5,647 results match your criteria Toxicity Antidepressants

Norepinephrine Protects against Methamphetamine Toxicity through β2-Adrenergic Receptors Promoting LC3 Compartmentalization.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Jul 5;22(13). Epub 2021 Jul 5.

Department of Translational Research and New Technologies in Medicine and Surgery, University of Pisa, Via Roma 55, 56126 Pisa, Italy.

Norepinephrine (NE) neurons and extracellular NE exert some protective effects against a variety of insults, including methamphetamine (Meth)-induced cell damage. The intimate mechanism of protection remains difficult to be analyzed in vivo. In fact, this may occur directly on target neurons or as the indirect consequence of NE-induced alterations in the activity of trans-synaptic loops. Read More

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Serotonin Toxicity Versus Withdrawal: Clonidine One Size Fits All?

J Pediatr Pharmacol Ther 2021 28;26(5):502-517. Epub 2021 Jun 28.

Serotonin discontinuation syndrome (SDS) can result in a constellation of symptoms exhibited by infants exposed to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors or other psychotropic drugs during pregnancy. Currently, there is no consensus regarding the pharmacologic management of SDS. We report our experience with clonidine for the management of a term infant with poor neonatal adaption. Read More

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The Microglial Activation Inhibitor Minocycline, Used Alone and in Combination with Duloxetine, Attenuates Pain Caused by Oxaliplatin in Mice.

Molecules 2021 Jun 11;26(12). Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Faculty of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Cracow University of Technology, 24 Warszawska St., 31-155 Krakow, Poland.

The antitumor drug, oxaliplatin, induces neuropathic pain, which is resistant to available analgesics, and novel mechanism-based therapies are being evaluated for this debilitating condition. Since activated microglia, impaired serotonergic and noradrenergic neurotransmission and overexpressed sodium channels are implicated in oxaliplatin-induced pain, this in vivo study assessed the effect of minocycline, a microglial activation inhibitor used alone or in combination with ambroxol, a sodium channel blocker, or duloxetine, a serotonin and noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor, on oxaliplatin-induced tactile allodynia and cold hyperalgesia. To induce neuropathic pain, a single dose (10 mg/kg) of intraperitoneal oxaliplatin was used. Read More

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Degradation Products of Tryptophan in Cell Culture Media: Contribution to Color and Toxicity.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Jun 9;22(12). Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Upstream R&D, Merck KGaA, Frankfurter Strasse 250, 64293 Darmstadt, Germany.

Biomanufacturing processes may be optimized by storing cell culture media at room temperature, but this is currently limited by their instability and change in color upon long-term storage. This study demonstrates that one of the critical contributing factors toward media browning is tryptophan. LC-MS technology was utilized to identify tryptophan degradation products, which are likely formed primarily from oxidation reactions. Read More

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Repeated use of SSRIs potentially associated with an increase on serum CK and CK-MB in patients with major depressive disorder: a retrospective study.

Sci Rep 2021 Jun 28;11(1):13365. Epub 2021 Jun 28.

Affiliated Brain Hospital of Guangzhou Medical University (Guangzhou Huiai Hospital), No. 36, Mingxin Road, Liwan District, Guangzhou, 510370, Guangdong, China.

There is a large amount of evidence that selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are related to cardiovascular toxicity, which has aroused concern regarding their safety. However, few studies have evaluated the effects of SSRIs on cardiac injury biomarkers, such as creatine kinase (CK) and creatine kinase isoenzyme (CK-MB). The purpose of our study was to determine whether SSRIs elevated CK and CK-MB levels of prior medicated depressive patients (PMDP) compared to first-episode drug-naïve depressive patients (FDDPs). Read More

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Case report of acute liver injury caused by the eszopiclone in a patient with chronic liver disease.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2021 Jun;100(25):e26243

Department of Hepatology, The First Hospital of Jilin University, Changchun, Jilin Province, China.

Rationale: Eszopiclone, sold under the brand name Lunesta, is a new type of non-benzodiazepine hypnotic. Eszopiclone is a zopiclone dextrorotation, which is classified as a cyclopyrrolone. It functions by binding gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptors. Read More

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Environmental risk assessments of multiclass pharmaceutical active compounds: selection of high priority concern pharmaceuticals using entropy-utility functions.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 Jun 19. Epub 2021 Jun 19.

Department of Environmental Health Engineering, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

This research aimed to identify high-risk pharmaceutically active compounds (PhACs) by analyzing occurrence (O), persistence (P), bioaccumulation (B), and toxicity (T) of 62 drugs which are widely used in Iran. A comprehensive approach was taken in risk assessment of the selected PhACs and in their prioritization using multiple-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) such as utility functions and principal component analysis (PCA). In practice, assigning weight to each criterion (i. Read More

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Sensitizing TRAIL‑resistant A549 lung cancer cells and enhancing TRAIL‑induced apoptosis with the antidepressant amitriptyline.

Oncol Rep 2021 Jul 3;46(1). Epub 2021 Jun 3.

Biosafety Research Institute, College of Veterinary Medicine, Jeonbuk National University, Iksan, Jeonbuk 54596, Republic of Korea.

Tumor necrosis factor‑related apoptosis‑inducing ligand (TRAIL) is a cytokine with the potential to induce cancer cell‑specific apoptosis with minimal toxicity to normal cells. Therefore, the resistance of certain cancer cells to TRAIL is a major concern and agents that can either enhance TRAIL capabilities or overcome TRAIL resistance are necessary for the development of cancer treatments. The present study investigated whether the antidepressant drug amitriptyline could sensitize TRAIL‑resistant A549 lung cancer cells and enhance TRAIL‑induced apoptosis. Read More

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Physiological Effects of Deoxynivalenol from Naturally Contaminated Corn on Cerebral Tryptophan Metabolism, Behavioral Response, Gastrointestinal Immune Status and Health in Pigs Following a Pair-Feeding Model.

Toxins (Basel) 2021 05 30;13(6). Epub 2021 May 30.

Department of Animal Science, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695, USA.

This study investigated the impact of deoxynivalenol (DON) from naturally contaminated feed on pig growth, immune status, organ health, brain serotonin (5-Hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) and behavior. Sixteen individually housed pigs (25.57 ± 0. Read More

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Impacts of Psychopharmaceuticals on the Neurodevelopment of Aquatic Wildlife: A Call for Increased Knowledge Exchange across Disciplines to Highlight Implications for Human Health.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 05 12;18(10). Epub 2021 May 12.

Department of Medicine, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA.

The global use of psychopharmaceuticals such as antidepressants has been steadily increasing. However, the environmental consequences of increased use are rarely considered by medical professionals. Worldwide monitoring efforts have shown that pharmaceuticals are amongst the multitude of anthropogenic pollutants found in our waterways, where excretion via urine and feces is thought to be the primary mode of pharmaceutical contamination. Read More

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Early Developmental Exposure to Fluoxetine and Citalopram Results in Different Neurodevelopmental Outcomes.

Neuroscience 2021 07 25;467:110-121. Epub 2021 May 25.

Department of Neuroscience, Brown University, United States. Electronic address:

Although selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors are commonly prescribed for prenatal depression, there exists controversy over adverse effects of SSRI use on fetal development. Few studies have adequately isolated outcomes due to SSRI exposure and those due to maternal psychiatric conditions. Here, we directly investigated outcomes of exposure to widely-used SSRIs Fluoxetine and Citalopram on the developing nervous system of Xenopus laevis tadpoles, using an integrative experimental approach. Read More

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Pimavanserin Promotes Trophic Factor Release and Protects Cultured Primary Dopaminergic Neurons Exposed to MPP+ in a GDNF-Dependent Manner.

ACS Chem Neurosci 2021 06 25;12(12):2088-2098. Epub 2021 May 25.

Acadia Pharmaceuticals Inc., 12830 El Camino Real, Suite 400, San Diego, California 92130, United States.

Neurodegeneration and impaired neural development are a common feature of many neuropsychiatric disorders. Second-generation antipsychotics (SGAs) and certain atypical antidepressants display neuroprotective effects. Though these drugs interact with many molecular targets, a common shared attribute is high antagonist potency at 5-HT receptors. Read More

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Toxicological Study on Chiral Fluoxetine Exposure to Adult Zebrafish (): Enantioselective and Sexual Mechanism on Disruption of the Brain Serotonergic System.

Environ Sci Technol 2021 06 18;55(11):7479-7490. Epub 2021 May 18.

Key Laboratory for Quality Improvement of Agricultural Products of Zhejiang Province, College of Agriculture and Food Science, Zhejiang A & F University, Lin'an, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 311300, China.

The increasing number of people with depression worldwide has led to concerns regarding antidepressant contamination in aquatic environments, which could have the risk of negative effects on aquatic organisms. Chirality increases its toxicity potentials. Accordingly, we investigated the negative effects of racemic (rac-), R-, and S-FX at environmental levels (100 ng/L) on the brain serotonergic system in zebrafish () for 42 days. Read More

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Toxicities of opioid analgesics: respiratory depression, histamine release, hemodynamic changes, hypersensitivity, serotonin toxicity.

Brian A Baldo

Arch Toxicol 2021 Aug 11;95(8):2627-2642. Epub 2021 May 11.

Molecular Immunology Unit, Kolling Institute of Medical Research, Royal North Shore Hospital of Sydney, Sydney, NSW, 2070, Australia.

Opioid-induced respiratory depression is potentially life-threatening and often regarded as the main hazard of opioid use. Main cause of death is cardiorespiratory arrest with hypoxia and hypercapnia. Respiratory depression is mediated by opioid μ receptors expressed on respiratory neurons in the CNS. Read More

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Meta-transcriptomic profiling of functional variation of freshwater microbial communities induced by an antidepressant sertraline hydrochloride.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Sep 30;786:147434. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

College of Environment, Zhejiang University of Technology, Hangzhou 310014, PR China.

Sertraline hydrochloride (Ser-HCl) is an effective and commonly used antidepressant drug, which is also frequently detected in aquatic environments. Our previous research showed that Ser-HCl changes the community composition of aquatic microbiome, but the understanding of the expression of functional pathways in microbial communities is still incomplete; to address this knowledge gap, we used meta-transcriptomics analysis to evaluate the toxicity of Ser-HCl to natural aquatic microbial communities cultured in laboratory microcosms. Meta-transcriptomic results show that a 15-day exposure to 50 μg/L Ser-HCl significantly changed the functional expression activity of aquatic microbial communities. Read More

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September 2021

Advances in Nano-Enabled Platforms for the Treatment of Depression.

Polymers (Basel) 2021 Apr 29;13(9). Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Wits Advanced Drug Delivery Platform Research Unit, Department of Pharmacy and Pharmacology, School of Therapeutic Sciences, University of Witwatersrand, 7 York Road, Parktown, Johannesburg 2193, South Africa.

Nanotechnology has aided in the advancement of drug delivery for the treatment of several neurological disorders including depression. Depression is a relatively common mental disorder which is characterized by a severe imbalance of neurotransmitters. Several current therapeutic regimens against depression display drawbacks which include low bioavailability, delayed therapeutic outcome, undesirable side effects and drug toxicity due to high doses. Read More

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Serotonin Toxicity in Children and Adolescents: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Cases.

J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol 2021 Apr 27. Epub 2021 Apr 27.

Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Montefiore Medical Center and Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York, USA.

Serotonin toxicity is a state of central nervous system (CNS) excitation classically featuring altered mental status, neuromuscular excitation, and autonomic instability. While retrospective studies and reviews have characterized serotonin toxicity in adults, there have been no systematic reviews of serotonin toxicity in pediatric populations. The goal of this review was to use published case reports to describe serotonin toxicity in pediatric patients and to consider the impact of age on clinical presentation. Read More

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Environmental Photocatalytic Degradation of Antidepressants with Solar Radiation: Kinetics, Mineralization, and Toxicity.

Nanomaterials (Basel) 2021 Mar 3;11(3). Epub 2021 Mar 3.

Department of Chemistry, Biochemistry and Environmental Protection, University of Novi Sad Faculty of Sciences, Trg Dositeja Obradovića 3, 21000 Novi Sad, Serbia.

This work is focused on the kinetics, mineralization, and toxicological assessments of the antidepressant drug amitriptyline hydrochloride (AMI) in UV or solar illuminated aqueous suspensions of ZnO, TiO Degussa P25, and TiO Hombikat. ZnO was proven to be the most effective photocatalyst, and it was used for all further experiments under solar irradiation. The highest reaction rate was observed at 1. Read More

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Bioactive Tryptophan-Based Copper Complex with Auxiliary β-Carboline Spectacle Potential on Human Breast Cancer Cells: In Vitro and In Vivo Studies.

Molecules 2021 Mar 14;26(6). Epub 2021 Mar 14.

Department of Chemistry, College of Science, King Saud University, P.O. Box 2455, Riyadh 11451, Saudi Arabia.

Biocompatible tryptophan-derived copper () and zinc () complexes with norharmane (β-carboline) were designed, synthesized, characterized, and evaluated for the potential anticancer activity in vitro and in vivo. The in vitro cytotoxicity of both complexes and were assessed against two cancerous cells: (human breast cancer) MCF7 and (liver hepatocellular cancer) HepG2 cells with a non-tumorigenic: (human embryonic kidney) HEK293 cells. The results exhibited a potentially decent selectivity of against MCF7 cells with an IC value of 7. Read More

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Alteration of predatory behaviour and growth in juvenile cuttlefish by fluoxetine and venlafaxine.

Chemosphere 2021 Aug 17;277:130169. Epub 2021 Mar 17.

NORMANDIE UNIV, UNICAEN, UNIV RENNES, CNRS, EthoS (Éthologie animale et humaine) - UMR 6552, F-14000, Caen, France. Electronic address:

Antidepressants in coastal waters may affect ontogeny of predatory behaviour in cuttlefish, which may, as a result, affect growth of newly-hatched cuttlefish. We investigated the effects of two of the most prescribed antidepressants, fluoxetine (FLX) and venlafaxine (VEN) in environmentally realistic concentrations on the predatory behaviour of hatchlings of Sepia officinalis. Newly-hatched cuttlefish were exposed from 1 h (i. Read More

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Experience and prospects for the use of off-label drugs in oncology.

Exp Oncol 2021 03;43(1):1-5

National University of Pharmacy, Kharkiv 61002, Ukraine.

According to the World Health Organization, half of all drugs available on the global pharmaceutical market are sometimes used for indications that are not included in the instruction for use. This method of therapy has the term "off-label use" which means the use "out of instruction". Today, off-label drugs are also prescribed for cancer treatment. Read More

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Effects of environmental antidepressants on colour change and locomotor behaviour in juvenile shore crabs, Carcinus maenas.

Aquat Toxicol 2021 May 12;234:105808. Epub 2021 Mar 12.

NORMANDIE UNIV, UNILEHAVRE, FR CNRS 3730 SCALE, UMR-I02, Environmental Stress and Biomonitoring of Aquatic Environments (SEBIO), 76600 LE HAVRE, France. Electronic address:

Juvenile crabs of Carcinus maenas thrive in coastal waters reputed to be the receptacle of continental pollution. Amongst the many pollutants encountered, antidepressants, such as fluoxetine (FLX) and venlafaxine (VEN), often detected at the ng•L range, are particularly worrying because of their action on the levels of monoamines, such as serotonin, noradrenaline and dopamine. In crustaceans, those monoamines are involved in colour change through their action on neuropeptide hormones. Read More

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Hunting the eagle killer: A cyanobacterial neurotoxin causes vacuolar myelinopathy.

Science 2021 03;371(6536)

Warnell School of Forestry and Natural Resources, University of Georgia, Athens, GA, USA.

Vacuolar myelinopathy is a fatal neurological disease that was initially discovered during a mysterious mass mortality of bald eagles in Arkansas in the United States. The cause of this wildlife disease has eluded scientists for decades while its occurrence has continued to spread throughout freshwater reservoirs in the southeastern United States. Recent studies have demonstrated that vacuolar myelinopathy is induced by consumption of the epiphytic cyanobacterial species growing on aquatic vegetation, primarily the invasive Here, we describe the identification, biosynthetic gene cluster, and biological activity of aetokthonotoxin, a pentabrominated biindole alkaloid that is produced by the cyanobacterium We identify this cyanobacterial neurotoxin as the causal agent of vacuolar myelinopathy and discuss environmental factors-especially bromide availability-that promote toxin production. Read More

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Fatal poisonings involving clozapine: A 16-year review of Australian coronial investigations.

Aust N Z J Psychiatry 2021 Mar 18:4867421998788. Epub 2021 Mar 18.

Centre for Medicine Use and Safety, Faculty of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Monash University, Parkville, VIC, Australia.

Objective: Concerns about intentional and unintentional poisoning present a barrier to wider use of clozapine in treatment-resistant schizophrenia. The objective of this study was to investigate decedent demographics and trends in fatal poisonings in Australia involving clozapine.

Methods: This was a retrospective case series of all fatal drug toxicity reported to an Australian coroner between 1 May 2000 and 31 December 2016 where toxicological analysis detected clozapine. Read More

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Selenium attenuates venlafaxine hydrochloride-induced testicular damage in mice via modulating oxidative stress and apoptosis.

Andrologia 2021 Jul 17;53(6):e14050. Epub 2021 Mar 17.

Department of Nuclear Medicine, Manipal College of Health Professions, Manipal Academy of Higher Education, Udupi, India.

The present study assessed the effect of selenium (Se) supplementation on Venlafaxine hydrochloride (VH)-induced testicular toxicity. Mice were segregated into Group I (C), Group II (0.5 ppm Se), Group III (VH at a dose 60 mg/kg b. Read More

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Chronic Serotonergic Overstimulation Mimicking Panic Attacks in a Patient with Parkinson's Disease Receiving Additional Antidepressant Treatment with Moclobemide.

Case Rep Psychiatry 2021 1;2021:8868023. Epub 2021 Mar 1.

Max Planck Institute of Psychiatry, Kraepelinstrasse 2-10, 80804 Munich, Germany.

Background: The pharmacological treatment options of Parkinson's disease (PD) have considerably evolved during the last decades. However, therapeutic regimes are complicated due to individual differences in disease progression as well as the occurrence of complex nonmotor impairments such as mood and anxiety disorders. Antidepressants in particular are commonly prescribed for the treatment of depressive symptoms and anxiety in PD. Read More

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Precisely Fabricated Sulpiride-Loaded Nanolipospheres with Ameliorated Oral Bioavailability and Antidepressant Activity.

Int J Nanomedicine 2021 9;16:2013-2044. Epub 2021 Mar 9.

Department of Industrial Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Alexandria University, Alexandria, Egypt.

Background: Sulpiride (SUL), is a selective antidopaminergic drug that had extensive biological activities. However, its sparingly aqueous solubility and limited gastrointestinal permeability lead to scanty oral bioavailability which hinders its clinical efficacy.

Objective: SUL-loaded lipospheres (SUL-LPS) were designed to serve as an oral biocompatible nanovector for improving SUL permeability as well as conquering its low oral absorption and then in turn enhancing its antidepressant action. Read More

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Depression, antidepressants and fall risk: therapeutic dilemmas-a clinical review.

Eur Geriatr Med 2021 Jun 15;12(3):585-596. Epub 2021 Mar 15.

Department of Internal Medicine, Geriatrics, Amsterdam Public Health Research Institute, Amsterdam University Medical Center, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Purpose: The aim of this clinical review was to summarize the existing knowledge on fall risk associated with antidepressant use in older adults, describe underlying mechanisms, and assist clinicians in decision-making with regard to (de-) prescribing antidepressants in older persons.

Methodology: We comprehensively examined the literature based on a literature search in Pubmed and Google Scholar, and identified additional relevant articles from reference lists, with an emphasis on the most commonly prescribed drugs in depression in geriatric patients. We discuss use of antidepressants, potential fall-related side effects, and deprescribing of antidepressants in older persons. Read More

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Gene alteration in zebrafish exposed to a mixture of substances of abuse.

Environ Pollut 2021 Jun 24;278:116777. Epub 2021 Feb 24.

Department of Biology, Murray State University, Murray, KY, United States.

A recent surge in the use and abuse of diverse prescribed psychotic and illicit drugs necessitates the surveillance of drug residues in source water and the associated ecological impacts of chronic exposure to the aquatic organism. Thirty-six psychotic and illicit drug residues were determined in discharged wastewater from two centralized municipal wastewater treatment facilities and two wastewater receiving creeks for seven consecutive days in Kentucky. Zebrafish (Danio rerio) larvae were exposed to the environmental relevant mixtures of all drug residues, all illicit drugs, and all prescribed psychotic drugs. Read More

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Acute human lethal poisoning with hexaflumuron: A case report.

Caspian J Intern Med 2021 ;12(1):119-123

Department of Clinical Toxicology and Poisoning, Imam Reza Hospital, Faculty of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran.

Background: Hexaflumuron is a benzoyl urea pesticide widely used in agriculture. This is the first case of severe toxicity of hexaflumuron.

Case Presentation: A 51-year-old man was admitted to the poisoning ward of the Emam-Reza Hospital for loss of consciousness and hypotension secondary to pesticide toxicity. Read More

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January 2021