2,610 results match your criteria Toxicity Chlorine Gas


Effect-based identification of hazardous antibiotic transformation products after water chlorination.

Environ Sci Technol 2020 Jun 26. Epub 2020 Jun 26.

Antibiotic transformation products (TPs) generated during water treatment can be considered of environmental concern, since they can retain part of the bioactivity of the parent compound. Effect-directed analysis (EDA) was applied for the identification of bioactive intermediates of azithromycin (AZI) and ciprofloxacin (CFC) after water chlorination. Fractionation of samples allowed the identification of bioactive intermediates by measuring the antibiotic activity and acute toxicity, combined with an automated suspect screening approach for chemical analysis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.0c00944DOI Listing

Hyaluronan and halogen-induced airway hyperresponsiveness and lung injury.

Ann N Y Acad Sci 2020 Jun 23. Epub 2020 Jun 23.

Division of Molecular and Translational Biomedicine, the University of Alabama at Birmingham School of Medicine, Birmingham, Alabama.

Chlorine (Cl ) and bromine (Br ) are produced in large quantities throughout the world and used in the industry and the sanitation of water. These halogens can pose a significant threat to public health when released into the atmosphere during transportation and industrial accidents, or as acts of terrorism. In this review, we discuss the evidence showing that the activity of Cl and Br , and of products formed by their interaction with biomolecules, fragment high-molecular-weight hyaluronan (HMW-HA), a key component of the interstitial space and present in epithelial cells, to form proinflammatory, low-molecular-weight hyaluronan fragments that increase intracellular calcium (Ca ) and activate RAS homolog family member A (RhoA) in airway smooth muscle and epithelial and microvascular cells. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/nyas.14415DOI Listing

Preliminary assessment of antimicrobial activity and acute toxicity of norfloxacin chlorination by-product mixture.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2020 Jun 23. Epub 2020 Jun 23.

Department of Sanitary and Environmental Engineering, Federal University of Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil.

Among drugs and personal care products, antibiotics arouse interest since they are widely used in human and veterinary medicine and can lead to the development of bacterial resistance. Usually, sewage treatment does not remove most of these compounds. So, these drugs can reach water treatment plants (WTP), where disinfection with chlorine compounds is common. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-020-09748-3DOI Listing

Effect of bromide and iodide on halogenated by-product formation from different organic precursors during UV/chlorine processes.

Water Res 2020 Jun 13;182:116035. Epub 2020 Jun 13.

State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, Key Laboratory of Yangtze Water Environment, Ministry of Education, College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai, 200092, PR China.

The effect of bromide and iodide on the transformation of humic acid (HA) and algal organic matter (AOM), and the formation of disinfection by-products (DBPs) during UV/chlorination were investigated. Experimental results indicated that the halides effectively inhibited mineralization, with multiple changes in organic molecule transformation due to differences in formation and speciation of reactive halogen species and free halogen. As a consequence, bromide and iodide also played important roles in DBP formation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2020.116035DOI Listing

Cross-Electrophile Coupling of Unactivated Alkyl Chlorides.

J Am Chem Soc 2020 Jun 26. Epub 2020 Jun 26.

Merck Center for Catalysis at Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08544, United States.

Alkyl chlorides are bench-stable chemical feedstocks that remain among the most underutilized electrophile classes in transition metal catalysis. Overcoming intrinsic limitations of C(sp)-Cl bond activation, we report the development of a novel organosilane reagent that can participate in chlorine atom abstraction under mild photocatalytic conditions. In particular, we describe the application of this mechanism to a dual nickel/photoredox catalytic protocol that enables the first cross-electrophile coupling of unactivated alkyl chlorides and aryl chlorides. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jacs.0c04812DOI Listing

Examination of degradation and ecotoxicology of pethoxamid and metazachlor after chlorine dioxide treatment.

Environ Monit Assess 2020 Jun 9;192(7):422. Epub 2020 Jun 9.

Faculty of Chemistry, University of Belgrade, Studentski Trg 12-16, Belgrade, 11000, Serbia.

Chlorine dioxide has been reported as very efficiently removing pesticides and other organic compounds from water matrixes. Due to pesticide toxicity and potential toxicity of their degradation products, it is important to monitor these compounds as environmental pollutants in ground and surface waters. Evaluating the effects of chlorine dioxide treatment is necessary, and toxicity studies are used to ascertain the severity of effects of intermediates due to incomplete degradation of the parent compounds. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10661-020-08392-1DOI Listing

Inorganic chloramines: a critical review of the toxicological and epidemiological evidence as a basis for occupational exposure limit setting.

Crit Rev Toxicol 2020 Mar;50(3):219-271

Department of Sustainable Health, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.

Inorganic chloramines are not commercially available, but monochloramine is produced for disinfection or for use in chemical synthesis. Inorganic chloramines are also formed when free chlorine reacts with nitrogen containing substances, e.g. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10408444.2020.1744514DOI Listing

Detoxification of aflatoxin B in corn by chlorine dioxide gas.

Food Chem 2020 Oct 22;328:127121. Epub 2020 May 22.

Key Laboratory of Bio-resources and Eco-environment of the Ministry of Education, College of Life Sciences, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610064, PR China. Electronic address:

Chlorine dioxide (ClO) gas was utilized for detoxifying aflatoxin B (AFB) in corn for the first time. Four degradation compounds were identified by LC-MS as CHO, CHO, CHO, and CHO. Structurally, the biological activity of ClO-treated AFB was removed due to the disappearance of C8-C9 double bond in the furan ring and the modification of cyclopentanone and methoxy after ClO treatment. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2020.127121DOI Listing
October 2020

Effects of lethal and sublethal concentrations of peracetic acid and active chlorine of calcium hypochlorite on Chironomus xanthus.

Chemosphere 2020 Oct 23;256:127171. Epub 2020 May 23.

Programa de Pós-graduação em Química, Universidade Federal do Tocantins, 77.402-970, Gurupi, Tocantins, Brazil; Curso de Química Ambiental, Universidade Federal do Tocantins, 77.402-970, Gurupi, Tocantins, Brazil. Electronic address:

Freshwater ecosystems are vulnerable to residual concentrations of chemical agents from anthropogenic activities, and the real impacts of such compounds can only be evaluated accurately using ecotoxicological tests. The assessment of ecotoxicological effects of peracetic acid (PAA) and the active chlorine of calcium hypochlorite (Ca(ClO)) on the insect Chironomus xanthus Meigen (Diptera: Chironomidae) is highly relevant as there are few reports on its effects in fresh water ecosystems. To our best knowledge, this is the first study to assess the chronic toxicity of the compounds to C. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2020.127171DOI Listing
October 2020

Light-enhanced hypoxia-responsive and azobenzene cleavage-triggered size-shrinkable micelles for synergistic photodynamic therapy and chemotherapy.

Biomater Sci 2020 Jun 27;8(12):3348-3358. Epub 2020 May 27.

Department of Interventional and Vascular surgery, Shanghai Tenth People's Hospital, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai 201804, People's Republic of China.

Hypoxia is an important pathological phenomenon due to uncontrolled cancer cell proliferation and insufficient blood flow, which can be used to design hypoxia-responsive nanocarriers for the intelligent treatment of tumor. However, it is difficult to obtain the response of hypoxia-responsive polymers corresponding to the degree of hypoxia in the tumor sites. Therefore, hypoxia-responsive azobenzene-centered copolymers polyoligo (ethylene glycol) methacrylate-block-poly(ε-caprolactone)-azobenzene-poly(ε-caprolactone)-block-poly oligo (ethylene glycol) (POEGMA-b-PCL-Azo-PCL-b-POEGMA) were synthesized and further self-assembled into spherical micelles. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d0bm00328jDOI Listing

Volatile DBPs contributed marginally to the developmental toxicity of drinking water DBP mixtures against Platynereis dumerilii.

Chemosphere 2020 Aug 28;252:126611. Epub 2020 Mar 28.

School of Environment, Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Chemical Pollution and Environmental Safety & MOE Key Laboratory of Theoretical Chemistry of Environment, South China Normal University, Guangzhou, 510006, China.

Halogenated disinfection byproducts (DBPs) are formed during chlorine disinfection of drinking water. The complicated natural organic matter in source water causes the formation of an even more complicated mixture of DBPs. To evaluate the toxicity of a DBP mixture in a disinfected water sample, the sample needs to be pretreated in order to attain an observable acute adverse effect in the toxicity test. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2020.126611DOI Listing

Impacts of permanganate/bisulfite pre-oxidation on DBP formation during the post chlorine disinfection of ciprofloxacin-contaminated waters.

Sci Total Environ 2020 Aug 3;731:138755. Epub 2020 May 3.

Shandong Key Laboratory of Water Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Shandong University, Qingdao 266237, China.

Bisulfite-activated permanganate (PM/BS) oxidation process can oxidize ciprofloxacin in complex water matrices rapidly. However, effects of PM/BS pre-oxidation on the formation of disinfection byproducts (DBPs) during post-chlorination of ciprofloxacin-contaminated waters need to be addressed. This study investigated the formation of trihalomethanes (THMs), haloacetonitriles (HANs), haloketones and trichloronitromethane during chlorination of ciprofloxacin-contaminated humic acid (HA), bovine serum albumin (BSA) and alginate solutions, and revealed the effects of PM/BS pre-oxidation on ciprofloxacin degradation and DBP formation during post-chlorination, considering the presence of Br. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.138755DOI Listing

DEET degradation in UV/monochloramine process: Kinetics, degradation pathway, toxicity and energy consumption analysis.

Chemosphere 2020 Sep 7;255:126962. Epub 2020 May 7.

Water Resources and Environmental Institute, Xiamen University of Technology, Xiamen, 361005, China. Electronic address:

The degradation of N,N-diethyl-meta-toluamide (DEET) in aqueous solution by the UV/monochloramine (UV/NHCl) process was examined systematically in this study. DEET was resistant to UV photolysis and chloramination, while the synchronous combination of UV irradiation and NHCl can effectively eliminate DEET, which was caused by the generation of hydroxyl radicals and reactive chlorine species. The former played the critical role in DEET degradation, while the contribution of the latter can be ignored. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2020.126962DOI Listing
September 2020
3.340 Impact Factor

Evaluation of azamethiphos and dimethoate degradation using chlorine dioxide during water treatment.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2020 May 13. Epub 2020 May 13.

Faculty of Chemistry, University of Belgrade, Studentski trg 12-16, Belgrade, 11000, Serbia.

Chlorine dioxide (ClO) degradation of the organophosphorus pesticides azamethiphos (AZA) and dimethoate (DM) (10 mg/L) in deionized water and in Sava River water was investigated for the first time. Pesticide degradation was studied in terms of ClO level (5 and 10 mg/L), degradation duration (0.5, 1, 2, 3, 6, and 24 h), pH (3. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-020-09069-5DOI Listing

Characterization of synthetic single-chain CP standard materials - Removal of interfering side products.

Chemosphere 2020 Sep 1;255:126959. Epub 2020 May 1.

University of Hohenheim, Institute of Food Chemistry, Garbenstrasse 28, D-70599 Stuttgart, Germany.

The photolytic chlorination of n-alkanes in presence of sulfuryl chloride (SOCl) was explored to produce new standard materials. Five mixtures of chlorinated tetradecanes were synthesized with chlorination degrees (m) varying from 43.7% to 59. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2020.126959DOI Listing
September 2020

Molecular transformation of dissolved organic matter in process water from oil and gas operation during UV/HO, UV/chlorine, and UV/persulfate processes.

Sci Total Environ 2020 Aug 28;730:139072. Epub 2020 Apr 28.

Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB T6G 1H9, Canada. Electronic address:

This paper reported the impact of UV/HO, UV/chlorine, and UV/persulfate advanced oxidation processes on the molecular transformations of dissolved organic matter (DOM), removal of naphthenic acids (NAs) and acute toxicity in oil sands process water (OSPW). The UV/persulfate process exhibited the highest removal (81.2% with 2 mM dose) towards classical NAs and highest reduction in acute toxicity to Vibrio fischeri among the three processes. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.139072DOI Listing

Degradation of non-oxidizing biocide benzalkonium chloride and bulk dissolved organic matter in reverse osmosis concentrate by UV/chlorine oxidation.

J Hazard Mater 2020 Apr 15;396:122669. Epub 2020 Apr 15.

School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Suzhou University of Science and Technology, Suzhou 215009, China.

Non-oxidizing biocide that is used to inhibit the microorganism growth on RO membrane, are observed to be high concentration and toxic in RO concentrate. The synergistic oxidation process (SOP) of UV/chlorine was investigated to simultaneously reduced the content (60.2 %) and toxicity (57. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2020.122669DOI Listing

Solar irradiation combined with chlorine can detoxify herbicides.

Water Res 2020 Jun 5;177:115784. Epub 2020 Apr 5.

Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Environmental Pollution Control and Remediation Technology, School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou, 510275, China. Electronic address:

The solar/chlorine process is an energy-efficient advanced oxidation process that can produce reactive species such as hydroxyl radical, reactive chlorine species and ozone. This study investigated the process' ability to detoxify the typical herbicides atrazine and mecoprop (methylchlorophenoxypropionic acid). Both herbicides are resistant to direct solar photolysis or chlorination alone, but they can be degraded by the solar/chlorine process effectively. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2020.115784DOI Listing

Efficient inactivation of bacteria in ballast water by adding potassium peroxymonosulfate alone: Role of halide ions.

Chemosphere 2020 Aug 5;253:126656. Epub 2020 Apr 5.

Key Laboratory of Northwest Water Resource, Environment and Ecology, MOE, Xi'an University of Architecture and Technology, Xi'an, 710055, PR China; Shaanxi Key Laboratory of Environmental Engineering, Xi'an University of Architecture and Technology, Xi'an, 710055, PR China. Electronic address:

In recent years, ballast water disinfection has been paid much more attention due to the untreated discharged ballast water posing threaten of biological invasion and health related consequences. In this study, an effective and simple approach for ballast water disinfection by just adding potassium peroxymonosulfate (PMS) was assessed, and the role of halide ions in seawater on the enhancement of inactivation was revealed. The reactive species responsible for inactivation, the leakage of intracellular materials, and changes of cellular morphology after inactivation were evaluated to explore the inactivation mechanism. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2020.126656DOI Listing

A pH-sensitive carrier based-on modified hollow mesoporous carbon nanospheres with calcium-latched gate for drug delivery.

Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl 2020 Apr 5;109:110517. Epub 2019 Dec 5.

National Center for Nano Fabrication and Characterization, Technical University of Denmark, 2800 Kgs. Lyngby, Denmark.

A novel nanocarrier based-on hollow mesoporous carbon nanospheres (HMCNs) with primary amines on its surface, a large cavity, and good hydrophilicity was synthesized by a hydrothermal reaction. The primary amine functionalities on the mesoporous carbon were used as the initiation sites for growing poly (epichlorohydrin) (PCH) chains. The chlorine groups in the side chain of PCH were replaced with imidazole as the pendant groups. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.msec.2019.110517DOI Listing

Chloride is beneficial for growth of the xerophyte Pugionium cornutum by enhancing osmotic adjustment capacity under salt and drought stresses.

J Exp Bot 2020 Mar 27. Epub 2020 Mar 27.

State Key Laboratory of Grassland Agro-ecosystems; Key Laboratory of Grassland Livestock Industry Innovation, Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs; College of Pastoral Agriculture Science and Technology, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou, P. R. China.

Chloride (Cl-) is pervasive in saline soils, and the existing research concerning the influence of Cl- on plants has mainly focused on its role as an essential micronutrient and its toxicity when massive accumulations occur. However, the possible functions of Cl- in plants adapting to abiotic stresses have not been well documented. Previous investigations have shown that the salt tolerance of the xerophytic species Pugionium cornutum might be related to high Cl- accumulation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jxb/eraa158DOI Listing

Hypochlorite and visible-light irradiation affect the transformation and toxicity of graphene oxide.

Sci Total Environ 2020 Jun 17;723:138010. Epub 2020 Mar 17.

Tianjin Key Laboratory of Agro-environment and Safe-product, Key Laboratory for environmental factors control of Agro-product quality safety (Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs), Institute of Agro-environmental Protection, Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs, Tianjin 300191, China. Electronic address:

Graphene oxide (GO) that has many advanced properties, has been applied in various fields, such as water treatments and removal of contaminations. Hypochlorite is widely used in water treatments. However, the effects of hypochlorite on the transformations and risks of GO, and the toxicological responses remain largely unknown, especially under visible-light irradiation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.138010DOI Listing

Ferrate(VI) pretreatment before disinfection: An effective approach to controlling unsaturated and aromatic halo-disinfection byproducts in chlorinated and chloraminated drinking waters.

Environ Int 2020 May 20;138:105641. Epub 2020 Mar 20.

Department of Environmental and Occupational Health, School of Public Health, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX 77843, USA. Electronic address:

Disinfection is an essential process of drinking water treatment to eliminate harmful pathogens, but it generates potentially toxic disinfection byproducts (DBPs). Ferrate (FeO, Fe(VI)) was used to pre-oxidize natural organic matter (NOM, the precursor of DBPs) in source water to control DBP formation in subsequent chlorine or chloramine disinfection. Currently, it is unclear how Fe(VI) changes the structure of NOM, and no information details the effect of Fe(VI) pretreatment on the aromatic DBPs or the speciation of overall DBPs generated in subsequent disinfection of drinking water. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envint.2020.105641DOI Listing

Solar photodegradation of the UV filter 4-methylbenzylidene camphor in the presence of free chlorine.

Sci Total Environ 2020 Jun 10;722:137860. Epub 2020 Mar 10.

Graduate Institute of Environmental Engineering, National Taiwan University, 71, Chou-Shan Rd., Taipei 106, Taiwan; International Graduate Program of Molecular Science and Technology, National Taiwan University (NTU-MST), Taipei 106, Taiwan. Electronic address:

UV filters are essential ingredients in sunscreens and many personal care products. The coexposure of UV filters to solar photolysis and free chlorine (solar/free chlorine) is inevitable in outdoor swimming pools and many other aquatic matrices, and this study aims to investigate the degradation mechanism of one specific UV filter, 4-methylbenzylidene camphor (4MBC), under solar/free chlorine system. Under solar irradiation alone, 4MBC only undergoes isomerization from (E)- to (Z)-4MBC; however, in the solar/free chlorine system, 4MBC was significantly degraded, with a pseudo-first-order rate constant of 0. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.137860DOI Listing

Acute toxicity of cyanide in aerobic respiration: Theoretical and experimental support for murburn explanation.

Biomol Concepts 2020 Mar 17;11(1):32-56. Epub 2020 Mar 17.

Department of Biosciences and Bioengineering, Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati, Guwahati, Assam, India-781039.

The inefficiency of cyanide/HCN (CN) binding with heme proteins (under physiological regimes) is demonstrated with an assessment of thermodynamics, kinetics, and inhibition constants. The acute onset of toxicity and CN's mg/Kg LD50 (μM lethal concentration) suggests that the classical hemeFe binding-based inhibition rationale is untenable to account for the toxicity of CN. In vitro mechanistic probing of CN-mediated inhibition of hemeFe reductionist systems was explored as a murburn model for mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (mOxPhos). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1515/bmc-2020-0004DOI Listing

Application of chromatographic techniques in the analysis of total nitrosamines in water.

Heliyon 2020 Mar 3;6(3):e03447. Epub 2020 Mar 3.

Department of Chemical Engineering, Covenant University, Ota, Nigeria.

The use of ozone, chloramine and chlorine dioxide for water treatment results in the formation N-nitrosamines in the treated water. These groups of chemicals and other nitrogen-containing compounds have been described as disinfection by-products (DBPs) which are known for their toxicity. Nitrosamines are a potential source of nitric oxide (NO) which can bind with metals present in the sample matrix leading to formation of metal - nitrosyl complexes and dissolved metals have the potential to increase the total nitrosamines in water. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.heliyon.2020.e03447DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7056657PMC

Investigations of the Mode of Action of Novel Colchicine Derivatives Targeting β-Tubulin Isotypes: A Search for a Selective and Specific β-III Tubulin Ligand.

Front Chem 2020 21;8:108. Epub 2020 Feb 21.

PolitoBIOMed Lab, Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Politecnico di Torino, Turin, Italy.

The cardinal role of microtubules in cell mitosis makes them interesting drug targets for many pharmacological treatments, including those against cancer. Moreover, different expression patterns between cell types for several tubulin isotypes represent a great opportunity to improve the selectivity and specificity of the employed drugs and to design novel compounds with higher activity only on cells of interest. In this context, tubulin isotype βIII represents an excellent target for anti-tumoral therapies since it is overexpressed in most cancer cells and correlated with drug resistance. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fchem.2020.00108DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7047339PMC
February 2020

Halogen gas exposure: toxic effects on the parturient.

Toxicol Mech Methods 2020 Mar 30:1-16. Epub 2020 Mar 30.

Department of Anesthesiology and Perioperative Medicine, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL, USA.

The elemental halogens include chlorine, bromine, and phosgene. Halogen gas can be directly weaponized and employed in warfare or terrorism. Industrial stockpiles or halogen transport can provide targets for terrorist attack as well as an origin for accidental release creating a risk for potential mass-casualty incidents. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15376516.2020.1736702DOI Listing

Identification of avobenzone by-products formed by various disinfectants in different types of swimming pool waters.

Environ Int 2020 Apr 28;137:105495. Epub 2020 Feb 28.

Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Ljubljana, Zdravstvena pot 5, 1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia. Electronic address:

The increased use of sunscreens and other cosmetics containing UV filters causes human and environmental burden. Avobenzone is a widely used UV filter. In its pure form it is known to undergo several transformations including photo-isomerisation, photodegradation, and halogenation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envint.2020.105495DOI Listing
April 2020
5.559 Impact Factor

Self-Delivery Nanomedicine for O-Economized Photodynamic Tumor Therapy.

Nano Lett 2020 03 27;20(3):2062-2071. Epub 2020 Feb 27.

Key Laboratory of Molecular Target & Clinical Pharmacology and the State Key Laboratory of Respiratory Disease, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences & The Fifth Affiliated Hospital, Guangzhou Medical University, Guangzhou 511436, P. R. China.

Tumor hypoxia is the Achilles heel of oxygen-dependent photodynamic therapy (PDT), and tremendous challenges are confronted to reverse the tumor hypoxia. In this work, an oxidative phosphorylation inhibitor of atovaquone (ATO) and a photosensitizer of chlorine e6 (Ce6)-based self-delivery nanomedicine (designated as ACSN) were prepared via π-π stacking and hydrophobic interaction for O-economized PDT against hypoxic tumors. Specifically, carrier-free ACSN exhibited an extremely high drug loading rate and avoided the excipient-induced systemic toxicity. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.nanolett.0c00047DOI Listing

DNA pyrimidine bases in water: Insights into relative reactivity, byproducts formation and combined toxicity during chlorination.

Sci Total Environ 2020 May 8;717:137205. Epub 2020 Feb 8.

Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Integrated Regulation and Resource Development on Shallow Lakes, Hohai University, Nanjing 210098, PR China; College of Environment, Hohai University, Nanjing 210098, PR China.

Soluble microbial products (SMPs), as precursors of disinfection byproducts (DBPs) in water treatment, are composed of polysaccharides, humic acid, proteins and DNA, and have caused widespread concerned. Pyrimidine bases (cytosine and thymine) are significant nitrogenous constituents of DNA, which could pose an adverse impact on water quality during chlorination. This study focused on the correlation between relative reactivity, formation of DBPs and combined toxicity in the chlorination of a binary pyrimidine base mixture. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.137205DOI Listing
May 2020
4.099 Impact Factor

Assessment of Biodegradation Efficiency of Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) and Petroleum Hydrocarbons (TPH) in Soil Using Three Individual Bacterial Strains and Their Mixed Culture.

Molecules 2020 Feb 6;25(3). Epub 2020 Feb 6.

Department of Microbiology, Oil and Gas Institute-National Research Institute, ul. Lubicz 25A, 31-503 Krakow, Poland.

Biodegradation is one of the most effective and profitable methods for the elimination of toxic polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) from the environment. In this study, aerobic degradation of the mentioned pollutants by bacterial strains IN53, IN129, and sp. IN306 and mixed culture M1 developed based on those strains at 1:1:1 ratio was analyzed. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules25030709DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7036857PMC
February 2020

UV-LED/chlorine degradation of propranolol in water: Degradation pathway and product toxicity.

Chemosphere 2020 Jun 24;248:125957. Epub 2020 Jan 24.

School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, No. 1037 Luoyu Road, Wuhan, 430074, PR China.

This study reports on the propranolol (PRO) degradation performance and product toxicity of an ultraviolet light-emitting diode (UV-LED)/chlorine process. The effects of experimental parameters including solution pH, chlorine dosage, and water matrix constituents on PRO removal were evaluated. Up to 94. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2020.125957DOI Listing

Formation, speciation and toxicity of CXR-type disinfection by-products (DBPs) from chlor(am)ination of 2,4-diaminobutyric acid (DAB).

Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 2020 Mar 28;191:110247. Epub 2020 Jan 28.

Key Laboratory of Building Safety and Energy Efficiency, Ministry of Education, College of Civil Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha, Hunan, 410082, PR China. Electronic address:

2,4-diaminobutyric acid (DAB), a newly identified algal toxins in water, pose a great threat to human health. DAB may react with chlorine or chloramine to produce CXR-type disinfection by-products (DBPs) during water treatment processes. This study mainly investigated the formation and speciation of DBPs from chlor(am)ination of DAB. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoenv.2020.110247DOI Listing

GAC to BAC: Does it make chloraminated drinking water safer?

Water Res 2020 Apr 3;172:115432. Epub 2020 Jan 3.

Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC, 29208, USA. Electronic address:

Biological activated carbon (BAC) is widely used as a polishing step at full-scale drinking water plants to remove taste and odor compounds and assimilable organic carbon. BAC, especially with pre-ozonation, has been previously studied to control regulated disinfection by-products (DBPs) and DBP precursors. However, most previous studies only include regulated or a limited number of unregulated DBPs. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2019.115432DOI Listing

Core-shell gold-nickel nanostructures as highly selective and stable nonenzymatic glucose sensor for fermentation process.

Sci Rep 2020 Jan 28;10(1):1365. Epub 2020 Jan 28.

State Key Laboratory of Multiphase Complex Systems, Institute of Process Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100190, China.

Non-enzymatic electrodes based on noble metals have excellent selectivity and high sensitivity in glucose detection but no such shortcomings as easy to be affected by pH, temperature, and toxic chemicals. Herein, spherical gold-nickel nanoparticles with a core-shell construction (Au@Ni) are prepared by oleylamine reduction of their metal precursors. At an appropriate Au/Ni ratio, the core-shell Au@Ni nanoparticles as a sensor for glucose detection combine the high electrocatalytic activity, good selectivity and biological compatibility of Au with the remarkable tolerance of Ni for chlorine ions (Cl) and poisoning intermediates in catalytic oxidation of glucose. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-58403-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6987199PMC
January 2020

Potential toxic effects of chlorination and UV/chlorination in the treatment of hydrochlorothiazide in the water.

Sci Total Environ 2020 Apr 15;714:136745. Epub 2020 Jan 15.

Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Electronic address:

Chlorination is a common disinfection method in water treatment. This method can be converted into an advanced oxidation process by incorporating UV irradiation during water treatment. This study investigated the degradation of hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ) by chlorination and UV/chlorination in water. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.136745DOI Listing

Chloropicrin-induced toxicity in the respiratory system.

Toxicol Lett 2020 May 23;323:10-18. Epub 2020 Jan 23.

Faculty of Health Science, School of Pharmacy/Toxicology, University of Eastern Finland, P.O. Box 1627, 70211 Kuopio, Finland.

Chloropicrin is a volatile and reactive chemical that has been utilized as a warfare agent and a pesticide to fumigate soil against insects, fungi and nematodes. It poses a health risk to humans and animals if inhaled. The main source of chloropicrin exposure is occupational and occurs during its manufacture, transport and fumigation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.toxlet.2020.01.022DOI Listing

Nitrogen conversion from ammonia to trichloronitromethane: Potential risk during UV/chlorine process.

Water Res 2020 Apr 16;172:115508. Epub 2020 Jan 16.

Environmental Engineering and Science Program, Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering (ChEE), University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH, 45221-0012, USA.

In this study, the potential formation of trichloronitromethane (TCNM) from model organic compounds in ammonia-containing water treated by UV/chlorine process was evaluated. Monochloramine generated from the reaction of chlorine and ammonia can be photolyzed to produce NO and reactive nitrogen species (RNS), which play important roles in the formation of TCNM during the subsequent chlorination. The results showed that increase of nitrogen to chlorine molar ratio (from 0 to 1. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2020.115508DOI Listing

N-acetyl cysteine protects against chlorine-induced tissue damage in an ex vivo model.

Toxicol Lett 2020 Apr 18;322:58-65. Epub 2020 Jan 18.

Swedish Defence Research Agency, CBRN Defence and Security, Umeå, Sweden. Electronic address:

High-level concentrations of chlorine (Cl) can cause life-threatening lung injuries and the objective in this study was to understand the pathogenesis of short-term sequelae of Cl-induced lung injury and to evaluate whether pre-treatment with the antioxidant N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) could counteract these injuries using Cl-exposed precision-cut lung slices (PCLS). The lungs of Sprague-Dawley rats were filled with agarose solution and cut into 250 μm-thick slices that were exposed to Cl (20-600 ppm) and incubated for 30 min. The tissue slices were pre-treated with NAC (5-25 mM) before exposure to Cl. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.toxlet.2020.01.006DOI Listing

Short-Term Guideline Values for Chlorine in Marine Waters.

Environ Toxicol Chem 2020 Apr 29;39(4):754-764. Epub 2020 Feb 29.

Centre for Environmental Contaminants Research, Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation Land and Water, Lucas Heights, New South Wales, Australia.

Chlorination is commonly used to control biofouling organisms, but chlorine rapidly hydrolyzes in seawater to hypochlorite, which undergoes further reaction with bromide, and then with organic matter. These reaction products, collectively termed chlorine-produced oxidants (CPOs), can be toxic to marine biota. Because the lifetime of the most toxic forms is limited to several days, appropriate guideline values need to be based on short-term (acute) toxicity tests, rather than chronic tests. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/etc.4661DOI Listing

Formation and removal of disinfection by-products in a full scale drinking water treatment plant.

Sci Total Environ 2020 Feb 16;704:135280. Epub 2019 Nov 16.

Univ. Lille CNRS, UMR 8516 - LASIR, Equipe Physico-Chimie de l'Environnement, Lille F-59000, France. Electronic address:

In this case study, high sensitivity simple methods for the analysis of trihalomethanes (THM4), iodinated-trihalomethanes (I-THMs), haloacetic acids (HAAs), bromide, iodide and iodate have been developed. A one-step procedure for the analysis of haloacetic acids by head-space GC-MS provides good reproducibility and low limits of quantification (≤50 ng L). These methods were applied to characterize the formation of disinfection by-products (DBPs) in a full scale drinking water treatment plant. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2019.135280DOI Listing
February 2020

Efficacy assessment of peracetic acid in the removal of synthetic 17α-ethinyl estradiol contraceptive hormone in wastewater.

J Environ Sci (China) 2020 Mar 1;89:1-8. Epub 2019 Nov 1.

Biotox Lab, UCIBIO, Department of Chemistry, NOVA School of Science and Technology, NOVA University Lisbon, Quinta da Torre, 2829-516 Caparica, Portugal.

Increasing concerns have been raised on endocrine disrupting chemicals like the sex hormone 17α-ethinylestradiol (EE2), the more since traditional wastewater (WW) treatments appear to be ineffective for their removal. The efficacy of the relatively novel disinfectant peracetic acid (PAA) in EE2 removal was evaluated, as well as its potential effects on WW quality parameters. The treatments tested for EE2 removal were also evaluated in terms of toxicity, through the determination of biochemical responses (antioxidant enzymes, lipid peroxidation and vitellogenin induction) using zebrafish (Danio rerio) as a biological model. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jes.2019.09.019DOI Listing

In vivo acute toxicity and anti-gastric evaluation of a novel dichloro Schiff base: Bax and HSP70 alteration.

Acta Biochim Biophys Sin (Shanghai) 2020 Jan;52(1):26-37

Institute of Biological Science, Faculty of Science, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

Chlorine is shown to possess anti-gastric ulcer activity, since it can inactivate Helicobacter pylori, which is regarded as one of the most common risk factors for causing gastric problems. In the current study, the gastroprotective property of a novel dichloro-substituted Schiff base complex, 2, 2'- [-1, 2-cyclohexanediylbis(nitriloethylidyne)] bis(4-chlorophenol) (CNCP), against alcohol-induced gastric lesion in SD rats was assessed. SD rats were divided into four groups, i. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/abbs/gmz140DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7014572PMC
January 2020

Defect processes in F and Cl doped anatase TiO.

Sci Rep 2019 Dec 27;9(1):19970. Epub 2019 Dec 27.

Faculty of Engineering, Environment and Computing, Coventry University, Priory Street, Coventry, CV1 5FB, United Kingdom.

Titanium dioxide represents one of the most widely studied transition metal oxides due to its high chemical stability, non-toxicity, abundance, electron transport capability in many classes of optoelectronic devices and excellent photocatalytic properties. Nevertheless, the wide bang gap of pristine oxide reduces its electron transport ability and photocatalytic activity. Doping with halides and other elements has been proven an efficient defect engineering strategy in order to reduce the band gap and maximize the photocatalytic activity. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-019-55518-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6934879PMC
December 2019

Dominant formation of unregulated disinfection by-products during electrocoagulation treatment of landfill leachate.

Environ Res 2020 Mar 5;182:109006. Epub 2019 Dec 5.

Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VA, 24061, USA; Department of Energy, Environmental and Chemical Engineering, Washington University in St. Louis, St. Louis, MO 63130, USA. Electronic address:

During the electrocoagulation (EC) treatment of landfill leachate, the production of chlorine species may result in the formation of harmful disinfection by-products (DBPs). This formation was investigated in the present study by monitoring five classes of DBPs (haloacetic acids-HAA, trihalomethanes-THM, haloacetonitriles-HAN, haloketones-HK, and halonitromethanes-HNM) in two leachate samples treated by EC. It was shown that the applied current has stimulated the formation of DBPs, which were dominated by unregulated DBPs. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envres.2019.109006DOI Listing

Ab initio studies of adsorption of Haloarenes on Heme group.

J Mol Model 2019 Dec 13;26(1). Epub 2019 Dec 13.

Department of Medical Physics, Bharathiar University, Coimbatore, India.

In the present investigation, we have employed heme as a material for absorbing haloarenes due to its unique structural property, abundant availability, non-toxic nature and its dynamic nature in absorbing oxygen molecule. Haloarenes are toxic gases that are released into atmosphere as an aftermath of various refrigerants. Using first principle study, the absorption of haloarenes on heme molecule was systematically investigated. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00894-019-4205-2DOI Listing
December 2019

Electro-oxidation process assisted by solar energy for the treatment of wastewater with high salinity.

Sci Total Environ 2020 Feb 4;705:135831. Epub 2019 Dec 4.

Plataforma Solar de Almería-CIEMAT, Carretera de Senés Km 4, 04200 Tabernas, Almería, Spain; CIESOL, Joint Centre of the University of Almería-CIEMAT, 04120 Almería, Spain.

Industrial wastewaters characterized by its high content in organics and conductivity entails a challenge for conventional treatments due to its low biodegradability. Electro-oxidative processes have been successfully applied for the treatment of this kind of wastewaters achieving high organics and ammonia removal. The degradation process is executed mainly by electrochemically generated active chlorine species, as HClO and ClO with E = 1. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2019.135831DOI Listing
February 2020

Anoxic degradation of chlorpyrifos by zerovalent monometallic and bimetallic particles in solution.

Chemosphere 2020 Apr 27;244:125461. Epub 2019 Nov 27.

Department of Civil & Environmental Engineering, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA, 15213-3890, USA. Electronic address:

The degradation of highly toxic and persistent chlorinated organic compounds by zerovalent metals (ZVMs) has received considerable attention for in situ groundwater remediation. Due to its abundance and low toxicity, iron has been mostly applied for such purposes, despite several limitations, such as rapid surface passivation and little efficacy towards certain contaminants. Given that, we evaluated monometallic zerovalent iron (ZVI), copper (ZVC) and zinc (ZVZ), and bimetallic copper-coated ZVI (ZVI/Cu) and ZVZ (ZVZ/Cu) for anoxic reductive degradation of chlorpyrifos (CP). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2019.125461DOI Listing

Degradation behaviors of Isopropylphenazone and Aminopyrine and their genetic toxicity variations during UV/chloramine treatment.

Water Res 2020 Mar 27;170:115339. Epub 2019 Nov 27.

Beijing Key Laboratory for Source Control Technology of Water Pollution, Engineering Research Center for Water Pollution Source Control and Eco-remediation, Beijing Forestry University, Beijing, 100083, China. Electronic address:

Combination of ultraviolet and chloramine (i.e., UV/chloramine) treatment has been attracting increasingly attention in recent years due to its high efficiency in removing trace organic contaminants. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2019.115339DOI Listing
March 2020
5.528 Impact Factor