3,980 results match your criteria Toxicity Anticholinergic


The hot patient: acute drug-induced hyperthermia.

Aust Prescr 2019 Feb 1;42(1):24-28. Epub 2019 Feb 1.

Royal Prince Alfred Hospital, Sydney.

Drugs Can Cause Dysregulation Of The Hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal Axis Which Can Result In A Rise In Core Temperature This Type Of Hyperthermia Is Unresponsive To Antipyretics And Can Be Complicated By Rhabdomyolysis Multi-organ Failure And Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation:

Organic Causes Of Fever Such As Infection Must Be Ruled Out Syndromes Associated With Drug-induced Fever Include Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome And Anticholinergic Sympathomimetic And Serotonin Toxicity:

The Class Of Offending Drugs As Well As The Temporal Relationship To Starting Or Stopping Them Assists In Differentiating Between Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome And Serotonin Toxicity:

Immediate Inpatient Management Is Needed The Mainstay Of Management Is Stopping The Drug And Supportive Care Often In The Intensive Care Unit: Read More

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https://www.nps.org.au/australian-prescriber/articles/the-ho
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http://dx.doi.org/10.18773/austprescr.2019.006DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6370613PMC
February 2019
2 Reads

Repetitive antidotal treatment is crucial in eliminating eye pathology, respiratory toxicity and death following whole-body VX vapor exposure in freely moving rats.

Arch Toxicol 2019 Feb 7. Epub 2019 Feb 7.

Department of Pharmacology, Israel Institute for Biological Research, P.O. Box 19, 74100, Ness Ziona, Israel.

Exposure to the chemical warfare nerve agent VX is extremely toxic, causing severe cholinergic symptoms. If not appropriately treated, death ultimately ensues. Based on our previously described whole-body vapor exposure system, we characterized in detail the clinical outcome, including respiratory dynamics, typical of whole-body exposure to lethal doses of VX vapor in freely moving rats. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00204-019-02401-0DOI Listing
February 2019
1 Read

Ecotoxic effects of loratadine and its metabolic and light-induced derivatives.

Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 2019 Apr 20;170:664-672. Epub 2018 Dec 20.

Dipartimento di Scienze e Tecnologie Ambientali, Biologiche e Farmaceutiche, Università della Campania "Luigi Vanvitelli", Via Vivaldi 43, I-81100 Caserta, Italy. Electronic address:

Loratadine and desloratadine are second-generation antihistaminic drugs. Because of human administration, they are continuously released via excreta into wastewater treatment plants and occur in surface waters as residues and transformation products (TPs). Loratadine and desloratadine residues have been found at very low concentrations (ng/L) in the aquatic environment but their toxic effects are still not well known. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S01476513183126
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoenv.2018.11.116DOI Listing
April 2019
4 Reads

Victims of chemical terrorism, a family of four who were exposed to sulfur mustard.

Toxicol Lett 2019 Mar 17;303:9-15. Epub 2018 Dec 17.

University of Health Sciences, Dept. of Medical CBRN Defense, 06010, Etlik, Ankara, Turkey.

Sulfur mustard (SM) was responsible for more than 80% of all documented chemical casualties during the Great War. Recent literature on clinic picture of SM exposure remained so limited with the sporadic cases who were accidentally exposed to SM especially either in Western Europe or China. We reported a Syrian family of four who became victims of chemical terrorism due to SM exposure and we described the detailed clinical course of the family including the medical history, initial symptomatology, clinical examination, hematological data, and initial treatment in the first 48 hours after exposure at Kilis State Hospital, Turkey. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.toxlet.2018.12.006DOI Listing
March 2019
2 Reads

Protective effects of voltage-gated calcium channel antagonists against zinc toxicity in SN56 neuroblastoma cholinergic cells.

PLoS One 2018 20;13(12):e0209363. Epub 2018 Dec 20.

Department of Laboratory Medicine, Medical University of Gdansk, Gdansk, Poland.

One of the pathological site effects in excitotoxic activation is Zn2+ overload to postsynaptic neurons. Such an effect is considered to be equivalent to the glutamate component of excitotoxicity. Excessive uptake of Zn2+ by active voltage-dependent transport systems in these neurons may lead to significant neurotoxicity. Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0209363PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6301650PMC
December 2018

Ginsenoside Compound K Regulates Amyloid β via the Nrf2/Keap1 Signaling Pathway in Mice with Scopolamine Hydrobromide-Induced Memory Impairments.

J Mol Neurosci 2019 Jan 7;67(1):62-71. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

Laboratory of Molecular Pharmacology, Jilin Provincial Key Laboratory of BioMacromolecules of Chinese Medicine, Jilin Ginseng Academy, Changchun University of Chinese Medicine, Changchun, 130117, Jilin, China.

The objective of this study was to investigate the neuroprotective and antioxidant effects of ginsenoside compound K (CK) in a model of scopolamine hydrobromide-induced, memory-impaired mice. The role of CK in the regulation of amyloid β (Aβ) and its capacity to activate the Nrf2/Keap1 signaling pathway were also studied due to their translational relevance to Alzheimer's disease. The Morris water maze was used to assess spatial memory functions. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12031-018-1210-3DOI Listing
January 2019
2 Reads

Eslicarbazepine acetate reduces trigeminal nociception: Possible role of adrenergic, cholinergic and opioid receptors.

Life Sci 2018 Dec 27;214:167-175. Epub 2018 Oct 27.

Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Belgrade, Vojvode Stepe 450, P.O. Box 146, 11221 Belgrade, Serbia.

Aims: Eslicarbazepine acetate (ESL) is a novel dibenzazepine antiepileptic, that has demonstrated efficacy against trigeminal pain, both in preclinical and clinical studies. However, ESL's mechanism of antinociceptive action remains uncertain. Here, we aimed to examine the contribution of adrenergic/cholinergic/opioid receptors to the antinociceptive effects of ESL in a trigeminal pain model, as these neurotransmitter systems are known to have an important role in the modulation of trigeminal nociception. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S00243205183069
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.lfs.2018.10.059DOI Listing
December 2018
13 Reads

Demystifying serotonin syndrome (or ).

Can Fam Physician 2018 Oct;64(10):720-727

Assistant Professor and Acting Director of the Doctor of Pharmacy program at the Leslie Dan Faculty of Pharmacy at the University of Toronto in Ontario, an advanced practice hospital pharmacist at the Centre for Addiction and Mental Health in Toronto, a doctoral candidate in the School of Health Professions Education at Maastricht University in the Netherlands, and a research fellow at the Wilson Centre in Toronto.

Objective: To review the symptoms of serotonin toxicity (commonly referred to as ) and the causative drugs and their mechanisms of action, and to equip primary care providers with practical strategies to prevent and identify serotonin toxicity.

Quality Of Evidence: PubMed and Google Scholar were searched for relevant articles on serotonin toxicity, the causes, and the differential diagnosis using search terms related to serotonin toxicity (), causes (individual names of drug classes, individual drug names), and diagnosis (). Experts in psychiatric medicine, psychiatric pharmacy, clinical pharmacology, and medical toxicology were consulted. Read More

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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6184959PMC
October 2018
4 Reads

Efficacy of antidotes and their combinations in the treatment of acute carbamate poisoning in rats.

Toxicology 2018 Sep 1;408:113-124. Epub 2018 Sep 1.

Department of Anatomy and Forensic Medicine, Faculty of Medical Sciences, University of Kragujevac, Kragujevac, Serbia.

Background: Physostigmine and its analogues neostigmine, pyridostigmine and rivastigmine are carbamates nowadays used in many indications, including antidotal effects against antimuscarinic poisonings, reversal of competitive neuromuscular block, myasthenia gravis, Alzheimer's disease and prophylaxis against nerve agent intoxications. Use of these medicinal carbamates, but also of carbamate insecticides, created need for research into the potential and mechanisms of action of several antidotes against carbamate poisonings, including anticholinergics and oximes.

Aim: The goal of this experimental study was to ascertain the life-preserving potential of anticholinergics atropine, hexamethonium and d-tubocurarine, oxime HI-6 and their combinations in rats poisoned with physostigmine or pyridostigmine. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tox.2018.08.017DOI Listing
September 2018
32 Reads

Midazolam is effective to reduce cortical network activity in organotypic cultures during severe cholinergic overstimulation with soman.

Toxicol Lett 2018 Nov 27;297:19-23. Epub 2018 Aug 27.

Experimental Anesthesiology Section, Department of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care Medicine, Eberhard-Karls-University, Waldhoernlestrasse 22, 72072 Tuebingen, Germany. Electronic address:

Intoxication with organophosphorus compounds can result in life-threatening organ dysfunction and refractory seizures. Sedation or hypnosis is essential to facilitate mechanical ventilation and control seizure activity. The range of indications for midazolam includes both hypnosis and seizure control. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.toxlet.2018.08.016DOI Listing
November 2018
25 Reads
3.262 Impact Factor

Donepezil-butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) hybrids as Anti-Alzheimer's disease agents with cholinergic, antioxidant, and neuroprotective properties.

Eur J Med Chem 2018 Sep 4;157:161-176. Epub 2018 Aug 4.

Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Bioactive Natural Product Research and State Key Laboratory of Natural Medicines, School of Traditional Chinese Pharmacy, China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing, 210009, PR China. Electronic address:

The multifactorial nature of Alzheimer's disease (AD) calls for the development of multitarget agents addressing key pathogenic processes. A novel family of donepezil-butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) hybrids were designed, synthesized and evaluated as multifunctional ligands against AD. The optimal compound 7d displayed a balanced multifunctional profile covering an intriguing acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibition (IC 0. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejmech.2018.08.005DOI Listing
September 2018
13 Reads
3.450 Impact Factor

Stereoselective glucuronidation metabolism, pharmacokinetics, anti-amnesic pharmacodynamics, and toxic properties of vasicine enantiomers in vitro and in vivo.

Eur J Pharm Sci 2018 Oct 3;123:459-474. Epub 2018 Aug 3.

Institute of Chinese Materia Medica, Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, The MOE Key Laboratory for Standardization of Chinese Medicines, The SATCM Key Laboratory for New Resources and Quality Evaluation of Chinese Medicines, 1200 Cailun Road, Shanghai 201203, China; Shanghai R&D Centre for Standardization of Chinese Medicines, 1200 Cailun Road, Shanghai 201203, China. Electronic address:

Vasicine (VAS) is a potential natural cholinesterase inhibitor for treatment of Alzheimer's disease. Due to one chiral centre (C-3) presenting in molecule, VAS has two enantiomers, d-vasicine (d-VAS) and l-vasicine (l-VAS). The study was undertaken to investigate the stereoselective glucuronidation metabolism, pharmacokinetics, anti-amnesic effect and acute toxicity of VAS enantiomers. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejps.2018.07.058DOI Listing
October 2018
5 Reads

Chemical cross-linking: A feasible approach to prolong doxylamine/pyridoxine release from spray-dried chitosan microspheres.

Eur J Pharm Sci 2018 Oct 2;123:387-394. Epub 2018 Aug 2.

Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Faculty of Pharmacy, Medical University - Plovdiv, Bulgaria; High-technological Center for Emergency Medicine, Plovdiv, Bulgaria.

Spray-dried chitosan microparticles have been widely exploited as vehicles for mucosal drug delivery. Despite their advantages as pharmaceutical formulations, one of the major challenges is achieving sustained drug release, which would diminish toxicity and dosage frequency. The aim of this study was to formulate mucoadhesive glutaraldehyde cross-linked chitosan microparticles loaded with doxylamine succinate and pyridoxine hydrochloride as potential nasal drug delivery systems with sustained release. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S09280987183036
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejps.2018.07.059DOI Listing
October 2018
20 Reads

New insights into the organophosphate-induced intermediate syndrome.

Arh Hig Rada Toksikol 2018 Jun;69(2):191-195

Department of Internal Medicine and Toxicology, "Sf. Spiridon" Clinical Emergency Hospital, University of Medicine and Pharmacy "Gr. T. Popa" Iasi, Romania.

Acute organophosphate (OP) poisoning can be deadlier than any other type of chemical poisoning. So far, only a few cases have been described that include extensive neurological complications. We present an outstanding case of severe oral OP poisoning with intermediate syndrome developed on the fourth day after hospital admission. Read More

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http://content.sciendo.com/view/journals/aiht/69/2/article-p
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2478/aiht-2018-69-3121DOI Listing
June 2018
10 Reads

Antiapoptotic effects of vitamins C and E against cypermethrin-induced oxidative stress and spermatogonial germ cell apoptosis.

J Biochem Mol Toxicol 2018 Aug 5;32(8):e22174. Epub 2018 Jul 5.

Reproductive Physiology Laboratory, Department of Zoology, Kurukshetra University, Kurukshetra, 136 119, India.

Toxicological studies have demonstrated the relation between use of agrochemicals and fertility issues within males. Thus, the present study aimed to elucidate the propensity of cypermethrin (CYP) in bringing testicular germ cell apoptosis and effective attenuation by vitamins C and E in caprines. Reproductive toxicity of CYP was evaluated using histomorphological, cytological, and biochemical changes in the testicular germ cells in dose-dependent (1, 5, 10 μg/mL) and time-dependent (4, 6, 8 h) manner. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jbt.22174DOI Listing
August 2018
5 Reads

Extracorporeal Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation After Diphenhydramine Ingestion.

J Med Toxicol 2018 Sep 28;14(3):253-256. Epub 2018 Jun 28.

Department of Pediatrics, Section of Critical Care Medicine, Baylor College of Medicine, Texas Children's Hospital, 6651 Main Street, Houston, TX, 77030, USA.

Introduction: Diphenhydramine is a widely used first-generation histamine (H) antagonist that can be obtained without prescription in many countries. Massive ingestions can result in severe toxicity and even death. We describe a case of diphenhydramine overdose leading to cardiac arrest, cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR), and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) cannulation for refractory ventricular fibrillation, a process we refer to as extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation (ECPR). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13181-018-0672-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6097973PMC
September 2018
21 Reads

Quercetin promotes gastrointestinal motility and mucin secretion in loperamide-induced constipation of SD rats through regulation of the mAChRs downstream signal.

Pharm Biol 2018 Dec;56(1):309-317

a College of Natural Resources & Life Science/Life and Industry Convergence Research Institute , Pusan National University , Miryang , Korea.

Context: Quercetin (QCT) has been known as a potential therapeutic strategy for gastrointestinal diseases because it contributes to the stabilization of mast cells, the prevention of histamine release and modulation of CaCC chloride channel.

Objective: We investigated the laxative effect and action mechanism of QCT in Lop-induced constipation model.

Materials And Methods: Constipation of SD rats was induced by subcutaneous injection of loperamide (Lop) (4 mg/kg weight) in 0. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13880209.2018.1474932DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6130520PMC
December 2018
14 Reads
1.340 Impact Factor

A Muscarinic Antagonist Reduces Airway Inflammation and Bronchoconstriction Induced by Ambient Particulate Matter in a Mouse Model of Asthma.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2018 06 6;15(6). Epub 2018 Jun 6.

Department of Respiratory Medicine and Rheumatology, Faculty of Medicine, Tottori University, 36-1 Nishi-cho, Yonago, Tottori 683-8504, Japan.

Ambient particulate matter (PM) can increase airway inflammation and induce bronchoconstriction in asthma. This study aimed to investigate the effect of tiotropium bromide, a long-acting muscarinic antagonist, on airway inflammation and bronchoconstriction induced by ambient PM in a mouse model of asthma. We compared the effect of tiotropium bromide to that of fluticasone propionate and formoterol fumarate. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15061189DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6025324PMC
June 2018
1 Read

ameliorates scopolamine-induced amnesia in rats: Behavioral, biochemical, and molecular evidence.

Indian J Pharmacol 2018 Jan-Feb;50(1):30-38

Department of Veterinary Public Health, College of Veterinary Science, Assam Agricultural University, Guwahati, Assam, India.

Objective: Hydroethanolic extract of seeds (HEZA) in scopolamine-induced amnesia was investigated for memory enhancing activity.

Materials And Methods: Radial arm maze (RAM) test was performed to evaluate the behavioral activity. Rats were treated with HEZA (50, 100, and 200 mg/kg, p. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/ijp.IJP_417_17DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5954630PMC
October 2018
8 Reads

Effects of antiarrhythmics and hypokalemia on the rate adaptation of cardiac repolarization.

Authors:
Oleg E Osadchii

Scand Cardiovasc J 2018 08 25;52(4):218-226. Epub 2018 May 25.

a Department of Biomedical Sciences , University of Copenhagen , Copenhagen , Denmark.

Objectives: In normal conditions, sudden heart rate acceleration provokes a rapid reduction in ventricular action potential duration (APD). The protracted APD rate adaptation favors early afterdepolarizations and precipitates arrhythmia. Nevertheless, it is uncertain as to whether the rate-dependent changes of ventricular repolarization can be adversely modified by arrhythmogenic drugs (quinidine and procainamide) and hypokalemia, in comparison to the agents with safe therapeutic profile, such as lidocaine. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14017431.2018.1478123DOI Listing
August 2018
3 Reads

The evaluation of acute physiology and chronic health evaluation II score, poisoning severity score, sequential organ failure assessment score combine with lactate to assess the prognosis of the patients with acute organophosphate pesticide poisoning.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2018 May;97(21):e10862

Department of Emergency Medicine, Chao-Yang Hospital Affiliated to Capital Medical University, Beijing.

The aim of this study was to assess the ability of acute physiology and chronic health evaluation II (APACHE II) score, poisoning severity score (PSS) as well as sequential organ failure assessment (SOFA) score combining with lactate (Lac) to predict mortality in the Emergency Department (ED) patients who were poisoned with organophosphate.A retrospective review of 59 stands-compliant patients was carried out. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were constructed based on the APACHE II score, PSS, SOFA score with or without Lac, respectively, and the areas under the ROC curve (AUCs) were determined to assess predictive value. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MD.0000000000010862DOI Listing
May 2018
3 Reads

Inflammatory and oxidative mechanisms potentiate bifenthrin-induced neurological alterations and anxiety-like behavior in adult rats.

Toxicol Lett 2018 Sep 26;294:73-86. Epub 2018 May 26.

Laboratory of Toxicology-Microbiology and Environmental Health, UR11ES70, Sciences Faculty of Sfax, University of Sfax, BP1171, 3000, Sfax, Tunisia. Electronic address:

Bifenthrin (BF) is a synthetic pyrethroid pesticide widely used in several countries to manage insect pests on diverse agricultural crops. Growing evidence indicates that BF exposure is associated with an increased risk of developing neurodegenerative disorders. However, the mechanisms by which BF induces neurological and anxiety alterations in the frontal cortex and striatum are not well known. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S03784274183020
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.toxlet.2018.05.020DOI Listing
September 2018
12 Reads

Anticholinergic Toxicity Secondary to Overuse of Topricin Cream, a Homeopathic Medication.

Cureus 2018 Mar 5;10(3):e2273. Epub 2018 Mar 5.

Emergency Medicine, Staten Island University Hospital.

Adverse reactions from over-the-counter medications present a challenge to physicians. Homeopathic medicine is an alternative practice, originating in Germany and gaining popularity in the United States. It utilizes dilute preparations of substances in order to treat and cure disease. Read More

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https://www.cureus.com/articles/10841-anticholinergic-toxici
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7759/cureus.2273DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5935428PMC
March 2018
8 Reads

Neurotoxicity fingerprinting of venoms using on-line microfluidic AChBP profiling.

Toxicon 2018 Jun 4;148:213-222. Epub 2018 May 4.

AIMMS Division of BioMolecular Analysis, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, De Boelelaan 1085, 1081 HV, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. Electronic address:

Venoms from snakes are rich sources of highly active proteins with potent affinity towards a variety of enzymes and receptors. Of the many distinct toxicities caused by envenomation, neurotoxicity plays an important role in the paralysis of prey by snakes as well as by venomous sea snails and insects. In order to improve the analytical discovery component of venom toxicity profiling, this paper describes the implementation of microfluidic high-resolution screening (HRS) to obtain neurotoxicity fingerprints from venoms that facilitates identification of the neurotoxic components of envenomation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.toxicon.2018.04.022DOI Listing
June 2018
7 Reads

Antinociceptive Activity of Methanolic Extract of Leaves: Possible Mechanisms of Action Involved.

Pain Res Manag 2018 4;2018:9536406. Epub 2018 Mar 4.

Department of Veterinary Pre-Clinical Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia.

Methanolic extract of Lindau leaves (MECN) has been proven to possess antinociceptive activity that works via the opioid and NO-dependent/cGMP-independent pathways. In the present study, we aimed to further determine the possible mechanisms of antinociception of MECN using various nociceptive assays. The antinociceptive activity of MECN was (i) tested against capsaicin-, glutamate-, phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate-, bradykinin-induced nociception model; (ii) prechallenged against selective antagonist of opioid receptor subtypes (-funaltrexamine, naltrindole, and nor-binaltorphimine); (iii) prechallenged against antagonist of nonopioid systems, namely, -noradrenergic (yohimbine), -adrenergic (pindolol), adenosinergic (caffeine), dopaminergic (haloperidol), and cholinergic (atropine) receptors; (iv) prechallenged with inhibitors of various potassium channels (glibenclamide, apamin, charybdotoxin, and tetraethylammonium chloride). Read More

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https://www.hindawi.com/journals/prm/2018/9536406/
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2018/9536406DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5857305PMC
September 2018
13 Reads

Novel naphthyloxy derivatives - Potent histamine H receptor ligands. Synthesis and pharmacological evaluation.

Bioorg Med Chem 2018 05 11;26(9):2573-2585. Epub 2018 Apr 11.

Department of Technology and Biotechnology of Drugs, Faculty of Pharmacy, Jagiellonian University Medical College, 9 Medyczna Street, 30-688 Kraków, Poland. Electronic address:

A series of 1- and 2-naphthyloxy derivatives were synthesized and evaluated for histamine H receptor affinity. Most compounds showed high affinities with K values below 100 nM. The most potent ligand, 1-(5-(naphthalen-1-yloxy)pentyl)azepane (11) displayed high affinity for the histamine H receptor with a K value of 21. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bmc.2018.04.023DOI Listing
May 2018
4 Reads

Physostigmine Reversal of Dysarthria and Delirium After Iatrogenic Atropine Overdose From a Dental Procedure.

J Emerg Med 2018 06 19;54(6):e113-e115. Epub 2018 Apr 19.

Department of Emergency Medicine, Hennepin County Medical Center, University of Minnesota Medical School, Minneapolis, Minnesota.

Background: Sublingual atropine, dosed at 0.4-0.8 mg, is used by dentists as an antisialogogue to facilitate and increase the speed of procedures. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S07364679183023
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jemermed.2018.02.046DOI Listing
June 2018
9 Reads

Phencyclidine and Scopolamine for Modeling Amnesia in Rodents: Direct Comparison with the Use of Barnes Maze Test and Contextual Fear Conditioning Test in Mice.

Neurotox Res 2018 Oct 21;34(3):431-441. Epub 2018 Apr 21.

Department of Pharmacodynamics, Chair of Pharmacodynamics, Jagiellonian University Medical College, 9 Medyczna St., 30 - 688, Krakow, Poland.

Nowadays cognitive impairments are a growing unresolved medical issue which may accompany many diseases and therapies, furthermore, numerous researchers investigate various neurobiological aspects of human memory to find possible ways to improve it. Until any other method is discovered, in vivo studies remain the only available tool for memory evaluation. At first, researchers need to choose a model of amnesia which may strongly influence observed results. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12640-018-9901-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6154175PMC
October 2018
2 Reads

[The distribution of 2-(dimethylamino)ethyl-(1-hydroxycyclopentyl)(phenyl)acetate in the organism of the warm-blooded animals after its intra-gastric administration].

Sud Med Ekspert 2018;61(2):36-44

Department of Pharmaceutical, Toxicological and Аnalytical Chemistry, Kursk State Medical University, Ministry of Health of the Russia, Kursk, Russia, 305041.

The objective of the present study was to elucidate the distribution of 2-(dimethylamino)ethyl-(1-hydroxycyclopentyl)(phenyl)acetate in the organism of the warm-blooded animals after its intra-gastric administration. The methods applied in the study included thin layer chromatography in silicagel, aci-nitroprosalt staining reaction, UV-spectrophotometry,, and GC-mass spectrometry. The identification and the quantitation of 2-(dimethylamino)ethyl-(1-hydroxycyclopentyl)(phenyl)acetate in the organs and blood of the warm-blooded animals were carried out within 20, 150, and 360 min after a single intra-gastric administration of 1300 ml of this poisonous substance. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.17116/sudmed201861236-44DOI Listing
September 2018
2 Reads

Atropa belladonna neurotoxicity: Implications to neurological disorders.

Food Chem Toxicol 2018 Jun 10;116(Pt B):346-353. Epub 2018 Apr 10.

Department of Molecular Pharmacology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY, USA. Electronic address:

Atropa belladonna, commonly known as belladonna or deadly nightshade, ranks among one of the most poisonous plants in Europe and other parts of the world. The plant contains tropane alkaloids including atropine, scopolamine, and hyoscyamine, which are used as anticholinergics in Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved drugs and homeopathic remedies. These alkaloids can be very toxic at high dose. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fct.2018.04.022DOI Listing
June 2018
2 Reads

In Vitro Effects of Chronic Spirolide Treatment on Human Neuronal Stem Cell Differentiation and Cholinergic System Development.

ACS Chem Neurosci 2018 Jun 14;9(6):1441-1452. Epub 2018 Mar 14.

Departamento de Farmacología, Farmacia y Tecnología Farmacéutica, Facultad de Veterinaria , Universidad de Santiago de Compostela , 27001 Lugo , Spain.

Spirolides (SPX) are marine toxins, produced by dinoflagellates that act as potent antagonists of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. These compounds are not toxic for humans, and since there are no reports of human intoxications caused by this group of toxins they are not yet currently regulated in Europe. Currently 13-desmethyl spirolide C, 13,19-didesmethyl spirolide C, and 20-methyl spirolide G are commercially available as reference materials. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acschemneuro.8b00036DOI Listing
June 2018
4 Reads

Oxidative stress in organophosphate poisoning: role of standard antidotal therapy.

J Appl Toxicol 2018 Aug 8;38(8):1058-1070. Epub 2018 Mar 8.

Department of Toxicology and Military Pharmacy, Faculty of Military Health Sciences, University of Defence, Trebesska 1575, 500 01, Hradec Kralove, Czech Republic.

Despite the main mechanism of organophosphate (OP) toxicity through inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) being well known over the years, some chronic adverse health effects indicate the involvement of additional pathways. Oxidative stress is among the most intensively studied. Overstimulation of cholinergic and glutamatergic nervous system is followed by intensified generation of reactive species and oxidative damage in many tissues. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jat.3605DOI Listing
August 2018
8 Reads

Acute radiation impacts contractility of guinea-pig bladder strips affecting mucosal-detrusor interactions.

PLoS One 2018 7;13(3):e0193923. Epub 2018 Mar 7.

Centre for Cancer Research and Cell Biology, School of Medicine, Dentistry and Biomedical Sciences, Queen's University Belfast, Belfast, Northern Ireland, United Kingdom.

Radiation-induced bladder toxicity is associated with radiation therapy for pelvic malignancies, arising from unavoidable irradiation of neighbouring normal bladder tissue. This study aimed to investigate the acute impact of ionizing radiation on the contractility of bladder strips and identify the radiation-sensitivity of the mucosa vs the detrusor. Guinea-pig bladder strips (intact or mucosa-free) received ex vivo sham or 20Gy irradiation and were studied with in vitro myography, electrical field stimulation and Ca2+-fluorescence imaging. Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0193923PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5841802PMC
July 2018
6 Reads

6,7,4'-Trihydroxyisoflavone, a major metabolite of daidzein, improves learning and memory via the cholinergic system and the p-CREB/BDNF signaling pathway in mice.

Eur J Pharmacol 2018 May 3;826:140-147. Epub 2018 Mar 3.

Department of Pharmacology, School of Pharmacy, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 16419, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

Daidzein is one of the major isoflavfones found in soy food and plants. Following ingestion, daidzein is readily converted to hydroxylated metabolites in the human body. 6,7,4'-Trihydroxyisoflavone (THIF), one of the metabolites of daidzein, has several pharmacological activities, including anti-cancer and anti-obesity properties. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejphar.2018.02.048DOI Listing
May 2018
10 Reads

The Red Alga Gracilariopsis chorda and Its Active Constituent Arachidonic Acid Promote Spine Dynamics via Dendritic Filopodia and Potentiate Functional Synaptic Plasticity in Hippocampal Neurons.

J Med Food 2018 May 2;21(5):481-488. Epub 2018 Mar 2.

1 Department of Biotechnology, Pukyong National University , Busan, Korea.

Exogenous neurotrophins can induce neuronal differentiation, outgrowth, survival, and synaptic function in the central nervous system. In primary cultures of rat hippocampal neurons, an ethanol extract of the red alga Gracilariopsis chorda (GCE) and its active compound arachidonic acid (AA) significantly increased the densities of dendritic filopodia and spines, promoted the expression of presynaptic vesicle protein 2 (SV2) and postsynaptic density protein 95 (PSD-95), induced robust synaptogenesis, and increased the expression of cell division control protein 42 (CDC42) and actin-related protein 2 (ARP2), which are important for actin organization in dendritic protrusions, and facilitated presynaptic plasticity by increasing the size of the synaptic vesicle pool at presynaptic nerve terminals. In addition, oral administration of GCE and AA for 10 days, at concentrations of 1 mg/g and 2. Read More

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http://www.liebertpub.com/doi/10.1089/jmf.2017.4026
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/jmf.2017.4026DOI Listing
May 2018
12 Reads

Antinociceptive effects of novel epibatidine analogs through activation of α4β2 nicotinic receptors.

Sci China Life Sci 2018 06 2;61(6):688-695. Epub 2018 Feb 2.

Institutes of Brain Science and State Key Laboratory of Medical Neurobiology, Collaborative Innovation Center for Brain Science, Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai, 200032, China.

The study of α4β2 nicotinic receptors has provided new indications in the treatment of pain. Efforts have been made to explore new α4β2 nicotinic receptor agonists, including TC-2559, as antinociceptive drugs. In this study, we discovered a set of novel epibatidine analogs with strong binding affinities to the α4β2 nicotinic receptors. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11427-017-9062-3DOI Listing
June 2018
5 Reads
1.690 Impact Factor

Dietary Supplementation of Almond Prevents Oxidative Stress by Advocating Antioxidants and Attenuates Impaired Aversive Memory in Male Rats.

Plant Foods Hum Nutr 2018 Mar;73(1):7-12

Neurochemistry and Biochemical Neuropharmacology Research Unit, Department of Biochemistry, University of Karachi, Karachi, 75270, Pakistan.

Scopolamine, an anti-muscarinic agent, has been shown to induce amnesia and oxidative stress similar to that observed in the older age. The present study was designed to determine the relationship between the oxidative status and memory improvement in scopolamine injected rats pre-administered with almonds. Rats (n = 8) in the almond group were administered orally with 400 mg/kg almond suspension for 28 days daily before the intraperitoneal injection of scopolamine (0. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11130-018-0655-4DOI Listing
March 2018
3 Reads

Dexmedetomidine stops benzodiazepine-refractory nerve agent-induced status epilepticus.

Epilepsy Res 2018 03 31;141:1-12. Epub 2018 Jan 31.

USAMRICD, Medical Toxicology Research Division, Neuroscience Branch, 2900 Ricketts Point Rd, Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD 21010, United States.

Nerve agents are highly toxic chemicals that pose an imminent threat to soldiers and civilians alike. Nerve agent exposure leads to an increase in acetylcholine within the central nervous system, resulting in development of protracted seizures known as status epilepticus (SE). Currently, benzodiazepines are the standard of care for nerve agent-induced SE, but their efficacy quickly wanes as the time to treatment increases. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.eplepsyres.2018.01.010DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6242267PMC
March 2018
5 Reads

Monosodium glutamate impairs the contraction of uterine visceral smooth muscle ex vivo of rat through augmentation of acetylcholine and nitric oxide signaling pathways.

Reprod Biol 2018 Mar 3;18(1):83-93. Epub 2018 Feb 3.

Molecular Neurotoxicology Laboratory, Department of Physiology, University of Kalyani, Kalyani, West Bengal 741235, India. Electronic address:

The aim of the study was to examine the toxic effects of Monosodium glutamate (MSG), an extensively used food additive, on the contraction of uterine visceral smooth muscle (UVSM) in rat and to elucidate the probable neurocrine mechanism involved in it. MSG produced significant potentiation of the force and inhibition of frequency of uterus recorded ex vivo in chronic MSG exposure and in single dose acute experiments. MSG also produced significant potentiation of force of acetylcholine induced contraction and no alterations in atropine induced contraction of uterus. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.repbio.2018.01.006DOI Listing
March 2018
5 Reads

Differential Neuroprotective Effects of Interleukin-1 Receptor Antagonist on Spinal Cord Neurons after Excitotoxic Injury.

Neuroimmunomodulation 2017 26;24(4-5):220-230. Epub 2018 Jan 26.

Secondary damage following spinal cord injury (SCI) induces neuronal damage through inflammatory and excitotoxic pathways. We hypothesized that the interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL1RA) protects neuronal populations and suppresses apoptosis and gliosis after injury. Spinal cord slice cultures (SCSCs) were subjected to excitotoxic injury with N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) and treated with IL1RA. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000484607DOI Listing
January 2019

Ethanol Extract of Oldenlandia diffusa Herba Attenuates Scopolamine-Induced Cognitive Impairments in Mice via Activation of BDNF, P-CREB and Inhibition of Acetylcholinesterase.

Int J Mol Sci 2018 Jan 25;19(2). Epub 2018 Jan 25.

Department of Pathology, College of Korean Medicine, Graduate School, Kyung Hee University, 1 Hoegi-dong, Dongdaemun-gu, Seoul 130-701, Korea.

Though Herba (ODH) has been known to exhibit anti-cancer and anti-inflammatory effects, its anti-amnestic effect has never been reported so far. The aim of this present study was to elucidate the anti-amnestic effect of ODH. ODH pretreatment significantly reduced escape latency of scopolamine treated Institute of Cancer Research (ICR) mice compared to untreated control groups in a Morris water maze test. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms19020363DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5855585PMC
January 2018
7 Reads

Antimuscarinic-induced convulsions in fasted mice after food intake: No evidence of spontaneous seizures, behavioral changes or neuronal damage.

Acta Neurobiol Exp (Wars) 2017 ;77(4):373-381

Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, Istanbul Yeni Yuzyil University, Istanbul, Turkey.

Prolonged or repeated seizures have been shown to cause spontaneous recurrent seizures, increased anxiety‑related behavior, locomotor hyperactivity, impaired functions of learning and memory, and neuronal damage in the hippocampus and other brain regions in animals. Mice and rats treated with antimuscarinic drugs after fasting for two days or less develop convulsions after being allowed to eat ad libitum. To address whether such behavioral and neuroanatomic changes occur following these convulsions, mice treated i. Read More

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August 2018
4 Reads

Soybean-Derived Phytoalexins Improve Cognitive Function through Activation of Nrf2/HO-1 Signaling Pathway.

Int J Mol Sci 2018 Jan 16;19(1). Epub 2018 Jan 16.

School of Food Science and Biotechnology (BK21plus Program), Kyungpook National University, Daegu 41566, Korea.

As soy-derived glyceollins are known to induce antioxidant enzymes in various types of cells and tissues, we hypothesized that the compounds could protect neurons from damage due to reactive oxygen species (ROS). In order to examine the neuroprotective effect of glyceollins, primary cortical neurons collected from mice and mouse hippocampal HT22 cells were challenged with glutamate. Glyceollins attenuated glutamate-induced cytotoxicity in primary cortical neuron isolated from mice carrying wild-type nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2), but the compounds were ineffective in those isolated from Nrf2 knockout mice, suggesting the involvement of the Nrf2 signaling pathway in glyceollin-mediated neuroprotection. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms19010268DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5796214PMC
January 2018
36 Reads

Vanillin improves scopolamine‑induced memory impairment through restoration of ID1 expression in the mouse hippocampus.

Mol Med Rep 2018 Mar 9;17(3):4399-4405. Epub 2018 Jan 9.

Department of Food Science and Nutrition, Hallym University, Chuncheon, Gangwon 24252, Republic of Korea.

4-Hydroxy-3-methoxybenzaldehyde (vanillin), contained in a number of species of plant, has been reported to display beneficial effects against brain injuries. In the present study, the impact of vanillin on scopolamine‑induced alterations in cognition and the expression of DNA binding protein inhibitor ID‑1 (ID1), one of the inhibitors of DNA binding/differentiation proteins that regulate gene transcription, in the mouse hippocampus. Mice were treated with 1 mg/kg scopolamine with or without 40 mg/kg vanillin once daily for 4 weeks. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3892/mmr.2018.8401DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5802214PMC
March 2018
24 Reads

Azemiopsin, a Selective Peptide Antagonist of Muscle Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor: Preclinical Evaluation as a Local Muscle Relaxant.

Toxins (Basel) 2018 01 7;10(1). Epub 2018 Jan 7.

Shemyakin-Ovchinnikov Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences, ul. Miklukho-Maklaya 16/10, Moscow 117997, Russia.

Azemiopsin (Az), a linear peptide from the viper venom, contains no disulfide bonds, is a high-affinity and selective inhibitor of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) of muscle type and may be considered as potentially applicable nondepolarizing muscle relaxant. In this study, we investigated its preclinical profile in regard to in vitro and in vivo efficacy, acute and chronic toxicity, pharmacokinetics, allergenic capacity, immunotoxicity and mutagenic potency. The peptide effectively inhibited (IC ~ 19 nM) calcium response of muscle nAChR evoked by 30 μM (EC) acetylcholine but was less potent (IC ~ 3 μM) at α7 nAChR activated by 10 μM (EC) acetylcholine and had a low affinity to α4β2 and α3-containing nAChR, as well as to GABA or 5HT₃ receptors. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/toxins10010034DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5793121PMC
January 2018
11 Reads

Profound Prolonged Bradycardia and Hypotension after Interscalene Brachial Plexus Block with Bupivacaine.

J Emerg Med 2018 03 30;54(3):e41-e43. Epub 2017 Dec 30.

Department of Emergency Medicine, North Shore University Hospital, Manhasset, New York.

Background: Interscalene brachial plexus blocks have been a routinely performed method of anesthesia for shoulder surgery that decreases the need for general anesthesia, length of stay, and recovery time. We describe a case of bupivacaine toxicity after an interscalene block.

Case Report: The patient was a 66-year-old man who presented to our Emergency Department by emergency medical services from an ambulatory surgery center where he had undergone rotator cuff surgery, with bradycardia and hypotension. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S07364679173117
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jemermed.2017.12.004DOI Listing
March 2018
14 Reads