2,446 results match your criteria Toxicity Chlorine Gas


Disinfection by-Products and Ecotoxic Risk Associated with Hypochlorite Treatment of Tramadol.

Molecules 2019 Feb 15;24(4). Epub 2019 Feb 15.

Department of Chemical Sciences, University of Napoli Federico II, Via Cintia 4 (ed. 5), I-80126 Naples, Italy.

In recent years, many studies have highlighted the consistent finding of tramadol (TRA) in the effluents from wastewater treatment plants (WTPs) and also in some rivers and lakes in both Europe and North America, suggesting that TRA is removed by no more than 36% by specific disinfection treatments. The extensive use of this drug has led to environmental pollution of both water and soil, up to its detection in growing plants. In order to expand the knowledge about TRA toxicity as well as the nature of its disinfection by-products (DBPs), a simulation of the waste treatment chlorination step has been reported herein. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules24040693DOI Listing
February 2019

Emission characteristics for co-combustion of leather wastes, sewage sludge, and coal in a laboratory-scale entrained flow tube furnace.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2019 Feb 7. Epub 2019 Feb 7.

College of Metrology and Measurement Engineering, China Jiliang University, Hangzhou, 310018, China.

Four different mixed fuels consisted of leather waste, coal, and sewage sludge were combusted in a lab-scale entrained flow fluidized bed furnace. The influence of blending ratio on emission characteristics of SO, NO, HCl, particulate matter (PM), heavy metals, and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) was studied. Results showed that the mixing of coal with sewage sludge had a complex effect on the emission characteristics. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-019-04347-3DOI Listing
February 2019
1 Read

Degradation of benzophenone-4 in a UV/chlorine disinfection process: Mechanism and toxicity evaluation.

Chemosphere 2019 Jan 31;222:494-502. Epub 2019 Jan 31.

State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of the Environment, Nanjing University, No. 163 Xianlin Avenue, Nanjing 210023, PR China.

This study investigated the degradation of benzophenone-4 (BP-4) in a UV/chlorine disinfection process, with chlorination and UV disinfection as comparisons. With a degradation efficiency of 80% after 10 s, the UV/chlorine process significantly enhanced the degradation of BP-4. However, a rebound of 36% of the initial concentration was observed in the UV/chlorine process ([free active chlorine (FAC)]:[BP-4] = 1:1, pH = 7). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2019.01.186DOI Listing
January 2019
2 Reads

Comprehension of heavy metal stability in municipal solid waste incineration fly ash with its compositional variety: A quick prediction case of leaching potential.

Waste Manag 2019 Feb 11;84:329-339. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

School of Environmental and Chemical Engineering, Shanghai University, No. 99 Shangda Road, Baoshan District, Shanghai 200444, PR China.

In the current work, a quick prediction of the heavy metal (HM) leaching potential in municipal solid waste incineration fly ash (MSWI FA) was developed based on the statistical data between the HM leaching behaviors and the compositional variety in FA from China. In the comparison of the surveyed (508 data points) leaching concentrations, Pb and Cd leaching amounts in FA exceeded the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) limits most frequently. Moreover, the chemical compositions (pH and soluble chlorine (S-Cl)) of FA were proposed to have significant linear correlations with the Pb and Cd leaching. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.wasman.2018.11.049DOI Listing
February 2019
1 Read

The clinical toxicology of sodium hypochlorite.

Clin Toxicol (Phila) 2019 Jan 28:1-9. Epub 2019 Jan 28.

a National Poisons Centre , University of Otago , Dunedin , New Zealand.

Introduction: Sodium hypochlorite is used as a bleaching and disinfecting agent and is commonly found in household bleach.

Objective: The objective is to review critically the epidemiology, mechanisms of toxicity, clinical features, diagnosis, and management of hypochlorite poisoning.

Methods: PubMed was searched from January 1950 to June 2018 using the terms "Hypochlorite", "Sodium Hypochlorite", "Sodium Oxychloride", "Hypochlorous Acid", "Bleach", "Chlorine Bleach", in combination with the keywords "poisoning", "poison", "toxicity", "ingestion", "adverse effects", "overdose", and "intoxication". Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15563650.2018.1543889DOI Listing
January 2019
1 Read

Transformation of endocrine disrupting chemicals, pharmaceutical and personal care products during drinking water disinfection.

Sci Total Environ 2019 Mar 11;657:1480-1490. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Australian Rivers Institute, School of Environment and Science, Griffith University, Southport, Qld 4222, Australia; The University of Queensland, Queensland Alliance for Environmental Health Sciences (QAEHS), Woolloongabba, Qld 4102, Australia; UFZ - Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research, Cell Toxicology, 04318 Leipzig, Germany.

Pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) and endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) are frequently detected in drinking water sources. This raises concerns about the formation of potentially more toxic transformation products (TPs) after drinking water disinfection. This study applied a combination of computational and experimental methods to investigate the biological activity of eight EDCs and PPCPs commonly detected in source waters (acetaminophen, bisphenol A, carbamazepine, estrone, 17α-ethinylestradiol, gemfibrozil, naproxen and triclosan) before and after disinfection. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2018.12.106DOI Listing
March 2019
4.099 Impact Factor

Pilot-scale comparison of microfiltration/reverse osmosis and ozone/biological activated carbon with UV/hydrogen peroxide or UV/free chlorine AOP treatment for controlling disinfection byproducts during wastewater reuse.

Water Res 2019 Apr 11;152:215-225. Epub 2019 Jan 11.

Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Stanford University, 473 Via Ortega, Stanford, CA, 94305, USA. Electronic address:

Ozone and biological activated carbon (O/BAC) is being considered as an alternative advanced treatment process to microfiltration and reverse osmosis (MF/RO) for the potable reuse of municipal wastewater. Similarly, the UV/free chlorine (UV/HOCl) advanced oxidation process (AOP) is being considered as an alternative to the UV/hydrogen peroxide (UV/HO) AOP. This study compared the performance of these alternative treatment processes for controlling N-nitrosamines and chloramine-reactive N-nitrosamine and halogenated disinfection byproduct (DBP) precursors during parallel, pilot-scale treatment of tertiary municipal wastewater effluent. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2018.12.062DOI Listing
April 2019
3 Reads

Distribution of polychlorinated biphenyls in effluent from a large municipal wastewater treatment plant: Potential for bioremediation?

J Environ Sci (China) 2019 Apr 21;78:42-52. Epub 2018 Jun 21.

University of Maryland at College Park, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, 1147 Glenn L. Martin Hall, College Park, MD 20742, USA. Electronic address:

This study involved an evaluation of the potential for bioremediation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in the effluent from a large municipal wastewater treatment plant. It was focused on the presence of PCBs in two types of effluents: the continuous effluent present during dry weather conditions and the intermittently present effluent that was present during wet weather due to incoming stormwater. The annual discharge of PCBs for both types of effluent was calculated based on a five-year dataset (2011-2015). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jes.2018.06.007DOI Listing
April 2019
2 Reads

Impact of chlorine exposure time on disinfection byproduct formation in the presence of iopamidol and natural organic matter during chloramination.

J Environ Sci (China) 2019 Apr 29;78:204-214. Epub 2018 Sep 29.

Department of Civil Engineering, University of Akron, Akron, OH 44325, USA. Electronic address:

Chloramines, in practice, are formed onsite by adding ammonia to chlorinated drinking water to achieve the required disinfection. While regulated disinfection byproducts (DBPs) are reduced during chloramine disinfection, other DBPs such as iodinated (iodo-) DBPs, that elicit greater toxicity are formed. The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of prechlorination time on the formation of both halogen-specific total organic halogen (TOX) and iodo/chlorinated (chloro-) DBPs during prechlorination/chloramination in source waters (SWs) containing iopamidol, an X-ray contrast medium. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jes.2018.09.022DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read
2.002 Impact Factor

Empirical Modeling of Zn/ZnO Nanoparticles Decorated/Conjugated with Fotolon (Chlorine e6) Based Photodynamic Therapy towards Liver Cancer Treatment.

Micromachines (Basel) 2019 Jan 17;10(1). Epub 2019 Jan 17.

Department of Physics and Astronomy, College of Science, King Saud University, Riyadh 11543, Saudi Arabia.

The current study is based on Zn/ZnO nanoparticles photodynamic therapy (PDT) mediated effects on healthy liver cells and cancerous cells. The synthesis of Zn/ZnO nanoparticles was accomplished using chemical and hydrothermal methods. The characterization of the synthesized nanoparticles was carried out using manifold techniques (e. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/mi10010060DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6357181PMC
January 2019
1 Read

Anti-tumor effects and mechanism of GA-13315, a novel gibberellin derivative, in human lung adenocarcinoma: an in vitro and in vivo study.

Cell Mol Biol Lett 2019 10;24. Epub 2019 Jan 10.

2School of Pharmaceutical Science and Yunnan Key Laboratory of Pharmacology for Natural Products, Cancer Hospital of Yunnan Province, Kunming Medical University, NO.1168, West Chunrong Road, Chenggong Developing Area, Kunming, 650031 China.

Objective: To investigate the anti-tumor effects and the mechanism of the compound 13-chlorine-3, 15-dioxy-gibberellic acid methyl ester (GA-13315) in lung adenocarcinoma in vitro and in vivo.

Methods: The antiproliferative effect of GA-13313 on the A549 cell line was determined by MTT (3-[4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2, 5 diphenyl tetrazolium bromide) assay. A xenograft model of A549 was established to evaluate the anti-tumor effect and histopathological examination was performed to assess the toxicity of GA-13315. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s11658-018-0126-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6327519PMC
January 2019
1 Read

Toxicological aspects of trihalomethanes: a systematic review.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2019 Jan 3. Epub 2019 Jan 3.

Development and Environment, Bioscience Center, Federal University of Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), University Campus, Lagoa Nova, Natal, RN, 59072-970, Brazil.

Chlorine is considered the most used chemical agent for water disinfection worldwide. However, water chlorination can lead to by-product generation which can be toxic to humans. The present study aimed to perform a systematic review on the toxicity of trihalomethanes (THMs) through bioindicators of cytotoxicity, genotoxicity, and mutagenicity. Read More

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http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s11356-018-3949-z
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-018-3949-zDOI Listing
January 2019
6 Reads

Formation of dioxins from triclosan with active chlorine: A potential risk assessment.

J Hazard Mater 2019 Apr 23;367:128-136. Epub 2018 Dec 23.

State Key Laboratory of Environmental and Biological Analysis, Department of Chemistry, Hong Kong Baptist University, Kowloon Tong, Hong Kong, China. Electronic address:

Triclosan, a widely used antimicrobial agent, can increase colitis-associated colon tumorigenesis, and induce liver fibrosis and cancer in mice through mechanisms which may be relevant in humans. In this study, an analytical method using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and high resolution gas chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry (HRGC-HRMS) was developed to measure dioxins and chlorinated derivatives from triclosan in the presence of active chlorine in seawater matrix. Formation yields of dioxins and chlorinated triclosans were assessed at different initial precursor concentrations under dark and UV light irradiation conditions. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2018.12.088DOI Listing
April 2019
5 Reads

Degradation of climbazole by UV/chlorine process: Kinetics, transformation pathway and toxicity evaluation.

Chemosphere 2019 Mar 5;219:243-249. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

The Environmental Research Institute, MOE Key Laboratory of Theoretical Chemistry of Environment, South China Normal University, Guangzhou, 510006, China. Electronic address:

Climbazole is an antifungal agent widely used in household personal care products, and it was found persistent in chlorination disinfection process. Here we investigated the kinetics and mechanism of climbazole degradation by UV/chlorine process. The results showed that the UV/chlorine process dramatically enhanced degradation of climbazole when compared to the UV photolysis and chlorination alone. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S00456535183234
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2018.12.023DOI Listing
March 2019
3 Reads

Transformation of sulfamethazine during the chlorination disinfection process: Transformation, kinetics, and toxicology assessment.

J Environ Sci (China) 2019 Feb 3;76:48-56. Epub 2018 Apr 3.

Beijing Key Laboratory of Diagnostic and Traceability Technologies for Food Poisoning, Beijing Center for Disease Prevention and Control, Beijing 100013, China; Beijing Research Center for Preventive Medicine, Beijing 100013, China. Electronic address:

Various disinfection byproducts (DBPs) form during the process of chlorination disinfection, posing potential threats to drinking water safety and human health. Sulfamethazine (SMT), the most commonly used and frequently detected veterinary antibiotic, was investigated in detail with regard to its transformation and kinetics in reactions with free available chlorine (FAC). Using liquid chromatography coupled to quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry, several DBPs were identified based on different confidence levels, and a variety of reaction types, including desulfonation, S-N cleavage, hydroxylation, and chlorine substitution, were proposed. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jes.2018.03.024DOI Listing
February 2019
2 Reads

Benzoylthioureas: Design, Synthesis and Antimycobacterial Evaluation.

Med Chem 2018 Dec 7. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

Departamento de Química, Centro de Ciências Exatas, Universidade Estadual de Londrina, Rodovia Celso Garcia Cid (PR 445), Km 380, Campus Universitário, Londrina - PR, 86057-970. Brazil.

Background: New drugs and strategies to treat tuberculosis (TB) are urgently needed. In this context, thiourea derivatives have a wide range of biological activities, including anti-TB. This fact can be illustrated with the structure of isoxyl, an old anti-TB drug, which have a thiourea as pharmacophore group. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1573406415666181208110753DOI Listing
December 2018
3 Reads

Phototransformation of halophenolic disinfection byproducts in receiving seawater: Kinetics, products, and toxicity.

Water Res 2019 Mar 23;150:68-76. Epub 2018 Nov 23.

Department of Environmental and Occupational Health, School of Public Health, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX, USA.

Flushing toilet with seawater is an effective method for preserving freshwater resources, but it introduces iodide and bromide ions into domestic wastewater. During chlorine disinfection, iodide and bromide ions in the saline wastewater effluent lead to the formation of iodinated and brominated aromatic disinfection byproducts (DBPs). Examples of aromatic DBPs include iodophenolic, bromophenolic and chlorophenolic compounds, which generally display substantially higher toxicity than haloaliphatic DBPs. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2018.11.059DOI Listing
March 2019
2 Reads

Sulfadiazine destruction by chlorination in a pilot-scale water distribution system: Kinetics, pathway, and bacterial community structure.

J Hazard Mater 2019 Mar 24;366:88-97. Epub 2018 Nov 24.

School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, USA.

Sulfadiazine (SDZ) has been frequently detected in surface waters in recent years. We evaluated the kinetics, mechanisms, intermediate products and bacterial community structure that result from the reaction of SDZ with free chlorine (HOCl/OCl). We examined this in a pilot-scale water distribution system. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2018.11.096DOI Listing
March 2019
1 Read

Synthesis and biological evaluation of new quinoline derivatives as antileishmanial and antitrypanosomal agents.

Bioorg Chem 2019 Mar 31;83:526-534. Epub 2018 Oct 31.

Laboratorio de Biocatálisis. Departamento de Química Orgánica y UMYMFOR, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Ciudad Universitaria, Pabellón 2, piso 3, C1428EGA Buenos Aires, Argentina. Electronic address:

As a part of our project aimed at developing new safe chemotherapeutic agents against tropical diseases, a series of aryl derivatives of 2- and 3-aminoquinoline, some of them new compounds, was designed, synthesized, and evaluated as antiproliferative agents against Trypanosoma cruzi, the parasite responsible for American trypanosomiasis (Chagas' disease), and Leishmania mexicana, the etiological agent of Leishmaniasis. Some of them showed a remarkable activity as parasite growth inhibitors. Fluorine-containing derivatives 11b and 11c were more than twice more potent than geneticin against intracellular promastigote form of Leishmania mexicana exhibiting both IC values of 41. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bioorg.2018.10.053DOI Listing
March 2019
9 Reads

Impact of copper and iron binding properties on the anticancer activity of 8-hydroxyquinoline derived Mannich bases.

Dalton Trans 2018 Dec;47(47):17032-17045

Institute of Enzymology, Research Centre for Natural Sciences, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Magyar Tudósok körútja 2, H-1117 Budapest, Hungary.

The anticancer activity of 8-hydroxyquinolines relies on complex formation with redox active copper and iron ions. Here we employ UV-visible spectrophotometry and EPR spectroscopy to compare proton dissociation and complex formation processes of the reference compound 8-hydroxyquinoline (Q-1) and three related Mannich bases to reveal possible correlations with biological activity. The studied derivatives harbor a CH2-N moiety at position 7 linked to morpholine (Q-2), piperidine (Q-3), and chlorine and fluorobenzylamino (Q-4) substituents. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c8dt03088jDOI Listing
December 2018
8 Reads

Disinfection byproduct formation and toxicity of graphene oxide in water treatment system.

Chemosphere 2019 Feb 1;217:68-75. Epub 2018 Nov 1.

College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Pollution Processes and Environmental Criteria, Tianjin Key Laboratory of Environmental Remediation and Pollution Control, Nankai University, Tong Yan Road 38, Tianjin 300350, China. Electronic address:

Graphene oxide (GO) is a structural analog of graphene and contains numerous O-containing functional groups. As rapidly increasing production and usage of GO, it is inevitable to flow into the water and wastewater treatment system and finally oxidized by disinfectants to form DBPs. Meanwhile, as GO is a nano sized carbon material, it may also break the human digestion system when it was absorbed by human body. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S00456535183203
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2018.10.165DOI Listing
February 2019
11 Reads
3.340 Impact Factor

Removal of disinfection byproduct precursors and reduction in additive toxicity of chlorinated and chloraminated waters by ozonation and up-flow biological activated carbon process.

Chemosphere 2019 Feb 16;216:624-632. Epub 2018 Oct 16.

Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Integrated Regulation and Resource Development on Shallow Lakes, Hohai University, Nanjing 210098, PR China; College of Environment, Hohai University, Nanjing 210098, PR China.

The variations of disinfection byproduct (DBP) precursors and DBPs-associated toxic potencies were evaluated by ozonation, followed by a up-flow biological activated carbon (O/UBAC) filter treating two reconstituted water samples, featuring either high bromide (105.3 μg/L) or dissolved organic nitrogen (0.73 mg N/L) concentration, respectively. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S00456535183190
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2018.10.052DOI Listing
February 2019
9 Reads
3.340 Impact Factor

Theoretical Investigations on the Reactivity of Hydrogen Peroxide toward 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo--dioxin.

Molecules 2018 Oct 31;23(11). Epub 2018 Oct 31.

Key Laboratory of Life-Organic Analysis, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Qufu Normal University, Qufu 273165, China.

Acquiring full knowledge of the reactivity of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo--dioxin (TCDD) is crucial for the better understanding of the transformation and degradation of TCDD-like dioxins in the environment. To clarify the reactivity of the organic hydroperoxides toward TCDD, in this study, the reactions between the neutral/anion of the hydrogen peroxide (H₂O₂) and TCDD have been systematically investigated theoretically. It was found that the neutral H₂O₂ is relatively difficult to react with TCDD compared with its anion, exhibiting the pH dependence of the title reaction. Read More

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http://www.mdpi.com/1420-3049/23/11/2826
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules23112826DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6278397PMC
October 2018
2 Reads

Integrating data gap filling techniques: A case study predicting TEFs for neurotoxicity TEQs to facilitate the hazard assessment of polychlorinated biphenyls.

Regul Toxicol Pharmacol 2019 Feb 22;101:12-23. Epub 2018 Oct 22.

National Center for Computational Toxicology, Office of Research and Development, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC, USA. Electronic address:

The application of toxic equivalency factors (TEFs) or toxic units to estimate toxic potencies for mixtures of chemicals which contribute to a biological effect through a common mechanism is one approach for filling data gaps. Toxic Equivalents (TEQ) have been used to express the toxicity of dioxin-like compounds (i.e. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.yrtph.2018.10.013DOI Listing
February 2019
2 Reads

User and environment friendly direct agglutination test for the sero-diagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis: exclusion of formaldehyde and β-mercaptoethanol in test execution.

J Med Microbiol 2018 Dec 16;67(12):1731-1736. Epub 2018 Oct 16.

1​Laboratory of Biomedical Research, Ahfad University for Women, P.O. Box 167, Omdurman, Sudan.

Purpose: Based on world-wide evaluation, the direct agglutination test (DAT) is now generally acknowledged as one of the leading diagnostics for visceral leishmaniasis (VL). To enhance more routine and mass application, but simultaneously ensure safety to both user and environment, further improvements need to be introduced.

Methodology: In the current format, a two-sixfold titre decrease was observed due to using formaldehyde as an antigen preservative in DAT. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1099/jmm.0.000858DOI Listing
December 2018
2 Reads

Formation of iodinated trihalomethanes and haloacetic acids from aromatic iodinated disinfection byproducts during chloramination.

Water Res 2018 12 2;147:254-263. Epub 2018 Oct 2.

State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai, 200092, China.

Iodinated disinfection byproducts (DBPs) are widely present in disinfected drinking waters and wastewater effluents, and they have drawn increasing concern owing to their high toxicity. To date, the reported iodinated DBPs mainly include aliphatic and aromatic ones, and iodinated trihalomethanes (THMs) and haloacetic acids (HAAs) are the most commonly detected aliphatic iodinated DBPs in disinfected waters. In this study, the formation of iodinated THMs and HAAs from aromatic iodinated DBPs during chloramination was investigated. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2018.09.058DOI Listing
December 2018
4 Reads

Improved DBP elimination from swimming pool water by continuous combined UV and ozone treatment.

Water Res 2018 12 29;147:214-222. Epub 2018 Sep 29.

Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, 2800, Lyngby, Denmark.

Chlorine is the most frequently used disinfectant and oxidant for maintaining swimming pool water quality; however, it reacts continuously with dissolved organic matter to produce disinfection by-products (DBPs), which are a health risk for pool users. UV treatment is used widely to remove chloramines, which are the most prevalent group of DBPs, albeit chloro-organic DBP concentrations often increase during post-UV chlorination. In this work, UV and ozone treatments were investigated as additional technologies to eliminate DBP formation and their precursors. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2018.09.030DOI Listing
December 2018
4 Reads

Elimination kinetics and detoxification mechanisms of microcystin-LR during UV/Chlorine process.

Chemosphere 2019 Jan 29;214:702-709. Epub 2018 Sep 29.

School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Environmental Pollution Control and Remediation Technology, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275, China. Electronic address:

Microcystin-LR (MC-LR), a toxin produced by cyanobacteria, is very toxic and poses a threat to public health when entering water treatment works. In this study, UV/chlorine process, as an advanced oxidation process (AOP), has been demonstrated for effective elimination of MC-LR levels and associated toxicity. At a chlorine dose of 3. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S00456535183182
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2018.09.162DOI Listing
January 2019
16 Reads

The downside of antimicrobial agents for wound healing.

Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 2019 Jan 5;38(1):39-54. Epub 2018 Oct 5.

Bioactive Resources for Innovative Clinical Applications Research Unit and Department of Pharmacy Practice, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, 10330, Thailand.

The use of topical antimicrobials is beneficial for infection control in wound care because wound infection is the major cause of delayed healing. The advantages of topical over systemic antimicrobials include a higher concentration at the target site, fewer systemic adverse effects, and a lower incidence of antimicrobial resistance. Nowadays, topical antimicrobials are divided into three groups: disinfectants, antiseptics, and antibiotics. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10096-018-3393-5DOI Listing
January 2019
14 Reads

Degradation of sulfonamides and formation of trihalomethanes by chlorination after pre-oxidation with Fe(VI).

J Environ Sci (China) 2018 Nov 2;73:89-95. Epub 2018 Feb 2.

College of Civil Engineering and Architecture, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027, China. Electronic address:

Sulfonamides are used in human therapy, animal husbandry and agriculture but are not easily biodegradable, and are often detected in surface water. Sulfamethazine (SMZ) and sulfadiazine (SDZ) are two widely used sulfonamide antibiotics that are used heavily in agriculture. In this study, they were degraded in an aqueous system by chlorination after pre-oxidation with ferrate(VI) (FeO, Fe(VI)), an environmentally friendly oxidation technique that has been shown to be effective in degrading various organics. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S10010742173320
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jes.2018.01.016DOI Listing
November 2018
4 Reads

Photodynamic therapy using ultradeformable liposomes loaded with chlorine aluminum phthalocyanine against L. (V.) braziliensis experimental models.

Exp Parasitol 2018 Nov 23;194:45-52. Epub 2018 Sep 23.

Centro de Investigación en Enfermedades Tropicales (CINTROP-UIS), Departamento de Ciencias Básicas, Escuela de Medicina, Universidad Industrial de Santander, Bucaramanga, Colombia.

Ultradeformable liposomes (UDLs) containing sodium cholate as edge activator could be an appropriate skin drug-delivery system for chloroaluminum phthalocyanine (ClAlPc) during photodynamic therapy (PDT) against cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL). The aim of this work was to study cell internalization, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, and toxicity/genotoxicity and transdermal delivery of UDL-ClAlPc, and to determine whether PDT was able to induce anti-leishmanial activity in Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis experimental models. Prepared liposomes had an average size of 118. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.exppara.2018.09.016DOI Listing
November 2018
4 Reads

Formation of disinfection byproducts from sulfamethoxazole during sodium hypochlorite disinfection of marine culture water.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2018 Nov 25;25(33):33196-33206. Epub 2018 Sep 25.

School of Marine Sciences, Guangxi University, Nanning, 530004, China.

The fates of the antibiotic sulfamethoxazole (SMX) in the chlorination of fresh water, simulated brackish marine culture water, and marine water were investigated. SMX was oxidized by sodium hypochlorite (NaClO) at different reaction rates in the different samples. The oxidation of SMX followed pseudo-first-order kinetics, and the rate constant was the largest in marine water (3. Read More

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http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s11356-018-3278-2
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-018-3278-2DOI Listing
November 2018
3 Reads

Identification of a mutagenic chlorination by-product produced from (E)-1, 3-dichloropropene (a component of nematocide DD) by using high resolution LC/MS and multivariate analysis.

Water Res 2018 12 14;146:187-196. Epub 2018 Sep 14.

Division of Natural Environment and Information, Faculty of Environment and Information Sciences, Yokohama National University, Yokohama, 240-8501, Japan. Electronic address:

The estimated domestic usage of DD (a typical nematocide) has been the greatest among all the agricultural chemicals in Japan. DD is involved in a document which is used to establish tap water quality standard in Japan. The document indicates that DD is potentially detectable in raw water for tap waters. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2018.09.024DOI Listing
December 2018
6 Reads

Fast degradation of diclofenac by catalytic hydrodechlorination.

Chemosphere 2018 Dec 7;213:141-148. Epub 2018 Sep 7.

Seccion Departamental Ingenieria Quimica, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Ctra. Colmenar km 15, 28049 Madrid, Spain.

Aqueous-phase catalytic hydrodechlorination (HDC) has been scarcely explored in the literature for the removal of chlorinated micropollutants. The aim of this work is to prove the feasibility of this technology for the fast and environmentally-friendly degradation of such kind of compounds. Diclofenac (DCF), a highly consumed anti-inflammatory drug, has been selected as the target pollutant given its toxicity and low biodegradability. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2018.09.024DOI Listing
December 2018
2 Reads

Disinfection by-products formation and ecotoxicological effects of effluents treated with peracetic acid: A review.

Chemosphere 2018 Dec 3;213:25-40. Epub 2018 Sep 3.

Politecnico di Milano, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering (DICA) - Environmental Section, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, 20133 Milano, Italy. Electronic address:

Peracetic acid (PAA) has gained increasing attention over the last decades as a suitable and environmentally-friendly alternative to chlorine-based compounds for wastewater disinfection, claiming limited disinfection by-products (DBPs) formed and no persistent residues in the environment. The present work aims at presenting a comprehensive and updated review of the ecotoxicological effects of effluents treated with PAA, to be ascribed to residual PAA and hydrogen peroxide (HO) and DBP formation. Modest concentrations of DBPs have been observed after PAA treatment, mainly carboxylic acids, which are not recognized as genotoxic. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2018.09.005DOI Listing
December 2018
4 Reads

Improvements in SOD mimic AEOL-10150, a potent broad-spectrum antioxidant.

Mil Med Res 2018 09 6;5(1):30. Epub 2018 Sep 6.

State Key Laboratory of Toxicology and Medical Countermeasures, Beijing Institute of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Beijing, 100850, China.

AEOL-10150 is a broad-spectrum metalloporphyrin superoxidase dismutase (SOD) mimic specifically designed to neutralize reactive oxygen and nitrogen species. Research has shown that AEOL-10150 is a potent medical countermeasure against national security threats including sulfur mustard (SM), nerve agent exposure and radiation pneumonitis following a radiological/nuclear incident sufficient to cause acute radiation syndrome (ARS). AEOL-10150 performed well in animal safety studies, and two completed phase 1 safety studies in patients demonstrated that the drug was safe and well tolerated, indicating that AEOL-10150 has potential as a new catalytic antioxidant drug. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s40779-018-0176-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6125955PMC
September 2018
1 Read

Free chlorine reactions of angiotensin II receptor antagonists: Kinetics study, transformation products elucidation and in-silico ecotoxicity assessment.

Sci Total Environ 2019 Jan 7;647:1000-1010. Epub 2018 Aug 7.

Department of Analytical Chemistry, Nutrition and Food Sciences, Institute for Research and Food Analysis (IIAA), Universidade of Santiago de Compostela, 15782 Santiago de Compostela, Spain.

Angiotensin II receptor antagonists (ARA II) are widely employed in the treatment of hypertension-related diseases. Because of their partial metabolization and limited biodegradability, these drugs have become ubiquitous pollutants in the aquatic environment, including surface water. This research evaluated the reactivity of the ARA II drugs: irbesartan (IRB), losartan (LOS) telmisartan (TEL) and valsartan (VAL) with free chlorine. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2018.08.082DOI Listing
January 2019
2 Reads

Hydroxy metabolites of polychlorinated biphenyls (OH-PCBs) exhibit inhibitory effects on UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs).

Chemosphere 2018 Dec 9;212:513-522. Epub 2018 Aug 9.

Department of Toxicology, School of Public Health, Tianjin Medical University, 22 Qixiangtai Road, Heping District, Tianjin, China. Electronic address:

Hydroxy metabolites of polychlorinated biphenyls (OH-PCBs) are important substance basis for the toxicity of PCBs. This study aims to investigate the inhibition of OH-PCBs on the activity of UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs), trying to elucidate the toxicity mechanism of PCBs from a new perspective. In vitrohuman recombinant UGTs-catalyzed glucuronidation of 4-methylumbelliferone (4-MU) was used as the probe reaction. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2018.08.040DOI Listing
December 2018
4 Reads
3.340 Impact Factor

Acute renal toxicity of sodium chlorate: Redox imbalance, enhanced DNA damage, metabolic alterations and inhibition of brush border membrane enzymes in rats.

Environ Toxicol 2018 Nov 24;33(11):1182-1194. Epub 2018 Aug 24.

Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Life Sciences, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh, Uttar Pradesh, India.

Sodium chlorate (NaClO ) is widely used in paper and pulp industries and as a non-selective herbicide. Humans can be exposed to NaClO through contaminated drinking water due to its improper and unchecked usage in industries and as herbicide. NaClO is also present as a major stable by-product in drinking water that has been disinfected with chlorine dioxide. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/tox.22624DOI Listing
November 2018
3 Reads

Prednisolone degradation by UV/chlorine process: Influence factors, transformation products and mechanism.

Chemosphere 2018 Dec 13;212:56-66. Epub 2018 Aug 13.

State Key Laboratory of Chem/Biosensing and Chemometrics, Hunan University, Changsha 410082, PR China; Department of Environmental and Chemical Engineering, Nanchang Hangkong University, Nanchang 330063, China. Electronic address:

Prednisolone (PDNN) as an emergent micropollutant directly influences the regional ecological security. In this study, the degradation of PDNN by ultraviolet activated chlorine (UV/chlorine) oxidation process was comprehensively evaluated. The quenching experiment suggested that the PDNN degradation in UV/chlorine process was involved in the participation of hydroxyl radical (OH) and reactive chlorine species (RCS). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2018.08.032DOI Listing
December 2018
21 Reads

Evaluating the Comparative Toxicity of DBP Mixtures from Different Disinfection Scenarios: A New Approach by Combining Freeze-Drying or Rotoevaporation with a Marine Polychaete Bioassay.

Environ Sci Technol 2018 Sep 30;52(18):10552-10561. Epub 2018 Aug 30.

Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering , Hong Kong University of Science and Technology , Hong Kong , China.

The unintended formation of disinfection byproducts (DBPs) may compromise the safety of drinking water. Since no specified DBPs have been found to be responsible for the overall adverse effects and over half of total organic halogen (TOX) remains unidentified, DBP mixture toxicity is gaining increasing interest as a potential indicator of how risky drinking water might be. In this study, a new approach to evaluating the toxicity of drinking water DBP mixtures was developed by combining freeze-drying or rotoevaporation pretreatment with an in vivo high-salinity-tolerance bioassay with the embryos of a marine polychaete Platynereis dumerilii. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.8b02054DOI Listing
September 2018
4 Reads

Formation and speciation of chlorinated, brominated, and iodinated haloacetamides in chloraminated iodide-containing waters.

Water Res 2018 11 31;145:103-112. Epub 2018 Jul 31.

State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resources Reuse, National Centre for International Research of Sustainable Urban Water System, College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai, 200092, China; Shanghai Institute of Pollution Control and Ecological Security, Shanghai, 200092, China.

Haloacetamides (HAMs), an emerging class of disinfection by-products, have received increasing attention due to their elevated cyto- and genotoxicity. However, only limited information is available regarding the iodinated analogues. This study investigated the formation and speciation of iodinated haloacetamides (I-HAMs) and their chlorinated/brominated analogues during the chloramination of bromide and/or iodide-containing waters and a model compound solution over various time periods. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2018.07.074DOI Listing
November 2018
9 Reads

Transformation of naproxen during the chlorination process: Products identification and quantum chemistry validation.

Chemosphere 2018 Nov 14;211:1007-1017. Epub 2018 Aug 14.

School of Environmental and Safety Engineering, Changzhou University, Changzhou 213164, China.

The by-products produced by pharmaceutically active compounds (PhACs) during chlorination are attracting wide concern. Thus, the transformation and toxicity of naproxen (NAP) during the chlorination process were assessed in this study. The transformation of NAP was found to follow pseudo-first-order kinetics, and the first-order rate constant was improved by increasing the NaOCl dose. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2018.08.036DOI Listing
November 2018
4 Reads

Rapid degradation and non-selectivity of Dakin's solution prevents effectiveness in contaminated musculoskeletal wound models.

Injury 2018 Oct 6;49(10):1763-1773. Epub 2018 Aug 6.

Extremity Trauma and Regenerative Medicine, United States Army Institute of Surgical Research, Fort Sam Houston, TX, USA.

Background: Dakin's solution (buffered sodium hypochlorite) has been used as a topical adjunct for the treatment of invasive fungal infections in trauma patients. Prudent use of Dakin's solution (DS) for complex musculoskeletal wound management implies balancing antimicrobial efficacy and human tissue toxicity, but little empirical evidence exists to inform clinical practice. To identify potentially efficacious DS concentrations and application methods, we conducted two animal studies to evaluate the ability of DS to reduce bacterial burden in small and large animal models of contaminated musculoskeletal wounds. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.injury.2018.08.004DOI Listing
October 2018
2 Reads

Electrolyzed saline… an alternative to sodium hypochlorite for root canal irrigation.

Clujul Med 2018 Jul 31;91(3):322-327. Epub 2018 Jul 31.

Conservative Dentistry and Endodontics Department, Sri Aurobindo College of Dentistry & P.G Institute, Indore, India.

Objectives: The aim of this study is to evaluate electrolyzed saline, produced from a custom-made chair side apparatus for its cleaning effect on root canal walls.

Methods: A chair side apparatus has been designed to produce and dispense electrolytically activated solutions (Electrolyzed saline) for the purpose of root canal irrigation. Two different solutions, one, which is oxidizing in nature, consisting primarily of Chlorine derivatives and another, reducing in nature, consisting primarily of sodium hydroxide, are obtained. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.15386/cjmed-863DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6082601PMC
July 2018
2 Reads

The impact of disinfection Ct values on cytotoxicity of agricultural wastewaters: Ozonation vs. chlorination.

Water Res 2018 11 27;144:482-490. Epub 2018 Jul 27.

Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL, 61801, USA; Safe Global Water Institute, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL, 61801, USA.

Toxicity arising from toxic disinfection byproducts is an unintended result of disinfection during water reclamation. To ensure safe water reclamation treatment, it is important to develop a disinfection strategy with minimal formation of overall toxicity in the reclaimed water. The cumulative disinfectant concentration over time (Ct) is a useful concept for pathogen control during reuse water disinfection. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2018.07.065DOI Listing
November 2018
5 Reads
5.530 Impact Factor

Halogenated Aza-BODIPY for Imaging-Guided Synergistic Photodynamic and Photothermal Tumor Therapy.

Adv Healthc Mater 2018 Sep 26;7(18):e1800606. Epub 2018 Jul 26.

Key Laboratory for Organic Electronics and Information Displays & Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Biosensors, Institute of Advanced Materials (IAM), Nanjing University of Posts and Telecommunications (NUPT), Nanjing, 210023, P. R. China.

It is always a huge challenge to develop novel near-infrared (NIR) phototherapeutic agents suitable for imaging-guided cancer therapy. In order to clarify the positive heavy atom effects on the photodynamic and photothermal efficiencies of phototherapeutic agents, a series of chlorine-, bromide-, or iodine-substituted aza-BODIPYs (B2, B3, and B4, respectively) are designed and synthesized. Among them, B4 exhibits both excellent photodynamic and photothermal effects (singlet oxygen yield of B4 is 1. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/adhm.201800606DOI Listing
September 2018
4 Reads

Long-term algal toxicity of oxidant treated ballast water.

Mar Pollut Bull 2018 Aug 14;133:18-29. Epub 2018 May 14.

University of Maryland, College of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Wye Research and Education Center, Queenstown, MD, USA; University of Maryland, College of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Department of Environmental Science and Technology, College Park, MD, USA.

National and international regulations require that ships' ballast water is treated to minimize the risk of introducing potentially invasive species. A common approach employed by commercial ballast water management systems is chlorination. This study presents the algal toxicity findings for three chlorination-based BWMS and their implications to environmental safety of port waters receiving treated ballast water from ships. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.marpolbul.2018.05.013DOI Listing
August 2018
3 Reads

Impact of preoxidation of UV/persulfate on disinfection byproducts by chlorination of 2,4-Di-tert-butylphenol.

J Hazard Mater 2018 Sep 19;358:450-458. Epub 2018 Jun 19.

State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control Reuse, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092, China.

UV/persulfate (UV/PS) has been as an efficient method to remove many organic contaminants in water. However, little is known about the impact of UV/PS pretrement on the formation of disinfection byproducts (DBPs) during chlorination of 2,4-Di-tert-butylphenol (2,4-D). This research evaluated that UV/PS preoxidation of 2,4-D greatly decreased the DBPs generation during following chlorination. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2018.06.041DOI Listing
September 2018
8 Reads