2,425 results match your criteria Toxicity Chlorine Gas


Degradation of climbazole by UV/chlorine process: Kinetics, transformation pathway and toxicity evaluation.

Chemosphere 2018 Dec 5;219:243-249. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

The Environmental Research Institute, MOE Key Laboratory of Theoretical Chemistry of Environment, South China Normal University, Guangzhou, 510006, China. Electronic address:

Climbazole is an antifungal agent widely used in household personal care products, and it was found persistent in chlorination disinfection process. Here we investigated the kinetics and mechanism of climbazole degradation by UV/chlorine process. The results showed that the UV/chlorine process dramatically enhanced degradation of climbazole when compared to the UV photolysis and chlorination alone. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2018.12.023DOI Listing
December 2018

Transformation of sulfamethazine during the chlorination disinfection process: Transformation, kinetics, and toxicology assessment.

J Environ Sci (China) 2019 Feb 3;76:48-56. Epub 2018 Apr 3.

Beijing Key Laboratory of Diagnostic and Traceability Technologies for Food Poisoning, Beijing Center for Disease Prevention and Control, Beijing 100013, China; Beijing Research Center for Preventive Medicine, Beijing 100013, China. Electronic address:

Various disinfection byproducts (DBPs) form during the process of chlorination disinfection, posing potential threats to drinking water safety and human health. Sulfamethazine (SMT), the most commonly used and frequently detected veterinary antibiotic, was investigated in detail with regard to its transformation and kinetics in reactions with free available chlorine (FAC). Using liquid chromatography coupled to quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry, several DBPs were identified based on different confidence levels, and a variety of reaction types, including desulfonation, S-N cleavage, hydroxylation, and chlorine substitution, were proposed. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jes.2018.03.024DOI Listing
February 2019

Benzoylthioureas: Design, Synthesis and Antimycobacterial Evaluation.

Med Chem 2018 Dec 7. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

Departamento de Química, Centro de Ciências Exatas, Universidade Estadual de Londrina, Rodovia Celso Garcia Cid (PR 445), Km 380, Campus Universitário, Londrina - PR, 86057-970. Brazil.

Background: New drugs and strategies to treat tuberculosis (TB) are urgently needed. In this context, thiourea derivatives have a wide range of biological activities, including anti-TB. This fact can be illustrated with the structure of isoxyl, an old anti-TB drug, which have a thiourea as pharmacophore group. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1573406415666181208110753DOI Listing
December 2018
1 Read

Phototransformation of halophenolic disinfection byproducts in receiving seawater: Kinetics, products, and toxicity.

Water Res 2018 Nov 23;150:68-76. Epub 2018 Nov 23.

Department of Environmental and Occupational Health, School of Public Health, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX, USA.

Flushing toilet with seawater is an effective method for preserving freshwater resources, but it introduces iodide and bromide ions into domestic wastewater. During chlorine disinfection, iodide and bromide ions in the saline wastewater effluent lead to the formation of iodinated and brominated aromatic disinfection byproducts (DBPs). Examples of aromatic DBPs include iodophenolic, bromophenolic and chlorophenolic compounds, which generally display substantially higher toxicity than haloaliphatic DBPs. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2018.11.059DOI Listing
November 2018

Sulfadiazine destruction by chlorination in a pilot-scale water distribution system: Kinetics, pathway, and bacterial community structure.

J Hazard Mater 2018 Nov 24;366:88-97. Epub 2018 Nov 24.

School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, USA.

Sulfadiazine (SDZ) has been frequently detected in surface waters in recent years. We evaluated the kinetics, mechanisms, intermediate products and bacterial community structure that result from the reaction of SDZ with free chlorine (HOCl/OCl). We examined this in a pilot-scale water distribution system. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2018.11.096DOI Listing
November 2018

Synthesis and biological evaluation of new quinoline derivatives as antileishmanial and antitrypanosomal agents.

Bioorg Chem 2018 Oct 31;83:526-534. Epub 2018 Oct 31.

Laboratorio de Biocatálisis. Departamento de Química Orgánica y UMYMFOR, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Ciudad Universitaria, Pabellón 2, piso 3, C1428EGA Buenos Aires, Argentina. Electronic address:

As a part of our project aimed at developing new safe chemotherapeutic agents against tropical diseases, a series of aryl derivatives of 2- and 3-aminoquinoline, some of them new compounds, was designed, synthesized, and evaluated as antiproliferative agents against Trypanosoma cruzi, the parasite responsible for American trypanosomiasis (Chagas' disease), and Leishmania mexicana, the etiological agent of Leishmaniasis. Some of them showed a remarkable activity as parasite growth inhibitors. Fluorine-containing derivatives 11b and 11c were more than twice more potent than geneticin against intracellular promastigote form of Leishmania mexicana exhibiting both IC values of 41. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bioorg.2018.10.053DOI Listing
October 2018
5 Reads

Impact of copper and iron binding properties on the anticancer activity of 8-hydroxyquinoline derived Mannich bases.

Dalton Trans 2018 Dec;47(47):17032-17045

Institute of Enzymology, Research Centre for Natural Sciences, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Magyar Tudósok körútja 2, H-1117 Budapest, Hungary.

The anticancer activity of 8-hydroxyquinolines relies on complex formation with redox active copper and iron ions. Here we employ UV-visible spectrophotometry and EPR spectroscopy to compare proton dissociation and complex formation processes of the reference compound 8-hydroxyquinoline (Q-1) and three related Mannich bases to reveal possible correlations with biological activity. The studied derivatives harbor a CH2-N moiety at position 7 linked to morpholine (Q-2), piperidine (Q-3), and chlorine and fluorobenzylamino (Q-4) substituents. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c8dt03088jDOI Listing
December 2018
6 Reads

Disinfection byproduct formation and toxicity of graphene oxide in water treatment system.

Chemosphere 2018 Nov 1;217:68-75. Epub 2018 Nov 1.

College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Pollution Processes and Environmental Criteria, Tianjin Key Laboratory of Environmental Remediation and Pollution Control, Nankai University, Tong Yan Road 38, Tianjin 300350, China. Electronic address:

Graphene oxide (GO) is a structural analog of graphene and contains numerous O-containing functional groups. As rapidly increasing production and usage of GO, it is inevitable to flow into the water and wastewater treatment system and finally oxidized by disinfectants to form DBPs. Meanwhile, as GO is a nano sized carbon material, it may also break the human digestion system when it was absorbed by human body. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S00456535183203
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2018.10.165DOI Listing
November 2018
4 Reads
3.340 Impact Factor

Removal of disinfection byproduct precursors and reduction in additive toxicity of chlorinated and chloraminated waters by ozonation and up-flow biological activated carbon process.

Chemosphere 2019 Feb 16;216:624-632. Epub 2018 Oct 16.

Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Integrated Regulation and Resource Development on Shallow Lakes, Hohai University, Nanjing 210098, PR China; College of Environment, Hohai University, Nanjing 210098, PR China.

The variations of disinfection byproduct (DBP) precursors and DBPs-associated toxic potencies were evaluated by ozonation, followed by a up-flow biological activated carbon (O/UBAC) filter treating two reconstituted water samples, featuring either high bromide (105.3 μg/L) or dissolved organic nitrogen (0.73 mg N/L) concentration, respectively. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S00456535183190
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2018.10.052DOI Listing
February 2019
2 Reads
3.340 Impact Factor

Integrating data gap filling techniques: A case study predicting TEFs for neurotoxicity TEQs to facilitate the hazard assessment of polychlorinated biphenyls.

Regul Toxicol Pharmacol 2018 Oct 22;101:12-23. Epub 2018 Oct 22.

National Center for Computational Toxicology, Office of Research and Development, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC, USA. Electronic address:

The application of toxic equivalency factors (TEFs) or toxic units to estimate toxic potencies for mixtures of chemicals which contribute to a biological effect through a common mechanism is one approach for filling data gaps. Toxic Equivalents (TEQ) have been used to express the toxicity of dioxin-like compounds (i.e. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.yrtph.2018.10.013DOI Listing
October 2018
1 Read

User and environment friendly direct agglutination test for the sero-diagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis: exclusion of formaldehyde and β-mercaptoethanol in test execution.

J Med Microbiol 2018 Dec 16;67(12):1731-1736. Epub 2018 Oct 16.

1​Laboratory of Biomedical Research, Ahfad University for Women, P.O. Box 167, Omdurman, Sudan.

Purpose: Based on world-wide evaluation, the direct agglutination test (DAT) is now generally acknowledged as one of the leading diagnostics for visceral leishmaniasis (VL). To enhance more routine and mass application, but simultaneously ensure safety to both user and environment, further improvements need to be introduced.

Methodology: In the current format, a two-sixfold titre decrease was observed due to using formaldehyde as an antigen preservative in DAT. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1099/jmm.0.000858DOI Listing
December 2018
1 Read

Formation of iodinated trihalomethanes and haloacetic acids from aromatic iodinated disinfection byproducts during chloramination.

Water Res 2018 Dec 2;147:254-263. Epub 2018 Oct 2.

State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai, 200092, China.

Iodinated disinfection byproducts (DBPs) are widely present in disinfected drinking waters and wastewater effluents, and they have drawn increasing concern owing to their high toxicity. To date, the reported iodinated DBPs mainly include aliphatic and aromatic ones, and iodinated trihalomethanes (THMs) and haloacetic acids (HAAs) are the most commonly detected aliphatic iodinated DBPs in disinfected waters. In this study, the formation of iodinated THMs and HAAs from aromatic iodinated DBPs during chloramination was investigated. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2018.09.058DOI Listing
December 2018
2 Reads

Improved DBP elimination from swimming pool water by continuous combined UV and ozone treatment.

Water Res 2018 Dec 29;147:214-222. Epub 2018 Sep 29.

Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, 2800, Lyngby, Denmark.

Chlorine is the most frequently used disinfectant and oxidant for maintaining swimming pool water quality; however, it reacts continuously with dissolved organic matter to produce disinfection by-products (DBPs), which are a health risk for pool users. UV treatment is used widely to remove chloramines, which are the most prevalent group of DBPs, albeit chloro-organic DBP concentrations often increase during post-UV chlorination. In this work, UV and ozone treatments were investigated as additional technologies to eliminate DBP formation and their precursors. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2018.09.030DOI Listing
December 2018
4 Reads

Elimination kinetics and detoxification mechanisms of microcystin-LR during UV/Chlorine process.

Chemosphere 2019 Jan 29;214:702-709. Epub 2018 Sep 29.

School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Environmental Pollution Control and Remediation Technology, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275, China. Electronic address:

Microcystin-LR (MC-LR), a toxin produced by cyanobacteria, is very toxic and poses a threat to public health when entering water treatment works. In this study, UV/chlorine process, as an advanced oxidation process (AOP), has been demonstrated for effective elimination of MC-LR levels and associated toxicity. At a chlorine dose of 3. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S00456535183182
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2018.09.162DOI Listing
January 2019
11 Reads

The downside of antimicrobial agents for wound healing.

Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 2018 Oct 5. Epub 2018 Oct 5.

Bioactive Resources for Innovative Clinical Applications Research Unit and Department of Pharmacy Practice, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, 10330, Thailand.

The use of topical antimicrobials is beneficial for infection control in wound care because wound infection is the major cause of delayed healing. The advantages of topical over systemic antimicrobials include a higher concentration at the target site, fewer systemic adverse effects, and a lower incidence of antimicrobial resistance. Nowadays, topical antimicrobials are divided into three groups: disinfectants, antiseptics, and antibiotics. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10096-018-3393-5DOI Listing
October 2018
12 Reads

Degradation of sulfonamides and formation of trihalomethanes by chlorination after pre-oxidation with Fe(VI).

J Environ Sci (China) 2018 Nov 2;73:89-95. Epub 2018 Feb 2.

College of Civil Engineering and Architecture, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027, China. Electronic address:

Sulfonamides are used in human therapy, animal husbandry and agriculture but are not easily biodegradable, and are often detected in surface water. Sulfamethazine (SMZ) and sulfadiazine (SDZ) are two widely used sulfonamide antibiotics that are used heavily in agriculture. In this study, they were degraded in an aqueous system by chlorination after pre-oxidation with ferrate(VI) (FeO, Fe(VI)), an environmentally friendly oxidation technique that has been shown to be effective in degrading various organics. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S10010742173320
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jes.2018.01.016DOI Listing
November 2018
2 Reads

Photodynamic therapy using ultradeformable liposomes loaded with chlorine aluminum phthalocyanine against L. (V.) braziliensis experimental models.

Exp Parasitol 2018 Nov 23;194:45-52. Epub 2018 Sep 23.

Centro de Investigación en Enfermedades Tropicales (CINTROP-UIS), Departamento de Ciencias Básicas, Escuela de Medicina, Universidad Industrial de Santander, Bucaramanga, Colombia.

Ultradeformable liposomes (UDLs) containing sodium cholate as edge activator could be an appropriate skin drug-delivery system for chloroaluminum phthalocyanine (ClAlPc) during photodynamic therapy (PDT) against cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL). The aim of this work was to study cell internalization, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, and toxicity/genotoxicity and transdermal delivery of UDL-ClAlPc, and to determine whether PDT was able to induce anti-leishmanial activity in Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis experimental models. Prepared liposomes had an average size of 118. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.exppara.2018.09.016DOI Listing
November 2018
2 Reads

Formation of disinfection byproducts from sulfamethoxazole during sodium hypochlorite disinfection of marine culture water.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2018 Nov 25;25(33):33196-33206. Epub 2018 Sep 25.

School of Marine Sciences, Guangxi University, Nanning, 530004, China.

The fates of the antibiotic sulfamethoxazole (SMX) in the chlorination of fresh water, simulated brackish marine culture water, and marine water were investigated. SMX was oxidized by sodium hypochlorite (NaClO) at different reaction rates in the different samples. The oxidation of SMX followed pseudo-first-order kinetics, and the rate constant was the largest in marine water (3. Read More

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http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s11356-018-3278-2
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-018-3278-2DOI Listing
November 2018
2 Reads

Identification of a mutagenic chlorination by-product produced from (E)-1, 3-dichloropropene (a component of nematocide DD) by using high resolution LC/MS and multivariate analysis.

Water Res 2018 Dec 14;146:187-196. Epub 2018 Sep 14.

Division of Natural Environment and Information, Faculty of Environment and Information Sciences, Yokohama National University, Yokohama, 240-8501, Japan. Electronic address:

The estimated domestic usage of DD (a typical nematocide) has been the greatest among all the agricultural chemicals in Japan. DD is involved in a document which is used to establish tap water quality standard in Japan. The document indicates that DD is potentially detectable in raw water for tap waters. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2018.09.024DOI Listing
December 2018
5 Reads

Fast degradation of diclofenac by catalytic hydrodechlorination.

Chemosphere 2018 Dec 7;213:141-148. Epub 2018 Sep 7.

Seccion Departamental Ingenieria Quimica, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Ctra. Colmenar km 15, 28049 Madrid, Spain.

Aqueous-phase catalytic hydrodechlorination (HDC) has been scarcely explored in the literature for the removal of chlorinated micropollutants. The aim of this work is to prove the feasibility of this technology for the fast and environmentally-friendly degradation of such kind of compounds. Diclofenac (DCF), a highly consumed anti-inflammatory drug, has been selected as the target pollutant given its toxicity and low biodegradability. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2018.09.024DOI Listing
December 2018
1 Read

Disinfection by-products formation and ecotoxicological effects of effluents treated with peracetic acid: A review.

Chemosphere 2018 Dec 3;213:25-40. Epub 2018 Sep 3.

Politecnico di Milano, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering (DICA) - Environmental Section, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, 20133 Milano, Italy. Electronic address:

Peracetic acid (PAA) has gained increasing attention over the last decades as a suitable and environmentally-friendly alternative to chlorine-based compounds for wastewater disinfection, claiming limited disinfection by-products (DBPs) formed and no persistent residues in the environment. The present work aims at presenting a comprehensive and updated review of the ecotoxicological effects of effluents treated with PAA, to be ascribed to residual PAA and hydrogen peroxide (HO) and DBP formation. Modest concentrations of DBPs have been observed after PAA treatment, mainly carboxylic acids, which are not recognized as genotoxic. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2018.09.005DOI Listing
December 2018
2 Reads

Improvements in SOD mimic AEOL-10150, a potent broad-spectrum antioxidant.

Mil Med Res 2018 09 6;5(1):30. Epub 2018 Sep 6.

State Key Laboratory of Toxicology and Medical Countermeasures, Beijing Institute of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Beijing, 100850, China.

AEOL-10150 is a broad-spectrum metalloporphyrin superoxidase dismutase (SOD) mimic specifically designed to neutralize reactive oxygen and nitrogen species. Research has shown that AEOL-10150 is a potent medical countermeasure against national security threats including sulfur mustard (SM), nerve agent exposure and radiation pneumonitis following a radiological/nuclear incident sufficient to cause acute radiation syndrome (ARS). AEOL-10150 performed well in animal safety studies, and two completed phase 1 safety studies in patients demonstrated that the drug was safe and well tolerated, indicating that AEOL-10150 has potential as a new catalytic antioxidant drug. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s40779-018-0176-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6125955PMC
September 2018
1 Read

Free chlorine reactions of angiotensin II receptor antagonists: Kinetics study, transformation products elucidation and in-silico ecotoxicity assessment.

Sci Total Environ 2019 Jan 7;647:1000-1010. Epub 2018 Aug 7.

Department of Analytical Chemistry, Nutrition and Food Sciences, Institute for Research and Food Analysis (IIAA), Universidade of Santiago de Compostela, 15782 Santiago de Compostela, Spain.

Angiotensin II receptor antagonists (ARA II) are widely employed in the treatment of hypertension-related diseases. Because of their partial metabolization and limited biodegradability, these drugs have become ubiquitous pollutants in the aquatic environment, including surface water. This research evaluated the reactivity of the ARA II drugs: irbesartan (IRB), losartan (LOS) telmisartan (TEL) and valsartan (VAL) with free chlorine. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2018.08.082DOI Listing
January 2019
1 Read

Hydroxy metabolites of polychlorinated biphenyls (OH-PCBs) exhibit inhibitory effects on UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs).

Chemosphere 2018 Dec 9;212:513-522. Epub 2018 Aug 9.

Department of Toxicology, School of Public Health, Tianjin Medical University, 22 Qixiangtai Road, Heping District, Tianjin, China. Electronic address:

Hydroxy metabolites of polychlorinated biphenyls (OH-PCBs) are important substance basis for the toxicity of PCBs. This study aims to investigate the inhibition of OH-PCBs on the activity of UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs), trying to elucidate the toxicity mechanism of PCBs from a new perspective. In vitrohuman recombinant UGTs-catalyzed glucuronidation of 4-methylumbelliferone (4-MU) was used as the probe reaction. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2018.08.040DOI Listing
December 2018
3 Reads
3.340 Impact Factor

Acute renal toxicity of sodium chlorate: Redox imbalance, enhanced DNA damage, metabolic alterations and inhibition of brush border membrane enzymes in rats.

Environ Toxicol 2018 Nov 24;33(11):1182-1194. Epub 2018 Aug 24.

Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Life Sciences, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh, Uttar Pradesh, India.

Sodium chlorate (NaClO ) is widely used in paper and pulp industries and as a non-selective herbicide. Humans can be exposed to NaClO through contaminated drinking water due to its improper and unchecked usage in industries and as herbicide. NaClO is also present as a major stable by-product in drinking water that has been disinfected with chlorine dioxide. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/tox.22624DOI Listing
November 2018
2 Reads

Prednisolone degradation by UV/chlorine process: Influence factors, transformation products and mechanism.

Chemosphere 2018 Dec 13;212:56-66. Epub 2018 Aug 13.

State Key Laboratory of Chem/Biosensing and Chemometrics, Hunan University, Changsha 410082, PR China; Department of Environmental and Chemical Engineering, Nanchang Hangkong University, Nanchang 330063, China. Electronic address:

Prednisolone (PDNN) as an emergent micropollutant directly influences the regional ecological security. In this study, the degradation of PDNN by ultraviolet activated chlorine (UV/chlorine) oxidation process was comprehensively evaluated. The quenching experiment suggested that the PDNN degradation in UV/chlorine process was involved in the participation of hydroxyl radical (OH) and reactive chlorine species (RCS). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2018.08.032DOI Listing
December 2018
14 Reads

Evaluating the Comparative Toxicity of DBP Mixtures from Different Disinfection Scenarios: A New Approach by Combining Freeze-Drying or Rotoevaporation with a Marine Polychaete Bioassay.

Environ Sci Technol 2018 Sep 30;52(18):10552-10561. Epub 2018 Aug 30.

Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering , Hong Kong University of Science and Technology , Hong Kong , China.

The unintended formation of disinfection byproducts (DBPs) may compromise the safety of drinking water. Since no specified DBPs have been found to be responsible for the overall adverse effects and over half of total organic halogen (TOX) remains unidentified, DBP mixture toxicity is gaining increasing interest as a potential indicator of how risky drinking water might be. In this study, a new approach to evaluating the toxicity of drinking water DBP mixtures was developed by combining freeze-drying or rotoevaporation pretreatment with an in vivo high-salinity-tolerance bioassay with the embryos of a marine polychaete Platynereis dumerilii. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.8b02054DOI Listing
September 2018
3 Reads

Formation and speciation of chlorinated, brominated, and iodinated haloacetamides in chloraminated iodide-containing waters.

Water Res 2018 11 31;145:103-112. Epub 2018 Jul 31.

State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resources Reuse, National Centre for International Research of Sustainable Urban Water System, College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai, 200092, China; Shanghai Institute of Pollution Control and Ecological Security, Shanghai, 200092, China.

Haloacetamides (HAMs), an emerging class of disinfection by-products, have received increasing attention due to their elevated cyto- and genotoxicity. However, only limited information is available regarding the iodinated analogues. This study investigated the formation and speciation of iodinated haloacetamides (I-HAMs) and their chlorinated/brominated analogues during the chloramination of bromide and/or iodide-containing waters and a model compound solution over various time periods. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2018.07.074DOI Listing
November 2018
7 Reads

Transformation of naproxen during the chlorination process: Products identification and quantum chemistry validation.

Chemosphere 2018 Nov 14;211:1007-1017. Epub 2018 Aug 14.

School of Environmental and Safety Engineering, Changzhou University, Changzhou 213164, China.

The by-products produced by pharmaceutically active compounds (PhACs) during chlorination are attracting wide concern. Thus, the transformation and toxicity of naproxen (NAP) during the chlorination process were assessed in this study. The transformation of NAP was found to follow pseudo-first-order kinetics, and the first-order rate constant was improved by increasing the NaOCl dose. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2018.08.036DOI Listing
November 2018
2 Reads

Rapid degradation and non-selectivity of Dakin's solution prevents effectiveness in contaminated musculoskeletal wound models.

Injury 2018 Oct 6;49(10):1763-1773. Epub 2018 Aug 6.

Extremity Trauma and Regenerative Medicine, United States Army Institute of Surgical Research, Fort Sam Houston, TX, USA.

Background: Dakin's solution (buffered sodium hypochlorite) has been used as a topical adjunct for the treatment of invasive fungal infections in trauma patients. Prudent use of Dakin's solution (DS) for complex musculoskeletal wound management implies balancing antimicrobial efficacy and human tissue toxicity, but little empirical evidence exists to inform clinical practice. To identify potentially efficacious DS concentrations and application methods, we conducted two animal studies to evaluate the ability of DS to reduce bacterial burden in small and large animal models of contaminated musculoskeletal wounds. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.injury.2018.08.004DOI Listing
October 2018
1 Read

Electrolyzed saline… an alternative to sodium hypochlorite for root canal irrigation.

Clujul Med 2018 Jul 31;91(3):322-327. Epub 2018 Jul 31.

Conservative Dentistry and Endodontics Department, Sri Aurobindo College of Dentistry & P.G Institute, Indore, India.

Objectives: The aim of this study is to evaluate electrolyzed saline, produced from a custom-made chair side apparatus for its cleaning effect on root canal walls.

Methods: A chair side apparatus has been designed to produce and dispense electrolytically activated solutions (Electrolyzed saline) for the purpose of root canal irrigation. Two different solutions, one, which is oxidizing in nature, consisting primarily of Chlorine derivatives and another, reducing in nature, consisting primarily of sodium hydroxide, are obtained. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.15386/cjmed-863DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6082601PMC
July 2018
1 Read

The impact of disinfection Ct values on cytotoxicity of agricultural wastewaters: Ozonation vs. chlorination.

Water Res 2018 11 27;144:482-490. Epub 2018 Jul 27.

Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL, 61801, USA; Safe Global Water Institute, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL, 61801, USA.

Toxicity arising from toxic disinfection byproducts is an unintended result of disinfection during water reclamation. To ensure safe water reclamation treatment, it is important to develop a disinfection strategy with minimal formation of overall toxicity in the reclaimed water. The cumulative disinfectant concentration over time (Ct) is a useful concept for pathogen control during reuse water disinfection. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2018.07.065DOI Listing
November 2018
1 Read
5.530 Impact Factor

Halogenated Aza-BODIPY for Imaging-Guided Synergistic Photodynamic and Photothermal Tumor Therapy.

Adv Healthc Mater 2018 Sep 26;7(18):e1800606. Epub 2018 Jul 26.

Key Laboratory for Organic Electronics and Information Displays & Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Biosensors, Institute of Advanced Materials (IAM), Nanjing University of Posts and Telecommunications (NUPT), Nanjing, 210023, P. R. China.

It is always a huge challenge to develop novel near-infrared (NIR) phototherapeutic agents suitable for imaging-guided cancer therapy. In order to clarify the positive heavy atom effects on the photodynamic and photothermal efficiencies of phototherapeutic agents, a series of chlorine-, bromide-, or iodine-substituted aza-BODIPYs (B2, B3, and B4, respectively) are designed and synthesized. Among them, B4 exhibits both excellent photodynamic and photothermal effects (singlet oxygen yield of B4 is 1. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/adhm.201800606DOI Listing
September 2018
2 Reads

Long-term algal toxicity of oxidant treated ballast water.

Mar Pollut Bull 2018 Aug 14;133:18-29. Epub 2018 May 14.

University of Maryland, College of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Wye Research and Education Center, Queenstown, MD, USA; University of Maryland, College of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Department of Environmental Science and Technology, College Park, MD, USA.

National and international regulations require that ships' ballast water is treated to minimize the risk of introducing potentially invasive species. A common approach employed by commercial ballast water management systems is chlorination. This study presents the algal toxicity findings for three chlorination-based BWMS and their implications to environmental safety of port waters receiving treated ballast water from ships. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.marpolbul.2018.05.013DOI Listing
August 2018
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Impact of preoxidation of UV/persulfate on disinfection byproducts by chlorination of 2,4-Di-tert-butylphenol.

J Hazard Mater 2018 Sep 19;358:450-458. Epub 2018 Jun 19.

State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control Reuse, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092, China.

UV/persulfate (UV/PS) has been as an efficient method to remove many organic contaminants in water. However, little is known about the impact of UV/PS pretrement on the formation of disinfection byproducts (DBPs) during chlorination of 2,4-Di-tert-butylphenol (2,4-D). This research evaluated that UV/PS preoxidation of 2,4-D greatly decreased the DBPs generation during following chlorination. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2018.06.041DOI Listing
September 2018
7 Reads

The combined toxicity of UV/chlorinated products from binary ibuprofen (IBP) and tyrosine (Tyr) on Escherichia coli: Emphasis on their occurrence and underlying mechanism.

Chemosphere 2018 Nov 11;210:503-510. Epub 2018 Jul 11.

Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Integrated Regulation and Resource Development on Shallow Lakes, Hohai University, Nanjing 210098, PR China; College of Environment, Hohai University, Nanjing 210098, PR China.

In this study, the combined toxicity of UV/chlorinated products on Escherichia coli (E. coli) was investigated when ibuprofen (IBP) and tyrosine (Tyr) were used as two precursors. The median-effect equation and combined index (CI)-isobologram equation were used to evaluate the combined toxicity of UV/chlorinated products. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2018.07.034DOI Listing
November 2018
2 Reads
3.340 Impact Factor

Featured structure-activity relationships for some tri- and tetrachlorobiphenyls in human CYP2E1-activated mutagenicity - Impact of the extent of ortho-chlorination.

Chemosphere 2018 Nov 11;210:467-475. Epub 2018 Jul 11.

Department of Toxicology, School of Public Health, Southern Medical University, 1023 S. Shatai Road, Guangzhou 510515, China. Electronic address:

Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) as a group of persistent organic pollutants are confirmed human carcinogens; however, their mutagenicity remains mostly unknown. We have reported the mutagenicity of some PCBs with one to four chlorines in mammalian cells expressing human CYP2E1. To further explore the structural requirements for the mutagenicity of PCBs, eight tri- and tetrachlorobiphenyls untested before were investigated for the induction of gene mutations and micronuclei in a V79-derived cell line expressing both human CYP2E1 and sulfotransferase (SULT) 1A1 (V79-hCYP2E1-hSULT1A1), with SULT1A1 activity inhibited by pentachlorophenol, a potent SULT1 inhibitor. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2018.06.169DOI Listing
November 2018
9 Reads

Chemical characterization and relative toxicity assessment of disinfection byproduct mixtures in a large drinking water supply network.

J Hazard Mater 2018 Oct 6;359:166-173. Epub 2018 Jul 6.

ATLL Concessionària de la Generalitat de Catalunya S.A. (ATLL CGCSA), Sant Martí de l'Erm 30, 08970, Sant Joan Despí, Barcelona, Spain.

In order to reduce the formation of disinfection by-products (DBPs) during potabilization of water it is necessary to explore the potential of the source water and the applied treatment to generate these chemicals. This is actually more challenging in large drinking water networks that use different source waters to satisfy drinking water demand. In this regard, this work investigated the formation of DBPs in water matrices that are commonly supplied to the city of Barcelona and its metropolitan area. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2018.07.022DOI Listing
October 2018
4 Reads

Tradeoffs between pathogen inactivation and disinfection byproduct formation during sequential chlorine and chloramine disinfection for wastewater reuse.

Water Res 2018 10 31;143:579-588. Epub 2018 May 31.

Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Stanford University, 473 Via Ortega, Stanford, CA 94305, United States. Electronic address:

Treatment of fully nitrified municipal wastewater effluents with chlorine followed by chloramines (i.e., sequential chlorine disinfection) upstream of advanced treatment trains can contribute pathogen inactivation credits for potable reuse while leaving a chloramine residual to control biofouling on membrane units in the advanced treatment train. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2018.05.050DOI Listing
October 2018
4 Reads

Simulation and experimental study on the mechanism of the chlorination of azithromycin.

J Hazard Mater 2018 Oct 9;359:31-39. Epub 2018 Jul 9.

Beijing Key Laboratory of Diagnostic and Traceability Technologies for Food Poisoning, Beijing Center for Disease Control & Prevention, Beijing 100013, China; Beijing Advanced Innovation Center for Food Nutrition and Human Health, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193, China. Electronic address:

Azithromycin (AZI) has been listed as an emerging contaminant by the US EPA since 2009 because it is frequently detected in wastewater, surface water, and drinking water. In this paper, the chlorination of AZI in drinking water was simulated and studied. The results indicated that new compounds were generated in the chlorination of AZI. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2018.07.024DOI Listing
October 2018
6 Reads

Chlorine toxicity to Navicula pelliculosa and Achnanthes spp. in a flow-through system: The use of immobilised microalgae and variable chlorophyll fluorescence.

Aquat Toxicol 2018 Sep 25;202:80-89. Epub 2018 Jun 25.

Centre for Environment Fisheries and Aquaculture Science (Cefas), Lowestoft Laboratory, Lowestoft, Suffolk NR33 0HT, UK. Electronic address:

Chlorination is a widely used antifouling method for freshwater and marine applications. Chlorine added to seawater reacts to form oxidants that are toxic to biofouling organisms. Further, the oxidants that result are short-lived, but may nevertheless affect non-target species in waterbodies receiving the antifouling effluent. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aquatox.2018.06.013DOI Listing
September 2018
14 Reads

Toxicity of Chlorine Dioxide Gas to Phosphine-Susceptible and -Resistant Adults of Five Stored-Product Insect Species: Influence of Temperature and Food During Gas Exposure.

J Econ Entomol 2018 Jul 10. Epub 2018 Jul 10.

Department of Grain Science and Industry, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS.

Adults of phosphine-susceptible and -resistant strains of the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (Herbst); lesser grain borer, Rhyzopertha dominica (F.); sawtoothed grain beetle, Oryzaephilus surinamensis (L.); maize weevil, Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky; and rice weevil, Sitophilus oryzae (L. Read More

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https://academic.oup.com/jee/article/111/4/1947/5051114
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jee/toy136DOI Listing
July 2018
10 Reads

Degradation of antibiotic ampicillin on boron-doped diamond anode using the combined electrochemical oxidation - Sodium persulfate process.

J Environ Manage 2018 Oct 7;223:878-887. Epub 2018 Jul 7.

Department of Environmental Engineering, Tekirdag Namik Kemal University, Corlu 59860, Tekirdag, Turkey.

In this work, the electrochemical oxidation of antibiotic ampicillin (AMP) on a boron-doped diamond anode in the presence of sodium persulfate (SPS) was investigated (EO/SPS process). Experiments were conducted at AMP concentrations between 0.8 and 3 mg/L, SPS concentrations between 100 and 500 mg/L, current densities between 5 and 110 mA/cm, in three water matrices (ultrapure water, bottled water and secondary treated wastewater), using 0. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2018.06.099DOI Listing
October 2018
8 Reads

[Chlorination of Naproxen: Removal, Transformation and Risk Assessment].

Huan Jing Ke Xue 2018 Apr;39(4):1645-1653

School of Environmental & Safety Engineering, Changzhou University, Changzhou 213164, China.

The by-products produced during chlorination of pharmaceutically active compounds (PhACs) have created widespread public concern. Chlorination of a typical PhAC, naproxen (NAP), was studied. NAP chlorination parameters, intermediates identification, chlorination mechanism, and risk assessment during chlorination process have also been discussed. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.13227/j.hjkx.201707042DOI Listing
April 2018
3 Reads

Ferrate(VI) oxidation of polychlorinated diphenyl sulfides: Kinetics, degradation, and oxidized products.

Water Res 2018 10 13;143:1-9. Epub 2018 Jun 13.

Program for the Environment and Sustainability, Department of Environmental and Occupational Health, School of Public Health, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX, 77843, USA. Electronic address:

This paper presents oxidation of polychlorinated diphenyl sulfides (PCDPSs), dioxin-like compounds, by ferrate(VI) (FeO, Fe(VI)). Kinetics of the reactions of Fe(VI) with seventeen PCDPSs, differ in number and positions of chlorine atoms (from 2 to 7), were investigated at pH 8.0. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S00431354183047
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2018.06.023DOI Listing
October 2018
10 Reads

Protective effects of polydatin and grape seed extract in rats exposed to cadmium.

Drug Chem Toxicol 2018 Jun 21:1-9. Epub 2018 Jun 21.

b Department of Physiology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine , Mehmet Akif Ersoy University , Burdur , Turkey.

The current study aimed to investigate the protective role of polydatin (PD) and grape seed extracts (GSEs) against the effects of cadmium chlorine (CD) application in the rats. Forty-nine adult Wistar albino male rats were used in the study. Rats were assigned into control (saline), CD (5 mg/kg CdCI), PD (120 mg/kg PD), GSE (120 mg/kg GSE), CD + PD (5 mg/kg CdCI + 120 mg/kg PD), CD + GSE (5 mg/kg CdCI + 120 mg GSE), and CD + PD + GSE (5 mg/kg CdCI+120 mg/kg PD +120 mg/kg GSE) treatments (n = 7 per group). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01480545.2018.1480629DOI Listing
June 2018
5 Reads

Susceptibility of the Algal Toxin Microcystin-LR to UV/Chlorine Process: Comparison with Chlorination.

Environ Sci Technol 2018 Aug 9;52(15):8252-8262. Epub 2018 Jul 9.

Environmental Engineering and Science, Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering (ChEE) , University of Cincinnati , Cincinnati , Ohio 45221 , United States.

Microcystin-LR (MC-LR), an algal toxin (cyanotoxin) common in sources of drinking water, poses a major human health hazard due to its high toxicity. In this study, UV/chlorine was evaluated as a potentially practical and effective process for the degradation of MC-LR. Via mass spectrometry analysis, fewer chlorinated-MC-LR products were detected with UV/chlorine treatment than with chlorination, and a transformation pathway for MC-LR by UV/chlorine was proposed. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.8b00034DOI Listing
August 2018
7 Reads

Formation of regulated and unregulated disinfection byproducts during chlorination of algal organic matter extracted from freshwater and marine algae.

Water Res 2018 10 29;142:313-324. Epub 2018 May 29.

Department of Environmental Engineering and Earth Sciences, Clemson University, Anderson, SC 29625, USA. Electronic address:

Seasonal algal blooms in freshwater and marine water can increase the input of algal organic matter (AOM) to the pool of dissolved organic matter. The impact of bromide (Br) and iodide (I) on the formation of regulated and unregulated disinfection byproducts (DBPs) was studied from chlorination of AOM solutions extracted from three species of cultured isolates of freshwater and marine algae (Microcystis aeruginosa (MA), Synechococcus (SYN), and Alexandrium tamarense (AT)). Comparable concentrations of DBPs were formed from three types of AOM. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2018.05.051DOI Listing
October 2018
3 Reads
5.530 Impact Factor

Aroclor 1254 and BDE-47 inhibit dopaminergic function manifesting as changes in locomotion behaviors in zebrafish embryos.

Chemosphere 2018 Feb 23;193:1207-1215. Epub 2017 Nov 23.

School of Veterinary Medicine, Rakuno Gakuen University, Ebetsu 069-8501, Japan. Electronic address:

Contamination with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in the environment is a major concern due to their persistent bioaccumulative toxicity that can disturb neurobehavioral functions including movements. Recently, it was reported that some PBDE including BDE-47 stimulates locomotor activities of zebrafish embryos by unknown mechanism. In this study, motor movements of the zebrafish embryo were used as a model system to evaluate the neuronal toxicity of a non-coplanar PCB-dominant mixture (Aroclor 1254) and BDE-47. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2017.11.138DOI Listing
February 2018
4 Reads

Improvement of indoor air quality in pet shop using gaseous chlorine dioxide.

Environ Monit Assess 2018 Jun 1;190(7):371. Epub 2018 Jun 1.

Department of Environmental Resource Management, Chia-Nan University of Pharmacy and Science, Tainan, 71710, Taiwan.

Many studies have shown that pet shops have a high concentration of bioaerosols. Thus, effective disinfection protocols are essential to protect the pet shop staff and visitors to the store. The present study examines the effectiveness of gaseous chlorine dioxide (ClO) fogging in minimizing the residual bacteria and fungi levels in a typical pet shop in Taiwan consisting of a commodity area, a lodging area, and a grooming area. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10661-018-6723-2DOI Listing
June 2018
2 Reads