242 results match your criteria Toxicity Ciguatera


Acute Toxicity of Gambierone and Quantitative Analysis of Gambierones Produced by Cohabitating Benthic Dinoflagellates.

Toxins (Basel) 2021 May 5;13(5). Epub 2021 May 5.

School of Science, University of Waikato, Private Bag 3105, Hamilton 3240, New Zealand.

Understanding the toxicity and production rates of the various secondary metabolites produced by and cohabitating benthic dinoflagellates is essential to unravelling the complexities associated with ciguatera poisoning. In the present study, a sulphated cyclic polyether, gambierone, was purified from CAWD232 and its acute toxicity was determined using intraperitoneal injection into mice. It was shown to be of low toxicity with an LD of 2. Read More

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Improving in vitro ciguatoxin and brevetoxin detection: selecting neuroblastoma (Neuro-2a) cells with lower sensitivity to ouabain and veratridine (OV-LS).

Harmful Algae 2021 03 2;103:101994. Epub 2021 Feb 2.

German Federal Institute for Risk Assessment, Department Safety in the Food Chain, National Reference Laboratory of Marine Biotoxins, Max-Dohrn-Str. 8-10, 10589 Berlin, Germany - www.bfr.bund.de.

Marine biotoxins accumulating in seafood products pose a risk to human health. These toxins are often potent in minute amounts and contained within complex matrices; requiring sensitive, reliable, and robust methods for their detection. The mouse neuroblastoma (Neuro-2a) cytotoxicity assay (N2a-assay) is a sensitive, high-throughput, in vitro method effective for detecting sodium channel-specific marine biotoxins. Read More

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Diversity and regional distribution of harmful algal events along the Atlantic margin of Europe.

Harmful Algae 2021 02 12;102:101976. Epub 2021 Feb 12.

IOC Science and Communication Centre on Harmful Algae, 2100 Copenhagen Ø, Denmark.

The IOC-ICES-PICES Harmful Algal Event Database (HAEDAT) was used to describe the diversity and spatiotemporal distribution of harmful algal events along the Atlantic margin of Europe from 1987 - 2018. The majority of events recorded are caused by Diarrhetic Shellfish Toxins (DSTs). These events are recorded annually over a wide geographic area from southern Spain to northern Scotland and Iceland, and are responsible for annual closures of many shellfish harvesting areas. Read More

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February 2021

Toxic marine microalgae and noxious blooms in the Mediterranean Sea: A contribution to the Global HAB Status Report.

Harmful Algae 2021 02 12;102:101843. Epub 2020 Jun 12.

Department of Life and Environmental Sciences, Università Politecnica delle Marche, 60131 Ancona, Italy. Electronic address:

We review the spatial distribution of toxic marine microalgal species and the impacts of all types of harmful algal events (Harmful Algal Blooms, HABs) in the Mediterranean Sea (MS), including the Black Sea, the Sea of Marmara, coastal lagoons and transitional waters, based on two databases compiled in the Ocean Biogeographic Information System (OBIS). Eighty-four potentially toxic species have been detected in the MS (2,350 records), of which 16 described from these waters between 1860 and 2014 and a few suspected to have been introduced. More than half of these species (46) produce toxins that may affect human health, the remainders ichthyotoxic substances (29) or other types of toxins (9). Read More

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February 2021

Characteristic Distribution of Ciguatoxins in the Edible Parts of a Grouper, .

Toxins (Basel) 2021 03 17;13(3). Epub 2021 Mar 17.

Tama Laboratory, Japan Food Research Laboratories, 6-11-10 Nagayama, Tama, Tokyo 206-0025, Japan.

Ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP) is one of the most frequently encountered seafood poisoning syndromes; it is caused by the consumption of marine finfish contaminated with ciguatoxins (CTXs). The majority of CFP cases result from eating fish flesh, but a traditional belief exists among people that the head and viscera are more toxic and should be avoided. Unlike the viscera, scientific data to support the legendary high toxicity of the head is scarce. Read More

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[Detection of Ciguatoxins from Fish Introduced into a Wholesale Market in Japan].

Shokuhin Eiseigaku Zasshi 2021 ;62(1):8-13

National Institute of Health Sciences.

Ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP), one of the most frequently occurring seafood poisonings due to marine finfish consumption, mainly affects the tropical and subtropical Indo-Pacific region and the Caribbean Sea. The principal class of toxins, ciguatoxins (CTXs) from the Pacific, includes more than 20 derivatives and are classified into two groups, CTX1B and CTX3C congeners, based on their skeletal structures. As part of risk management of CFP by the Japanese government, the import of certain species of fish into Japan is prohibited. Read More

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Development of fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) probes to detect and enumerate Gambierdiscus species.

Harmful Algae 2021 01 6;101:101914. Epub 2021 Jan 6.

Biology Department, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole, MA 02543, USA.

Ciguatera poisoning (CP) is a syndrome caused by the bioaccumulation of lipophilic ciguatoxins in coral reef fish and invertebrates, and their subsequent consumption by humans. These phycotoxins are produced by Gambierdiscus spp., tropical epiphytic dinoflagellates that live on a variety of macrophytes, as well as on dead corals and sand. Read More

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January 2021

Accumulation of C-CTX1 in Muscle Tissue of Goldfish () by Dietary Experience.

Animals (Basel) 2021 Jan 19;11(1). Epub 2021 Jan 19.

Division of Fish Health and Pathology, University Institute of Animal Health and Food Safety (IUSA), University of Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, 35416 Arucas, Spain.

Ciguatoxins (CTXs) are produced by dinoflagellates usually present in tropical and subtropical waters. These toxins are bioaccumulated and transformed in fish causing ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP) in humans. Few trials have been performed to understand how CTXs are incorporated into fish. Read More

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January 2021

A case report of cardiac toxicity from barracuda ingestion in Mexico.

Eur Heart J Case Rep 2020 Dec 27;4(6):1-4. Epub 2020 Nov 27.

Department of Medicine, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, 185 Pilgrim Road, Boston, MA 02215, USA.

Background: Ciguatera toxicity is a fish-borne illness that initially manifests with gastrointestinal symptoms, followed by bizarre neurological symptoms including heat-cold sensation alteration, peculiar feeling of loose teeth, and peripheral neuropathy. However, cardiac manifestations are rare and underreported in the literature.

Case Summary: A 73-year-old man presented with symptomatic bradycardia and hypotension after ingestion of barracuda fish in Mexico. Read More

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December 2020

Evidence for the Range Expansion of Ciguatera in French Polynesia: A Revisit of the 2009 Mass-Poisoning Outbreak in Rapa Island (Australes Archipelago).

Toxins (Basel) 2020 12 1;12(12). Epub 2020 Dec 1.

Institut Louis Malardé, Laboratory of Marine Biotoxins-UMR EIO (IFREMER-ILM-IRD-UPF), P.O. Box 30, 98713 Papeete, Tahiti, French Polynesia.

Ciguatera poisoning (CP) results from the consumption of seafood contaminated with ciguatoxins (CTXs). This disease is highly prevalent in French Polynesia with several well-identified hotspots. Rapa Island, the southernmost inhabited island in the country, was reportedly free of CP until 2007. Read More

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December 2020

Gambierdiscus and Fukuyoa as potential indicators of ciguatera risk in the Balearic Islands.

Harmful Algae 2020 11 22;99:101913. Epub 2020 Oct 22.

IRTA, Ctra. Poble Nou Km 5.5, 43540, Sant Carles de la Ràpita, Tarragona, Spain. Electronic address:

Gambierdiscus and Fukuyoa are genera of toxic dinoflagellates which were mainly considered as endemic to marine intertropical areas, and that are well known as producers of ciguatoxins (CTXs) and maitotoxins (MTXs). Ciguatera poisoning (CP) is a human poisoning occurring after the consumption of fish or more rarely, shellfish containing CTXs. The presence of these microalgae in a coastal area is an indication of potential risk of CP. Read More

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November 2020

Further advance of Species in the Canary Islands, with the First Report of .

Toxins (Basel) 2020 10 31;12(11). Epub 2020 Oct 31.

Institut de Recerca i Tecnologies Agroalimentàries (IRTA), Ctra. Poble Nou Km 5.5, Sant Carles de la Ràpita, 43540 Tarragona, Spain.

Ciguatera Poisoning (CP) is a human food-borne poisoning that has been known since ancient times to be found mainly in tropical and subtropical areas, which occurs when fish or very rarely invertebrates contaminated with ciguatoxins (CTXs) are consumed. The genus of marine benthic dinoflagellates produces CTX precursors. The presence of species in a region is one indicator of CP risk. Read More

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October 2020

Advances in Detecting Ciguatoxins in Fish.

Toxins (Basel) 2020 07 31;12(8). Epub 2020 Jul 31.

Department of Biology, School of Pure Sciences, College of Engineering, Science and Technology, Fiji National University, P.O. Box 5529 Lautoka, Fiji.

Ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP) is currently the most common marine biotoxin food poisoning worldwide, associated with human consumption of circumtropical fish and marine invertebrates that are contaminated with ciguatoxins. Ciguatoxins are very potent sodium-channel activator neurotoxins, that pose risks to human health at very low concentrations (>0.01 ng per g of fish flesh in the case of the most potent Pacific ciguatoxin). Read More

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The role of 44-methylgambierone in ciguatera fish poisoning: Acute toxicity, production by marine microalgae and its potential as a biomarker for Gambierdiscus spp.

Harmful Algae 2020 07 19;97:101853. Epub 2020 Jun 19.

School of Science, University of Waikato, Private Bag 3105, Hamilton 3240, New Zealand.

Ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP) is prevalent around the tropical and sub-tropical latitudes of the world and impacts many Pacific island communities intrinsically linked to the reef system for sustenance and trade. While the genus Gambierdiscus has been linked with CFP, it is commonly found on tropical reef systems in microalgal assemblages with other genera of toxin-producing, epiphytic and/or benthic dinoflagellates - Amphidinium, Coolia, Fukuyoa, Ostreopsis and Prorocentrum. Identifying a biomarker compound that can be used for the early detection of Gambierdiscus blooms, specifically in a mixed microalgal community, is paramount in enabling the development of management and mitigation strategies. Read More

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Diversity and Toxicity of the Genus Meunier in Brazil, and Detection of 44-Methyl Gambierone in .

Toxins (Basel) 2020 05 15;12(5). Epub 2020 May 15.

Universidade Federal do Paraná, Centro de Estudos do Mar, Cx, Postal 61, Pontal do Paraná PR 83255-976, Brazil.

is a genus of marine benthic dinoflagellates which is widely distributed in tropical and temperate zones. Toxicity has been reported in selected species, although the identity of causative compounds is still controversial. In this study, we investigated the taxonomical and toxicological aspects of species from Brazil. Read More

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Assessment of Ciguatera and Other Phycotoxin-Related Risks in Anaho Bay (Nuku Hiva Island, French Polynesia): Molecular, Toxicological, and Chemical Analyses of Passive Samplers.

Toxins (Basel) 2020 05 13;12(5). Epub 2020 May 13.

Institut Louis Malardé, UMR 241 EIO, 98713 Papeete, Tahiti, French Polynesia.

Ciguatera poisoning is a foodborne illness caused by the consumption of seafood contaminated with ciguatoxins (CTXs) produced by dinoflagellates from the genera and . The suitability of Solid Phase Adsorption Toxin Tracking (SPATT) technology for the monitoring of dissolved CTXs in the marine environment has recently been demonstrated. To refine the use of this passive monitoring tool in ciguateric areas, the effects of deployment time and sampler format on the adsorption of CTXs by HP20 resin were assessed in Anaho Bay (Nuku Hiva Island, French Polynesia), a well-known ciguatera hotspot. Read More

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Modeling the time-lag effect of sea surface temperatures on ciguatera poisoning in the South Pacific: Implications for surveillance and response.

Toxicon 2020 Jul 7;182:21-29. Epub 2020 May 7.

Waseda Research Institute for Science and Engineering, Waseda University, 3-4-1 Okubo, Shinjuku, 169-8555, Tokyo, Japan.

Ciguatera poisoning (CP), arising from ciguatoxins produced by toxic dinoflagellate Gambierdiscus, is one of the most common food-borne diseases in the South Pacific. Climate change as well as its related events have been hypothesized to a higher abundance and wider presence of toxic dinoflagellates, hence a higher risk of the disease. Yet existing studies assessing the relationship between climate factors and CP are limited or based on old data. Read More

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High sensitivity of rat cardiomyoblast H9c2(2-1) cells to Gambierdiscus toxic compounds.

Aquat Toxicol 2020 Jun 7;223:105475. Epub 2020 Apr 7.

CFE-Centre for Functional Ecology, Department of Life Sciences, University of Coimbra, Calçada Martim de Freitas, 3000-456 Coimbra, Portugal. Electronic address:

Ciguatera fish poisoning is a frequently reported non-bacterial food-borne illness related to the consumption of seafood contaminated with ciguatoxins, and possibly maitotoxins. These toxins are synthesized by marine dinoflagellate species of Gambierdiscus and Fukuyoa genera, and their abundance is a matter of great concern due to their adverse effects to aquatic life and human health. The present study aims to assess the sensitivity of rat cardiomyoblast H9c2(2-1) cells to Gambierdiscus toxic compounds using concentration- and time-dependent sulforhodamine B (SRB) colorimetric assays. Read More

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Transcriptomic analysis of polyketide synthases in a highly ciguatoxic dinoflagellate, Gambierdiscus polynesiensis and low toxicity Gambierdiscus pacificus, from French Polynesia.

PLoS One 2020 15;15(4):e0231400. Epub 2020 Apr 15.

Laboratoire des Biotoxines Marines, Institut Louis Malardé-UMR 241 EIO, Papeete, Tahiti, French Polynesia.

Marine dinoflagellates produce a diversity of polyketide toxins that are accumulated in marine food webs and are responsible for a variety of seafood poisonings. Reef-associated dinoflagellates of the genus Gambierdiscus produce toxins responsible for ciguatera poisoning (CP), which causes over 50,000 cases of illness annually worldwide. The biosynthetic machinery for dinoflagellate polyketides remains poorly understood. Read More

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Toxicity Characterisation of Species from the Canary Islands.

Toxins (Basel) 2020 02 21;12(2). Epub 2020 Feb 21.

Department of Photobiology and Toxinology of Phytoplankton, Instituto de Investigaciones Marinas, CSIC, Eduardo Cabello 6, 36208 Vigo, Spain.

In the last decade, several outbreaks of ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP) have been reported in the Canary Islands (central northeast Atlantic Ocean), confirming ciguatera as an emerging alimentary risk in this region. Five species, , , , and , have been detected in macrophytes from this area and are known to produce the ciguatoxins (CTXs) that cause CFP. A characterization of the toxicity of these species is the first step in identifying locations in the Canary Islands at risk of CFP. Read More

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February 2020

Distribution and potential toxicity of benthic harmful dinoflagellates in waters of Florida Bay and the Florida Keys.

Mar Environ Res 2020 Mar 23;155:104891. Epub 2020 Jan 23.

University of Maryland Center for Environmental Science, Horn Point Laboratory, P.O. Box 775, Cambridge, MD, 21613, USA.

Few studies have been carried out on benthic dinoflagellates along the Florida Keys, and little is known about their distribution or toxicity in Florida Bay. Here, the distribution and abundance of benthic dinoflagellates was explored in northern and eastern Florida Bay and along the bay and ocean sides of the Florida Keys. Isolates were brought into culture and their toxicity was tested with oyster larvae bioassays. Read More

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Presence of CTXs in moray eels and dusky groupers in the marine environment of the Canary Islands.

Aquat Toxicol 2020 Apr 31;221:105427. Epub 2020 Jan 31.

Division of Fish Health and Pathology, University Institute of Animal Health and Food Safety (IUSA), University of Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, 35416 Arucas, Las Palmas, Spain.

Local population frequently consumes moray eels and dusky groupers from the Canary Islands. These species are top predators and the interactions between them include predation but also, in some cases, collaborative hunting. These fish are well known to cause ciguatera (CFP) outbreaks in several marine areas such as Japan, Hawaii, French Polynesia and Caribe. Read More

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Ciguatera Fish Poisoning: The Risk from an Aotearoa/New Zealand Perspective.

Toxins (Basel) 2020 01 15;12(1). Epub 2020 Jan 15.

AgResearch Limited, Ruakura Research Centre, Private Bag 3123, Hamilton 3240, New Zealand.

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January 2020

Global impact of ciguatoxins and ciguatera fish poisoning on fish, fisheries and consumers.

Environ Res 2020 03 7;182:109111. Epub 2020 Jan 7.

IPMA - Instituto Português do Mar da Atmosfera, Rua Alfredo Magalhães Ramalho, 6, 1495-006, Lisbon, Portugal; CCMAR - Centre of Marine Sciences, University of Algarve, Campus of Gambelas, 8005-139, Faro, Portugal.

Ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP) is one of the most devastating food-borne illnesses caused by fish consumption. Ciguatoxins (CTXs) are potent neurotoxins synthesized by the benthic microalgae Gambierdiscus spp. and Fukuyoa spp. Read More

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A Curious Case of Ciguatera Fish Poisoning in the Midwest and a Review for Clinicians.

J Emerg Med 2020 Mar 20;58(3):e109-e111. Epub 2019 Dec 20.

Department of Emergency Medicine, Henry Ford Macomb Hospital, Clinton Township, Michigan.

Background: Ciguatera poisoning is one of the most prevalent types of fish poisoning, but it is often underreported, leading many health practitioners to be unfamiliar in correctly identifying and treating this toxicity.

Case Report: We present a case of ciguatera toxicity encountered in an emergency department in a Midwest community hospital setting. A 56-year-old woman presented to the ED with symptoms of perioral numbness, generalized pruritis, and hot/cold temperature reversal. Read More

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Intraspecific Variability in the Toxin Production and Toxin Profiles of In Vitro Cultures of (Dinophyceae) from French Polynesia.

Toxins (Basel) 2019 12 17;11(12). Epub 2019 Dec 17.

Laboratoire de recherche sur les Biotoxines Marines Institut Louis Malardé-UMR 241 EIO, 98713 Papeete-Tahiti, French Polynesia.

Ciguatera poisoning (CP) is a foodborne disease caused by the consumption of seafood contaminated with ciguatoxins (CTXs) produced by dinoflagellates in the genera and . The toxin production and toxin profiles were explored in four clones of originating from different islands in French Polynesia with contrasted CP risk: RIK7 (Mangareva, Gambier), NHA4 (Nuku Hiva, Marquesas), RAI-1 (Raivavae, Australes), and RG92 (Rangiroa, Tuamotu). Productions of CTXs, maitotoxins (MTXs), and gambierone group analogs were examined at exponential and stationary growth phases using the neuroblastoma cell-based assay and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Read More

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December 2019

Ciguatoxin Occurrence in Food-Web Components of a Cuban Coral Reef Ecosystem: Risk-Assessment Implications.

Toxins (Basel) 2019 12 11;11(12). Epub 2019 Dec 11.

Environment Laboratories, Department of Nuclear Science and Application, International Atomic Energy Agency, 4 Quai Antoine 1er, MC 98000 Monaco, Monaco.

In Cuba, ciguatera poisoning associated with fish consumption is the most commonly occurring non-bacterial seafood-borne illness. Risk management through fish market regulation has existed in Cuba for decades and consists of bans on selected species above a certain weight; however, the actual occurrence of ciguatoxins (CTXs) in seafood has never been verified. From this food safety risk management perspective, a study site locally known to be at risk for ciguatera was selected. Read More

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December 2019

Development of a quantitative PCR assay for the detection and enumeration of a potentially ciguatoxin-producing dinoflagellate, Gambierdiscus lapillus (Gonyaulacales, Dinophyceae).

PLoS One 2019 15;14(11):e0224664. Epub 2019 Nov 15.

Climate Change Cluster (C3), University of Technology Sydney, Ultimo, New South Wales, Australia.

Ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP) is an illness contracted through the ingestion of seafood containing ciguatoxins. It is prevalent in tropical regions worldwide, including in Australia. Ciguatoxins are produced by some species of Gambierdiscus. Read More

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Development and Validation of PCR-RFLP Assay for Identification of species in the Greater Caribbean region.

J Appl Phycol 2018 Dec 7;30(6):3529-3540. Epub 2018 May 7.

Marine Science Institute - University of Texas at Austin, Port Aransas, USA.

The genus is a recognized group of marine epiphytic-benthic dinoflagellates that produce the toxins that cause ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP). To date, thirteen species and six ribotypes of have been identified, and multiple species commonly co-occur within a single site or epiphyte community. Toxicity can vary by species, thus it is important to be able to differentiate among species for research and monitoring purposes. Read More

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December 2018

Morphology, toxicity and molecular characterization of Gambierdiscus spp. towards risk assessment of ciguatera in south central Cuba.

Harmful Algae 2019 06 31;86:119-127. Epub 2019 May 31.

Environment Laboratories, Department of Nuclear Science and Application, International Atomic Energy Agency, 98000, Monaco. Electronic address:

Ciguatera poisoning is caused by the consumption of reef fish or shellfish that have accumulated ciguatoxins, neurotoxins produced by benthic dinoflagellates of the genera Gambierdiscus or Fukuyoa. Although ciguatera constitutes the primary cause of seafood intoxication in Cuba, very little information is available on the occurrence of ciguatoxins in the marine food web and the causative benthic dinoflagellate species. This study conducted on the south-central coast of Cuba reports the occurrence of Gambierdiscus and Fukuyoa genera and the associated benthic genera Ostreopsis and Prorocentrum. Read More

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