2,595 results match your criteria Toxicity Carbon Monoxide


Mycobacteria Tolerate Carbon Monoxide by Remodeling Their Respiratory Chain.

mSystems 2021 May 11;6(3). Epub 2021 May 11.

Department of Microbiology, Monash Biomedicine Discovery Institute, Monash University, Clayton, VIC, Australia

Carbon monoxide (CO) gas is infamous for its acute toxicity. This toxicity predominantly stems from its tendency to form carbonyl complexes with transition metals, thus inhibiting the heme-prosthetic groups of proteins, including respiratory terminal oxidases. While CO has been proposed as an antibacterial agent, the evidence supporting its toxicity toward bacteria is equivocal, and its cellular targets remain poorly defined. Read More

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Delayed Neurological Sequelae in an Infant after Carbon Monoxide Intoxication.

J Burn Care Res 2021 Apr 23. Epub 2021 Apr 23.

Division of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Department of Surgery, National Cheng Kung University Hospital, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan.

Delayed neurological sequelae are symptoms that appear over a period of time after an acute event of carbon monoxide poisoning. The incidence of delayed neurological sequelae is lower in children than in adults and is even more uncommon in infants. Here, we present a case of a 4-month-old infant who developed delayed neurological sequelae after carbon monoxide intoxication. Read More

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Mitochondrial toxins potentiate hydroxyl radical production in rat striatum during carbon monoxide poisoning.

J Pharmacol Sci 2021 May 4;146(1):29-32. Epub 2021 Mar 4.

Department of Forensic Medicine, Tokyo Medical University, Tokyo 160-8402, Japan. Electronic address:

Hydroxyl radical (OH) production in the rat striatum during carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning, which inhibits complex IV, was enhanced synergistically by malonate, a mitochondrial complex II inhibitor, but not N-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium or NaCN, complex I and IV inhibitors, respectively. No such enhancement appeared in the case of NaCN combined with malonate. Intrastriatal dopamine, which is involved in OH production by malonate, did not synergistically enhance CO-induced OH production. Read More

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A brief history of carbon monoxide and its therapeutic origins.

Nitric Oxide 2021 Apr 7;111-112:45-63. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Department of Anesthesiology, Perioperative and Pain Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA; Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care, Medical Center - University of Freiburg, Faculty of Medicine, University of Freiburg, Germany. Electronic address:

It is estimated that 10% of carbon throughout the cosmos is in the form of carbon monoxide (CO). Earth's earliest prebiotic atmosphere included the trinity of gasotransmitters CO, nitric oxide (NO), and hydrogen sulfide (HS), for which all of life has co-evolved with. The history of CO can be loosely traced to mythological and prehistoric origins with rudimentary understanding emerging in the middle ages. Read More

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Sensitive quantification of carbon monoxide in vivo reveals a protective role of circulating hemoglobin in CO intoxication.

Commun Biol 2021 Mar 29;4(1):425. Epub 2021 Mar 29.

Department of Molecular Chemistry and Biochemistry, Faculty of Science and Engineering, Doshisha University, Kyotanabe, Kyoto, Japan.

Carbon monoxide (CO) is a gaseous molecule known as the silent killer. It is widely believed that an increase in blood carboxyhemoglobin (CO-Hb) is the best biomarker to define CO intoxication, while the fact that CO accumulation in tissues is the most likely direct cause of mortality is less investigated. There is no reliable method other than gas chromatography to accurately determine CO content in tissues. Read More

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Short term associations of ambient nitrogen dioxide with daily total, cardiovascular, and respiratory mortality: multilocation analysis in 398 cities.

BMJ 2021 03 24;372:n534. Epub 2021 Mar 24.

Department of Environmental Health, Portuguese National Institute of Health, Porto, Portugal.

Objective: To evaluate the short term associations between nitrogen dioxide (NO) and total, cardiovascular, and respiratory mortality across multiple countries/regions worldwide, using a uniform analytical protocol.

Design: Two stage, time series approach, with overdispersed generalised linear models and multilevel meta-analysis.

Setting: 398 cities in 22 low to high income countries/regions. Read More

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Household air pollution and blood markers of inflammation: A cross-sectional analysis.

Indoor Air 2021 Mar 22. Epub 2021 Mar 22.

Center for Global Non-Communicable Disease Research and Training, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, USA.

Household air pollution (HAP) from biomass stoves is a leading risk factor for cardiopulmonary outcomes; however, its toxicity pathways and relationship with inflammation markers are poorly understood. Among 180 adult women in rural Peru, we examined the cross-sectional exposure-response relationship between biomass HAP and markers of inflammation in blood using baseline measurements from a randomized trial. We measured markers of inflammation (CRP, IL-6, IL-10, IL-1β, and TNF-α) with dried blood spots, 48-h kitchen area concentrations and personal exposures to fine particulate matter (PM ), black carbon (BC), and carbon monoxide (CO), and 48-h kitchen concentrations of nitrogen dioxide (NO ) in a subset of 97 participants. Read More

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The effects of carbon monoxide releasing molecules on paraquat-induced pulmonary interstitial inflammation and fibrosis.

Toxicology 2021 Mar 15;456:152750. Epub 2021 Mar 15.

Pharmacy Department, Wei-Gong Memorial Hospital, Miaoli, Taiwan; Department of Biotechnology and Food Technology, College of Engineering, Southern Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Tainan, Taiwan. Electronic address:

Paraquat, an herbicide used extensively worldwide, can cause severe toxicity in humans and animals, leading to irreversible, lethal lung fibrosis. The potential of CO-releasing molecules (CORMs), substances that release CO (Carbon monoxide) within animal tissues, for treating paraquat-induced ROS generation and inflammation is investigated here. Our results show that the fast CO releaser CORM-3 (4-20 μM) acts as a potential scavenger of free radicals and decreases fibrosis progression by inhibiting paraquat-induced overexpression of connective tissue growth factor and angiotensin II in MRC-5 cells. Read More

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Terminal Oxidase Cytochrome bd Protects Bacteria Against Hydrogen Sulfide Toxicity.

Biochemistry (Mosc) 2021 Jan;86(1):22-32

Department of Biochemical Sciences, Sapienza University of Rome, I-00185 Rome, Italy.

Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is often called the third gasotransmitter (after nitric oxide and carbon monoxide), or endogenous gaseous signaling molecule. This compound plays important roles in organisms from different taxonomic groups, from bacteria to animals and humans. In mammalian cells, H2S has a cytoprotective effect at nanomolar concentrations, but becomes cytotoxic at higher concentrations. Read More

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January 2021

Descriptive epidemiology of clinically significant occupational poisonings, United States, 2008-2018.

Clin Toxicol (Phila) 2021 Mar 11:1-9. Epub 2021 Mar 11.

Division of Clinical Toxicology, Department of Emergency Medicine, Virginia Commonwealth University Health System, Richmond, VA, USA.

Introduction: References listing common occupational poisons often include agents that were observed decades prior to the introduction of worker protective laws and regulations. Current causes of work-related acute poisonings have not been characterized. This study's primary objective was to describe the most common poisons and routes of exposure responsible for clinically significant occupational poisonings. Read More

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Seizure during hyperbaric oxygen therapy: experience at a single academic hospital in Korea.

Undersea Hyperb Med 2021 First Quarter;48(1):43-51

Department of Emergency Medicine, Yonsei University Wonju College of Medicine, Wonju, Korea.

Background: Hyperbaric oxygen (HBO2) therapy is a safe and well-tolerated treatment modality. Seizures, one of the most severe central nervous system side effects of HBO2 therapy, can occur. Episodes of seizures during HBO2 therapy have not yet been reported in countries such as Korea, where hyperbaric medicine is still in the developmental stage. Read More

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Non-invasive monitoring of carboxyhemoglobin during hyperbaric oxygen therapy.

Undersea Hyperb Med 2021 First Quarter;48(1):33-42

Department of Anaesthesia, Hyperbaric Unit, Centre of Head and Orthopaedics, Copenhagen University Hospital, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, Denmark.

Introduction: This study aimed to assess the capability of a pulse CO-oximeter to continuously monitor carboxyhemoglobin (COHb) during hyperbaric oxygen (HBO2) therapy. We estimated limits of agreement (LOA) between blood gas analysis and pulse CO-oximeter for COHb during HBO2 therapy in patients suffering from acute CO poisoning. Furthermore, we did a medicotechnical evaluation of the pulse CO-oximeter in hyperbaric conditions. Read More

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Online monitoring of gas transfer rates during CO and CO/H gas fermentation in quasi-continuously ventilated shake flasks.

Biotechnol Bioeng 2021 May 25;118(5):2092-2104. Epub 2021 Mar 25.

RWTH Aachen University, AVT-Biochemical Engineering, Aachen, Germany.

Syngas fermentation is a potential player for future emission reduction. The first demonstration and commercial plants have been successfully established. However, due to its novelty, development of syngas fermentation processes is still in its infancy, and the need to systematically unravel and understand further phenomena, such as substrate toxicity as well as gas transfer and uptake rates, still persists. Read More

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Acute effects of air pollution on lupus nephritis in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus: A multicenter panel study in China.

Environ Res 2021 04 13;195:110875. Epub 2021 Feb 13.

Department of Rheumatology and Immunology, Changzheng Hospital, The Second Military Medical University, Shanghai, China; School of Clinical Medicine, Tsinghua University, Beijing, China; Peking-Tsinghua Center for Life Sciences, Tsinghua University, Beijing, China. Electronic address:

Air pollution may trigger systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). However, few studies have investigated the associations between air pollution and complications of SLE, such as lupus nephritis (LN). In this study, multicenter longitudinal data from 13 hospitals in China, including 8552 SLE patients with 24,762 visits, were used. Read More

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Design of mutualistic microbial consortia for stable conversion of carbon monoxide to value-added chemicals.

Metab Eng 2021 03 8;64:146-153. Epub 2021 Feb 8.

Department of Chemical Engineering, Pohang University of Science and Technology, 77 Cheongam-RoNam-Gu, Pohang, Gyeongbuk, 37673, Republic of Korea; School of Interdisciplinary Bioscience and Bioengineering, Pohang University of Science and Technology, 77 Cheongam-RoNam-Gu, Pohang, Gyeongbuk, 37673, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

Carbon monoxide (CO) is a promising carbon source for producing value-added biochemicals via microbial fermentation. However, its microbial conversion has been challenging because of difficulties in genetic engineering of CO-utilizing microorganisms and, more importantly, maintaining CO consumption which is negatively affected by the toxicity of CO and accumulated byproducts. To overcome these issues, we devised mutualistic microbial consortia, co-culturing Eubacterium limosum and genetically engineered Escherichia coli for the production of 3-hydroxypropionic acid (3-HP) and itaconic acid (ITA). Read More

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Combination effect of nanoparticles on the acute pulmonary inflammogenic potential: additive effect and antagonistic effect.

Nanotoxicology 2021 03 8;15(2):276-288. Epub 2021 Feb 8.

Department of Health Sciences, The Graduate School of Dong-A University, Busan, Republic of Korea.

The combination effect of co-exposed different types of nanomaterials is little known although humans are generally exposed to a mixture of nanomaterials from urban ultrafine particles or industrial nanomaterials. Herein, we evaluated the combined effect of nanoparticles (NPs) using three types of NPs in different inflammogenic categories: carbon black (CB), nickel oxide (NiO), and copper oxide (CuO). A single type of NPs or NPs in combination was intratracheally instilled into the lungs of rats and the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) was analyzed at 24 h after instillation to evaluate the acute inflammogenic potential. Read More

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Carbon monoxide-triggered health effects: the important role of the inflammasome and its possible crosstalk with autophagy and exosomes.

Arch Toxicol 2021 04 8;95(4):1141-1159. Epub 2021 Feb 8.

Department of Environmental and Occupational Health, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, 138 Sheng-Li Road, Tainan, 70428, Taiwan.

Carbon monoxide (CO) has long been known as a "silent killer" because of its ability to bind hemoglobin (Hb), leading to reduced oxygen carrying capacity of Hb, which is the main cause of CO poisoning (COP) in humans. Emerging studies suggest that mitochondria is a key target of CO action that can impact key biological processes, including apoptosis, cellular proliferation, inflammation, and autophagy. Despite its toxicity at high concentrations, CO also exhibits cyto- and tissue-protective effects at low concentrations in animal models of organ injury and disease. Read More

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Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for systemic sclerosis: Brazilian experience.

Adv Rheumatol 2021 02 6;61(1). Epub 2021 Feb 6.

Center for Cell-Based Therapy, Ribeirão Preto Medical School, University of São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, Brazil.

Background: In the past 20 years, hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) has been investigated as treatment for systemic sclerosis (SSc). The goal of HSCT is to eradicate the autoreactive immune system, which is replaced by a new immune repertoire with long-lasting regulation and tolerance to autoantigens. Here, we describe the clinical outcomes of severe and refractory SSc patients that underwent HSCT at a single Brazilian center. Read More

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February 2021

The Relationship between City Size and Carbon Monoxide (CO) Concentration and Their Effect on Heart Rate Variability (HRV).

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 01 18;18(2). Epub 2021 Jan 18.

Department of Geography and Human Environment, Tel Aviv University, Tel-Aviv-Jaffa 66978, Israel.

Generally, larger cities are characterized by traffic congestion, which is associated with higher concentrations of pollution, including Carbon Monoxide (CO) pollution. However, this convention requires empirical support on the basis of accurate and reliable measurements. In addition, the assessment of the effect of CO on the autonomic nervous system (ANS), as measured by heart rate variability (HRV), has yielded conflicting results. Read More

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January 2021

Association between short-term exposure to air pollution and sudden infant death syndrome.

Chemosphere 2021 May 31;271:129515. Epub 2020 Dec 31.

Institute of Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences, National Taiwan University College of Public Health, Taipei, Taiwan; Department of Environmental and Occupational Medicine, National Taiwan University Hospital and National Taiwan University College of Medicine, Taipei, Taiwan; Department of Public Health, National Taiwan University College of Public Health, Taipei, Taiwan; National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, National Health Research Institutes, Miaoli, Taiwan.

The association between air pollution and infant mortality has been inconsistently reported. A few studies have estimated short-term effects of air pollution on infants' health. This population-based case-control study aimed to examine the potential effects of air pollution on sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) in the post-neonatal period in Taiwan during 1997-2002. Read More

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Long-term exposure to ozone and sulfur dioxide increases the incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus among aged 30 to 50 adult population.

Environ Res 2021 03 5;194:110624. Epub 2021 Jan 5.

School of Public Health, College of Public Health, Taipei Medical University, No. 250 Wuxing St., Xinyi District, Taipei, 11031, Taiwan; Institute of Population Health Sciences, National Health Research Institutes, No.35 Keyan Road, Zhunan Town, Miaoli County, 35053, Taiwan; Master Program in Applied Epidemiology, College of Public Health, Taipei Medical University, No. 250 Wuxing St., Xinyi District, Taipei, 11031, Taiwan. Electronic address:

Aims/hypothesis: Worldwide, the information regarding the associations between long-term exposure to ozone (O) and sulfur dioxide (SO) and the development of type 2 diabetes remains scarce, especially in Asia. This study aimed to investigate the long-term effects of exposure to ambient O and SO on the incidence of type 2 diabetes with consideration of other air pollutants in Taiwanese adults aged 30 to 50 years.

Methods: A total of 6,426,802 non-diabetic participants aged between 30 and 50 years old were obtained from the National Health Insurance Research Database between 2005 and 2016. Read More

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A Case Series of Chemical Dermal Injury Requiring Operative Intervention after Prolonged Dermal Methylene Chloride Exposure.

J Med Toxicol 2021 Apr 5;17(2):222-226. Epub 2021 Jan 5.

Rocky Mountain Poison and Drug Safety, Denver Health and Hospital Authority, 777 Bannock Street, Denver, CO, 80204, USA.

Introduction: Methylene chloride, also known as dichloromethane, is a volatile hydrocarbon used in paint strippers and removers. Toxicity from methylene chloride may include narcosis and elevated carbon monoxide (CO) levels. Significant injury to the skin can occur after prolonged exposure to methylene chloride and other hydrocarbon-based solvents causing a chemical dermal injury. Read More

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Association of change in air quality with hospital admission for acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in Guangdong, China: A province-wide ecological study.

Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 2021 Jan 11;208:111590. Epub 2020 Nov 11.

State Key Laboratory of Respiratory Disease, National Clinical Research Center for Respiratory Disease, Guangzhou Institute of Respiratory Health, the First Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical University, Guangzhou Medical University, Guangzhou, China. Electronic address:

Aims: To assess possible effect of air quality improvements, we investigated the temporal change in hospital admissions for acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD) associated with pollutant concentrations.

Methods: We collected daily concentrations of particulate matter (i.e. Read More

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January 2021

Impact of Low-Dose Irradiation of the Lung and Heart on Toxicity and Pulmonary Function Parameters after Thoracic Radiotherapy.

Cancers (Basel) 2020 Dec 23;13(1). Epub 2020 Dec 23.

Institute of Radiation Oncology, Cantonal Hospital Winterthur (KSW), Brauerstrasse 15, 8401 Winterthur, Switzerland.

Objective: To assess the impact of (low) dose irradiation to the lungs and heart on the incidence of pneumonitis and pulmonary function changes after thoracic radiotherapy (RT). Methods/Material: Data of 62 patients treated with curative thoracic radiotherapy were analyzed. Toxicity data and pulmonary function tests (PFTs) were obtained before RT and at 6 weeks, at 12 weeks, and at 6 months after RT. Read More

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December 2020

The HS-generating enzyme 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase regulates pulmonary vascular smooth muscle cell migration and proliferation but does not impact normal or aberrant lung development.

Nitric Oxide 2021 02 15;107:31-45. Epub 2020 Dec 15.

Department of Lung Development and Remodelling, Max Planck Institute for Heart and Lung Research, Bad Nauheim, Member of the German Center for Lung Research (DZL), Parkstrasse 1, 60231, Bad Nauheim, Germany; Department of Internal Medicine (Pulmonology), University of Giessen and Marburg Lung Center (UGMLC), Member of the German Center for Lung Research (DZL), Justus Liebig University, Aulweg 123, 35392, Giessen, Germany; CardioPulmonary Institute, Justus Liebig University Giessen, Klinikstrasse 33, Giessen, Germany. Electronic address:

Along with nitric oxide (NO), the gasotransmitters carbon monoxide (CO) and hydrogen sulfide (HS) are emerging as potentially important players in newborn physiology, as mediators of newborn disease, and as new therapeutic modalities. Several recent studies have addressed HS in particular in animal models of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), a common complication of preterm birth where oxygen toxicity stunts lung development. In those studies, exogenous HS attenuated the impact of oxygen toxicity on lung development, and two HS-generating enzymes were documented to affect pulmonary vascular development. Read More

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February 2021

Effect of environmental pollutants PM-2.5, carbon monoxide, and ozone on the incidence and mortality of SARS-COV-2 infection in ten wildfire affected counties in California.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Feb 25;757:143948. Epub 2020 Nov 25.

Diabetes Research Institute, Mills-Peninsula Medical Center, San Mateo, CA, USA.

Various regions of California have experienced a large number of wildfires this year, at the same time the state has been experiencing a large number of cases of and deaths from Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The present study aimed to investigate the relationship of wildfire allied pollutants, including particulate matter (PM-2.5 μm), carbon monoxide (CO), and Ozone (O) with the dynamics of new daily cases and deaths due to SARS-COV 2 infection in 10 counties, which were affected by wildfire in California. Read More

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February 2021

Effect of sulfur dioxide on vascular biology.

Histol Histopathol 2020 Dec 15:18290. Epub 2020 Dec 15.

Department of Pediatrics, Beijing Friendship Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, PR China.

Gasotransmitters, such as nitric oxide, carbon monoxide and hydrogen sulfide, can be generated endogenously. These gasotransmitters play important roles in vascular biology, including vasorelaxation and inhibition of vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) proliferation. In recent years, sulfur dioxide (SO₂) has been considered as a fourth gasotransmitter. Read More

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December 2020

Prospective Observational Study Revealing Early Pulmonary Function Changes Associated With Brigatinib Initiation.

J Thorac Oncol 2021 03 9;16(3):486-491. Epub 2020 Dec 9.

Division of Medical Oncology, University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus, Aurora, Colorado.

Introduction: Symptomatic early onset pulmonary events (EOPEs) were observed in 3% to 6% of patients within 1 week of starting brigatinib at 90 mg daily for 7 days followed by 180 mg daily. We conducted a prospective observational cohort study to measure pulmonary function changes on initiating brigatinib.

Methods: Patients initiating brigatinib were eligible. Read More

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Tumor Microenvironment-"AND" Near-Infrared Light-Activated Coordination Polymer Nanoprodrug for On-Demand CO-Sensitized Synergistic Cancer Therapy.

Adv Healthc Mater 2021 04 11;10(7):e2001728. Epub 2020 Dec 11.

State Key Laboratory of Applied Organic Chemistry, Key Laboratory of Nonferrous Metal Chemistry and Resources Utilization of Gansu Province, Lanzhou University, Gansu, Lanzhou, 730000, China.

Carbon monoxide (CO) as an emerging treatment holds great promise for inducing the apoptosis of cancer cells. Here coordination assembled strategy is first reported for synthesis of Cu(II)-flavone coordination polymer (NCu-FleCP) CO nanoprodrug that is stable in normal physiological conditions, and yet readily reduces to small size prodrug complex and releases CO on demand under glutathione (GSH) and near infrared (NIR) light. Specifically, after uptaking by cancer cells, local GSH attacked coordination bond within NCu-FleCP, resulting in the release of Cu(I) and free Fle. Read More

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Air Pollutants Interaction and Gender Difference on Bone Mineral Density T-Score in Taiwanese Adults.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2020 12 8;17(24). Epub 2020 Dec 8.

Division of Nephrology, Department of Internal Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung 807, Taiwan.

Osteoporosis is defined as a systemic skeletal disease characterized by a reduction in bone mass and microarchitectural deterioration of bone tissue. Previous studies have reported associations between air pollution and lower bone mineral density; however, few studies have investigated the association between air pollution and osteoporosis. In this study, we combined two databases, the first including 5000 individuals registered in the Taiwan Biobank, and the second containing detailed daily data on air pollution. Read More

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December 2020