4,310 results match your criteria Toxicity Anticholinergic


Effects of Sublethal Organophosphate Toxicity and Anti-cholinergics on Electroencephalogram and Respiratory Mechanics in Mice.

Front Neurosci 2022 2;16:866899. Epub 2022 May 2.

Department of Cellular and Integrative Physiology, University of Texas Health San Antonio, San Antonio, TX, United States.

Organophosphates are used in agriculture as insecticides but are potentially toxic to humans when exposed at high concentrations. The mechanism of toxicity is through antagonism of acetylcholinesterase, which secondarily causes excess activation of cholinergic receptors leading to seizures, tremors, respiratory depression, and other physiological consequences. Here we investigated two of the major pathophysiological effects, seizures and respiratory depression, using subcutaneous injection into mice of the organophosphate diisopropylfluorophosphate (DFP) at sublethal concentrations (2. Read More

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Toxin-Induced Seizures Adapted from "Toxin-Induced Seizures" in Neurologic Clinics, November 2020.

Emerg Med Clin North Am 2022 May 5;40(2):417-430. Epub 2022 Apr 5.

Department of Neurology, Department of Emergency Medicine, Indiana University, Indiana University Neuroscience Center, 355 W. 16 th Street, Suite 4700, Indianapolis, IN 46202, USA; Department of Emergency Medicine, Indiana University, Indiana University Neuroscience Center, 355 W. 16 th Street, Suite 4700, Indianapolis, IN 46202, USA.

New toxins are constantly emerging within society. We review common toxins that cause seizure, their mechanisms, associated toxidromes, and treatments. Stimulants, cholinergic agents, gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) antagonists, glutamate agonists, histamine and adenosine antagonists, and withdrawal states are highlighted. Read More

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Wasp Venom Ameliorates Scopolamine-Induced Learning and Memory Impairment in Mice.

Toxins (Basel) 2022 Apr 4;14(4). Epub 2022 Apr 4.

Department of Integrative Biology, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 41566, Korea.

This study investigated the effects of wasp venom (WV) from the yellow-legged hornet, , on scopolamine (SCO)-induced memory deficits in mice, as well as the antioxidant activity in HT22 murine hippocampal neuronal cells in parallel comparison with bee venom (BV). The WV was collected from the venom sac, freeze-dried. Both venoms exhibited free radical scavenging capabilities in a concentration-dependent manner. Read More

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Pharmacologic Mydriasis Secondary to Topical Glycopyrronium Tosylate Cloths: Clinical Characterization From a Multicenter Analysis.

J Neuroophthalmol 2022 Mar 24. Epub 2022 Mar 24.

Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences (ARK, SG, PWM, BTJ, KMC), Illinois Eye and Ear Infirmary, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, Illinois; NorthShore University Health System (JHP), Evanston, Illinois; Department of Ophthalmology (TMJ, NRC), Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern University, Chicago, Illinois; Department of Neurology (NRC), Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern University, Chicago, Illinois; Des Peres Eye Center (EC), Des Peres, Missouri; Department of Ophthalmology (EAS), Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, Illinois; Department of Ophthalmology (KCG), University of Cincinnati College of Medicine (KCG), Cincinnati, Ohio; Cincinnati Eye Institute (KCG), Cincinnati, Ohio; and Midwest Retina Consultants (EG-V), Arlington Heights, Illinois.

Background: Topical glycopyrronium tosylate (GT) is an anticholinergic medication for treatment of axillary hyperhidrosis. Pharmacologic mydriasis and anisocoria from topical GT has been reported and may be underrecognized. This study aims to clinically characterize patients presenting with pharmacologic mydriasis from exposure to this medication. Read More

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Role of intravenous lipid emulsion therapy and packed red blood cell transfusion as adjuvant treatment in the management of a child with severe organophosphate poisoning (chlorpyrifos).

BMJ Case Rep 2022 Apr 8;15(4). Epub 2022 Apr 8.

National Poison Management and Control Center, College of Medicine and Philippine General Hospital, University of the Philippines Manila, Manila, Philippines.

A previously well 3-year-old child presented with rapidly deteriorating clinical status minutes after ingestion of an orange-coloured liquid housed in a soda bottle (HomeTrek-chlorpyrifos). She had miotic pupils, copious oral secretions, crackles on lung auscultation, hyperactive bowel sounds, impending signs of respiratory failure and declining sensorium. A diagnosis of severe organophosphate (OP) toxicity was made. Read More

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SUPPLEMENT ARTICLE: A Novel Drug Delivery Method: Retrometabolic Drug Design.

J Drugs Dermatol 2022 Apr;21(4):s5-s10

Soft drugs, a class of retrometabolic drug design, contain a metabolically sensitive moiety that promotes rapid metabolism to inactive metabolites after exerting activity at its target site. The goal of soft drugs is to reduce systemic toxicity while enhancing local efficacy. Soft drugs have been approved for use in multiple medical specialties, such as the soft corticosteroid loteprednol etabonate for treatment of inflammatory ophthalmic disorders and soft beta-blocker derivatives for treatment of hypertensive emergencies in cardiology. Read More

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Tricyclodecan-9-yl-Xanthogenate (D609): Mechanism of Action and Pharmacological Applications.

Int J Mol Sci 2022 Mar 18;23(6). Epub 2022 Mar 18.

Department of Pharmaceutics, College of Pharmacy, King Saud University, Riyadh 11451, Saudi Arabia.

Tricyclodecan-9-yl xanthogenate (D609) is a synthetic tricyclic compound possessing a xanthate group. This xanthogenate compound is known for its diverse pharmacological properties. Over the last three decades, many studies have reported the biological activities of D609, including antioxidant, antiapoptotic, anticholinergic, anti-tumor, anti-inflammatory, anti-viral, anti-proliferative, and neuroprotective activities. Read More

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Neuromodulatory Mechanisms of a Memory Loss-Preventive Effect of Alpha-Lipoic Acid in an Experimental Rat Model of Dementia.

J Mol Neurosci 2022 May 16;72(5):1018-1025. Epub 2022 Feb 16.

Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Medicine, Medical University of Sofia, 2 Zdrave St, 1431, Sofia, Bulgaria.

This study evaluates some of the neuromodulatory mechanisms of the memory loss preventive effect of alpha-lipoic acid (ALA) in a scopolamine (Sco)-induced rat model of Alzheimer's disease (AD) type dementia. Our results confirmed that Sco administration induces significant memory impairment, worsens exploratory behaviour and habituation, increases acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity, and induces pathological monoamine content changes in the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus. ALA administration largely prevented Sco-induced memory impairment. Read More

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A new protein-coupled antigen of α-conotoxin MI displays high immunogenicity and can produce antiserum with high detoxification activity.

Toxicon 2022 Mar 31;208:53-61. Epub 2022 Jan 31.

Beijing Institute of Biotechnology, Beijing, 100071, China. Electronic address:

α-conotoxin (α-CTX) MI is a small peptide toxin with 14 amino acids and two disulfide bonds. It potently inhibits muscle-type nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs), and poses a threat as a toxin to tropical fishermen. However, there are currently no effective drugs for the treatment of MI envenomation due to the toxin's low immunogenicity. Read More

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Evaluating the Effectiveness of the Computer-Based Education Platform, Pharmacy5in5, on Pharmacists' Knowledge of Anticholinergic Toxicity Using a Randomized Controlled Trial.

Pharmacy (Basel) 2022 Jan 1;10(1). Epub 2022 Jan 1.

School of Pharmacy, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, ON N2L 3G1, Canada.

Background: Computer-based education has been widely implemented in healthcare professional development education. However, there has been little examination of the potential for computer-based education to enhance pharmacists' knowledge. This study aims to assess the effectiveness of computer-based education on improving pharmacists' knowledge compared to printed education material. Read More

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January 2022

Cardiovascular Toxicity Due to Otilonium Bromide Overdose: A Case Report.

J Emerg Med 2022 03 12;62(3):e47-e50. Epub 2022 Jan 12.

Paediatric Intensive Care Unit, NMC Royal Hospital, Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates.

Background: Otilonium bromide is a quaternary ammonium compound commonly used in the management of irritable bowel syndrome. There are no previously published cases of overdose of otilonium bromide in humans. Due to its poor systemic absorption, it acts locally and has an excellent safety profile. Read More

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Acute Poisoning With Datura stramonium Plant Seeds in Qatar.

Cureus 2021 Dec 4;13(12):e20152. Epub 2021 Dec 4.

Critical Care Medicine, Hamad Medical Corporation, Doha, QAT.

(also called thorn apple or Jimson weed) is a plant that contains atropine, scopolamine, and hyoscyamine, giving it anticholinergic effects when consumed. We report the case of a 32-year-old male in Qatar who intentionally ingested seeds from Jimson weed mixed with milk. The patient became severely confused and delirious, eventually requiring admission to the intensive care unit (ICU) for two days for management. Read More

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December 2021

Cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway ameliorates murine experimental Th2-type colitis by suppressing the migration of plasmacytoid dendritic cells.

Sci Rep 2022 01 7;12(1):54. Epub 2022 Jan 7.

Division of Gastrointestinal Pathophysiology, Institute of Natural Medicine, University of Toyama, 2630 Sugitani, Toyama, 930-0194, Japan.

Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a chronic inflammatory bowel disease. Several studies have demonstrated that α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (α7nAChRs) exert anti-inflammatory effects on immune cells and nicotine suppress UC onset and relapse. Plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) reportedly accumulate in the colon of UC patients. Read More

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January 2022

Optimization and Application of an Efficient and Stable Inhalation Exposure System for Rodents.

AAPS PharmSciTech 2022 Jan 6;23(1):50. Epub 2022 Jan 6.

The Key Laboratory of Modern Toxicology, Ministry of Education, School of Public Health, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, 211166, China.

Inhalation is a promising and challenging method in pharmaceutical and biological science research. A stable environment is critical in dynamic inhalation administration. However, the establishment of a stable inhalation system is very challenging. Read More

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January 2022

Sea Cucumber-Derived Peptide Attenuates Scopolamine-Induced Cognitive Impairment by Preventing Hippocampal Cholinergic Dysfunction and Neuronal Cell Death.

J Agric Food Chem 2022 Jan 6;70(2):567-576. Epub 2022 Jan 6.

National Engineering Research Center of Seafood, School of Food Science and Technology, Dalian Polytechnic University, Dalian 116034, P. R. China.

The incidence of neurodegenerative diseases related to cognitive decline and memory loss is on the rise as the global elderly population increases. In this study, we evaluated the effect of the sea cucumber-derived peptide Phe-Tyr-Asp-Trp-Pro-Lys (FYDWPK) on scopolamine-induced neurotoxicity in an animal model. The Morris water maze, passive avoidance apparatus, and shuttle box test were used to assess learning and memory abilities. Read More

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January 2022

Loading and Sustained Release of Pralidoxime Chloride from Swellable MIL-88B(Fe) and Its Therapeutic Performance on Mice Poisoned by Neurotoxic Agents.

Inorg Chem 2022 Jan 30;61(3):1512-1520. Epub 2021 Dec 30.

Toxicology and Medical Countermeasures, Institute of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Academy of Military Sciences PLA China, Beijing 100850, P. R. China.

Maintaining a long-term continuous and stable reactivator blood concentration to treat organophosphorus nerve agent poisoning using acetylcholinesterase (AChE) reactivator pralidoxime chloride (2-PAM) is very important yet difficult. Because the flexible framework of MIL-88B(Fe) nanoparticles (NPs) can swell in polar solvents, pralidoxime chloride (2-PAM) was loaded in MIL-88B(Fe) NPs (size: ca. 500 nm) by stirring and incubation in deionized water to obtain [email protected](Fe), which had a maximum drug loading capacity of 12. Read More

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January 2022

Post-VX exposure treatment of rats with engineered phosphotriesterases.

Arch Toxicol 2022 02 28;96(2):571-583. Epub 2021 Dec 28.

Bundeswehr Institute of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Neuherbergstraße 11, 80937, Munich, Germany.

The biologically stable and highly toxic organophosphorus nerve agent (OP) VX poses a major health threat. Standard medical therapy, consisting of reactivators and competitive muscarinic receptor antagonists, is insufficient. Recently, two engineered mutants of the Brevundimonas diminuta phosphotriesterase (PTE) with enhanced catalytic efficiency (k/K = 21 to 38 × 10 M min) towards VX and a preferential hydrolysis of the more toxic P(-) enantiomer were described: PTE-C23(R152E)-PAS(100)-10-2-C3(I106A/C59V/C227V/E71K)-PAS(200) (PTE-2), a single-chain bispecific enzyme with a PAS linker and tag having enlarged substrate spectrum, and 10-2-C3(C59V/C227V)-PAS(200) (PTE-3), a stabilized homodimeric enzyme with a double PASylation tag (PAS-tag) to reduce plasma clearance. Read More

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February 2022

[Total flavonoids of Drynariae Rhizoma regulates ER-p38 MAPK signaling pathway to improve scopolamine-induced learning and memory impairments in model mice].

Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi 2021 Nov;46(22):5922-5929

School of Pharmacy, Heilongjiang University of Chinese Medicine Harbin 150040, China Jiamusi College, Heilongjiang University of Chinese Medicine Jiamusi 154007, China.

This study intended to explore the effect and mechanism of total flavonoids of Drynariae Rhizoma in improving scopola-mine-induced learning and memory impairments in model mice. Ninety four-month-old Kunming(KM) mice were randomly divided into six groups. The ones in the model group and blank group were treated with intragastric administration of normal saline, while those in the medication groups separately received the total flavonoids of Drynariae Rhizoma, Kangnaoshuai Capsules, donepezil, as well as total flavonoids of Rhizoma Drynariae plus estrogen receptor(ER) blocker by gavage. Read More

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November 2021

The 3/4- and 3/6-Subfamily Variants of α-Conotoxins GI and MI Exhibit Potent Inhibitory Activity against Muscular Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors.

Mar Drugs 2021 Dec 14;19(12). Epub 2021 Dec 14.

Beijing Institute of Biotechnology, Beijing 100071, China.

α-Conotoxins GI and MI belong to the 3/5 subfamily of α-conotoxins and potently inhibit muscular nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). To date, no 3/4- or 3/6-subfamily α-conotoxins have been reported to inhibit muscular nAChRs. In the present study, a series of new 3/4-, 3/6-, and 3/7-subfamily GI and MI variants were synthesized and functionally characterized by modifications of loop2. Read More

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December 2021

Lipid emulsion for the treatment of acute organophosphate poisoning: an Open-Label randomized trial.

Clin Toxicol (Phila) 2022 May 20;60(5):602-608. Epub 2021 Dec 20.

Department of Internal Medicine, Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research (PGIMER), Chandigarh, India.

Introduction: Many organophosphate (OP) pesticides are lipid-soluble; therefore, intravenous lipid emulsion (ILE) has been evaluated as a possible treatment for acute poisoning. A single bolus dose of 100 ml of 20% ILE was found safe in a pilot observational study. This randomized trial aimed to assess the effectiveness and safety of an extended dose of ILE in acute OP poisoning. Read More

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Anti-Neurodegenerative Benefits of Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitors in Alzheimer's Disease: Nexus of Cholinergic and Nerve Growth Factor Dysfunction.

Curr Alzheimer Res 2021 ;18(13):1010-1022

Molecular and Translational Medicine Center of Emphasis in Neurosciences, Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences Paul L. Foster School of Medicine, Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center, El Paso, Texas 79905, USA.

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder that is increasingly viewed as a complex multi-dimensional disease without effective treatments. Recent randomized, placebo-controlled studies have shown volume losses of ~0.7% and ~3. Read More

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Neuroprotective Potential of Synthetic Mono-Carbonyl Curcumin Analogs Assessed by Molecular Docking Studies.

Molecules 2021 Nov 26;26(23). Epub 2021 Nov 26.

Laboratory Medicine Department, Faculty of Applied Medical Sciences, Umm Al-Qura University, Makkah 24211, Saudi Arabia.

Cognitive decline in dementia is associated with deficiency of the cholinergic system. In this study, five mono-carbonyl curcumin analogs were synthesized, and on the basis of their promising in vitro anticholinesterase activities, they were further investigated for in vivo neuroprotective and memory enhancing effects in scopolamine-induced amnesia using elevated plus maze (EPM) and novel object recognition (NOR) behavioral mice models. The effects of the synthesized compounds on the cholinergic system involvement in the brain hippocampus and their binding mode in the active site of cholinesterases were also determined. Read More

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November 2021

[Anticholinergic scales: Use in psychiatry and update of the anticholinergic impregnation scale].

Encephale 2021 Dec 4. Epub 2021 Dec 4.

Pôle hospitalo-universitaire de psychiatrie d'adultes du Grand Nancy, Centre psychothérapique de Nancy, 54520 Laxou, France; Département de neurologie, CHU de Nancy, 54000 Nancy, France.

Anticholinergic properties are well known to prescribers, notably in mental health, as a therapeutic strategy for i.e. extrapyramidal syndrome but also as a source of numerous adverse side effects. Read More

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December 2021

Ameliorative potential of phloridzin in type 2 diabetes-induced memory deficits in rats.

Eur J Pharmacol 2021 Dec 17;913:174645. Epub 2021 Nov 17.

Rungta College of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research, Bhilai, 490024, Chhattisgarh, India; Department of Pharmacology, Shri Vile Parle Kelavani Mandal's Institute of Pharmacy, Dhule, 424001, Maharashtra, India.

Diabetes associated oxidative stress and impaired cholinergic neurotransmission causes cognitive deficits. Although phloridzin shows antioxidant- and insulin sensitizing-activities, its ameliorative potential in diabetes-induced memory dysfunction remains unexplored. In the present study, type 2 diabetes (T2D) was induced by streptozotocin (35 mg/kg, intraperitoneal) in rats on ad libitum high-fat diet. Read More

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December 2021

Inhaled 2 Adrenergic Agonists and Other cAMP-Elevating Agents: Therapeutics for Alveolar Injury and Acute Respiratory Disease Syndrome?

Pharmacol Rev 2021 10;73(4):488-526

Departments of Pharmacology (K.S., P.A.I.) and Medicine (P.A.I.), University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California; Department of Medicine (M.B.I.) University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona

Inhaled long-acting -adrenergic agonists (LABAs) and short-acting -adrenergic agonists are approved for the treatment of obstructive lung disease via actions mediated by 2 adrenergic receptors (2-ARs) that increase cellular cAMP synthesis. This review discusses the potential of 2-AR agonists, in particular LABAs, for the treatment of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). We emphasize ARDS induced by pneumonia and focus on the pathobiology of ARDS and actions of LABAs and cAMP on pulmonary and immune cell types. Read More

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October 2021

Physostigmine should be used more readily for antimuscarinic toxicity: CON.

Br J Clin Pharmacol 2022 01 16;88(1):61-63. Epub 2021 Nov 16.

Division of Medical Toxicology, Department of Emergency Medicine, Washington University School of Medicine, Saint Louis, Missouri, USA.

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January 2022

A standardized black pepper seed extract containing β-caryophyllene improves cognitive function in scopolamine-induced amnesia model mice via regulation of brain-derived neurotrophic factor and MAPK proteins.

J Food Biochem 2021 12 14;45(12):e13994. Epub 2021 Nov 14.

R&D Center for Excellence, Vidya Herbs Pvt Ltd., Bangalore, India.

β-caryophyllene (BCP), a natural sesquiterpene present in plants, is a selective agonist of cannabinoid receptor type-2 (CB2) of the endocannabinoid system. In this study, we have prepared an extract from Piper nigrum (black pepper) seeds using supercritical fluid extraction, standardized to contain 30% BCP (Viphyllin ). The beneficial effects of prophylactic treatment with Viphyllin on cognitive functions were demonstrated in Scopolamine-induced dementia model mice. Read More

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December 2021

Parasympathetic, but not sympathetic denervation, suppressed colorectal cancer progression.

Eur J Pharmacol 2021 Dec 11;913:174626. Epub 2021 Nov 11.

Solid Tumor Research Center, Cellular and Molecular Medicine Institute, Urmia University of Medical Sciences, Urmia, Iran. Electronic address:

Disruption in the nerve-tumor interaction is now considered as a possible anticancer strategy for treating various cancer types, particularly colorectal cancer. However, the underlying mechanisms are not still fully understood. Therefore, the present study aimed to evaluate the effects of sympathetic and parasympathetic denervation on the inhibition of colorectal cancer progression in early and late phases and assess the involvement of nerve growth factor in denervation mediated anticancer effects. Read More

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December 2021

The Spasmolytic, Bronchodilator, and Vasodilator Activities of Are Explained by Anti-Muscarinic and Calcium Antagonistic Mechanisms.

Molecules 2021 Oct 20;26(21). Epub 2021 Oct 20.

Faculty of Pharmacy, Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan 66000, Pakistan.

is traditionally used in different areas of Pakistan to treat gastrointestinal, respiratory, and vascular diseases. This study evaluates the underlying mechanisms for traditional uses of in diarrhea, asthma, and hypertension. In vitro pharmacological studies were conducted using isolated jejunum, trachea, and aortic preparations, while the cytotoxic study was conducted in mice. Read More

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October 2021

Physostigmine should be used more readily for antimuscarinic toxicity: PRO.

Authors:
Andrew Dawson

Br J Clin Pharmacol 2022 01 16;88(1):58-60. Epub 2021 Nov 16.

NSW Poisons Information Centre, Westmead Childrens Hospital, Sydney, Australia.

Physostigmine is the preferred treatment for antimuscarinic toxicity. Its use has a clear biological rationale and is supported by extensive clinical use which demonstrated effectiveness and safety. Read More

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January 2022