2,908 results match your criteria Toxicity Chlorine Gas


Antibiotics degradation by UV/chlor(am)ine advanced oxidation processes: A comprehensive review.

Environ Pollut 2022 Jun 24:119673. Epub 2022 Jun 24.

Suzhou University of Science and Technology, Suzhou, 215009, China.

Antibiotics are emerging contaminants in aquatic environments which pose serious risks to the ecological environment and human health. Advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) based on ultraviolet (UV) light have good application prospects for antibiotic degradation. As new and developing UV-AOPs, UV/chlorine and derived UV/chloramine processes have attracted increasing attention due to the production of highly reactive radicals (e. Read More

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Occurrence and transformation of newly discovered 2-bromo-6-chloro-1,4-benzoquinone in chlorinated drinking water.

J Hazard Mater 2022 Aug 21;436:129189. Epub 2022 May 21.

State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of the Environment, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210023, China. Electronic address:

Halobenzoquinones (HBQs) have been reported as an emerging category of disinfection byproducts (DBPs) in drinking water with relatively high toxicity, and the previously reported HBQs include 2,6-dichloro-1,4-benzoquinone, 2,3,6-trichloro-1,4-benzoquinone, 2,6-dichloro-3-methyl-1,4-benzoquinone, 2,6-dibromo-1,4-benzoquinone, 2,6-diiodo-1,4-benzoquinone, 2-chloro-6-iodo-1,4-benzoquinone, and 2-bromo-6-iodo-1,4-benzoquinone. In this study, another HBQ species, 2-bromo-6-chloro-1,4-benzoquinone (2,6-BCBQ), was newly detected and identified in drinking water. The occurrence frequency and levels of 2,6-BCBQ were investigated, and its cytotoxicity was evaluated. Read More

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Genotoxic effects of chlorinated disinfection by-products of 1,3-diphenylguanidine (DPG): Cell-based in-vitro testing and formation potential during water disinfection.

J Hazard Mater 2022 08 11;436:129114. Epub 2022 May 11.

Nanyang Environment & Water Research Institute (NEWRI), Nanyang Technological University, CleanTech One, 1 Cleantech Loop, 637141, Singapore. Electronic address:

1,3-diphenylguanidine (DPG) is a commonly used rubber and polymer additive, that has been found to be one of the main leachate products of tire wear particles and from HDPE pipes. Its introduction to aquatic environments and potentially water supplies lead to further questions regarding the effects of disinfection by-products potentially formed. Using different bioassay approaches and NGS RNA-sequencing, we show that some of the chlorinated by-products of DPG exert significant toxicity. Read More

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Effects of ultrasonication on the DBP formation and toxicity during chlorination of saline wastewater effluents.

J Environ Sci (China) 2022 Jul 30;117:326-335. Epub 2022 May 30.

Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Hong Kong, China.

Chlorine disinfection of saline wastewater effluents rich in bromide and iodide forms relatively toxic brominated and iodinated disinfection byproducts (DBPs). Ultrasonication is a relatively new water treatment technology, and it is less sensitive to suspended solids in wastewaters. In this study, we examined the effects of ultrasonication (in terms of reactor type and combination mode with chlorination) on the DBP formation and toxicity in chlorinated primary and secondary saline wastewater effluents. Read More

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Evaluation of disinfection byproducts for their ability to affect mitochondrial function.

J Environ Sci (China) 2022 Jul 21;117:295-304. Epub 2022 May 21.

Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Nevada, Las Vegas, NV, USA. Electronic address:

In the race to deliver clean water to communities through potable water reuse, disinfection and water quality assessment are and will continue to be fundamental factors. There are over 700 disinfection byproducts (DBPs) in water; evaluating each compound is practically impossible and very time consuming. A bioanalytical approach could be an answer to this challenge. Read More

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Assessing microbial and chemical exposure risks of Giardia in indoor swimming pool water disinfected by chlorine.

J Environ Sci (China) 2022 Jul 20;117:276-284. Epub 2022 May 20.

Guangdong Engineering Technology Research Center of Water Security Regulation and Control for Southern China, Guangzhou 510275, China; Southern Laboratory of Ocean Science and Engineering, School of Civil Engineering, Sun Yat-Sen University, Zhuhai 519000, China. Electronic address:

Swimming pools adopt chlorination to ensure microbial safety. Giardia has attracted attention in swimming pool water because of its occurrence, pathogenicity, and chlorine resistance. To control Giardia concentrations in pool water and reduce the microbial risk, higher chlorine doses are required during disinfection. Read More

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Disinfection byproducts in chlorinated or brominated swimming pools and spas: Role of brominated DBPs and association with mutagenicity.

J Environ Sci (China) 2022 Jul 9;117:253-263. Epub 2022 May 9.

Air Methods and Characterization Division, Center for Environmental Measurement and Modeling, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711, USA.

Although the health benefits of swimming are well-documented, health effects such as asthma and bladder cancer are linked to disinfection by-products (DBPs) in pool water. DBPs are formed from the reaction of disinfectants such as chlorine (Cl) or bromine (Br) with organics in the water. Our previous study (Daiber et al. Read More

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Do DBPs swim in salt water pools? Comparison of 60 DBPs formed by electrochemically generated chlorine vs. conventional chlorine.

J Environ Sci (China) 2022 Jul 14;117:232-241. Epub 2022 May 14.

Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of South Carolina, 631 Sumter St., Columbia, SC 29208, USA. Electronic address:

Disinfectants are added to swimming pools to kill harmful pathogens. Although liquid chlorine (sodium hypochlorite) is the most commonly used disinfectant, alternative disinfection techniques like electrochemically generated mixed oxidants or electrochemically generated chlorine, often referred to as salt water pools, are growing in popularity. However, these disinfectants react with natural organic matter and anthropogenic contaminants introduced to the pool water by swimmers to form disinfection byproducts (DBPs). Read More

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Synergistic cytotoxicity of binary combinations of inorganic and organic disinfection byproducts assessed by real-time cell analysis.

J Environ Sci (China) 2022 Jul 5;117:222-231. Epub 2022 May 5.

Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Environmental Pollution Control and Remediation Technology, School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510006, China. Electronic address:

Chlorine, chlorine dioxide, and ozone are widely used as disinfectants in drinking water treatments. However, the combined use of different disinfectants can result in the formation of various organic and inorganic disinfection byproducts (DBPs). The toxic interactions, including synergism, addition, and antagonism, among the complex DBPs are still unclear. Read More

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Degradation of iopromide during the UV-LED/chlorine reaction: Effect of wavelength, radical contribution, transformation products, and toxicity.

J Hazard Mater 2022 Jun 14;437:129371. Epub 2022 Jun 14.

Department of Environmental Health Sciences, School of Public Health, Seoul National University, Seoul, South Korea. Electronic address:

Three different UV-LED wavelengths (265, 310, and 365 nm) were used in the UV-LED/chlorine reaction to investigate the degradation mechanism of iopromide (IPM) at different wavelengths, a representative iodinated contrast media compound. The degradation rate (k') increased from pH 6-8 at 265 nm, but, decreased as the pH increased up to 9 at 310 nm and 365 nm. Radical scavenging experiments showed that reactive chlorine species (RCS) are the dominant radical species at all wavelengths, but a higher contribution of OH• was observed at lower pH and longer wavelengths. Read More

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Identifying global trends and gaps in research on pesticide fipronil: a scientometric review.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2022 Jun 15. Epub 2022 Jun 15.

Laboratory of Biological Analysis and Molecular Biology (BioMol), Universidade Tecnológica Federal Do Paraná (UTFPR), Campus Dois Vizinhos, Estrada para Boa Esperança s/n, km 04, Comunidade Sao Cristovão, P.O. Box 157, Dois Vizinhos, , Parana, 85660-000, Brazil.

Fipronil is a broad potent insecticide that belongs to the phenylpyrazole chemical family. Its action mode acting in the presynaptic and postsynaptic blocking the chlorine ions by the neurotransmitters GABA. It is considered highly toxic, and in some countries, its use has been prohibited. Read More

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Pulmonary toxicity of sodium dichloroisocyanurate after intratracheal instillation in sprague-dawley rats.

Hum Exp Toxicol 2022 Jan-Dec;41:9603271221106336

Environmental Health Research Department, 65740National Institute of Environmental Research, Incheon, Korea.

In water, sodium dichloroisocyanurate (NaDCC), a source for chlorine gas generation, releases free available chlorine in the form of hypochlorous acid, a strong oxidizing agent. NaDCC has been used as a disinfectant in humidifiers; however, its inhalation toxicity is a concern. Seven-week-old rats were exposed to NaDCC doses of 100, 500, and 2500 μg·kg body weight by intratracheal instillation (ITI) to investigate pulmonary toxicity. Read More

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A nanomedicine enables synergistic chemo/photodynamic therapy for pancreatic cancer treatment.

Biomater Sci 2022 Jun 1. Epub 2022 Jun 1.

Shenzhen Institute of Advanced Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenzhen 518055, China.

Pancreatic cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer-related deaths worldwide. Gemcitabine (Gem) has been a key chemotherapy agent for pancreatic cancer treatment by suppressing cell proliferation and inducing apoptosis. However, the overexpression of inhibitors of apoptosis (IAP) family of proteins during the carcinogenesis of pancreatic cancer can develop resistance to chemotherapy treatment and result in poor efficacy. Read More

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Effects of operating conditions on disinfection by-product formation, calculated toxicity, and changes in organic matter structures during seawater chlorination.

Water Res 2022 Jul 17;220:118631. Epub 2022 May 17.

Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, the Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay, Kowloon, Hong Kong; Hong Kong Branch of Chinese National Engineering Research Center for Control & Treatment of Heavy Metal Pollution, the Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay, Kowloon, Hong Kong. Electronic address:

This study systematically quantified the impacts of different operation conditions, e.g., pH, chlorine dosages, contact times, and temperatures towards the disinfection by-product (DBP) formation, integrated toxicity, and structural changes in seawater natural organic matter during seawater chlorination. Read More

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Pneumomediastinum in an Accidental Chlorine Gas Exposed Victim.

J Coll Physicians Surg Pak 2022 Apr;32(4):S73-S75

Department of Emergency Medicine, The Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi, Pakistan.

Chlorine is an irritant gas, which is implicated in inhalational exposures and can affect the respiratory system leading to complications. We report a case of a 38-year man who presented in the Emergency Department (ED) after exposure to chlorine gas due to an industrial accident. During the course of ED stay, he developed gradual difficulty in breathing, which on investigation, was found to be related to the complication of pneumomediastinum. Read More

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[Determination of four trihalomethanes in ship ballast water by gas chromatography-negative chemical ionization-mass spectrometry].

Se Pu 2022 Jun;40(6):584-589

Jiangyin Customs Comprehensive Technical Service Center, Jiangyin 214440, China.

Ship ballast water can control the roll, trim, and draft of the ship, and thus ensuring the balance and stability of the ship in the course of sailing, and playing a vital role in the safe navigation of ships. The annual discharge of ship ballast water is very large in China. About three to five billion cubic meters of ship ballast water is discharged into offshore or inland waters every year. Read More

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Identification of specific halogenated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in surface soils of petrochemical, flame retardant, and electronic waste dismantling industrial parks.

J Hazard Mater 2022 08 17;436:129160. Epub 2022 May 17.

Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao Joint Laboratory for Contaminants Exposure and Health, Guangdong Key Laboratory of Environmental Catalysis and Health Risk Control, Institute of Environmental Health and Pollution Control, Guangdong University of Technology, Guangzhou 510006, PR China; Guangzhou Key Laboratory of Environmental Catalysis and Pollution Control, Key Laboratory of City Cluster Environmental Safety and Green Development, School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Guangdong University of Technology, Guangzhou 510006, PR China.

Halogenated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (Cl/Br-PAHs) have received tremendous attention due to their high toxicity. To identify the emission pattern of Cl/Br-PAHs from various industrial productions, understand the formation mechanisms and the influence on the surroundings, this study investigated the surface soils of three typical industrial parks. Generally, traces of Cl-PAHs were much lower than Br-PAHs. Read More

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Organic chloramines attenuation and disinfection by-product formation during UV, chlorination and UV/chlorine processes.

Chemosphere 2022 Sep 19;303(Pt 2):135025. Epub 2022 May 19.

State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, Key Laboratory of Yangtze Water Environment, Ministry of Education, College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092, PR China; Shanghai Institute of Pollution Control and Ecological Security, Shanghai 200092, PR China.

Organic chloramines (OCs) have become one of the research focuses in the field of drinking water treatment due to its limited oxidation and sterilization ability as well as potential cytotoxicity and genetic toxicity to the public. Among widespread OCs, produced by chlorinating cytosine are a typical one exists during chlorine disinfection. OCs degradation during UV, chlorination and UV/chlorine processes were systematically investigated. Read More

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September 2022

A study using QSAR/QSPR models focused on the possible occurrence and risk of alloxydim residues from chlorinated drinking water, according to the EU Regulation.

Sci Total Environ 2022 Sep 18;839:156000. Epub 2022 May 18.

Unit of Plant Protection Products, National Institute for Agricultural and Food Research and Technology INIA-CSIC, Ctra. La Coruña, Km. 7.5, 28040 Madrid, Spain.

Any active substance with phytosanitary capacity intended to be marketed in Europe must pass exhaustive controls to assess its risk before being marketed and used in European agriculture. Since the implementation of Regulation (EC) No 1107/2009, agrochemical companies have been obliged to study the formation of pesticide transformation products (TPs) during the treatment of drinking water containing pesticide residues. However, there is no consensus on how to address this requirement. Read More

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September 2022

Chlorination of arenes via the degradation of toxic chlorophenols.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2022 05 19;119(21):e2122425119. Epub 2022 May 19.

Institute of Chemical Sciences and Engineering, Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL), 1015 Lausanne, Switzerland.

Aryl chlorides are among the most versatile synthetic precursors, and yet inexpensive and benign chlorination techniques to produce them are underdeveloped. We propose a process to generate aryl chlorides by chloro-group transfer from chlorophenol pollutants to arenes during their mineralization, catalyzed by Cu(NO3)2/NaNO3 under aerobic conditions. A wide range of arene substrates have been chlorinated using this process. Read More

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Ultraviolet-coupled advanced oxidation processes for anti-COVID-19 drugs treatment: Degradation mechanisms, transformation products and toxicity evolution.

Chemosphere 2022 Sep 14;303(Pt 1):134968. Epub 2022 May 14.

School of Environment, Guangdong Key Laboratory of Environmental Pollution and Health, Jinan University, Guangzhou, 510632, China. Electronic address:

Remdesivir (RDV), dexamethasone (DEX) and hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) were widely used in the treatment of COVID-19 pneumonia, possibly causing environmental risks and drug-resistance viruses. This study elucidated the degradation mechanisms and potential toxicity risks of the three anti-COVID-19 drugs by UV and ultraviolet-coupled advanced oxidation processes (UV/AOPs). All the drugs could be degraded by more than 98% within 3 min under the following optimal conditions: pH of 5. Read More

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September 2022

Halohydroxybenzonitriles as a new group of halogenated aromatic DBPs in drinking water: Are they of comparable risk to halonitrophenols?

Water Res 2022 Jul 4;219:118547. Epub 2022 May 4.

Department of Environmental Science, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, 310058, China; Zhejiang Provincial Key Laboratory of Organic Pollution Process and Control, Hangzhou, 310058, China. Electronic address:

Halogenated aromatic disinfection byproducts (DBPs) exhibited similar total organic halogen levels in chlorinated drinking water samples as compared with aliphatic ones, and they predominantly accounted for the overall toxicity of the samples. Among the reported halogenated aromatic DBPs, halonitrophenols (HNPs) have received particular attention in recent years due to the relatively high risk in drinking water. In this study, a new group of halogenated aromatic DBPs were detected and then proposed to be halohydroxybenzonitriles (HHBNs) by employing the ultra-performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometers. Read More

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Minimizing toxic chlorinated byproducts during electrochemical oxidation of Ni-EDTA: Importance of active chlorine-triggered Fe(II) transition to Fe(IV).

Water Res 2022 Jul 4;219:118548. Epub 2022 May 4.

The Key Lab of Pollution Control and Ecosystem Restoration in Industry Clusters, Ministry of Education, School of Environment and Energy, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510006, PR China. Electronic address:

The formation of chlorinated byproducts represents a significant threat to the quality of the effluent treated using electrochemical advanced oxidation processes (EAOPs), thus spurring investigation into alleviating their production. This study presents a new strategy to minimize the release of chlorinated intermediates during the electrochemical oxidation of Ni-EDTA by establishing a dual mixed metal oxide (MMO)/Fe anode system. The results indicate that the dual-anode system achieved a substantially higher rate (0. Read More

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Development of the stability-indicating method, structural elucidation of new photodegradation products from terconazole by LC-MS TOF, and in vitro toxicity.

J Pharm Biomed Anal 2022 Jul 25;216:114794. Epub 2022 Apr 25.

Pharmaceutical and Cosmetic Development Center (NUDFAC), Federal University of Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE 50740-521, Brazil.

Terconazole (TCZ) was the first triazole antifungal drug launched in the market and has been used in the treatment of vulvovaginal candidiasis. It is also indicated to treat dermatophytosis and fungal ocular infections. However, some of the degradation products from triazole drugs have been reported to be toxic, justifying the need of further investigations about the stability of TCZ. Read More

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Composition and Leaching Toxicity of Hydrochloric Acid Pickling Sludge Generated from the Hot-Dip Galvanized Steel Industry.

ACS Omega 2022 Apr 12;7(16):13826-13840. Epub 2022 Apr 12.

State Key Laboratory of Heavy Oil Processing, China University of Petroleum-Beijing at Karamay, Karamay 834000, China.

Steel hydrochloric acid pickling sludge (SHPS), containing the heavy metals Fe, Zn, and Ni and a high chloride salt content, is considered a type of hazardous solid waste because of its potential harm to human health and the environment. In addition, the SHPS yield is large, but the main treatment currently used is only safe for landfills. Although studying the composition and leaching toxicity of SHPS is of great importance, only a small amount of related literature is available. Read More

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Novel deoxyribonucleic acid methylation perturbations in workers exposed to vinyl chloride.

Toxicol Ind Health 2022 Jul 12;38(7):377-388. Epub 2022 May 12.

Department of Toxicology, School of Public Health, 74648Shanxi Medical University, Taiyuan, China.

To explore the epigenetic mechanism of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) damage induced by vinyl chloride (VC), we studied the micronuclei of peripheral blood lymphocytes in 193 subjects (92 in a VC exposure group employed in a chlorine-alkali plant; 101 in a control group employed in a power plant) and selected three pairs from the subjects (exposed and control) for whole-genome bisulfite sequencing (WGBS). The results showed that the rate of micronucleus formation in the VC exposure group was higher than that of control group (6.05 ± 3. Read More

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Emerging investigator series: contributions of reactive nitrogen species to transformations of organic compounds in water: a critical review.

Authors:
Rachel C Scholes

Environ Sci Process Impacts 2022 Jun 22;24(6):851-869. Epub 2022 Jun 22.

Department of Civil Engineering, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, V6T 1Z4, Canada.

Reactive nitrogen species (RNS) pose a potential risk to drinking water quality because they react with organic compounds to form toxic byproducts. Since the discovery of RNS formation in sunlit surface waters, these reactive intermediates have been detected in numerous sunlit natural waters and engineered water treatment systems. This critical review summarizes what is known regarding RNS, including their formation, contributions to contaminant transformation, and products resulting from RNS reactions. Read More

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Combined impact of silver nanoparticles and chlorine on the cell integrity and toxin release of Microcystis aeruginosa.

Chemosphere 2021 Jun 2;272:129825. Epub 2021 Feb 2.

Department of Environmental Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, No.1, University Road, Tainan City, 701, Taiwan, ROC. Electronic address:

Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) have shown to be toxic to freshwater cyanobacterial species, and sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) is a common oxidant for the treatment of cyanobacterial cells. AgNPs have a high possibility of co-existing with the cyanobacterial cells in the aqueous environments leading to its exposure to NaOCl during water treatment; however, their combined effects on the cyanobacterial cells are largely undocumented. This work compares the individual and combined effect of AgNP and NaOCl on the integrity and toxin (microcystins) release of Microcystis aeruginosa at varying levels. Read More

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Gravimetric analysis of stability of polymeric materials during exposure to chemical disinfectants at different temperatures.

Chemosphere 2022 Sep 5;302:134813. Epub 2022 May 5.

Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Hanyang University, 222 Wangsimni-ro, Seongdong-gu, Seoul, 04763, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

The goal of this study was to evaluate the impact of thermal and chemical aging processes on high-density polyethylene (HDPE), low-density polyethylene (LDPE), unplasticized polyvinyl chloride (U-PVC), and high-impact polyvinyl chloride (Hi-PVC) pipes. The materials were exposed to 1-10 ppm chemical disinfectants [chlorine dioxide (ClO) and hypochlorite (HOCl)] at 40-80 °C for 1200 h. The diffusion properties of the materials were systematically analyzed based on the change in their sorption characteristics and activation energies according to the Arrhenius model. Read More

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September 2022

Comparative genetic, biochemical and physiological analysis of sodium and chlorine in wheat.

Mol Biol Rep 2022 May 5. Epub 2022 May 5.

Faculty of Agricultural Sciences and Technologies, Sivas University of Science and Technology, Sivas, Turkey.

Plant with a great diversity shows several responses towards the biotic and abiotic stresses. Among these abiotic stresses, salinity is the main damaging factor as it reduces the yield of wheat plant with moderate salt tolerance. For its survival, plant undergoes through some genetic, biochemical and physiological changes to tackle the stress. Read More

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