pr Léon Bernard, 35043, Rennes, France.

The lung is a preferential organ site for accumulation of lipophilic basic amine drugs, so-called pneumophilic drugs and belonging to various pharmacological classes, which can result in lung toxicity. In order to investigate the mechanism involved in such pulmonary accumulation of drugs, uptake of clonidine, used here as a prototypical basic amine drug, was characterized in cultured human lung cells. Clonidine accumulation in lung alveolar A549 cells was found to be temperature- and pH-dependent; it was saturable, with a Michaelis-Menten affinity constant (Km) value of 569. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00210-018-1467-7DOI Listing
April 2018
9 Reads

Effect of Locally Administered Dexmedetomidine as Adjuvant to Levobupivacaine in Supraclavicular Brachial Plexus Block: Double-blind Controlled Study.

Anesth Essays Res 2017 Oct-Dec;11(4):981-986

Department of Anaesthesiology and Critical Care, BS Medical College, Bankura, West Bengal, India.

Context: Brachial plexus block is effective with good postoperative analgesia in upper limb surgery has gained importance as it safe, low cost, and maintains stable hemodynamics intraoperatively. To decrease the onset time and prolong the duration of nerve block bicarbonate, opioids (morphine, fentanyl, etc.), sympathomimetic agents (epinephrine, phenylephrine, etc. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/aer.AER_55_17DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5735499PMC
December 2017
24 Reads

Antiallergic and antihistaminic actions of Ceasalpinia bonducella seeds: Possible role in treatment of asthma.

J Ethnopharmacol 2018 Apr 14;216:251-258. Epub 2017 Dec 14.

Department of Pharmacognosy, Pravara Rural College of Pharmacy, Loni 413736, Maharashtra, India.

Ethnopharmacological Relevance: Seed kernel of the plant Ceasalpinia bonducella Linn (Caesalpiniacaeae) are used for the treatment of asthma in folk medicine and ancient books.

Aim Of Study: To assess the pharmacological efficacy of the plant in asthma and to confine and describe the synthetic constituents from the seeds that are in charge of the action.

Material And Methods: The viability of petroleum ether, ethanol extract and ethyl acetate fraction from ethanol extract of C. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S03788741173043
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2017.12.007DOI Listing
April 2018
18 Reads

Pharmacological Approach for Managing Pain in Irritable Bowel Syndrome: A Review Article.

Anesth Pain Med 2017 Apr 25;7(2):e42747. Epub 2017 Jan 25.

Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT 06269, USA.

Context: Visceral pain is a leading symptom for patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) that affects 10% - 20 % of the world population. Conventional pharmacological treatments to manage IBS-related visceral pain is unsatisfactory. Recently, medications have emerged to treat IBS patients by targeting the gastrointestinal (GI) tract and peripheral nerves to alleviate visceral pain while avoiding adverse effects on the central nervous system (CNS). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.5812/aapm.42747DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5556397PMC
April 2017
12 Reads

Antidepressant-Like Effect of the Endogenous Neuroprotective Amine, 1MeTIQ in Clonidine-Induced Depression: Behavioral and Neurochemical Studies in Rats.

Neurotox Res 2017 Jul 3;32(1):94-106. Epub 2017 Apr 3.

Department of Neurochemistry, Institute of Pharmacology Polish Academy of Sciences, 12 Smętna Street, 31-343, Kraków, Poland.

Biogenic amines such as norepinephrine, dopamine, and serotonin play a well-described role in the treatment of mood disorders especially depression. Animal models are widely used to study antidepressant-like effect in rodents; however, it should be taken into account that pharmacological models do not always answer to the complexity of the disease processes. This study verified the behavioral (forced swim test (FST), locomotor activity test) and neurochemical effects (monoamines metabolism) of a low dose of clonidine (0. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12640-017-9715-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5487857PMC
July 2017
15 Reads

Continuous-Infusion Etomidate in a Patient Receiving Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation.

J Pediatr Pharmacol Ther 2017 Jan-Feb;22(1):65-68

We describe a 16-year-old, 65-kg male deployed on extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) for refractory respiratory failure secondary to ingestion of multiple substances. During his ECMO course, standard sedative and analgesic strategies failed and alternative medications were used. The patient received various dosages of fentanyl, morphine, hydromorphone, clonidine patches, dexmedetomidine, lorazepam, methadone, pentobarbital, olanzapine, and propofol. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.5863/1551-6776-22.1.65DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5341534PMC
March 2017
31 Reads

Preventing Corneal Calcification Associated With Xylazine for Longitudinal Optical Coherence Tomography in Young Rodents.

Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2017 01;58(1):461-469

Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, McGill University, Montréal, Québec, Canada 2Hôpital Maisonneuve-Rosemont Research Center, Montréal, Québec, Canada 4Department of Ophthalmology, Université de Montréal, Montréal, Québec, Canada 5Department of Pharmacology, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Sainte-Justine Hospital, University of Montréal, Montréal, Québec, Canada 6Department of Pediatrics, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Sainte-Justine Research Center, Université de Montréal, Montréal, Québec, Canada.

Purpose: Spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) is widely used in clinical ophthalmology and recently gained popularity in laboratory research involving small rodents. Its noninvasive nature allows repeated measurements, thereby decreasing the number of animals required. However, when used at a conventional dosage, xylazine (an α2-adrenoceptor) can cause irreversible corneal calcification, especially among young rodents. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1167/iovs.16-20526DOI Listing
January 2017
16 Reads

Adult clonidine overdose: prolonged bradycardia and central nervous system depression, but not severe toxicity.

Clin Toxicol (Phila) 2017 Mar 20;55(3):187-192. Epub 2017 Jan 20.

a Clinical Toxicology Research Group , University of Newcastle , Newcastle , Australia.

Context: There are limited reports of adult clonidine overdose. We aimed to describe the clinical effects and treatment of clonidine overdose in adults.

Methods: This was a retrospective review of a prospective cohort of poisoned patients who took clonidine overdoses (>200 μg). Read More

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https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/15563650.2016.1
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15563650.2016.1277234DOI Listing
March 2017
17 Reads

Organophosphate-Hydrolyzing Enzymes as First-Line of Defence Against Nerve Agent-Poisoning: Perspectives and the Road Ahead.

Protein J 2016 Dec;35(6):424-439

Department of Biotechnology, National Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research (NIPER), Sector 67, S.A.S. Nagar (Mohali), 160062, Punjab, India.

Nerve agents (NAs) are extremely neurotoxic synthetic organophosphate (OP) compounds exploited as weapons of mass destruction in terrorist attacks and chemical warfare. Considering the current world scenario, there is a persistent threat of NA-exposure to military personals and civilians. Various prophylactic and post-exposure treatments (such as atropine and oximes) available currently for NA-poisoning are inadequate and unsatisfactory and suffer from severe limitations. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10930-016-9686-6DOI Listing
December 2016
25 Reads

Clonidine to treat Irukandji syndrome.

Emerg Med Australas 2016 Dec 22;28(6):756-757. Epub 2016 Sep 22.

Department of Emergency Medicine, Cairns Hospital, Cairns, Queensland, Australia.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1742-6723.12675DOI Listing
December 2016
7 Reads

Genotoxic and Mutagenic Activity of PT-31.

Curr Pharm Biotechnol 2016;17(12):1043-1048

Northeast Biotechnology Network (RENORBIO), Postgraduate Program in Biotechnology, Federal University of Piauí, Teresina (Piauí)-64.049-550, Brazil.

Toxicity assessment is an important tool in drug discovery and development. PT-31 (3-(2-chloro-6-fluorobenzyl)-imidazolidine-2,4-dione) is an imidazolidine- 2,4-dione analogue of clonidine that displays a dose-dependent analgesic profile and synergism with morphine. This study investigated genotoxic and mutagenic effects of PT-31 in Swiss mice. Read More

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January 2017
12 Reads

Clonidine Overdose in a Toddler Due to Accidental Ingestion of a Compounding Cream.

Pediatr Emerg Care 2018 Apr;34(4):e79-e81

A 22-month-old girl without any significant medical history accidentally consumed a small amount of a therapeutic compounding cream that contained camphor, gabapentin, clonidine, ketoprofen, and lidocaine. Upon presentation to the emergency department, the child exhibited immediate onset of altered mental status with wide fluctuation in her vital signs, which included intermittent apnea requiring bag-valve mask assistance and endotracheal intubation. Serum laboratory analysis measured a clonidine level of 2. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/PEC.0000000000000790DOI Listing
April 2018
17 Reads

Effects of topical combinations of clonidine and pentoxifylline on capsaicin-induced allodynia and postcapsaicin tourniquet-induced pain in healthy volunteers: a double-blind, randomized, controlled study.

Pain 2016 10;157(10):2366-74

aDepartment of Anesthesia, McGill University, Montreal, QC, Canada bAlan Edwards Centre for Research on Pain, McGill University, Montreal, QC, Canada cFaculty of Dentistry, McGill University, Montreal, QC, Canada dMcGill University Hospital Centre Research Institute, Montreal, QC, Canada eAlan Edwards Pain Management Unit, McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, QC, Canada fAntiva Biosciences, Inc, South San Francisco, CA, USA Departments of gNeurology & Neurosurgery and hPsychology, McGill University, Montreal, QC, Canada.

This double-blind randomized controlled study was designed to evaluate the analgesic effects of topical treatments with clonidine (CLON) and pentoxifylline (PTX) tested alone or as low- and high-dose combinations in a human experimental model of pain. Of 69 healthy subjects aged 18 to 60 years, 23 each were randomly allocated to low-dose (0.04% + 2%) and high-dose (0. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/j.pain.0000000000000659DOI Listing
October 2016
29 Reads

Psychiatric and Behavioural Disorders in Children with Epilepsy (ILAE Task Force Report): When should pharmacotherapy for psychiatric/behavioural disorders in children with epilepsy be prescribed?

Epileptic Disord 2016 May 16. Epub 2016 May 16.

MD PhD, Professor Dr. emer., Senior Research Scientist, Depts. Public Health and Child Neurology, University of Turku, Turku, Finland.

The most important factor in deciding whether psychotropic medication should be prescribed is a meticulous assessment of the possible causes of the behavioural/psychiatric disturbance. This assessment should include a consideration of the possible roles of the epilepsy itself, treatment of the epilepsy, associated brain damage or dysfunction, reactions to the epilepsy and causes that are unrelated to the epilepsy or its treatment. If the epilepsy itself or antiepileptic drug treatment are responsible for the disorder then a review of antiepileptic medication is required. Read More

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http://www.jle.com/download/epd-307201-psychiatric_and_behav
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1684/epd.2016.0819DOI Listing
May 2016
77 Reads

A Case Report of Kratom Addiction and Withdrawal.

WMJ 2016 Feb;115(1):49-52; quiz 53

Kratom, a relatively unknown herb among physicians in the western world, is advertised on the Internet as an alternative to opioid analgesics, as a potential treatment for oploid withdrawal and as a "legal high" with minimal addiction potential. This report describes a case of kratom addiction in a 37-year-old woman with a severe oploid-like withdrawal syndrome that was managed successfully with symptom-triggered clonidine therapy and scheduled hydroxyzine. A review of other case reports of kratom toxicity, the herb's addiction potential, and the kratom withdrawal syndrome is discussed. Read More

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February 2016
6 Reads

Randomized controlled studies on the efficacy of antiarthritic agents in inhibiting cartilage degeneration and pain associated with progression of osteoarthritis in the rat.

Arthritis Res Ther 2016 Jan 21;18:24. Epub 2016 Jan 21.

Bolder BioPATH, Inc., 5541 Central Avenue, Suite 160, Boulder, CO, 80301, USA.

Background: As an initial step in the development of a local therapeutic to treat osteoarthritis (OA), a number of agents were tested for their ability to block activation of inflammation through nuclear factor κ-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB), subchondral bone changes through receptor activator of nuclear factor κB ligand (RANKL)-mediated osteoclastogenesis, and proteolytic degradation through matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-13 activity. Candidates with low toxicity and predicted efficacy were further examined using either of two widely accepted models of OA joint degeneration in the rat: the monoiodoacetic acid (MIA) model or the medial meniscal tear/medial collateral ligament tear (MMT/MCLT) model.

Methods: Potential therapeutics were assessed for their effects on the activation of nuclear factor (NF)-κB, RANKL-mediated osteoclastogenesis, and MMP-13 activity in vitro using previously established assays. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13075-016-0921-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4721142PMC
January 2016
36 Reads
5 Citations
3.753 Impact Factor

Clonidine complexation with hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin: From physico-chemical characterization to in vivo adjuvant effect in local anesthesia.

J Pharm Biomed Anal 2016 Feb 18;119:27-36. Epub 2015 Nov 18.

Biochemistry and Tissue Biology Department, Biology Institute, State University of Campinas, Campinas, SP, Brazil. Electronic address:

Clonidine (CND), an alpha-2-adrenergic agonist, is used as an adjuvant with local anesthetics. In this work, we describe the preparation and characterization of an inclusion complex of clonidine in hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin (HP-β-CD), as revealed by experimental (UV-vis absorption, SEM, X-ray diffraction, DOSY- and ROESY-NMR) and theoretical (molecular dynamics) approaches. CND was found to bind to HP-β-CD (Ka=20M(-1)) in 1:1 stoichiometry. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpba.2015.11.015DOI Listing
February 2016
15 Reads

Effectiveness of ondansetron as an adjunct to lidocaine intravenous regional anesthesia on tourniquet pain and postoperative pain in patients undergoing elective hand surgery: a systematic review protocol.

JBI Database System Rev Implement Rep 2015 01;13(1):27-38

1 The Louisiana Center for Evidence-Based Nursing at LSUHSC School of Nursing: an Affiliate Center of the Joanna Briggs Institute.

Review Question/objective: The objective of this quantitative systematic review is to determine the effects of ondansetron as an adjunct to lidocaine on the tourniquet pain and postoperative pain of American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) class 1 or 2 adult patients undergoing elective hand surgery with intravenous regional anesthesia.

Background: Both injury and deformity of the upper extremity can result in dysfunction to nerves, tendons and bones which can lead to disability and pain. Hand injuries and deformities encompass an area of upper extremity surgery, wherein isolation and accessibility to peripheral nerves allows for a wide range of anesthesia techniques. Read More

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https://insights.ovid.com/crossref?an=01938924-201513010-000
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http://dx.doi.org/10.11124/jbisrir-2015-1768DOI Listing
January 2015
36 Reads

Activation of serotonin 5-HT(2C) receptor suppresses behavioral sensitization and naloxone-precipitated withdrawal symptoms in morphine-dependent mice.

Neuropharmacology 2016 Feb 3;101:246-54. Epub 2015 Dec 3.

Life Science Initiative, Charles E. Schmidt College of Science, Florida Atlantic University, 5353 Parkside Drive, Jupiter, FL 33458, USA. Electronic address:

Opioid abuse and dependence have evolved into an international epidemic as a significant clinical and societal problem with devastating consequences. Repeated exposure to the opioid, for example morphine, can induce profound, long-lasting behavioral sensitization and physical dependence, which are thought to reflect neuroplasticity in neural circuitry. Central serotonin (5-HT) neurotransmission participates in the development of dependence on and the expression of withdrawal from morphine. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S00283908153012
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuropharm.2015.09.031DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4996259PMC
February 2016
17 Reads

Pharmacological treatment of organophosphorus insecticide poisoning: the old and the (possible) new.

Br J Clin Pharmacol 2016 Mar 30;81(3):462-70. Epub 2015 Oct 30.

Department of Medicine, Sylhet MAG Osmani Medical College, Sylhet, Bangladesh.

Despite being a major clinical and public health problem across the developing world, responsible for at least 5 million deaths over the last three decades, the clinical care of patients with organophosphorus (OP) insecticide poisoning has little improved over the last six decades. We are still using the same two antidotes - atropine and oximes - that first came into clinical use in the late 1950s. Clinical research in South Asia has shown how improved regimens of atropine can prevent deaths. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bcp.12784DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4767211PMC
March 2016
6 Reads

Local Anesthetic Peripheral Nerve Block Adjuvants for Prolongation of Analgesia: A Systematic Qualitative Review.

PLoS One 2015 10;10(9):e0137312. Epub 2015 Sep 10.

Department of Anesthesiology, Hospital for Special Surgery, New York, New York, United States of America; Department of Anesthesiology, Weill College of Medicine at Cornell University, New York, New York, United States of America.

Background: The use of peripheral nerve blocks for anesthesia and postoperative analgesia has increased significantly in recent years. Adjuvants are frequently added to local anesthetics to prolong analgesia following peripheral nerve blockade. Numerous randomized controlled trials and meta-analyses have examined the pros and cons of the use of various individual adjuvants. Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0137312PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4565585PMC
May 2016
11 Reads

Topical treatment in pain medicine: from ancient remedies to modern usage.

Pain Manag 2015 Sep 21;5(5):359-71. Epub 2015 Jul 21.

Centre for Research on Chronic Pain & Inflammatory Diseases, Murdoch University, Perth, Western Australia, Australia.

Over several millennia, substances have been applied to the skin for treatment of pain. Some ingredients are in current use; others have been discontinued. Mechanisms of action include interactions with nociceptive neural networks and inflammatory processes. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2217/pmt.15.23DOI Listing
September 2015
4 Reads

The effect of clonidine pretreatment on epidural resiniferatoxin in a neuropathic pain rat model.

Acta Med Okayama 2015 ;69(2):95-103

Department of Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine, Gachon University Gil Hospital, Incheon 405-760, Korea.

Resiniferatoxin (RTX) is an ultrapotent synthetic TRPV1 (transient receptor potential vanilloid subtype 1) agonist with significant initial transient hyperalgesia followed by a prolonged analgesic effect in response to thermal stimulus. Using a rat model of neuropathic pain, we evaluated the effect of pretreatment with clonidine-which has been shown to relieve intradermal capsaicin-induced hyperalgesia-on the initial hyperalgesic response and the thermal analgesic property of RTX. Thirty-six male rats were divided into 6 treatment groups (n=6 each):RTX 500 ng, RTX 1 μg, clonidine 20 μg (Cl), Cl+RTX 500 ng, Cl+RTX 1 μg, or normal saline 20 μL (control). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.18926/AMO/53338DOI Listing
February 2016
10 Reads

Modulation of L-DOPA's antiparkinsonian and dyskinetic effects by α2-noradrenergic receptors within the locus coeruleus.

Neuropharmacology 2015 Aug 25;95:215-25. Epub 2015 Mar 25.

Behavioral Neuroscience Program, Department of Psychology, Binghamton University, Binghamton, NY, USA. Electronic address:

Long-term l-DOPA use for Parkinson's disease (PD) is frequently complicated by the emergence of a debilitating motor side effect known as l-DOPA-induced dyskinesia (LID). Accumulating evidence has implicated the norepinephrine (NE) system in the pathogenesis of LID. Here we used the unilateral 6-hydroxydopamine rat model of PD to determine the role of the α2-adrenoceptors (α2R) in l-DOPA's therapeutic and detrimental motor-inducing effects. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuropharm.2015.03.008DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4466080PMC
August 2015
14 Reads

Constipation enhances the propensity to seizure in pentylenetetrazole-induced seizure models of mice.

Epilepsy Behav 2015 Mar 6;44:200-6. Epub 2015 Mar 6.

Neonatal Research Centre, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran. Electronic address:

Epilepsy is characterized by spontaneous recurrent seizures and represents one of the most frequent neurological diseases, affecting about 60 million people worldwide. The cellular and neurocircuit bases of epilepsy are poorly understood. Constipation is a common gastrointestinal disorder characterized by symptoms such as straining, hard stool, and infrequent defecation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.yebeh.2015.01.013DOI Listing
March 2015
8 Reads

Delayed-onset movement disorder and encephalopathy after oxycodone ingestion.

Semin Pediatr Neurol 2014 Jun 18;21(2):160-5. Epub 2014 Jun 18.

Department of Neurology, University of Washington, Seattle, WA; Division of Neurology, Seattle Children's Hospital, Seattle, WA; Department of Pediatrics, University of Washington, Seattle, WA.

We present the case of a 14-year-old girl with a biphasic course after oxycodone ingestion. Clinically, she had a rapid return to baseline after initial ingestion and presented a week later with new-onset ballism, akathisia, and encephalopathy. Neuroimaging demonstrated bilateral globi pallidi and cerebellar lesions with a relative decrease of metabolite peaks on magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.spen.2014.06.009DOI Listing
June 2014
25 Reads

Breathing and temperature control disrupted by morphine and stabilized by clonidine in neonatal rats.

Respir Physiol Neurobiol 2014 Sep 5;201:93-100. Epub 2014 Jul 5.

Pediatrics, Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Baltimore, MD, United States. Electronic address:

Background: Sedative-analgesics are often given to newborn infants and are known to affect many components of the autonomic nervous system. While morphine is most frequently used, α-2 adrenergic receptor agonists are being increasingly used in this population. Alpha-2 adrenergic receptors agonists also have anti-shivering properties which may make it a desirable drug to give to infants undergoing therapeutic hypothermia. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.resp.2014.06.015DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4425248PMC
September 2014
10 Reads

Effects of indole-3-carbinol on clonidine-induced neurotoxicity in rats: Impact on oxidative stress, inflammation, apoptosis and monoamine levels.

Neurotoxicology 2014 Sep 27;44:48-57. Epub 2014 May 27.

Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Al-Azhar University, Cairo, Egypt.

The relationship between inflammation, oxidative stress and the incidence of depression had been well studied. Indole-3-carbinol (I3C), a natural active compound found in cruciferous vegetables, was shown to have anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the potential protective effects of I3C against clonidine-induced depression-like behaviors in rats. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuro.2014.05.004DOI Listing
September 2014
13 Reads

Toxicity of antihypertensives in unintentional poisoning of young children.

J Emerg Med 2014 Aug 18;47(2):155-62. Epub 2014 Apr 18.

Mainz Poison Center, Mainz, Germany; 2(nd) Medical Clinic, University Medical Center Mainz, Germany; Krankenhaus der Barmherzigen Brüder Trier, Trier, Germany.

Background: Knowledge is limited about the toxicity of unintentional exposure to antihypertensives in young children (0-6 years of age).

Objective: Our aim was to research symptoms and poisoning severity in unintentional poisonings in this group of age and determine adequate poisoning management.

Methods: We performed a 10-year retrospective, explorative analysis of the Mainz Poison Center/Germany database with regard to circumstances of poison exposure, dosage, symptoms, and treatment. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jemermed.2014.02.006DOI Listing
August 2014
22 Reads

Significance of the imidazoline receptors in toxicology.

Authors:
J A Lowry J T Brown

Clin Toxicol (Phila) 2014 Jun 25;52(5):454-69. Epub 2014 Mar 25.

Division of Clinical Pharmacology, Toxicology and Therapeutic Innovations, Department of Pediatrics, Children's Mercy Hospitals and Clinics, University of Missouri School of Medicine , Kansas City, MO , USA.

Introduction: The alpha-2 adrenergic (AA-2) receptor agonists and imidazolines are common exposures in the American Association of Poison Control Centers (AAPCC) National Poison Data System (NPDS). Although the interaction between the AA-2 receptor and imidazoline receptors has been extensively studied, it largely remains unknown to health-care professionals. This review describes these interactions and mechanisms by which agonists affect physiologic responses binding to these receptors. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/15563650.2014.898770DOI Listing
June 2014
21 Reads

Safety and efficacy of flumazenil for reversal of iatrogenic benzodiazepine-associated delirium toxicity during treatment of alcohol withdrawal, a retrospective review at one center.

J Med Toxicol 2014 Jun;10(2):126-32

Department of Internal Medicine, Harrisburg Hospital, PinnacleHealth, Harrisburg, PA, 17101, USA,

Both alcohol withdrawal syndrome (AWS) and benzodiazepines can cause delirium. Benzodiazepine-associated delirium can complicate AWS and prolong hospitalization. Benzodiazepine delirium can be diagnosed with flumazenil, a GABA-A receptor antagonist. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13181-014-0391-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4057541PMC
June 2014
22 Reads
5 Citations

Spinal anesthesia in children: A review.

J Anaesthesiol Clin Pharmacol 2014 Jan;30(1):10-8

LHMC and Associated Hospitals, New Delhi, India.

Even after a vast safety record, the role of spinal anesthesia (SA) as a primary anesthetic technique in children remains contentious and is mainly limited to specialized pediatric centers. It is usually practiced on moribund former preterm infants (<60 weeks post-conception) to reduce the incidence of post-operative apnea when compared to general anesthesia (GA). However, there is ample literature to suggest its safety and efficacy for suitable procedures in older children as well. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/0970-9185.125687DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3927267PMC
January 2014
5 Reads

Additives to local anesthetics for peripheral nerve blocks: Evidence, limitations, and recommendations.

Am J Health Syst Pharm 2014 Mar;71(5):373-85

Neil S. Bailard, M.D., is Assistant Professor; Jaime Ortiz, M.D., is Assistant Professor; and Roland A. Flores, M.D., is Assistant Professor, Department of Anesthesiology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX.

Purpose: The therapeutic rationale, clinical effectiveness, and potential adverse effects of medications used in combination with local anesthetics for peripheral nerve block therapy are reviewed.

Summary: A wide range of agents have been tested as adjuncts to peripheral nerve blocks, which are commonly performed for regional anesthesia during or after hand or arm surgery, neck or spine surgery, and other procedures. Studies to determine the comparative merits of nerve block adjuncts are complicated by the wide variety of coadministered local anesthetics and sites of administration and by the heterogeneity of primary endpoints. Read More

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https://academic.oup.com/ajhp/article/71/5/373/5111204
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2146/ajhp130336DOI Listing
March 2014
35 Reads

Compounded ointment results in severe toxicity in a pediatric patient.

Pediatr Emerg Care 2013 Nov;29(11):1220-2

From the *Department of Emergency Medicine, Upstate Medical University, Syracuse, NY; and †Department of Neonatology, University of Massachusetts Medical Center, Worcester, MA.

Background: Dermal drug delivery is becoming more common, as evidenced by the increased numbers of compounding pharmacies preparing topical products for chronic pain management. Consumers may not appreciate the potency or dangers associated with some of the drugs in these preparations. Pediatric patients are especially at risk for significant toxicity with accidental exposures. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/PEC.0b013e3182aa4748DOI Listing
November 2013
9 Reads

Dermal exposure to a compounded pain cream resulting in severely elevated clonidine concentration.

J Med Toxicol 2014 Mar;10(1):61-4

Georgia Poison Center, Atlanta, GA, USA,

Introduction: Clonidine is an imidazoline derivative antihypertensive medication that is also used as adjunctive therapy for neuropathic pain disorders via topical administration. Clonidine overdose can manifest both central and peripheral alpha-adrenergic agonist effects.

Case Report: A 23-year-old man presented to an emergency department with altered mental status, bradycardia, and hypertension after suspected overdose. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13181-013-0331-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3951633PMC
March 2014
8 Reads

Way forward in case of a false positive in vitro genotoxicity result for a cosmetic substance?

Toxicol In Vitro 2014 Feb 2;28(1):54-9. Epub 2013 Oct 2.

Department of Toxicology, Center for Pharmaceutical Research, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, 1090 Brussels, Belgium. Electronic address:

The currently used regulatory in vitro mutagenicity/genotoxicity test battery has a high sensitivity for detecting genotoxicants, but it suffers from a large number of irrelevant positive results (i.e. low specificity) thereby imposing the need for additional follow-up by in vitro and/or in vivo genotoxicity tests. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tiv.2013.09.022DOI Listing
February 2014
5 Reads

Advantageous safety profile of a dual selective alpha(2C) agonist/alpha(2A) antagonist antinociceptive agent.

Fundam Clin Pharmacol 2014 Aug 11;28(4):423-38. Epub 2013 Sep 11.

Department of Non-Clinical Development, UCB Pharma S.A., B-1420, Braine-l'Alleud, Belgium.

A selective α2C -adrenoceptor (AR) agonist was developed for the treatment of neuropathic pain. The objective was to dissociate analgesic activity from cardiovascular and sedative side effects commonly observed with nonselective agents. A 2-amino-oxazoline derivative (compound A), identified as a dual α2C -AR agonist/α2A -AR antagonist in in vitro-binding assays, exhibited in vivo efficacy in rodent pain models. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/fcp.12047DOI Listing
August 2014
32 Reads

Use of naloxone for clonidine intoxication in the pediatric age group: case report and review of the literature.

Am J Ther 2015 Jan-Feb;22(1):e14-6

1Department of Emergency Medicine, King Khalid University Hospital, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 2Divisions of Pediatric Emergency Medicine and Clinical Pharmacology and Toxicology, Department of Pediatrics, The Hospital for Sick Children, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada; 3Division of Neonatal and Pediatric Emergency Medicine, Synergy Neonatal and Pediatric Hospital, Ahmedabad, India; 4Division of Pediatric Emergency Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Dana-Dwek Children Hospital; and 5Division of Clinical Pharmacology and Toxicology, Ichilov Hospital, University of Tel Aviv, Tel Aviv, Israel.

The incidence of clonidine overdose is increasing worldwide, possibly because of the broadening of indications to include several psychiatric conditions, yet there is a paucity of new information regarding treatment options for clonidine toxicity. We report a case in whom naloxone was used and discuss the literature on this topic. A 2-year-old male infant presented with a history of lethargy. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MJT.0b013e318293b0e8DOI Listing
September 2015
16 Reads

Overdose of drugs for attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder: clinical presentation, mechanisms of toxicity, and management.

CNS Drugs 2013 Jul;27(7):531-43

Central Ohio Poison Center, Columbus, OH, USA.

The prevalence of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in the USA is estimated at approximately 4-9% in children and 4% in adults. It is estimated that prescriptions for ADHD medications are written for more than 2.7 million children per year. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40263-013-0084-8DOI Listing
July 2013
11 Reads