264 results match your criteria Toxicity Ciguatera


Toxic Effects and Tumor Promotion Activity of Marine Phytoplankton Toxins: A Review.

Toxins (Basel) 2022 Jun 8;14(6). Epub 2022 Jun 8.

Department of Biotechnology, Sangmyung University, Seoul 03016, Korea.

Phytoplankton are photosynthetic microorganisms in aquatic environments that produce many bioactive substances. However, some of them are toxic to aquatic organisms via filter-feeding and are even poisonous to humans through the food chain. Human poisoning from these substances and their serious long-term consequences have resulted in several health threats, including cancer, skin disorders, and other diseases, which have been frequently documented. Read More

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In vivo subchronic effects of ciguatoxin-related compounds, reevaluation of their toxicity.

Arch Toxicol 2022 Jun 3. Epub 2022 Jun 3.

Departamento de Farmacología, Farmacia y Tecnología Farmacéutica, Facultad de Veterinaria, Universidad de Santiago de Compostela, Campus Universitario s/n, 27002, Lugo, Spain.

Ciguatoxins are marine compounds that share a ladder-shaped polyether structure produced by dinoflagellates of the genus Gambierdiscus and Fukuyoa, and include maitotoxins (MTX1 and MTX3), ciguatoxins (CTX3C) and analogues (gambierone), components of one of the most frequent human foodborne illness diseases known as ciguatera fish poisoning. This disease was previously found primarily in tropical and subtropical areas but nowadays, the dinoflagellates producers of ciguatoxins had spread to European coasts. One decade ago, the European Food Safety Authority has raised the need to complete the toxicological available data for the ciguatoxin group of compounds. Read More

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Toxicity and growth characteristics of epiphytic dinoflagellate Gambierdiscus silvae in Japan.

Harmful Algae 2022 06 5;115:102230. Epub 2022 Apr 5.

Laboratory of Aquatic Environmental Science (LAQUES), Faculty of Agriculture and Marine Science, Kochi University, 200 Otsu, Monobe, Nankoku, Kochi 783-8502, Japan; The United Graduate School of Agricultural Sciences, Ehime University, 3-5-7 Tarumi, Matsuyama, Ehime 790-8566, Japan. Electronic address:

The genus Gambierdiscus is a marine benthic/epiphytic dinoflagellate that has been investigated worldwide as the causative agent of ciguatera poisoning (CP). In Japan, CP occurs mainly in the subtropical region and sporadically in the temperate region. To understand the mechanism of CP outbreaks in the coastal regions, identifying the species of Gambierdiscus occurring in the regions and determining their toxicity and growth characteristics, such as growth responses to temperature, salinity, and light intensity, are important. Read More

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Tetrodotoxin Poisoning in Mainland France and French Overseas Territories: A Review of Published and Unpublished Cases.

Toxins (Basel) 2022 05 17;14(5). Epub 2022 May 17.

Department of Research an Biostatistics, University Hospital of Guadeloupe, LAMIA (EA4540) French West Indies University, 97159 Pointe-à-Pitre, France.

Tetrodotoxin is one of the most potent neurotoxins in the aquatic world. This review of published and unpublished reports aims to describe the poisoning cases that have occurred in mainland France and overseas territories. Six articles were included, with 13 poisoning events, individuals or collective (number () = 53 patients). Read More

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Evaluating Age and Growth Relationship to Ciguatoxicity in Five Coral Reef Fish Species from French Polynesia.

Mar Drugs 2022 Apr 1;20(4). Epub 2022 Apr 1.

Institut Louis Malardé (ILM), Laboratory of Marine Biotoxins, UMR 241-EIO (IFREMER, ILM, IRD, Université de Polynésie Française), P.O. Box 30, Papeete 98713, Tahiti, French Polynesia.

Ciguatera poisoning (CP) results from the consumption of coral reef fish or marine invertebrates contaminated with potent marine polyether compounds, namely ciguatoxins. In French Polynesia, 220 fish specimens belonging to parrotfish (, , and ), surgeonfish (), and groupers () were collected from two sites with contrasted risk of CP, i.e. Read More

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Identification of New CTX Analogues in Fish from the Madeira and Selvagens Archipelagos by Neuro-2a CBA and LC-HRMS.

Mar Drugs 2022 Mar 29;20(4). Epub 2022 Mar 29.

Institute of Agrifood Research and Technology (IRTA), Marine and Continental Waters Program, Carretera de Poble Nou, 43540 La Ràpita, Spain.

Ciguatera Poisoning (CP) is caused by consumption of fish or invertebrates contaminated with ciguatoxins (CTXs). Presently CP is a public concern in some temperate regions, such as Macaronesia (North-Eastern Atlantic Ocean). Toxicity analysis was performed to characterize the fish species that can accumulate CTXs and improve understanding of the ciguatera risk in this area. Read More

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The Occurrence, Distribution, and Toxicity of High-Risk Ciguatera Fish Species (Grouper and Snapper) in Kiritimati Island and Marakei Island of the Republic of Kiribati.

Toxins (Basel) 2022 03 15;14(3). Epub 2022 Mar 15.

State Key Laboratory of Marine Pollution, Department of Biomedical Sciences, City University of Hong Kong, Kowloon Tong, Hong Kong 999077, China.

Ciguatera is one of the most widespread food poisonings caused by the ingestion of fish contaminated by ciguatoxins (CTXs). Snapper and grouper with high palatable and economic value are the primary food source and fish species for exportation in the Republic of Kiribati, but they are highly suspected CTX-contaminated species due to their top predatory characteristics. In this study, 60 fish specimens from 17 species of snappers and groupers collected from the Kiritimati Island and Marakei Island of the Republic of Kiribati were analyzed using mouse neuroblastoma (N2a) assay and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) to determine Pacific CTX-1, -2 and -3 (P-CTX-1, -2 and -3). Read More

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Polynesian medicine used to treat diarrhea and ciguatera: An ethnobotanical survey in six islands from French Polynesia.

J Ethnopharmacol 2022 Jun 12;292:115186. Epub 2022 Mar 12.

UMR 214 EIO, Université de Polynésie Française, IFREMER, ILM, IRD, BP 6570, F-98702, Faaa, Tahiti, French Polynesia.

Ethnopharmacological Relevance: In French Polynesia, many pathologies common or endemic to the territory cause diarrhea. This is the case for rotavirus gastroenteritis, salmonella food poisoning, ingestion of water contaminated by bacteria, and ciguatera. To treat these ailments, the population may employ traditional medicine for cultural reasons, geographical isolation, and poor health coverage. Read More

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Ciguatoxin Detection in Flesh and Liver of Relevant Fish Species from the Canary Islands.

Toxins (Basel) 2022 01 9;14(1). Epub 2022 Jan 9.

Division of Fish Health and Pathology, University Institute of Animal Health and Food Safety (IUSA), University of Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, 35416 Arucas, Spain.

The Canary Islands are a ciguatoxin (CTX) hotspot with an established official monitoring for the detection of CTX in fish flesh from the authorised points of first sale. Fish caught by recreational fishermen are not officially tested and the consumption of toxic viscera or flesh could lead to ciguatera poisoning (CP). The objectives of this study were to determine the presence of CTX-like toxicity in relevant species from this archipelago, compare CTX levels in liver and flesh and examine possible factors involved in their toxicity. Read More

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January 2022

Determination of the toxicity equivalency factors for ciguatoxins using human sodium channels.

Food Chem Toxicol 2022 Feb 10;160:112812. Epub 2022 Jan 10.

Departamento de Farmacologı́a, Facultad de Veterinaria, Universidad de Santiago de Compostela, Campus Universitario s/n, 27002, Lugo, Spain. Electronic address:

Ciguatoxins (CTXs) which are produced by dinoflagellates of the genus Gambierdiscus and Fukuyoa and share a ladder-shaped polyether structure, are causative compounds of one of the most frequent foodborne illness disease known as ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP). CFP was initially found in tropical and subtropical areas but nowadays the dinoflagellates producers of ciguatoxins had spread to European coasts. Therefore, this raises the need of establishing toxicity equivalency factors for the different compounds that can contribute to ciguatera fish poisoning, since biological methods have been replaced by analytical techniques. Read More

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February 2022

Sulfo-Gambierones, Two New Analogs of Gambierone Produced by .

Mar Drugs 2021 Nov 24;19(12). Epub 2021 Nov 24.

Laboratoire Phycotoxines, DYNECO, Ifremer, F-44000 Nantes, France.

Ciguatera poisoning is caused by the ingestion of fish or shellfish contaminated with ciguatoxins produced by dinoflagellate species belonging to the genera and . Unlike in the Pacific region, the species producing ciguatoxins in the Atlantic Ocean have yet to be definitely identified, though some ciguatoxins responsible for ciguatera have been reported from fish. Previous studies investigating the ciguatoxin-like toxicity of Atlantic species using Neuro2a cell-based assay identified as a potential toxin producer. Read More

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November 2021

Nucleic acid lateral flow dipstick assay for the duplex detection of Gambierdiscus australes and Gambierdiscus excentricus.

Harmful Algae 2021 12 17;110:102135. Epub 2021 Nov 17.

Departament d'Enginyeria Química, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, 26 Països Catalans, 43007 Tarragona, Spain. Electronic address:

The proliferation of harmful microalgae endangers aquatic ecosystems and can have serious economic implications on a global level. Harmful microalgae and their associated toxins also pose a threat to human health since they can cause seafood-borne diseases such as ciguatera. Implementation of DNA-based molecular methods together with appropriate detection strategies in monitoring programs can support the efforts for effective prevention of potential outbreaks. Read More

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December 2021

Depuration Kinetics and Growth Dilution of Caribbean Ciguatoxin in the Omnivore Implications for Trophic Transfer and Ciguatera Risk.

Toxins (Basel) 2021 11 1;13(11). Epub 2021 Nov 1.

School of Marine and Environmental Sciences, University of South Alabama, Mobile, AL 36688, USA.

Modeling ciguatoxin (CTX) trophic transfer in marine food webs has significant implications for the management of ciguatera poisoning, a circumtropical disease caused by human consumption of CTX-contaminated seafood. Current models associated with CP risk rely on modeling abundance/presence of CTX-producing epi-benthic dinoflagellates, e.g. Read More

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November 2021

Identification of Fish Species and Toxins Implicated in a Snapper Food Poisoning Event in Sabah, Malaysia, 2017.

Toxins (Basel) 2021 09 15;13(9). Epub 2021 Sep 15.

Environment and Fisheries Applied Techniques Research Department, Fisheries Technology Institute, Japan Fisheries Research and Education Agency, 2-12-4 Fukuura, Kanazawa-ku, Yokohama 236-8648, Japan.

In the coastal countries of Southeast Asia, fish is a staple diet and certain fish species are food delicacies to local populations or commercially important to individual communities. Although there have been several suspected cases of ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP) in Southeast Asian countries, few have been confirmed by ciguatoxins identification, resulting in limited information for the correct diagnosis of this food-borne disease. In the present study, ciguatoxin-1B (CTX-1B) in red snapper () implicated in a CFP case in Sabah, Malaysia, in December 2017 was determined by single-quadrupole selected ion monitoring (SIM) liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS). Read More

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September 2021

Ciguatoxin-Producing Dinoflagellate in the Beibu Gulf: First Report of Toxic in Chinese Waters.

Toxins (Basel) 2021 09 10;13(9). Epub 2021 Sep 10.

Guangxi Laboratory on the Study of Coral Reefs in the South China Sea, Guangxi University, Nanning 530004, China.

Ciguatera poisoning is mainly caused by the consumption of reef fish that have accumulated ciguatoxins (CTXs) produced by the benthic dinoflagellates and . China has a long history of problems with ciguatera, but research on ciguatera causative organisms is very limited, especially in the Beibu Gulf, where coral reefs have been degraded significantly and CTXs in reef fish have exceeded food safety guidelines. Here, five strains of spp. Read More

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September 2021

An Update on Ciguatoxins and CTX-like Toxicity in Fish from Different Trophic Levels of the Selvagens Islands (NE Atlantic, Madeira, Portugal).

Toxins (Basel) 2021 08 20;13(8). Epub 2021 Aug 20.

Biomedical Research Center (CINBIO), Department of Analytical and Food Chemistry, Campus Universitario de Vigo, University of Vigo, 36310 Vigo, Spain.

The Selvagens Islands, which are a marine protected area located at the southernmost point of the Portuguese maritime zone, have been associated with fish harboring ciguatoxins (CTX) and linked to ciguatera fish poisonings. This study reports the results of a field sampling campaign carried out in September 2018 in these remote and rarely surveyed islands. Fifty-six fish specimens from different trophic levels were caught for CTX-like toxicity determination by cell-based assay (CBA) and toxin content analysis by liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Read More

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Experimental Evidence of Ciguatoxin Accumulation and Depuration in Carnivorous Lionfish.

Toxins (Basel) 2021 08 11;13(8). Epub 2021 Aug 11.

Université Côte d'Azur, CNRS, ECOSEAS, UMR7035, Parc Valrose, CEDEX 2, 06103 Nice, France.

Ciguatera poisoning is a food intoxication associated with the consumption of fish or shellfish contaminated, through trophic transfer, with ciguatoxins (CTXs). In this study, we developed an experimental model to assess the trophic transfer of CTXs from herbivorous parrotfish, , to carnivorous lionfish, . During a 6-week period, juvenile lionfish were fed naturally contaminated parrotfish fillets at a daily dose of 0. Read More

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Ciguatera in the Indian Ocean with Special Insights on the Arabian Sea and Adjacent Gulf and Seas: A Review.

Toxins (Basel) 2021 07 27;13(8). Epub 2021 Jul 27.

Gulf Geoinformation Solutions, Sharjah, United Arab Emirates.

The dinoflagellates of the genus are found in almost all oceans and seas between the coordinates 35° N and 35° S. and are producers of ciguatoxins (CTXs), which are known to cause foodborne disease associated with contaminated seafood. The occurrence and effects of CTXs are well described in the Pacific and the Caribbean. Read More

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Critical Review and Conceptual and Quantitative Models for the Transfer and Depuration of Ciguatoxins in Fishes.

Toxins (Basel) 2021 07 23;13(8). Epub 2021 Jul 23.

Institute for Molecular Bioscience, The University of Queensland, Brisbane 4072, Australia.

We review and develop conceptual models for the bio-transfer of ciguatoxins in food chains for Platypus Bay and the Great Barrier Reef on the east coast of Australia. Platypus Bay is unique in repeatedly producing ciguateric fishes in Australia, with ciguatoxins produced by benthic dinoflagellates ( spp.) growing epiphytically on free-living, benthic macroalgae. Read More

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Toxicity Screening of a Strain from the Western Mediterranean Sea and Identification of a Novel Maitotoxin Analogue.

Mar Drugs 2021 Aug 15;19(8). Epub 2021 Aug 15.

Biomedical Research Centre (CINBIO), Department of Analytical and Food Chemistry, University of Vigo, Campus Universitario de Vigo, 36310 Vigo, Spain.

Dinoflagellate species of the genera and are known to produce ciguatera poisoning-associated toxic compounds, such as ciguatoxins, or other toxins, such as maitotoxins. However, many species and strains remain poorly characterized in areas where they were recently identified, such as the western Mediterranean Sea. In previous studies carried out by our research group, a strain from the Balearic Islands (Mediterranean Sea) presenting MTX-like activity was characterized by LC-MS/MS and LC-HRMS detecting 44-methyl gambierone and gambieric acids C and D. Read More

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Asynchrony of spp. Abundance and Toxicity in the U.S. Virgin Islands: Implications for Monitoring and Management of Ciguatera.

Toxins (Basel) 2021 06 10;13(6). Epub 2021 Jun 10.

School of Marine and Environmental Sciences, University of South Alabama, Mobile, Alabama, AL 36688, USA.

Ciguatera poisoning (CP) poses a significant threat to ecosystem services and fishery resources in coastal communities. The CP-causative ciguatoxins (CTXs) are produced by benthic dinoflagellates including and spp., and enter reef food webs via grazing on macroalgal substrates. Read More

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Acute Toxicity of Gambierone and Quantitative Analysis of Gambierones Produced by Cohabitating Benthic Dinoflagellates.

Toxins (Basel) 2021 05 5;13(5). Epub 2021 May 5.

School of Science, University of Waikato, Private Bag 3105, Hamilton 3240, New Zealand.

Understanding the toxicity and production rates of the various secondary metabolites produced by and cohabitating benthic dinoflagellates is essential to unravelling the complexities associated with ciguatera poisoning. In the present study, a sulphated cyclic polyether, gambierone, was purified from CAWD232 and its acute toxicity was determined using intraperitoneal injection into mice. It was shown to be of low toxicity with an LD of 2. Read More

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Improving in vitro ciguatoxin and brevetoxin detection: selecting neuroblastoma (Neuro-2a) cells with lower sensitivity to ouabain and veratridine (OV-LS).

Harmful Algae 2021 03 2;103:101994. Epub 2021 Feb 2.

German Federal Institute for Risk Assessment, Department Safety in the Food Chain, National Reference Laboratory of Marine Biotoxins, Max-Dohrn-Str. 8-10, 10589 Berlin, Germany - www.bfr.bund.de.

Marine biotoxins accumulating in seafood products pose a risk to human health. These toxins are often potent in minute amounts and contained within complex matrices; requiring sensitive, reliable, and robust methods for their detection. The mouse neuroblastoma (Neuro-2a) cytotoxicity assay (N2a-assay) is a sensitive, high-throughput, in vitro method effective for detecting sodium channel-specific marine biotoxins. Read More

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Diversity and regional distribution of harmful algal events along the Atlantic margin of Europe.

Harmful Algae 2021 02 12;102:101976. Epub 2021 Feb 12.

IOC Science and Communication Centre on Harmful Algae, 2100 Copenhagen Ø, Denmark.

The IOC-ICES-PICES Harmful Algal Event Database (HAEDAT) was used to describe the diversity and spatiotemporal distribution of harmful algal events along the Atlantic margin of Europe from 1987 - 2018. The majority of events recorded are caused by Diarrhetic Shellfish Toxins (DSTs). These events are recorded annually over a wide geographic area from southern Spain to northern Scotland and Iceland, and are responsible for annual closures of many shellfish harvesting areas. Read More

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February 2021

Toxic marine microalgae and noxious blooms in the Mediterranean Sea: A contribution to the Global HAB Status Report.

Harmful Algae 2021 02 12;102:101843. Epub 2020 Jun 12.

Department of Life and Environmental Sciences, Università Politecnica delle Marche, 60131 Ancona, Italy. Electronic address:

We review the spatial distribution of toxic marine microalgal species and the impacts of all types of harmful algal events (Harmful Algal Blooms, HABs) in the Mediterranean Sea (MS), including the Black Sea, the Sea of Marmara, coastal lagoons and transitional waters, based on two databases compiled in the Ocean Biogeographic Information System (OBIS). Eighty-four potentially toxic species have been detected in the MS (2,350 records), of which 16 described from these waters between 1860 and 2014 and a few suspected to have been introduced. More than half of these species (46) produce toxins that may affect human health, the remainders ichthyotoxic substances (29) or other types of toxins (9). Read More

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February 2021

Characteristic Distribution of Ciguatoxins in the Edible Parts of a Grouper, .

Toxins (Basel) 2021 03 17;13(3). Epub 2021 Mar 17.

Tama Laboratory, Japan Food Research Laboratories, 6-11-10 Nagayama, Tama, Tokyo 206-0025, Japan.

Ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP) is one of the most frequently encountered seafood poisoning syndromes; it is caused by the consumption of marine finfish contaminated with ciguatoxins (CTXs). The majority of CFP cases result from eating fish flesh, but a traditional belief exists among people that the head and viscera are more toxic and should be avoided. Unlike the viscera, scientific data to support the legendary high toxicity of the head is scarce. Read More

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[Detection of Ciguatoxins from Fish Introduced into a Wholesale Market in Japan].

Shokuhin Eiseigaku Zasshi 2021 ;62(1):8-13

National Institute of Health Sciences.

Ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP), one of the most frequently occurring seafood poisonings due to marine finfish consumption, mainly affects the tropical and subtropical Indo-Pacific region and the Caribbean Sea. The principal class of toxins, ciguatoxins (CTXs) from the Pacific, includes more than 20 derivatives and are classified into two groups, CTX1B and CTX3C congeners, based on their skeletal structures. As part of risk management of CFP by the Japanese government, the import of certain species of fish into Japan is prohibited. Read More

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Development of fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) probes to detect and enumerate Gambierdiscus species.

Harmful Algae 2021 01 6;101:101914. Epub 2021 Jan 6.

Biology Department, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole, MA 02543, USA.

Ciguatera poisoning (CP) is a syndrome caused by the bioaccumulation of lipophilic ciguatoxins in coral reef fish and invertebrates, and their subsequent consumption by humans. These phycotoxins are produced by Gambierdiscus spp., tropical epiphytic dinoflagellates that live on a variety of macrophytes, as well as on dead corals and sand. Read More

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January 2021

Accumulation of C-CTX1 in Muscle Tissue of Goldfish () by Dietary Experience.

Animals (Basel) 2021 Jan 19;11(1). Epub 2021 Jan 19.

Division of Fish Health and Pathology, University Institute of Animal Health and Food Safety (IUSA), University of Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, 35416 Arucas, Spain.

Ciguatoxins (CTXs) are produced by dinoflagellates usually present in tropical and subtropical waters. These toxins are bioaccumulated and transformed in fish causing ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP) in humans. Few trials have been performed to understand how CTXs are incorporated into fish. Read More

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January 2021

A case report of cardiac toxicity from barracuda ingestion in Mexico.

Eur Heart J Case Rep 2020 Dec 27;4(6):1-4. Epub 2020 Nov 27.

Department of Medicine, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, 185 Pilgrim Road, Boston, MA 02215, USA.

Background: Ciguatera toxicity is a fish-borne illness that initially manifests with gastrointestinal symptoms, followed by bizarre neurological symptoms including heat-cold sensation alteration, peculiar feeling of loose teeth, and peripheral neuropathy. However, cardiac manifestations are rare and underreported in the literature.

Case Summary: A 73-year-old man presented with symptomatic bradycardia and hypotension after ingestion of barracuda fish in Mexico. Read More

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December 2020