5,889 results match your criteria Toxicity Antidepressants

Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) antidepressants reduce COVID-19 infection: prospects for use.

Eur J Clin Pharmacol 2022 Aug 9. Epub 2022 Aug 9.

Federal University of Santa Maria, Postgraduate Program in Pharmaceutical Sciences, Santa Maria, RS, Brazil.

Purpose: The absence of specific treatments for COVID-19 leads to an intense global effort in the search for new therapeutic interventions and better clinical outcomes for patients. This review aimed to present a selection of accepted studies that reported the activity of antidepressant drugs belonging to the selective serotonin receptor inhibitor (SSRI) class for treating the novel coronavirus.

Methods: A search was performed in PubMed and SciELO databases using the following search strategies: [(coronavirus) OR (COVID) OR (SARS-CoV-2) AND (antidepressant) OR (serotonin) OR (selective serotonin receptor inhibitors)]. Read More

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Dose-dependent toxicity profile and genotoxicity mechanism of lithium carbonate.

Sci Rep 2022 Aug 5;12(1):13504. Epub 2022 Aug 5.

Department of Medical Services and Techniques, Vocational School of Health Services, Giresun University, Giresun, Turkey.

The increasing widespread use of lithium, which is preferred as an energy source in batteries produced for electric vehicles and in many electronic vehicles such as computers and mobile phones, has made it an important environmental pollutant. In this study, the toxicity profile of lithium carbonate (LiCO) was investigated with the Allium test, which is a bio-indicator test. Dose-related toxic effects were investigated using LiCO at doses of 25 mg/L, 50 mg/L, and 100 mg/L. Read More

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Transcriptome profiling reveals toxicity mechanisms following sertraline exposure in the brain of juvenile zebrafish (Danio rerio).

Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 2022 Aug 2;242:113936. Epub 2022 Aug 2.

Department of Physiological Sciences and Center for Environmental and Human Toxicology, University of Florida Genetics Institute, Interdisciplinary Program in Biomedical Sciences Neuroscience, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 USA.

Sertraline (SER) is one of the most commonly detected antidepressants in the aquatic environment that can negatively affect aquatic organisms at low concentrations. Despite some knowledge on its acute toxicity to fish, the effects of chronic SER exposure remain poorly understood along with any underlying mechanisms of SER-induced toxicity. To address this knowledge gap, the effects of chronic exposure to three SER concentrations from low to high were investigated in zebrafish. Read More

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Psychotropic Drugs With Long Half-Lives: Implications for Drug Discontinuation, Occasional Missed Doses, Dosing Interval, and Pregnancy Planning.

J Clin Psychiatry 2022 Aug 1;83(4). Epub 2022 Aug 1.

Department of Clinical Psychopharmacology and Neurotoxicology, National Institute of Mental Health and Neurosciences, Bangalore, India

The half-life of a drug is the time taken for the blood level of the drug to fall by half, provided that no more doses of the drug are administered in the intervening period. Many psychotropic drugs and their active metabolites, if any, have very long half-lives that extend for 2 days or longer. Examples are chlordiazepoxide, diazepam, fluoxetine, vortioxetine, aripiprazole, brexpiprazole, cariprazine, penfluridol, donepezil, and memantine. Read More

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Hypersensitivity of Zebrafish htr2b Mutant Embryos to Sertraline Indicates a Role for Serotonin Signaling in Cardiac Development.

J Cardiovasc Pharmacol 2022 08 1;80(2):261-269. Epub 2022 Aug 1.

Departments of Pediatrics.

Abstract: Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are antidepressants prescribed in 10% of pregnancies in the United States. Maternal use of SSRIs has been linked to an elevated rate of congenital heart defects, but the exact mechanism of pathogenesis is unknown. Previously, we have shown a decrease in cardiomyocyte proliferation, left ventricle size, and reduced cardiac expression of the serotonin receptor 5-HT 2B in offspring of mice exposed to the SSRI sertraline during pregnancy, relative to offspring of untreated mice. Read More

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Structural modelling and pharmacology of β-carboline alkaloids as potent 5-HT1A receptor antagonists and reuptake inhibitors.

J Biomol Struct Dyn 2022 Jul 26:1-17. Epub 2022 Jul 26.

Centre for Drug Research, Universiti Sains Malaysia, USM, Pulau Pinang, Malaysia.

Serotonin (5-HT) antagonists and reuptake inhibitors (SARIs) are atypical antidepressants for managing major depressive disorder. They are oftentimes applied as adjuvants for ameliorating aftereffects of SSRI antidepressants including insomnia and sexual dysfunction. The few available candidates of this class including lorpiprazole and trazodone also display some daunting side effects, making a continuous search for improved alternatives essential. Read More

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Melittin Tryptophan Substitution with a Fluorescent Amino Acid Reveals the Structural Basis of Selective Antitumor Effect and Subcellular Localization in Tumor Cells.

Toxins (Basel) 2022 06 22;14(7). Epub 2022 Jun 22.

School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Shenzhen Campus of Sun Yat-Sen University, Shenzhen 518107, China.

Melittin is a membrane-active peptide with strong anticancer activity against various cancers. Despite decades of research, the role of the singular Trp in the anticancer activity and selectivity of melittin remains poorly understood. Here, we propose a theranostic solution based on the substitution of Trp19 with a noncanonical fluorescent amino acid (Dap). Read More

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Exposure to amitriptyline induces persistent gut damages and dysbiosis of the gut microbiota in zebrafish (Danio rerio).

Comp Biochem Physiol C Toxicol Pharmacol 2022 Oct 21;260:109417. Epub 2022 Jul 21.

Institute of Environmental Health and Ecological Security, School of the Environment and Safety Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013, China; Jiangsu Collaborative Innovation Center of Technology and Material of Water Treatment, Suzhou University of Science and Technology, Suzhou 215009, China. Electronic address:

Amitriptyline (AMI), the most commonly prescribed tricyclic antidepressant, is widely detected in water environments. Exposure to AMI may lead to diverse adverse effects on aquatic organisms, but little is known about the effect of short-term exposure to AMI on the gut microbiota of aquatic organisms and their recovery characteristics. In the present study, adult zebrafish (Danio rerio) were exposed to AMI (0, 2. Read More

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October 2022

Esmolol for intractable ventricular arrhythmias in major amitriptyline toxicity.

BMJ Case Rep 2022 Jul 22;15(7). Epub 2022 Jul 22.

Intensive Care, Sunshine Coast University Hospital, Birtinya, Queensland, Australia.

A massive tricyclic overdose of 10 g of amitriptyline resulted in cardiovascular collapse with multiple episodes of ventricular tachycardia and ventricular fibrillation despite aggressive attention to current recommended therapy of sodium bicarbonate and hypertonic saline, and correction of electrolytes. Second-line antiarrhythmic therapies failed to reduce the recurrent deterioration to malignant ventricular rhythms. Progression to extracorporeal support was avoided by the use of a titrated esmolol infusion. Read More

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Lithium treatment in children and adolescents with anorexia nervosa: clinical use, side effects and tolerability.

Riv Psichiatr 2022 Jul-Aug;57(4):198-202

IRCCS Istituto delle Scienze Neurologiche di Bologna, Centro Regionale per i Disturbi della Nutrizione e dell'Alimentazione in Età Evolutiva, UO Neuropsichiatria dell'Età Pediatrica, Bologna, Italy - Department of Medical and Surgical Sciences (DIMEC), University of Bologna, Italy.

Purpose: Current guidelines, due to potential toxicity and lack of clinical evidence, do not recommend the use of lithium in the treatment of Anorexia Nervosa (AN). Scarce evidence is available on the use, side effects, and tolerability of this drug in children and adolescents with AN, a population characterized by specific clinical, metabolic, and hydro-electrolytic balance features. Here we report a case series of children and adolescents hospitalized for AN and treated with lithium. Read More

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S-ketamine administration in pregnant mice induces ADHD- and depression-like behaviors in offspring mice.

Behav Brain Res 2022 09 8;433:113996. Epub 2022 Jul 8.

Department of Anesthesiology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, China.

Background: Anesthesia and psychotropic drugs in pregnant women may cause long-term effects on the brain development of unborn babies. The authors set out to investigate the neurotoxicity of S-ketamine, which possesses anesthetic and antidepressant effects and may cause attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)- and depression-like behaviors in offspring mice.

Methods: Pregnant mice were administered with low-, medium-, and high-dose S-ketamine (15, 30, and 60 mg/kg) by intraperitoneal injection for 5 days from gestational day 14-18. Read More

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September 2022

Antidepressants as Endocrine Disrupting Compounds in Fish.

Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) 2022 16;13:895064. Epub 2022 Jun 16.

Department of Biological Sciences, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB, Canada.

As antidepressant usage by the global population continues to increase, their persistent detection in aquatic habitats from municipal wastewater effluent release has led to concerns of possible impacts on non-target organisms, including fish. These pharmaceuticals have been marketed as mood-altering drugs, specifically targeting the monoaminergic signaling in the brain of humans. However, the monoaminergic systems are highly conserved and involved in the modulation of a multitude of endocrine functions in vertebrates. Read More

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Effects of central nervous system drugs on androgen, estrogen α, glucocorticoid, and thyroid receptors.

Chem Biol Interact 2022 Aug 25;363:110030. Epub 2022 Jun 25.

University of Ljubljana, Faculty of Pharmacy, SI-1000, Ljubljana, Slovenia. Electronic address:

Some drugs that act on the central nervous system (CNS) are known to affect the endocrine system, although the mechanisms of endocrine toxicity are not well characterized to date. Such CNS drugs include antipsychotics, anticonvulsants, and antidepressants. In the present study, in-vitro firefly luciferase reporter-gene assays using the AR-EcoScreen assay using Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell line, hERα-HeLa9903, MDA-kb2, and GH3. Read More

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Ultraviolet oxidative degradation of typical antidepressants: Pathway, product toxicity, and DFT theoretical calculation.

Chemosphere 2022 Oct 23;305:135440. Epub 2022 Jun 23.

School of Environment and Energy, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou, 510006, PR China; The Key Lab of Pollution Control and Ecosystem Restoration in Industry Clusters, Ministry of Education, China; The Key Laboratory of Environmental Protection and Eco-Remediation of Guangdong Regular Higher Education Institutions, China. Electronic address:

The ubiquity of antidepressants in the environment has posed a potential threat to eco-systematic safety. In this study, six kinds of antidepressants including fluoxetine (FLU), paroxetine (PAR), sertraline (SER), fluvoxamine (FLX), citalopram (CTP), and venlafaxine (VEN) were selected to explore their degrading kinetics, transformation pathways, and the acute toxicity of the reaction solution during UV oxidation. The results showed that the order of the photodegradation rate was FLU > PAR > SER > CTP > FLX > VEN. Read More

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October 2022

Effect of Psilocybin and Ketamine on Brain Neurotransmitters, Glutamate Receptors, DNA and Rat Behavior.

Int J Mol Sci 2022 Jun 16;23(12). Epub 2022 Jun 16.

Department of Pharmacology, Unit II, Maj Institute of Pharmacology, Polish Academy of Sciences, Smętna 12, 31-343 Kraków, Poland.

Clinical studies provide evidence that ketamine and psilocybin could be used as fast-acting antidepressants, though their mechanisms and toxicity are still not fully understood. To address this issue, we have examined the effect of a single administration of ketamine and psilocybin on the extracellular levels of neurotransmitters in the rat frontal cortex and reticular nucleus of the thalamus using microdialysis. The genotoxic effect and density of glutamate receptor proteins was measured with comet assay and Western blot, respectively. Read More

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Carbamazepine Overdose after Psychiatric Conditions: A Case Study for Postmortem Analysis in Human Bone.

Toxics 2022 Jun 13;10(6). Epub 2022 Jun 13.

Instituto Murciano de Investigación Biosanitaria IMIB-Arrixaca, 30120 Murcia, Spain.

Carbamazepine is the main option used as a preventive medication to treat bipolar disorder when there is no response to lithium. Carbamazepine toxicity is defined as serum levels greater than 12 μg/mL, with severe toxicity occurring over 40 μg/mL, reduced to 30 μg/mL when combined with pharmacological treatment, i.e. Read More

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Evaluation of Neurotropic Activity and Molecular Docking Study of New Derivatives of pyrano[4″,3″:4',5']pyrido[3',2':4,5]thieno[3,2-]pyrimidines on the Basis of pyrano[3,4-]pyridines.

Molecules 2022 May 24;27(11). Epub 2022 May 24.

Laboratory of Structural Bioinformatics, Institute of Biomedicine and Pharmacy, Russian-Armenian University, 123 H. Emin Str., Yerevan 0051, Armenia.

Background: Heterocyclic compounds and their fused analogs, which contain pharmacophore fragments such as pyridine, thiophene and pyrimidine rings, are of great interest due to their broad spectrum of biological activity. Chemical compounds containing two or more pharmacophore groups due to additional interactions with active receptor centers usually enhance biological activity and can even lead to a new type of activity. The search for new effective neurotropic drugs in the series of derivatives of heterocycles containing pharmacophore groups in organic, bioorganic and medical chemistry is a serious problem. Read More

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polysaccharides mitigate obesogenic diet-induced cognitive and social dysfunction via modulation of gut microbiota and tryptophan metabolism.

Theranostics 2022 1;12(8):3637-3655. Epub 2022 May 1.

College of Veterinary Medicine, Northwest A&F University, Yangling, China.

The high fat and sucrose diet, known as the obesogenic diet (OD), has been related to low-grade chronic inflammation and neurodevelopmental disorders. Emerging evidence suggests that OD influences cognitive and social function via the gut-brain axis. However, the effects of OD during adolescence on future health have been unclear. Read More

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Effect of solutes structure and pH on the n-octanol/water partition coefficient of ionizable organic compounds.

Chemosphere 2022 Oct 31;304:135155. Epub 2022 May 31.

Université Paris-Saclay, CEA, Service d'Étude du Comportement des Radionucléides, 91191, Gif-sur-Yvette, France. Electronic address:

Liquid-liquid partition coefficient is a useful tool to predict biological and environmental fate of organic compounds, for example bioaccumulation or toxicity of lipophilic contaminants. Conversely, the partitioning of ionizable compounds is poorly studied in contrast to that of neutral compounds. Yet, such topic deserves attention, since numerous organic contaminants are ionizable as well as their degradation products. Read More

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October 2022

Duloxetine alleviates oxaliplatin-induced peripheral neuropathy by regulating p53-mediated apoptosis.

Neuroreport 2022 07 30;33(10):437-444. Epub 2022 May 30.

Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Pharmacology and Safety Evaluation of Chinese Materia Medica, School of Pharmacy, Nanjing University of Chinese Medicine, Nanjing, China.

Oxaliplatin (OXA) is a key platinum-based chemotherapeutic agent for treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer, but the side effects of acute and chronic neuropathies limit its clinical application. Duloxetine has been found to have the potential to prevent OXA-induced peripheral neuropathy in several studies, but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of duloxetine on OXA-induced peripheral neuropathy and to find the potential mechanisms. Read More

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Transcriptomic Points of Departure Calculated from Rainbow Trout Gill, Liver, and Gut Cell Lines Exposed to Methylmercury and Fluoxetine.

Environ Toxicol Chem 2022 Aug 28;41(8):1982-1992. Epub 2022 Jun 28.

Faculty of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada.

Ethical and resource limitation concerns are pushing chemicals management to develop alternatives to animal testing strategies. The objective of our study was to determine whether transcriptomic point of departure (tPOD) values could be derived from studies that followed Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) Test No. 249 (rainbow trout gill cell line), as well as from studies on trout liver and gut cells. Read More

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Pharmacokinetic Interactions Between Antiseizure and Psychiatric Medications.

Curr Neuropharmacol 2022 May 24. Epub 2022 May 24.

Division of Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology, Department of Internal Medicine and Therapeutics, University of Pavia, Pavia and IRCCS Mondino Foundation, Pavia, Italy.

Antiseizure medications and drugs for psychiatric diseases are frequently used in combination. In this context pharmacokinetic interactions between these drugs may occur. The vast majority of these interactions are primarily observed at a metabolic level and result from changes in the activity of the cytochrome P450 (CYP). Read More

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Differential effects of fluoxetine on the phototactic behavior of 3 amphipod species (Crustacea; Amphipoda).

Environ Toxicol Pharmacol 2022 Jul 20;93:103889. Epub 2022 May 20.

Dept of Biology, American University, Washington DC 20016, USA. Electronic address:

We document phototactic responses in different amphipod populations of Gammarus minus, Stygobromus tenuis, and Crangonyx shoemakeri, each collected at 2-3 sites within the Washington DC area. We then assessed how baseline phototaxis was altered following either short-term (3-week) or long-term (6-week) exposure to 0.05 µg/L or 0. Read More

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The overall assessment of simultaneous photocatalytic degradation of Cimetidine and Amisulpride by using chemical and genotoxicological approaches.

Sci Total Environ 2022 Sep 21;838(Pt 3):156140. Epub 2022 May 21.

Department of Environmental Engineering, University of Patras, GR-30100 Agrinio, Greece. Electronic address:

Pharmaceutical Active Compounds (PhACs) are of particular interest among the emerging contaminants detected in the aquatic environment. Commonly, PhACs exist as complex mixtures in aquatic systems, causing potential adverse effects to the environment and human health than those of individual compounds. Based on the increasing interest in the contamination of water resources by PhACs, the photocatalytic degradation of Cimetidine and Amisulpride as a mixture in combination with their toxic and genotoxic effects before and after the treatment were evaluated for the first time. Read More

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September 2022

Antidepressants induce toxicity in human placental BeWo cells.

Curr Res Toxicol 2022 6;3:100073. Epub 2022 May 6.

Department of Pharmaceutics, School of Pharmacy, Aichi Gakuin University, 1-100 Kusumoto, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8650, Japan.

Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), serotonin and noradrenaline reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs), and noradrenergic and specific serotonergic antidepressants (NaSSAs) are broadly used for the treatment of depression. Depression is one of the most common psychiatric disorders in pregnant women and SSRIs are commonly prescribed for depression during pregnancy. The placenta regulates the transport of nutrients and oxygen between the maternal and fetal circulation, and is essential for the survival and growth of the fetus. Read More

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Antidepressant-induced serotonin syndrome in older patients: a cross-sectional study.

Psychogeriatrics 2022 Jul 13;22(4):502-508. Epub 2022 May 13.

Unit for Aging Brain and Dementia, Department of Geriatric Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Dokuz Eylul University, Izmir, Turkey.

Background: Widespread prescription of antidepressants and their resulting role in serotonin syndrome (SS) are of great importance for clinical practice in the elderly. This study aims to investigate possible associations of antidepressant drug-induced SS with related variables in these patients.

Methods: A total of 238 older adults using antidepressants were included. Read More

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Combined toxicity and toxicity persistence of antidepressants citalopram and mirtazapine to zooplankton Daphnia magna.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2022 Apr 30. Epub 2022 Apr 30.

School of Engineering, China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing, 211198, China.

Citalopram (CTP) and mirtazapine (MTP) are two typical psychoactive drugs used for the depression treatment. As emerging pollutants, CTP and MTP have raised concern because of their harmful effect on aquatic organisms. Therefore, the ecotoxicological risk of these two pollutants to aquatic organisms should be given more attention. Read More

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Quinazolinone-based benzenesulfonamides with low toxicity and high affinity as monoamine oxidase-A inhibitors: Synthesis, biological evaluation and induced-fit docking studies.

Bioorg Chem 2022 07 21;124:105822. Epub 2022 Apr 21.

Van Yüzüncü Yıl University, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Van, Turkey.

The research in selective monoamine oxidases (MAO-A and MAO-B) inhibitors has been increased due to their therapeutic value for neurodegenerative diseases. In this study, 4-((2-(aryl)-4-oxoquinazolin-3(4H)-yl)amino)benzenesulfonamides were synthesized and their MAOs inhibition potentials were investigated applying in vitro fluorometric technique. The most potent compounds 7 and 8 against MAO-A had IC values of 0. Read More

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The mechanism of the neuroprotective effect of zinc against cadmium-induced behavioral impairments in male Wister rats: Focus on tryptophan degradation pathway, oxidative-inflammatory stress, and histologic evidence.

Toxicology 2022 04 27;472:153191. Epub 2022 Apr 27.

Toxicology and Immunotherapy Research Unit, Department of Biochemistry, Alex Ekwueme Federal University Ndufu Alike, Nigeria.

The present study investigated the attenuating effects of Zn following Cd-exposure in the activities/expression of indoleamine 2, 3-dioxygenase (IDO), tryptophan 2, 3-dioxygenase (TDO), oxidative-inflammatory response, behavioral indices and histologic architecture in cerebral cortex and hippocampus of male rats. Adult male Wistar rats were exposed to 200 μg/L and 100 μg/L of Cd and/or Zn in drinking water for 42 days. Cd exposure significantly increased IDO and TDO activities, IDO 1 protein expression, inflammatory response, with attendant disruption in antioxidant systems and concomitant elevation in malondialdehyde (MDA) levels in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus. Read More

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