4,440 results match your criteria Toxicity Barbiturate


Involvement of GABAergic and nitrergic systems in the anxiolytic and hypnotic effects of : its interaction with anxiolytic-hypnotics.

Drug Metab Pers Ther 2020 Dec 29. Epub 2020 Dec 29.

Department of Pharmacology, Therapeutics and Toxicology, Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, College of Medicine, University of Lagos, Lagos, Lagos State, Nigeria.

Objectives: Concurrent use of herbs with drugs have become a major healthcare problem. Herb-drug interactions could lead to therapeutic failure or toxicity. Hence, this study seeks to evaluate the impact of combining rhizome (CL) with selected anxiolytic and hypnotic drugs. Read More

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December 2020

A systematic review of second line therapies in toxic seizures.

Clin Toxicol (Phila) 2021 Jun 23;59(6):451-456. Epub 2021 Mar 23.

New Mexico Poison and Drug Information Center, Albuquerque, NM, USA.

Background: Seizures are a common manifestation of toxic exposures requiring immediate and possibly ongoing management. Guidelines recommend benzodiazepines as first-line therapy for toxic seizures; however, there is a paucity of literature regarding optimal secondary treatment. We systematically evaluated the available literature for second-line treatment of toxic seizures. Read More

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Novel Niacin Receptor Agonists: A Promising Strategy for the Treatment of Dyslipidemia.

Mini Rev Med Chem 2021 Jan 25. Epub 2021 Jan 25.

Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Dr. D. Y. Patil Institute of Pharmaceutical Science and Research, Pimpri, Pune, Maharashtra. India.

Background: Hyperlipidemia is characterized by high level of cholesterol and triglycerides in blood. Various classes of drugs like statins, fibrates, niacin etc. are used for treatment of hyperlipidaemia. Read More

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January 2021

Reduced hepatic global hydroxymethylation in mice treated with non-genotoxic carcinogens is transiently reversible with a methyl supplemented diet.

Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 2021 03 5;415:115439. Epub 2021 Feb 5.

Investigative Toxicology and Pathology, AbbVie Inc., North Chicago, IL, United States.

Non-genotoxic carcinogens (NGCs) are known to cause perturbations in DNA methylation, which can be an early event leading to changes in gene expression and the onset of carcinogenicity. Phenobarbital (PB) has been shown to alter liver DNA methylation and hydroxymethylation patterns in mice in a time dependent manner. The goals of this study were to assess if clofibrate (CFB), a well-studied rodent NGC, would produce epigenetic changes in mice similar to PB, and if a methyl donor supplementation (MDS) would modulate epigenetic and gene expression changes induced by phenobarbital. Read More

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Brain pathology caused in the neonatal macaque by short and prolonged exposures to anticonvulsant drugs.

Neurobiol Dis 2021 02 29;149:105245. Epub 2020 Dec 29.

Department of Neurology, University of Wisconsin, School of Medicine, Madison, WI, USA. Electronic address:

Barbiturates and benzodiazepines are potent GABA receptor agonists and strong anticonvulsants. In the developing brain they can cause neuronal and oligodendroglia apoptosis, impair synaptogenesis, inhibit neurogenesis and trigger long-term neurocognitive sequelae. In humans, the vulnerable period is projected to extend from the third trimester of pregnancy to the third year of life. Read More

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February 2021

Long-term outcomes of psychoactive drug use in trauma patients: A multicenter patient-reported outcomes study.

J Trauma Acute Care Surg 2021 02;90(2):319-324

From the Division of Trauma, Emergency Surgery, and Surgical Critical Care (M.E.M., K.B., G.V., H.M.A.K.), Massachusetts General Hospital; Department of Surgery (J.P.H.-E., A.S.), Division of Trauma, Burn and Surgical Critical Care, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School; Center for Surgery and Public Health (J.P.H.-E., C.O., A.N.H., A.S.), Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health; Department of Psychiatry (N.C.L.-C.), Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts; Division of Trauma, Burn and Critical Care Surgery (D.N.), Harborview Medical Center, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington; Division of Trauma, Acute Care Surgery and Surgical Critical Care (S.E.S.), Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts.

Introduction: Psychoactive drug use (PDU) is reported in up to 40% of trauma patients and is associated with a higher rate of in-hospital complications. However, little is known about its long-term impact on trauma patients. We aimed to assess the long-term functional, mental, and psychosocial outcomes of PDU in trauma patients 6 to 12 months after injury. Read More

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February 2021

Current state of drug analysis in Japanese emergency departments: a nationwide survey.

Acute Med Surg 2020 Jan-Dec;7(1):e566. Epub 2020 Oct 15.

Yonemori Hospital Kagoshima Japan.

Aim: In 1999, the Japanese Society for Clinical Toxicology proposed 15 toxicants that would be useful for analysis: methanol, barbiturates, benzodiazepines, bromovalerylurea, tricyclic acid, acetaminophen, salicylic acid, theophylline, organic phosphorus pesticides, carbamate pesticides, glufosinate, paraquat, arsenic, cyanide, and methamphetamine. We aimed to reveal the current state of drug analysis for acute poisoning in the emergency department of Japanese hospitals.

Methods: From 1 April, 2017, we undertook a questionnaire survey in the emergency departments of 546 hospitals designated as educational institutions for emergency physicians. Read More

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October 2020

Toxicologic Confounders of Brain Death Determination: A Narrative Review.

Neurocrit Care 2020 Sep 30. Epub 2020 Sep 30.

Department of Emergency Medicine, Oregon Health and Science University, Medical Toxicology, Portland, OR, USA.

The aim of this narrative review is to describe the toxicologic confounders of brain death currently reported in the literature to offer guidance for physicians assessing brain death after a toxic exposure. We established an a priori definition of a "brain death mimic" as an unresponsive, intubated patient missing some, but not all brainstem reflexes. We completed a review of the literature utilizing MEDLINE and EMBASE to find case reports of patients of all ages in English, French, and Spanish meeting the criteria and hand searched the references of the results. Read More

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September 2020

Reaction-Based Ratiometric and Colorimetric Chemosensor for Bioimaging of Biosulfite in Live Cells, Zebrafish, and Food Samples.

J Agric Food Chem 2020 Oct 14;68(42):11774-11781. Epub 2020 Sep 14.

School of Ophthalmology & Optometry, School of Biomedical Engineering, Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou, Zhejiang 325035, China.

In this work, a reaction-based ratiometric and colorimetric sensor was designed and synthesized for probing bisulfite (HSO) by coupling coumarin () with barbituric () moiety. Further tests have shown that has high selectivity and sensitivity for the recognition of HSO, which can be applied for the detection of HSO in environmental and biological systems very effectively. The fluorescence intensity ratios (/) exhibited an outstanding HSO-dependent response with ultrafast response time (within 20 s) and a lower detection limit (105 nM). Read More

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October 2020

Nephro-protective activity of wheatgrass juice against alcohol-induced oxidative damage in rats.

Toxicol Mech Methods 2020 Nov 7;30(9):679-686. Epub 2020 Sep 7.

Department of Biochemistry, Sri Krishnadevaraya University, Anantapur, AP, India.

The present study is an attempt to check the protective effect of fresh wheatgrass juice (WJ) as a potential therapeutic agent against alcohol-induced oxidative/nitrosative stress leading to nephrotoxicity in rats. Administration of 20% ethanol (5 g/kg b.wt/day) for 60 days resulted in a significant rise in the plasma concentrations of urea and creatinine with decreased levels of uric acid. Read More

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November 2020

Trends and characteristics in barbiturate deaths Australia 2000-2019: a national retrospective study.

Clin Toxicol (Phila) 2021 Mar 7;59(3):224-230. Epub 2020 Jul 7.

National Drug and Alcohol Research Centre, UNSW Sydney, Sydney, Australia.

Introduction: There have been increasing reports documenting barbiturate-related deaths, despite routine prescribing for only relatively rare indications. The aims of the current study were to examine trends in barbiturate-related deaths in Australia from 2000 to 2019 and determine the case characteristics and circumstances of barbiturate-related deaths.

Methods: All barbiturate-related deaths identified in the Australian National Coronial Information System were examined. Read More

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Gamma-hydroxybutyrate abuse: pharmacology and poisoning and withdrawal management.

Arh Hig Rada Toksikol 2020 03;71(1):19-26

Department of Anatomical, Histological, Forensic, and Orthopaedic Sciences,Sapienza University of Rome, Rome, Italy.

Gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) is a central nervous system depressant primarily used as a recreational drug of abuse, but also for the treatment of narcolepsy with cataplexy in adult patients and as an adjuvant for control of alcohol withdrawal syndrome. The main aim of this review is to summarise updated knowledge about GHB pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics, acute poisoning, and clinical features of GHB withdrawal syndrome, its diagnosis and medical treatment. The most common clinical signs and symptoms of acute poisoning include sleepiness to deep coma, bradycardia, hypotension, and respiratory failure. Read More

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Methohexital-Induced Seizure in a Patient Undergoing Conscious Sedation.

J Emerg Med 2020 Aug 18;59(2):224-226. Epub 2020 Jun 18.

Department of Emergency Medicine, UC San Diego Medical Center, San Diego, California; Division of Medical Toxicology, UC San Diego Medical Center, San Diego, California.

Background: Methohexital is a short-acting barbiturate used for procedural sedation in the emergency department (ED). As with other sedatives, adverse effects with methohexital include excess sedation and hypotension, but this agent can also lower the seizure threshold. We report a patient who developed a generalized seizure after administration of methohexital. Read More

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Piperonyl butoxide: Mode of action analysis for mouse liver tumour formation and human relevance.

Toxicology 2020 06 19;439:152465. Epub 2020 Apr 19.

Science Strategies LLC, Charlottesville, VA, 22092, USA.

In a 79 week bioassay the pesticide synergist piperonyl butoxide (PBO) was shown to significantly increase the incidence of hepatocellular adenoma (but not hepatocellular carcinoma) in male CD-1 mice at dietary levels of 100 and 300 mg/kg/day PBO and in female mice at a dietary level of 300 mg/kg/day. As PBO is not a genotoxic agent, a series of investigative studies were undertaken to elucidate the mode of action (MOA) for PBO-induced mouse liver tumour formation. Male CD-1 mice were fed diets to provide intakes of 0 (control), 30, 100 and 300 mg/kg/day PBO and for purposes of comparison 500 ppm sodium phenobarbital (NaPB), a known constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) activator, for 7 and 14 days. Read More

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Antisecretory Factor May Reduce ICP in Severe TBI-A Case Series.

Front Neurol 2020 6;11:95. Epub 2020 Mar 6.

Department of Neurosurgery, Skane University Hospital, Lund, Sweden.

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) constitutes a global epidemic. Overall outcome is poor, with mortality ranging from 10 to 70% and significant long-term morbidity. Several experimental reports have claimed effect on traumatic edema, but all clinical trials have failed. Read More

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Treatment of phenobarbital intoxication using hemodialysis in two dogs.

J Vet Emerg Crit Care (San Antonio) 2020 Mar 23;30(2):221-225. Epub 2020 Jan 23.

Emergency and Critical Care Service, North Carolina State Veterinary Hospital, Raleigh, NC.

Objective: To describe the use of hemodialysis in 2 dogs with severe clinical signs from phenobarbital intoxication.

Series Summary: Two dogs ingested a toxic dose of phenobarbital, leading to severe neurological dysfunction and a comatose state. Both dogs received a 3-hour session of hemodialysis with complete resolution of clinical signs and returned to normal mentation by the end of the therapy. Read More

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Intrathecal bupivacaine and morphine toxicity leading to transient hypotension and delayed status epilepticus.

Am J Emerg Med 2020 05 8;38(5):1046.e5-1046.e7. Epub 2020 Jan 8.

Division of Medical Toxicology, Department of Emergency Medicine, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, USA; Pittsburgh Poison Center, Pittsburgh, PA, USA.

Background: Local anesthetic systemic toxicity characteristically occurs after inadvertent intravascular injection of local anesthetics; however, it is unclear if similar symptoms arise after intrathecal adminstration. Intrathecal use of local anesthetics for chronic pain is increasing and carries a potential risk of toxicity. Experience with the presenting symptoms and appropriate treatment for intrathecal local anesthetic toxicity is limited. Read More

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Analgesic, anti-inflammatory and sedative/hypnotic effects of Icaritin, and its effect on chloride influx in mouse brain cortical cells.

Cell Mol Biol (Noisy-le-grand) 2019 Sep 30;65(7):99-104. Epub 2019 Sep 30.

Department of Orthopedics, The First Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University, China.

Inflammation and insomnia are medical problems that may severely affect work and health, thereby necessitating strategies for their effective treatment. Icartin (ICT) is a major active monomeric component of icariin  . Studies have revealed that ICT possesses several pharmacological properties such anti-inflammatory, anti-tumor, anti-fibrotic, anti-osteoporotic and neuroprotective effects. Read More

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September 2019

Electronegativity in Substituted-4(H)-quinazolinones Causes Anxiolysis without a Sedative-hypnotic Adverse Reaction in Female Wistar Rats.

Cent Nerv Syst Agents Med Chem 2020 ;20(1):26-40

Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Dr. Harisingh Gour Viswavidyalaya, Sagar, MP, India.

Objective: In the current study, the synthesis, characterization, and neuropharmacology of quinazolinone tethered with aromatic (3a-3i) and heteroaromatic substitution (3j, 3k, and 3l) as effective anxiolytic agents are reported.

Background: Anxiety and depression are often comorbid with neurological as well as other medical maladies. Clinically known anxiolytics (Benzodiazepines) are accompanied by untoward sedation and other CNS depressive actions. Read More

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November 2020

Change in membrane potential induced by streptolysin O, a pore-forming toxin: flow cytometric analysis using a voltage-sensitive fluorescent probe and rat thymic lymphocytes.

Microbiol Immunol 2020 Jan 7;64(1):10-22. Epub 2019 Nov 7.

Division of Bioscience and Bioindustry, Graduate School of Technology, Industrial and Social Sciences, Tokushima University, Tokushima, Tokushima, Japan.

Streptolysin O (SLO) is a bacterial pore-forming toxin that is employed to permeabilize cell membranes in some biological experiments. SLO forms various types of pores with different shapes, increasing membrane ion permeability and subsequently inducing changes in membrane potential. To characterize the pores formed by SLO, the changes in membrane potential induced by SLO in rat lymphocytes were considered using flow cytometry with a voltage-sensitive fluorescent probe, bis-(1,3-dibutylbarbituric acid)trimethine oxonol (Oxonol). Read More

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January 2020

Functional characterization of novel bumetanide derivatives for epilepsy treatment.

Neuropharmacology 2020 01 30;162:107754. Epub 2019 Aug 30.

Department of Pharmacology, Medical University of Innsbruck, Peter-Mayr-Str. 1a, 6020, Innsbruck, Austria. Electronic address:

Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is the most common type of focal epilepsies, affecting approximately 35 million people worldwide. Despite the introduction of numerous novel antiepileptic drugs during the last decades, the proportion of patients with therapy-resistant TLE is still high. As an impaired cellular chloride homeostasis appears involved in disease pathophysiology, bumetanide, an antagonist to Na-K-Cl cotransporters, gained interest as potential therapeutic option. Read More

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January 2020

Phenobarbital and symptom-triggered lorazepam versus lorazepam alone for severe alcohol withdrawal in the intensive care unit.

Alcohol 2020 02 18;82:23-27. Epub 2019 Jul 18.

Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH, United States.

A symptom-triggered lorazepam regimen is the standard for treating alcohol withdrawal syndrome (AWS) in an inpatient setting. However, in severe AWS, lorazepam requirements can reach significant amounts and lead to risk of delirium and propylene glycol toxicity. Phenobarbital has been shown to be an effective adjunctive therapy for AWS, reducing benzodiazepine use, in the emergency department. Read More

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February 2020

Oncofetal HMGA2 attenuates genotoxic damage induced by topoisomerase II target compounds through the regulation of local DNA topology.

Mol Oncol 2019 10 31;13(10):2062-2078. Epub 2019 Aug 31.

School of Biological Sciences, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore, Singapore.

Rapidly dividing cells maintain chromatin supercoiling homeostasis via two specialized classes of enzymes, DNA topoisomerase type 1 and 2 (TOP1/2). Several important anticancer drugs perturb this homeostasis by targeting TOP1/2, thereby generating genotoxic DNA damage. Our recent studies indicated that the oncofetal chromatin structuring high-mobility group AT-hook 2 (HMGA2) protein plays an important role as a DNA replication fork chaperone in coping with DNA topological ramifications that occur during replication stress, both genomewide and at fragile sites such as subtelomeres. Read More

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October 2019

The effects on the endocrine system under hepatotoxicity induction by phenobarbital and di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate in intact juvenile male rats.

J Toxicol Sci 2019 ;44(7):459-469

Laboratory of Animal Reproductive Physiology, Graduate School of Environmental and Life Science, Okayama University.

Phenobarbital (PB) and Di (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), an anti-epileptic drug and a plasticizer used in flexible polyvinylchloride formulations, respectively, are well-known typical hepatotoxicants. This study investigated the effects of PB (100 mg/kg/day) or DEHP (500 mg/kg/day) on the endocrine system in intact juvenile/peripubertal male rats exposed for 31 days beginning on postnatal day 23. Slight hormone level changes, histopathological changes in thyroid gland or induction of UDP-glucuronosyltransferase in liver were observed in both the PB and DEHP groups. Read More

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November 2019

Pathological consequences of low atmospheric pressure stunning in broiler chickens.

Animal 2020 Jan 26;14(1):129-137. Epub 2019 Jun 26.

Consultant Animal Welfare Science and Practice, Tulip House, 70 Borough High Street London Bridge, London SE1 1XF, UK.

Low atmospheric pressure stunning (LAPS) is a novel approach to pre-slaughter stunning of chickens using progressive hypobaric hypoxia by the application of gradual decompression (280s cycle) according to a set of prescribed pressure curves. Low atmospheric pressure stunning produces a non-recovery state. Concerns have been raised relating to the possible pathological and welfare consequences of expansion of air in the body during LAPS. Read More

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January 2020

Iatrogenic Propylene Glycol Intoxication Due to High-Dose Pentobarbital for Refractory Intracranial Hypertension: A Case Report.

J Pharm Pract 2020 Dec 25;33(6):895-898. Epub 2019 Jun 25.

Department of Neurosurgery, Long School of Medicine, University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, San Antonio, TX, USA.

Propylene glycol is a rarely reported toxicity from high-dose administration of certain intravenous drugs, including lorazepam and pentobarbital. We present a case of iatrogenic propylene glycol toxicity secondary to a high-dose pentobarbital infusion for the treatment of refractory intracranial hypertension due to cerebral venous sinus thrombosis. The patient developed metabolic acidosis and acute kidney failure secondary to propylene glycol toxicity. Read More

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December 2020

CYP450s-Activity Relations of Celastrol to Interact with Triptolide Reveal the Reasons of Hepatotoxicity of .

Molecules 2019 Jun 8;24(11). Epub 2019 Jun 8.

School of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Guangdong Pharmaceutical University, Panyu District, Guangzhou 510006, Guangdong, China.

Celastrol and triptolide, as the two main bio-activity ingredients in have wide anticancer pharmacological potency, as well as anti-inflammatory and immunosuppression effects. However, they have potential hepatotoxicity and underlying mechanisms of them-induced toxicity mediated by hepatic CYP450s have not been well delineated. In the present study, we accessed the toxic effects and possible mechanism of celastrol and triptolide on primary rat hepatocytes. Read More

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Effect of protocatechuic acid-layered double hydroxide nanoparticles on diethylnitrosamine/phenobarbital-induced hepatocellular carcinoma in mice.

PLoS One 2019 29;14(5):e0217009. Epub 2019 May 29.

Laboratory of Vaccine & Immunotherapeutics, Institute of Bioscience, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia.

Researchers investigating cancer chemotherapy and management continue to search for agents that selectively kill malignant cells and leave healthy neighboring cells intact. Natural products provide relevant resources for anti-cancer drug discovery. However, the physicochemical properties of these compounds limit their efficient uptake and bioavailability. Read More

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January 2020

Palmatine plays a role in sedation and hypnosis by increasing 5-hydroxytryptamine.

Cell Mol Biol (Noisy-le-grand) 2019 Apr 30;65(4):69-75. Epub 2019 Apr 30.

Department of Pain, Ganzhou People's Hospital, Ganzhou City, China.

Objective of this study was to investigate the sedative and hypnotic effects of palmatine and to observe whether its mechanism is related to 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) and GABA. The sedative and hypnotic effects of palmatine on mice were observed with mouse autonomic activity test, direct sleep test, pentobarbital sodium in suprathreshold and subthreshold dose sleep test. The content of GABA and 5-HT in brain homogenate was determined by ELISA  method. Read More

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