4,187 results match your criteria Toxicity Anticholinergic

biological activity of Mill. infusion against amyloid -peptide-induced toxicity and inhibition of GSK-3, CK-1, and BACE-1 enzymes relevant to Alzheimer's disease.

Saudi Pharm J 2021 Mar 3;29(3):236-243. Epub 2021 Feb 3.

Department of Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Hacettepe University, Ankara, Turkey.

species have been traditionally used to improve cognition and have been proved to be a potential natural treatment for Alzheimer's disease. Mill. (Turkish sage or Greek sage) demonstrated to have anticholinergic effects . Read More

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Acute Bilateral Fixed Mydriasis Caused by Lupini Bean Intoxication.

Wilderness Environ Med 2021 Apr 13. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Hôpital Fondation Adolphe de Rothschild, service du Professeur Cochereau, Paris, France.

Lupini beans are legume seeds of the genus Lupinus, consumed in many parts of the world. The main species are Lupinus mutabilis, Lupius angustifolius, and Lupinus albus. The latter is commonly eaten as a snack in Mediterranean countries. Read More

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[The safety of atropine for myopia prevention and control].

D X Chen X G He X Xu

Zhonghua Yan Ke Za Zhi 2021 Apr;57(4):299-304

Shanghai Eye Disease Prevention and Treatment Center, Shanghai Eye Hospital, Shanghai Vision Health Center & Shanghai Children Myopia Institute, Division of Ophthalmology Shanghai General Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, National Clinical Research Center for Eye Diseases, Shanghai 200040, China.

Atropine is a classical drug with a wide use in clinical practice. In ophthalmology, atropine can be used for cycloplegia before optometry, and the treatment of amblyopia, iridocyclitis, malignant glaucoma, etc. In recent years, the "old drugs with new application " research and application of atropine for myopia prevention and control has become a hotspot and the efficacy of atropine has been preliminarily recognized. Read More

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Green fabrication of Co and CoO nanoparticles and their biomedical applications: A review.

Open Life Sci 2021 20;16(1):14-30. Epub 2021 Jan 20.

Department of Biotechnology, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad, Pakistan.

Nanotechnology is the fabrication, characterization, and potential application of various materials at the nanoscale. Over the past few decades, nanomaterials have attracted researchers from different fields because of their high surface-to-volume ratio and other unique and remarkable properties. Cobalt and cobalt oxide nanoparticles (NPs) have various biomedical applications because of their distinctive antioxidant, antimicrobial, antifungal, anticancer, larvicidal, antileishmanial, anticholinergic, wound healing, and antidiabetic properties. Read More

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January 2021

Efficacy of atropine and scopolamine on airway contractions following exposure to the nerve agent VX.

Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 2021 05 27;419:115512. Epub 2021 Mar 27.

Swedish Defence Research Agency, CBRN Defence and Security, Umeå, Sweden. Electronic address:

Nerve agents are highly toxic organophosphorus compounds that inhibit acetylcholinesterase resulting in rapid accumulation of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine (ACh) causing a cholinergic syndrome including respiratory failure. In the present study, respiratory responses and antimuscarinic treatment efficacy was evaluated ex vivo using rat precision-cut lung slices (PCLS) exposed to the nerve agent VX. The respiratory effects were evaluated either by adding exogenous ACh directly to the culture medium or by applying electric-field stimulation (EFS) to the PCLS to achieve a release of endogenous ACh from neurons in the lung tissue. Read More

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Ligand design for human acetylcholinesterase and nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, extending beyond the conventional and canonical.

J Neurochem 2021 Feb 26. Epub 2021 Feb 26.

Department of Pharmacology, Skaggs School of Pharmacy & Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of California, CA, USA.

We detail here distinctive departures from lead classical cholinesterase re-activators, the pyridinium aldoximes, to achieve rapid CNS penetration and reactivation of AChE in the CNS (brain and spinal cord). Such reactivation is consistent with these non-canonical re-activators enhancing survival parameters in both mice and macaques following exposure to organophosphates. Thus, the ideal cholinesterase re-activator should show minimal toxicity, limited inhibitory activity in the absence of an organophosphate, and rapid CNS penetration, in addition to its nucleophilic potential at the target, the conjugated AChE active center. Read More

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February 2021

Nixing the nightshades: Traditional knowledge of intoxicating members of the Solanaceae among hallucinogenic plant and mushroom users in Slovenia.

PLoS One 2021 22;16(2):e0247688. Epub 2021 Feb 22.

Univerza v Ljubljani, Fakulteta za farmacijo, Ljubljana, Slovenia.

Anticholinergic plants of the family Solanaceae have a long history of use as medicines, poisons, and recreational drugs. Though they were the intoxicating substances of choice throughout Europe for centuries, their use for these purposes has declined with the globalisation of other recreational drugs. The present study sought to examine the level of knowledge surrounding these plants among individuals who had used other hallucinogenic plants or mushrooms in Slovenia. Read More

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February 2021

A new medication, a new toxidrome - A case report of anticholinergic wipe toxicity due to improper medication use.

Am J Emerg Med 2021 Jan 29. Epub 2021 Jan 29.

Children's Hospital at Montefiore, United States of America.

We describe a case of a young female who presented to the emergency department with 4 days of progressive myopia, dry mouth, anhidrosis and urinary hesitancy due to overuse of a new topical anticholinergic wipes, glycopyrronium tosylate (GT). In the United States medication misuse accounts for nearly 10% of pediatric emergency visits with 65% of these visits considered to be preventable [1]. Being familiar with new medications and their side effect profiles can prevent unnecessary or harmful interventions. Read More

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January 2021

A comprehensive review on the ethnopharmacology, phytochemistry, ‎pharmacology, and toxicology of the Mandragora genus; from folk ‎medicine to the modern.

Curr Pharm Des 2021 Feb 3. Epub 2021 Feb 3.

Student Research Committee, Faculty of Pharmacy, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari. Iran.

The Mandragora genus (Solanaceae) is well known for its association with myths and has been used in herbal medicine since ancient times. This extensive literature review synthesizes the information currently available on the ethnobotany, Persian medicine (PM), traditional use, phytochemistry, pharmacology, and toxicity profile of Mandragora spp. The electronic search engines Scopus, Web of Science, PubMed, Google Scholar, and ScienceDirect were searched using keywords such as Mandragora, mandrake, phytochemistry, ethnopharmacology, Persian medicine, ethnobotany, and toxicity. Read More

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February 2021

Biocomputational Prediction Approach Targeting FimH by Natural SGLT2 Inhibitors: A Possible Way to Overcome the Uropathogenic Effect of SGLT2 Inhibitor Drugs.

Molecules 2021 Jan 22;26(3). Epub 2021 Jan 22.

Department of Pharmaceutics, College of Pharmacy, University of Hail, P.O. Box 2440, Hail 81451, Saudi Arabia.

The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved a new class of anti-diabetic medication (a sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitor) in 2013. However, SGLT2 inhibitor drugs are under evaluation due to their associative side effects, such as urinary tract and genital infection, urinary discomfort, diabetic ketosis, and kidney problems. Even clinicians have difficulty in recommending it to diabetic patients due to the increased probability of urinary tract infection. Read More

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January 2021

Molecular determinants of binding of non-oxime bispyridinium nerve agent antidote compounds to the adult muscle nAChR.

Toxicol Lett 2021 Apr 19;340:114-122. Epub 2021 Jan 19.

Department of Biochemistry, Structural Bioinformatics and Computational Biochemistry, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK. Electronic address:

Organophosphorus nerve agents (NAs) are the most lethal chemical warfare agents and have been used by state and non-state actors since their discovery in the 1930s. They covalently modify acetylcholinesterase, preventing the breakdown of acetylcholine (ACh) with subsequent loss of synaptic transmission, which can result in death. Despite the availability of several antidotes for OPNA exposure, none directly targets the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) mediated component of toxicity. Read More

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Acute lead poisoning: a diagnostic challenge in the emergency department.

BMJ Case Rep 2021 Jan 20;14(1). Epub 2021 Jan 20.

Emergency Medicine, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, Delhi, India

Acute abdominal pain is a common presentation to the emergency department (ED). Ruling out life-threatening causes and giving pain relief are the most important tasks in ED. We describe a 32-year-old man who presented to ED with abdominal pain and vomiting which was unrelieved by usual doses of analgesic. Read More

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January 2021

Acute onset psychosis with complex neurobehavioural symptomatology following the intramuscular injection of hyoscine butylbromide: a case report with an overview of the literature.

Eur J Hosp Pharm 2020 Dec 29. Epub 2020 Dec 29.

Department of Psychiatry, Marmara University Pendik Training and Research Hospital, Istanbul, Turkey.

Different compounds of hyoscine (scopolamine) are widely used for the treatment of a variety of conditions, ranging from motion sickness to colic spasms and smoking cessation. In some rare conditions, the administration of scopolamine may lead to severe idiosyncratic reactions, including central anticholinergic intoxication syndrome. Here, we present a young female patient who progressively developed a series of complex neuropsychiatric symptoms including ataxia, slurred and rambling speech, stereotypic movements, vivid visual and auditory hallucinations, and self-mutilative behaviours in the days following the injection of hyoscine butylbromide in the emergency room to treat her menstrual cramps. Read More

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December 2020

Penehyclidine hydrochloride alleviates lipopolysaccharide‑induced acute respiratory distress syndrome in cells via regulating autophagy‑related pathway.

Mol Med Rep 2021 02 10;23(2). Epub 2020 Dec 10.

Department of Pediatrics, Shanghai Jiaotong University Affiliated Sixth People's Hospital, Shanghai 200233, P.R. China.

Acute progressive hypoxic respiratory failure caused by various predisposing factors is known as acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Although penehyclidine hydrochloride (PHC), an anticholinergic drug, is widely applied in clinical practice, the specific mechanisms underlying PHC in the treatment of ARDS are not completely understood. In the present study, BEAS‑2B cells were treated with 10 ng/ml lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to establish an ARDS cell model and a rat model of acute lung injury (ALI). Read More

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February 2021

A randomized trial comparing physostigmine vs lorazepam for treatment of antimuscarinic (anticholinergic) toxidrome.

Clin Toxicol (Phila) 2020 Dec 9:1-13. Epub 2020 Dec 9.

Department of Emergency Medicine, University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus, University of Colorado Hospital, Aurora, CO, USA.

Background: Toxicity from antimuscarinic agents precipitates a constellation of signs and symptoms; two of the most significant are agitation and delirium. Benzodiazepines are commonly used for treatment; physostigmine is also effective but is underutilized due to concerns for safety and short duration of action. The objective of this study was to compare lorazepam to physostigmine for the treatment of antimuscarinic delirium and agitation. Read More

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December 2020

In vitro evaluation of anti-fungal activity of tropicamide against strains of Candida spp. resistant to fluconazole in planktonic and biofilm form.

J Mycol Med 2021 Mar 11;31(1):101080. Epub 2020 Nov 11.

School of pharmacy, laboratory of bioprospection in antimicrobial molecules (LABIMAN), Federal University of Ceará, Fortaleza, CE, Brazil; Christus University Centre (UNICHRISTUS), Fortaleza, CE, Brazil. Electronic address:

Candida spp. is considered to be the third or fourth most common cause of bloodstream infections associated with healthcare services in the world. Currently, several strains exhibit resistance to the traditional treatments, making the development of new therapeutic molecules necessary. Read More

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Crosstalk of cholinergic pathway on thyroid disrupting effects of the insecticide chlorpyrifos in zebrafish (Danio rerio).

Sci Total Environ 2021 Feb 14;757:143769. Epub 2020 Nov 14.

Ministry of Agriculture Key Laboratory of Molecular Biology of Crop Pathogens and Insect Pests, Institute of Pesticide and Environmental Toxicology, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058, PR China.

Chlorpyrifos is a widely used organophosphate insecticide and ubiquitously detected in the environment. However, little attention has been paid to its endocrine disrupting effect to non-target organisms. In the present study, zebrafish was exposed to 13 and 65 μg/L of chlorpyrifos for 7 and 10 days to determine the induced neurotoxicity and the alteration of thyroid metabolism. Read More

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February 2021

Acute occupational exposure to holothurians (Cucumaria frondosa) resulting in irritating symptoms: About three cases.

Toxicon 2021 Jan 17;189:45-47. Epub 2020 Nov 17.

Centre antipoison de Paris - Fédération de toxicologie (FeTox), Hôpital Fernand-Widal, APHP, Paris, 75010, France.

Holothurians are marine invertebrates also known as sea cucumbers. They are used in fresh or dried forms in various cuisines around the world and have alleged medicinal properties. Consequently, sea cucumbers, notably the orange-footed sea cucumber (Cucumaria frondosa)are increasingly harvested from the environment or farmed via aquaculture. Read More

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January 2021

Mechanistic insights into ethidium bromide removal by palygorskite from contaminated water.

J Environ Manage 2021 Jan 7;278(Pt 2):111586. Epub 2020 Nov 7.

Lancaster Environment Centre, Lancaster University, Lancaster, LA1 4YQ, United Kingdom. Electronic address:

Ethidium bromide (EtBr)-containing wastewater can be hazardous to biodiversity when released into the soil and water bodies without treatment. EtBr can mutate living microbial cells and pose toxicity to even higher organisms. This work investigated the removal of EtBr from aqueous solutions by a naturally occurring palygorskite (PFl-1) clay mineral via systematic batch adsorption experiments under different physicochemical conditions. Read More

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January 2021

(m)RVD-hemopressin (α) and (m)VD-hemopressin (α) improve the memory-impairing effect of scopolamine in novel object and object location recognition tasks in mice.

Peptides 2021 Feb 7;136:170442. Epub 2020 Nov 7.

Shaanxi Key Laboratory of Brain Disorders, School of Basic Medical Science, Xi'an Medical University, Xi'an, 710021, China; Institute of Basic and Translational Medicine, Xi'an Medical University, Xi'an, 710021, China. Electronic address:

Dysfunction of cholinergic system plays an important role in disease associated with cognitive blockage, such as Alzheimer's disease (AD). Central administration of scopolamine, an antagonist of acetylcholine receptor, could induce memory impairment in mice. Endocannabinoid system was also implicated in AD, as two peptides agonists of cannabinoid 1 receptor (CB1R), (m)RVD-hemopressin (α) (RVD) and (m)VD-hemopressin (α) (VD) have been reported to inhibit the AD-relating impairment in animal and cell models. Read More

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February 2021

Repurposing of Antazoline Hydrochloride as an Inhibitor of Hepatitis B Virus DNA Secretion.

Virol Sin 2020 Nov 9. Epub 2020 Nov 9.

State Key Lab of Virology, Wuhan Institute of Virology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan, 430071, China.

Hepatitis B virus (HBV) belongs to Hepadnaviridae family and mainly infects hepatocytes, which can cause acute or chronic hepatitis. Currently, two types of antiviral drugs are approved for chronic infection clinically: interferons and nucleos(t)ide analogues. However, the clinical cure for chronic infection is still rare, and it is a huge challenge for all researchers to develop high-efficiency, safe, non-tolerant, and low-toxicity anti-HBV drugs. Read More

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November 2020

Muscarinic receptor signaling in the amygdala is required for conditioned taste aversion.

Neurosci Lett 2021 01 2;740:135466. Epub 2020 Nov 2.

Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, National Autonomous University of Mexico, Mexico City, Mexico. Electronic address:

The sense of taste provides information regarding the nutrient content, safety or potential toxicity of an edible. This is accomplished via a combination of innate and learned taste preferences. In conditioned taste aversion (CTA), rats learn to avoid ingesting a taste that has previously been paired with gastric malaise. Read More

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January 2021

Biomicroplastics versus conventional microplastics: An insight on the toxicity of these polymers in dragonfly larvae.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Mar 24;761:143231. Epub 2020 Oct 24.

Biological Research Laboratory, Post-graduation Program in Conservation of Cerrado Natural Resources, Goiano Federal Institute - Urutaí Campus Urutaí, GO, Brazil; Post-graduation Program in Biotechnology and Biodiversity, Goiano Federal Institute and Federal University of Goiás, GO, Brazil. Electronic address:

The toxicological safety of products developed as alternative for conventional plastics (i.e., petroleum derivatives) inevitably demands conducting (eco)toxicological studies. Read More

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Interleukin-1 receptor-induced PGE production controls acetylcholine-mediated cardiac dysfunction and mortality during scorpion envenomation.

Nat Commun 2020 10 28;11(1):5433. Epub 2020 Oct 28.

Departamento de Análises Clínicas, Toxicológicas e Bromatológicas, Faculdade de Ciências Farmacêuticas de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil.

Scorpion envenomation is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality among accidents caused by venomous animals. Major clinical manifestations that precede death after scorpion envenomation include heart failure and pulmonary edema. Here, we demonstrate that cardiac dysfunction and fatal outcomes caused by lethal scorpion envenomation in mice are mediated by a neuro-immune interaction linking IL-1 receptor signaling, prostaglandin E and acetylcholine release. Read More

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October 2020

Interaction of Cucurbit[7]uril with Oxime K027, Atropine, and Paraoxon: Risky or Advantageous Delivery System?

Int J Mol Sci 2020 Oct 23;21(21). Epub 2020 Oct 23.

Department of Clinical Biochemistry and Diagnostics, University Hospital and Faculty of Medicine Hradec Kralove, 50002 Hradec Kralove, Czech Republic.

Antidotes against organophosphates often possess physicochemical properties that mitigate their passage across the blood-brain barrier. Cucurbit[7]urils may be successfully used as a drug delivery system for bisquaternary oximes and improve central nervous system targeting. The main aim of these studies was to elucidate the relationship between cucurbit[7]uril, oxime K027, atropine, and paraoxon to define potential risks or advantages of this delivery system in a complex in vivo system. Read More

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October 2020

Toxin-Induced Seizures.

Neurol Clin 2020 11 12;38(4):867-879. Epub 2020 Sep 12.

Department of Neurology, Indiana University, Indiana University Neuroscience Center, 355 West 16th Street, Suite 4700, Indianapolis, IN 46202, USA; Department of Emergency Medicine-Toxicology, Indiana University, Indiana University Neuroscience Center, 355 West 16th Street, Suite 4700, Indianapolis, IN 46202, USA.

New toxins are emerging all the time. In this article, the authors review common toxins that cause seizure, their mechanisms, associated toxidromes, and treatments. Stimulants, cholinergic agents, gamma-aminobutyric acid antagonists, glutamate agonists, histamine and adenosine antagonists, and withdrawal states are highlighted. Read More

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November 2020

Toxin-Induced Acute Delirium.

Neurol Clin 2020 11;38(4):781-798

Department of Neurology, Tufts Medical Center, Boston, MA 02111, USA; Department of Neurosurgery, Tufts Medical Center, Boston, MA 02111, USA. Electronic address:

Acute delirium is a transient state of cerebral dysfunction reflecting an underlying medical decompensation. Toxicity from medications and other substances are a common cause of delirium. History and laboratory testing may be limited by alteration and lack of specific tests for certain compounds. Read More

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November 2020

Mechanism of central hypopnoea induced by organic phosphorus poisoning.

Sci Rep 2020 09 28;10(1):15834. Epub 2020 Sep 28.

Department of Emergency Medicine, Sapporo Medical University Hospital, Minami1-jo nishi 16 Chome 291, Chuo-ku, Sapporo, Hokkaido, 060-8543, Japan.

Whether central apnoea or hypopnoea can be induced by organophosphorus poisoning remains unknown to date. By using the acute brainstem slice method and multi-electrode array system, we established a paraoxon (a typical acetylcholinesterase inhibitor) poisoning model to investigate the time-dependent changes in respiratory burst amplitudes of the pre-Bötzinger complex (respiratory rhythm generator). We then determined whether pralidoxime or atropine, which are antidotes of paraoxon, could counteract the effects of paraoxon. Read More

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September 2020

Inhibition of Mg Extrusion Attenuates Glutamate Excitotoxicity in Cultured Rat Hippocampal Neurons.

Nutrients 2020 Sep 10;12(9). Epub 2020 Sep 10.

Department of Bioscience and Informatics, Faculty of Science and Technology, Keio University, Yokohama, Kanagawa 223-8522, Japan.

Magnesium plays important roles in the nervous system. An increase in the Mg concentration in cerebrospinal fluid enhances neural functions, while Mg deficiency is implicated in neuronal diseases in the central nervous system. We have previously demonstrated that high concentrations of glutamate induce excitotoxicity and elicit a transient increase in the intracellular concentration of Mg due to the release of Mg from mitochondria, followed by a decrease to below steady-state levels. Read More

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September 2020