4,230 results match your criteria Toxicity Amphetamine


Characterization of intentional-abuse venlafaxine exposures reported to poison control centers in the United States.

Am J Drug Alcohol Abuse 2019 Apr 11:1-6. Epub 2019 Apr 11.

a Maryland Poison Center, Department of Pharmacy Practice and Science , University of Maryland School of Pharmacy , Baltimore , MD , USA.

Background: Venlafaxine use to achieve an amphetamine-like high has been described but data regarding the epidemiology and clinical effects are sparse.

Objectives: Describe the prevalence and toxicity of venlafaxine abuse reported to US poison control centers.

Methods: This was a retrospective review of venlafaxine exposures reported to the National Poison Data System (NPDS) from 2000 to 2016. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00952990.2019.1599382DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Amphetamine and Clonidine Toxicity Resulting in Posterior Reversible Encephalopathy Syndrome.

Pediatr Emerg Care 2019 Apr 9. Epub 2019 Apr 9.

Emergency Medicine, and.

Amphetamine toxicity typically presents with hypertension and tachycardia. Conversely, clonidine acts as an agonist at central α2 and imidazoline receptors, which may cause brief initial hypertension followed by hypotension and bradycardia in overdose. We report a case of mixed ingestion resulting in posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) successfully treated with phentolamine. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/PEC.0000000000001819DOI Listing
April 2019
3 Reads

Research Status of New Designer Drug Methcathinone in Forensic Toxicology.

Fa Yi Xue Za Zhi 2018 Jun 25;34(6):611-616. Epub 2018 Dec 25.

Department of Forensic Medicine, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430030, China.

Methcathinone, a new cathinone designer drug, which is structurally similar to amphetamine analogs, is a central nervous stimulant. Recently, there has been a worldwide rise in its popularity and abuse, and a growing number of cases with disability or even death is reported in several countries, resulting in public concern. The typical symptoms include accelerated heartbeat, high temperature, anxiety, depression, etc. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.12116/j.issn.1004-5619.2018.06.007DOI Listing
June 2018
1 Read

An expanding world of new psychoactive substances-designer benzodiazepines.

Neurotoxicology 2019 Feb 23;73:8-16. Epub 2019 Feb 23.

Department of Pharmacodynamics, Medical University of Łódź, 90-151 Łódź, Muszynskiego 1, Poland.

The abuse of new psychoactive substances (NPS) has been increasing dramatically since the late 2000s worldwide. Between 2009 and 2017, a total of 803 individual NPS were reported to the United Nations Office of Drugs and Crime by 111 countries and territories. Although the most popular compounds are synthetic cannabinomimetics and psychostimulatory derivatives of cathinone (so-called β-keto-amphetamines), novel benzodiazepines have recently emerged on the recreational drug market. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuro.2019.02.015DOI Listing
February 2019
2 Reads

Pharmacological characterization of the aminorex analogs 4-MAR, 4,4'-DMAR, and 3,4-DMAR.

Neurotoxicology 2019 Feb 15;72:95-100. Epub 2019 Feb 15.

Division of Clinical Pharmacology and Toxicology, Department of Biomedicine, University Hospital Basel and University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland. Electronic address:

4,4'-Dimethylaminorex (4,4'-DMAR) is a novel psychoactive substance (NPS) that appeared on the illicit drug market in addition to the psychostimulant 4-methylaminorex (4-MAR). Both substances are methylated derivatives of aminorex, an amphetamine-like anorectic used in the 1960ies and withdrawn from the marked due to severe cardiovascular toxicity. The aim of the present study was to characterize the in vitro pharmacological profiles of 4-MAR, 4,4'-DMAR, and 3,4-dimethylaminorex (3,4-DMAR, direx). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuro.2019.02.011DOI Listing
February 2019
6 Reads

Benzo fury: A new trend in the drug misuse scene.

J Appl Toxicol 2019 Feb 5. Epub 2019 Feb 5.

UCIBIO, REQUIMTE, Laboratory of Toxicology, Department of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Porto, Rua Jorge Viterbo Ferreira, 228, Porto, 4050-313, Portugal.

Benzofurans, also known by users as benzo fury or benzofury, are synthetic phenethylamines and constitute the third most prominent group of new psychoactive substances (NPS). As the use of these substances has been spread as an alternative to the classic illicit psychostimulants, such as amphetamines, their legal status was reviewed, resulting in an utter prohibition of these NPS in many countries worldwide. Herein, the prevalence of abuse, chemistry, biological effects, metabolism, and the potential harms and risky behaviors associated with the abuse of benzofurans are reviewed. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jat.3774DOI Listing
February 2019
1 Read

Epidemiology, clinical features and management of patients presenting to European emergency departments with acute cocaine toxicity: comparison between powder cocaine and crack cocaine cases.

Clin Toxicol (Phila) 2019 Jan 30:1-9. Epub 2019 Jan 30.

a Emergency Department , Hospital Clínic, Barcelona; IDIBAPS , Barcelona , Spain.

Objective: To analyse the epidemiology, clinical picture and emergency department (ED) management of a large series of patients who presented to European EDs after cocaine consumption, comparing data from powder (C group) and crack (C group) consumers.

Methods: Between October 2013 and December 2016, the Euro-DEN Plus Registry recorded 17,371 consecutive acute recreational drug toxicity presentations to 22 EDs in 14 European countries. Epidemiological and demographic data, co-ingestion of alcohol and other drugs, clinical features, ED management and outcome (death) were analysed for cocaine cases, and comparison of clinical picture in C and C patients were performed adjusting for alcohol and other drug co-ingestion. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15563650.2018.1549735DOI Listing
January 2019
1 Read

Significance of protein kinase C in the neuropsychotoxicity induced by methamphetamine-like psychostimulants.

Neurochem Int 2019 Mar 14;124:162-170. Epub 2019 Jan 14.

Neuropsychopharmacology and Toxicology Program, College of Pharmacy, Kangwon National University, Chunchon 24341, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

The abuse of methamphetamine (MA), an amphetamine (AMPH)-type stimulant, has been demonstrated to be associated with various neuropsychotoxicity, including memory impairment, psychiatric morbidity, and dopaminergic toxicity. Compelling evidence from preclinical studies has indicated that protein kinase C (PKC), a large family of serine/threonine protein kinases, plays an important role in MA-induced neuropsychotoxicity. PKC-mediated N-terminal phosphorylation of dopamine transporter has been identified as one of the prerequisites for MA-induced synaptic dopamine release. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S01970186183054
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuint.2019.01.014DOI Listing
March 2019
16 Reads

mTOR Modulates Methamphetamine-Induced Toxicity through Cell Clearing Systems.

Oxid Med Cell Longev 2018 29;2018:6124745. Epub 2018 Oct 29.

Department of Translational Research and New Technologies in Medicine and Surgery, Human Anatomy, University of Pisa, Via Roma 55, Pisa 56126, Italy.

Methamphetamine (METH) is abused worldwide, and it represents a threat for public health. METH exposure induces a variety of detrimental effects. In fact, METH produces a number of oxidative species, which lead to lipid peroxidation, protein misfolding, and nuclear damage. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2018/6124745DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6311854PMC
February 2019
2 Reads

Antipsychotics for the treatment of sympathomimetic toxicity: A systematic review.

Am J Emerg Med 2019 Jan 6. Epub 2019 Jan 6.

Department of Emergency Medicine, McGill University Health Centre, Montréal, Québec, Canada; Centre Antipoison Du Québec, Montréal, Québec, Canada; Département d'urgence, Hôpital Charles-Lemoyne, Greenfield Park, Qc, Canada.

Objective: Benzodiazepines are often recommended first-line for management of cocaine and amphetamine toxicity while antipsychotic treatment is discouraged due to the potential for lowering seizure threshold, prolonging the QT interval, and decreasing heat dissipation. We performed a systematic review including animal and human studies to elucidate the efficacy and safety of antipsychotics in managing sympathomimetic toxicity specifically evaluating the effect of treatment on mortality, seizures, hyperthermia, and cardiovascular effects.

Methods: We searched MEDLINE, Embase, BIOSIS Previews, Web of Science, Scopus, CENTRAL and gray literature from inception to 31 May 2017 to answer: Can antipsychotics be used safely and effectively to treat cocaine or amphetamine toxicity? Citations were screened by title and abstract. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajem.2019.01.001DOI Listing
January 2019
8 Reads

β-Phenylethylamine and various monomethylated and para-halogenated analogs. Acute toxicity studies in mice.

Drug Chem Toxicol 2019 Jan 7:1-4. Epub 2019 Jan 7.

c Safety Pharmacology , Collegeville , PA , USA.

Phenylethylamine's acute toxic effects in a population of adult (10 to 12 weeks old; ∼30 g) Swiss male albino mice are significantly increased by para-position aromatic ring halogenation. LD, LD, and LD values (mg/kg; x ± SEM) for p-F- (116.7 ± 3. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01480545.2018.1551899DOI Listing
January 2019
4 Reads

Sympathomimetic amine compounds and hepatotoxicity: Not all are alike-Key distinctions noted in a short review.

Authors:
Cyril Willson

Toxicol Rep 2019 1;6:26-33. Epub 2018 Dec 1.

EuSci LLC, Gretna, NE, USA.

Sympathomimetic amine compounds are often pooled together and incorrectly assumed to be interchangeable with respect to potential adverse effects. A brief and specific review of sympathomimetic compounds and one instance (i.e. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.toxrep.2018.11.013DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6288410PMC
December 2018
3 Reads

The novel psychoactive substance 3-methylmethcathinone (3-MMC or metaphedrone): A review.

Forensic Sci Int 2019 Feb 3;295:54-63. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

UCIBIO/REQUIMTE, Laboratory of Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Porto, Rua Jorge Viterbo Ferreira, 228, Porto, 4050-313, Portugal.

3-Methylmethcathinone (3-MMC or metaphedrone) is a synthetic cathinone, recently introduced in the market of the new psychoactive substances (NPS), initially to replace mephedrone (4-methylmethcathinone or 4-MMC), and rapidly widespread among drug users. 3-Methylmethcathinone is legally controlled in many countries, but is still easily available for purchase from websites, and frequently found in recreational settings. Most toxicological data on this drug come from human case reports of intoxications. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.forsciint.2018.11.024DOI Listing
February 2019
2 Reads

Interplay Between Amphetamine and Activity Level in Gene Networks of the Mouse Striatum.

Bioinform Biol Insights 2018 11;12:1177932218815152. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Department of Animal Sciences, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL, USA.

The psychostimulant amphetamine can be prescribed to ameliorate the symptoms of narcolepsy, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and to facilitate weight loss. This stimulant can also have negative effects including toxicity and addiction risk. The impact of amphetamine on gene networks is partially understood and this study addresses this gap in consideration of the physical activity. Read More

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http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/10.1177/1177932218815152
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1177932218815152DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6291885PMC
December 2018
15 Reads

Methamphetamine neurotoxicity, microglia, and neuroinflammation.

J Neuroinflammation 2018 Dec 12;15(1):341. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Department of Neuroscience, University of Florida College of Medicine and McKnight Brain Institute, JHM Health Science Center, PO Box 100244, Gainesville, FL, 32610, USA.

Methamphetamine (METH) is an illicit psychostimulant that is subject to abuse worldwide. While the modulatory effects of METH on dopamine neurotransmission and its neurotoxicity in the central nervous system are well studied, METH's effects on modulating microglial neuroimmune functions and on eliciting neuroinflammation to affect dopaminergic neurotoxicity has attracted considerable attention in recent years. The current review illuminates METH-induced neurotoxicity from a neuropathological perspective by summarizing studies reporting microglial activation after METH administration in rodents. Read More

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https://jneuroinflammation.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.118
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12974-018-1385-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6292109PMC
December 2018
7 Reads

Effects of Clavulanic Acid Treatment on Reinstatement to Methamphetamine, Glial Glutamate Transporters, and mGluR 2/3 Expression in P Rats Exposed to Ethanol.

J Mol Neurosci 2019 Jan 23;67(1):1-15. Epub 2018 Nov 23.

College of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Department of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, University of Toledo, Health Science Campus, 3000 Arlington Avenue, HEB 282G, Toledo, OH, 43614, USA.

Evidence demonstrated that the glutamatergic system is implicated in mediating relapse to several drugs of abuse, including methamphetamine (METH). Glutamate homeostasis is maintained by a number of glutamate transporters, such as glutamate transporter type 1 (GLT-1), cystine/glutamate transporter (xCT), and glutamate aspartate transporter (GLAST). In addition, group II metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluR2/3) were found to be implicated in relapse-seeking behavior. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12031-018-1194-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6344243PMC
January 2019
16 Reads

Cytotoxicity of new psychoactive substances and other drugs of abuse studied in human HepG2 cells using an adopted high content screening assay.

Toxicol Lett 2019 Feb 19;301:79-89. Epub 2018 Nov 19.

Department of Experimental and Clinical Toxicology, Institute of Experimental and Clinical Pharmacology and Toxicology, Center for Molecular Signaling (PZMS), Saarland University, Homburg, Germany. Electronic address:

New psychoactive substances (NPS) are still an emerging issue in clinical and forensic toxicology. Information about their cytotoxic potential is limited or even unavailable before distribution and thus their intake can be of high risk for consumers. The aim of the presented study was to develop a strategy to identify cytotoxic potential of NPS based on a high content screening assay (HCSA) using HepG2 cell line and four fluorescent dyes, namely Hoechst33342, TMRM, CAL-520, and TOTO-3. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.toxlet.2018.11.007DOI Listing
February 2019
21 Reads

Hydrogen Sulfide Protects Hippocampal Neurons Against Methamphetamine Neurotoxicity Via Inhibition of Apoptosis and Neuroinflammation.

J Mol Neurosci 2019 Jan 19;67(1):133-141. Epub 2018 Nov 19.

Department of Biology, Damghan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Damghan, Iran.

Methamphetamine (METH) known as a highly neurotoxic compound associated with irreversible brain cell damage that results in neurological and psychiatric abnormalities. The mechanisms of METH intoxication mainly involve intraneuronal events including oxidative stress, excitotoxicity, and dopamine oxidation. Based on recent studies, HS can protect neurons through anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and antiapoptotic mechanisms. Read More

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http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s12031-018-1218-8
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12031-018-1218-8DOI Listing
January 2019
18 Reads

Inhibition of Microglia-Derived Oxidative Stress by Ciliary Neurotrophic Factor Protects Dopamine Neurons In Vivo from MPP⁺ Neurotoxicity.

Int J Mol Sci 2018 Nov 10;19(11). Epub 2018 Nov 10.

Department of Neuroscience, Graduate School, Kyung Hee University, Seoul 02447, Korea.

We demonstrated that capsaicin (CAP), an agonist of transient receptor potential vanilloid subtype 1 (TRPV1), inhibits microglia activation and microglia-derived oxidative stress in the substantia nigra (SN) of MPP⁺-lesioned rat. However, the detailed mechanisms how microglia-derived oxidative stress is regulated by CAP remain to be determined. Here we report that ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) endogenously produced by CAP-activated astrocytes through TRPV1, but not microglia, inhibits microglial activation and microglia-derived oxidative stress, as assessed by OX-6 and OX-42 immunostaining and hydroethidine staining, respectively, resulting in neuroprotection. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms19113543DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6274815PMC
November 2018
1 Read

Involvement of NLRP3 inflammasome in methamphetamine-induced microglial activation through miR-143/PUMA axis.

Toxicol Lett 2019 Feb 28;301:53-63. Epub 2018 Oct 28.

Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Southeast University, Nanjing, Jiangsu, China; Institute of Life Sciences, Key Laboratory of Developmental Genes and Human Disease, Southeast University, Nanjing, 210096, Jiangsu, China. Electronic address:

Nod-like Receptor Protein 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome activation is known to lead to microglia-mediated neuroinflammation. Methamphetamine is known to induce microglial activation. However, whether NLRP3 inflammasome activation contributes to the microglial activation induced by methamphetamine remains elusive. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S03784274183202
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.toxlet.2018.10.020DOI Listing
February 2019
20 Reads
3.262 Impact Factor

Methamphetamine exposure induces neuropathic protein β-Amyloid expression.

Toxicol In Vitro 2019 Feb 24;54:304-309. Epub 2018 Oct 24.

Key Lab of Modern Toxicology (NJMU), Ministry of Education, Department of Toxicology, School of Public Health, Nanjing Medical University, 101 Longmian Avenue, Nanjing, Jiangsu 211166, China; China International Cooperation Center for Environment and Human Health, China. Electronic address:

Methamphetamine (METH) abusing contributes to dopaminergic neurons degeneration, resulting inParkinson's disease (PD)-like changes. More recently, the association between METH exposure and the Alzheimer's disease (AD)-like changes gained more attention, however, the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. In the present study, we aimed to investigate whether METH exposure promotes the formation of Aβ, one of the key AD-like pathological proteins. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S08872333183044
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tiv.2018.10.012DOI Listing
February 2019
7 Reads

Long-term systemic administration with low dose of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine causes photoreceptor cell damage in CD1 mice.

Cutan Ocul Toxicol 2019 Mar 26;38(1):81-87. Epub 2018 Nov 26.

b Department of Ophthalmology , Shenzhen Children's Hospital , Shenzhen , People's Republic of China.

Objective: As a powerful psychostimulant with high potential for abuse, 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) causes long-lasting neurotoxicity. This study was to investigate the effects of systemic administration of MDMA on retinal damage in CD1 mice and its underlying mechanisms.

Material And Methods: CD1 mice were randomly divided into two groups (n = 10): group 1 receiving PBS by intraperitoneal injection daily; group 2 receiving 2 mg/kg MDMA by intraperitoneal injection daily for 3 months. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15569527.2018.1539007DOI Listing
March 2019
2 Reads

Potential pro-oxidative effects of single dose of mephedrone in vital organs of mice.

Pharmacol Rep 2018 Dec 29;70(6):1097-1104. Epub 2018 May 29.

Department of Medical Chemistry, Medical University of Lublin, Lublin, Poland. Electronic address:

Background: Mephedrone is a recreationally used synthetic cathinone, relatively new abusive substances with molecular structure similar to amphetamine. As there is still lack of scientific data regarding mechanisms of action as well as metabolism of mephedrone, especially in aspects other than neurotoxicity, addiction or behavioral changes, therefore we aimed, for the first time, to investigate potential pro-oxidative actions of a single dose of mephedrone in organs other than brain and its structures, i.e. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pharep.2018.05.010DOI Listing
December 2018
14 Reads

The time course of blood brain barrier leakage and its implications on the progression of methamphetamine-induced seizures.

Neurotoxicology 2018 12 30;69:130-140. Epub 2018 Sep 30.

Division of Neurotoxicology, National Center for Toxicological Research, Jefferson, 72079, AR, USA.

The initial goals of these experiments were to determine: 1) if blood-brain barrier (BBB) breakdown was a cause or an effect of METH-induced seizures; 2) all the brain regions where BBB is disrupted as seizures progress; and 3) the correlations between body temperature and vascular leakage and neurodegeneration. A fourth objective was added after initial experimentation to determine if sub-strain differences existed in adult male C57 B6 J (Jackson laboratories, JAX) versus C57 B6N (Charles River, CR) mice involving their susceptibility to BBB breakdown and seizure severity. With the 1st "maximal" intensity myoclonic-tonic seizure (MCT) varying degrees of IgG infiltration across the BBB (≤1 mm) were prominent in olfactory system (OS) associated regions and in thalamus, hypothalamus and neocortex. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0161813X183011
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuro.2018.09.008DOI Listing
December 2018
17 Reads
3.380 Impact Factor

GABAergic Alterations in the Rat Testis after Methamphetamine Exposure.

Int J Med Sci 2018 10;15(12):1349-1354. Epub 2018 Aug 10.

Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Medical Science, Naresuan University, Phitsanulok 65000, Thailand.

Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), GABA-A receptors and GABA transporter 1 (GAT1) were reported to be involved in the proliferation of Leydig cells, testosterone production and spermatogenesis. Since methamphetamine (METH) has been reported to have adverse effects on testis and its functions, the aim of this study was therefore to determine the changes of GABAergic activity in testis after METH exposure. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into control, acute binge (AB-METH), escalating dose (ED METH) and escalating dose-binge (ED-binge METH) groups. Read More

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http://www.medsci.org/v15p1349.htm
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7150/ijms.27609DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6158670PMC
January 2019
13 Reads

HIV-1 Tat and methamphetamine co-induced oxidative cellular injury is mitigated by N-acetylcysteine amide (NACA) through rectifying mTOR signaling.

Toxicol Lett 2018 Dec 24;299:159-171. Epub 2018 Sep 24.

CUHK-SDU Joint Laboratory on Reproductive Genetics, School of Biomedical Sciences, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, NT, Hong Kong, China. Electronic address:

Methamphetamine (Meth) is an addictive psychostimulant whose abuse is intimately linked to increased risks for HIV-1 infection. Converging lines of evidence indicate that Meth also aggravates the symptoms of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND), though the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. By using the lipophilic antioxidant N-acetylcysteine amide (NACA) as an interventional agent, we examined the roles of oxidative stress in autophagy and apoptosis induced by HIV-Tat (the transactivator of transcription), Meth or their combined treatment in human SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells and in the rat striatum. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.toxlet.2018.09.009DOI Listing
December 2018
21 Reads
3.260 Impact Factor

ITGB4 deficiency in bronchial epithelial cells directs airway inflammation and bipolar disorder-related behavior.

J Neuroinflammation 2018 Aug 31;15(1):246. Epub 2018 Aug 31.

Department of Physiology, School of Basic Medical Science, Xiangya School of Medicine, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan, 410007, People's Republic of China.

Background: Chronic persistent airway inflammation has been associated with the comorbidity of asthma and bipolar disorder (BD). However, the direct relevance between airway inflammation and BD-like psychiatric comorbidity is almost unknown. Integrin β4 (ITGB4) is downregulated on the airway epithelial of asthma patients, which might play a critical role in the parthenogenesis of airway inflammation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12974-018-1283-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6117971PMC
August 2018
6 Reads

Epigenetic Effects Induced by Methamphetamine and Methamphetamine-Dependent Oxidative Stress.

Oxid Med Cell Longev 2018 22;2018:4982453. Epub 2018 Jul 22.

Human Anatomy, Department of Translational Research and New Technologies in Medicine and Surgery, University of Pisa, Via Roma 55, Pisa, Italy.

Methamphetamine is a widely abused drug, which possesses neurotoxic activity and powerful addictive effects. Understanding methamphetamine toxicity is key beyond the field of drug abuse since it allows getting an insight into the molecular mechanisms which operate in a variety of neuropsychiatric disorders. In fact, key alterations produced by methamphetamine involve dopamine neurotransmission in a way, which is reminiscent of spontaneous neurodegeneration and psychiatric schizophrenia. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2018/4982453DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6081569PMC
October 2018
9 Reads

Khat: A Substance of Growing Abuse with Adverse Drug Interaction Risks.

Authors:
Worku Abebe

J Natl Med Assoc 2018 Dec 3;110(6):624-634. Epub 2018 May 3.

Department of Oral Biology/Pharmacology, Dental College of Georgia, Augusta University Augusta, GA 30912-1128, USA. Electronic address:

The growing global availability of the stimulant shrub, khat, has aroused widespread concern. This paper is a review of possible adverse interactions between khat and conventional drugs. Khat chewing has been shown to reduce the bioavailabilities of orally co-administered antibiotics, ampicillin, amoxicillin, cephradine and tetracyclineHCl, and the antimalarial drug, chloroquine. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S00279684183006
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jnma.2018.04.001DOI Listing
December 2018
16 Reads

Fatal Poisonings Associated with New Psychoactive Substances.

Handb Exp Pharmacol 2018;252:495-541

Department of Forensic Genetics and Forensic Toxicology, National Board of Forensic Medicine, Linköping, Sweden.

This chapter describes how new psychoactive substances (NPS) have been involved in fatal intoxications from 2010 and onwards. It summarizes the circumstances, antemortem symptoms, and adverse effects that have led to death after ingestion of one or more NPS and tabulates concentrations, and postmortem findings from these intoxications.Consumption of NPS exerts health problems and unknown risks for the users. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/164_2018_110DOI Listing
January 2018
27 Reads

Mutual activation of glutamatergic mGlu and muscarinic M receptors reverses schizophrenia-related changes in rodents.

Psychopharmacology (Berl) 2018 Oct 27;235(10):2897-2913. Epub 2018 Jul 27.

Institute of Pharmacology, Polish Academy of Sciences, 12 Smętna St, 31-343, Kraków, Poland.

Rationale: Metabotropic glutamate receptors and muscarinic M receptors have been proposed as novel targets for various brain disorders, including schizophrenia. Both receptors are coupled to G proteins and are expressed in brain circuits that are important in schizophrenia. Therefore, their mutual activation may be an effective treatment and allow minimizing the doses of ligands required for optimal activity. Read More

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http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s00213-018-4980-y
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00213-018-4980-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6182605PMC
October 2018
12 Reads

Treatment of severe lipophilic intoxications with intravenous lipid emulsion: a case series (2011-2014).

Vet Med (Auckl) 2017 30;8:77-85. Epub 2017 Oct 30.

Emergency and Critical Care, Animal Specialty Group, Los Angeles, CA, USA,

The objective of this retrospective study was to describe the responses to treatment with intravenous lipid emulsion (ILE) and the outcomes for a variety of severe intoxications. This case series includes 10 client-owned animals, 9 dogs and 1 cat, that underwent treatment with ILE for a variety of severe intoxications over a 4-year period. History, physical examination findings, clinical signs, clinicopathological test results, treatment, response to treatment, and outcome were recorded. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/VMRR.S129576DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6042488PMC
October 2017
8 Reads

An Unusual Case of Hearing Loss.

J Emerg Med 2018 09 21;55(3):411-414. Epub 2018 Jul 21.

Department of Emergency Medicine, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts; Department of Emergency Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jemermed.2018.06.005DOI Listing
September 2018
8 Reads

Involvement of insulin signalling pathway in methamphetamine-induced hyperphosphorylation of Tau.

Toxicology 2018 09 4;408:88-94. Epub 2018 Jul 4.

Department of Toxicology, The Key Lab of Modern Toxicology (NJMU), Ministry of Education, School of Public Health, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, 211166, China. Electronic address:

Methamphetamine (METH), an amphetamine-like drug, is one of the most commonly used central nervous system psychostimulants worldwide. METH abuse frequently leads to cognitive decline and dementia-like changes, but the mechanisms remain poorly understood. In the present study, the mechanisms of METH-induced changes in Alzheimer's disease-like pathological protein in Neuro2A cells were explored. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tox.2018.07.002DOI Listing
September 2018
23 Reads

Concurrence of autophagy with apoptosis in alveolar epithelial cells contributes to chronic pulmonary toxicity induced by methamphetamine.

Cell Prolif 2018 Oct 28;51(5):e12476. Epub 2018 Jun 28.

Department of Clinical Pharmacology, School of Pharmacy, China Medical University, Shenyang, China.

Objectives: Methamphetamine (MA) abuse evokes pulmonary toxicity. The aim of our study is to investigate if autophagy is induced by MA and if autophagy-initiated apoptosis in alveolar epithelial cells is involved in MA-induced chronic pulmonary toxicity.

Materials And Methods: The rats in Control group and MA group were tested by Doppler and HE staining. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/cpr.12476DOI Listing
October 2018
12 Reads

A Case Study Involving U-47700, Diclazepam and Flubromazepam-Application of Retrospective Analysis of HRMS Data.

J Anal Toxicol 2018 Nov;42(9):655-660

Forensic Science SA (Toxicology), Adelaide, South Australia, Australia.

The number of new psychoactive substances (NPS) available is constantly increasing, making it difficult for toxicology laboratories to keep screening methods up to date. Full scan high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) is a versatile technique which allows for progressive updating of spectral databases to increase the scope of screening. It also allows for retrospective screening of data-specifically, reprocessing of data files using an updated spectral database without the need for re-extraction or reanalysis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jat/bky039DOI Listing
November 2018
12 Reads

Methamphetamine toxicity-induced calcineurin activation, nuclear translocation of nuclear factor of activated T-cells and elevation of cyclooxygenase 2 levels are averted by calpastatin overexpression in neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells.

Neurotoxicology 2018 07 23;67:287-295. Epub 2018 Jun 23.

Research Center for Neuroscience, Institute of Molecular Biosciences, Mahidol University, Salaya, Nakhonpathom, 73170, Thailand. Electronic address:

Methamphetamine (METH) is an addictive stimulant drug that has many negative consequences, including toxic effects to the brain. Recently, the induction of inflammatory processes has been identified as a potential contributing factor to induce neuronal cell degeneration. It has been demonstrated that the expression of inflammatory agents, such as cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2), depends on the activation of calcineurin (CaN) and nuclear factor of activated T-cells (NFAT). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuro.2018.06.011DOI Listing
July 2018
19 Reads

Striatal Reinnervation Process after Acute Methamphetamine-Induced Dopaminergic Degeneration in Mice.

Neurotox Res 2018 Oct 22;34(3):627-639. Epub 2018 Jun 22.

Instituto Cajal, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, CSIC, Avda Dr Arce 37, 28002, Madrid, Spain.

Methamphetamine (METH), an amphetamine derivate, may increase the risk of developing Parkinson's disease (PD). Human and animal studies have shown that METH produces persistent dopaminergic neurotoxicity in the nigrostriatal pathway, despite initial partial recovery. To determine the processes leading to early compensation, we studied the detailed morphology and distribution of tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactive fibers (TH-ir) classified by their thickness (types I-IV) before and after METH. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12640-018-9925-zDOI Listing
October 2018
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Disposition of Methamphetamine and Major Metabolites in Mice: Role of Organic Cation Transporter 3 in Tissue-Selective Accumulation of -Hydroxymethamphetamine.

Drug Metab Dispos 2018 09 18;46(9):1277-1284. Epub 2018 Jun 18.

Departments of Pharmaceutics (D.J.W., L.M.S., D.D.S., J.W.) and Pharmacy (S.A.), University of Washington, Seattle, Washington

Methamphetamine is one of the most widely abused illicit drugs. Although human intoxication and multiple tissue toxicities frequently occur in abusers, little is known about the distribution of methamphetamine or its primary metabolites, amphetamine and -hydroxymethamphetamine (-OHMA), to their sites of toxicity. This study determined the pharmacokinetics, tissue exposure, and partition ratios of methamphetamine and major metabolites in various mouse tissues and investigated the impact of organic cation transporter 3 (Oct3) following i. Read More

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http://dmd.aspetjournals.org/lookup/doi/10.1124/dmd.118.0821
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1124/dmd.118.082131DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6081671PMC
September 2018
19 Reads

The psychostimulant (±)-cis-4,4'-dimethylaminorex (4,4'-DMAR) interacts with human plasmalemmal and vesicular monoamine transporters.

Neuropharmacology 2018 08 23;138:282-291. Epub 2018 Jun 23.

Medical University of Vienna, Center for Physiology and Pharmacology, Institute of Pharmacology, Währingerstraße 13A, 1090, Vienna, Austria; Center for Addiction Research and Science, Medical University Vienna, Waehringerstrasse 13A, 1090 Vienna, Austria. Electronic address:

(±)-cis-4,4'-Dimethylaminorex (4,4'-DMAR) is a new psychoactive substance (NPS) that has been associated with 31 fatalities and other adverse events in Europe between June 2013 and February 2014. We used in vitro uptake inhibition and transporter release assays to determine the effects of 4,4'-DMAR on human high-affinity transporters for dopamine (DAT), norepinephrine (NET) and serotonin (SERT). In addition, we assessed its binding affinities to monoamine receptors and transporters. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuropharm.2018.06.018DOI Listing
August 2018
6 Reads

Spherical neutral gold nanoparticles improve anti-inflammatory response, oxidative stress and fibrosis in alcohol-methamphetamine-induced liver injury in rats.

Int J Pharm 2018 Sep 7;548(1):1-14. Epub 2018 Jun 7.

Department of Morphology, Federal University of Rio Grande do Norte, Natal 59072-970, RN, Brazil; Post-Graduation Programme in Structural and Functional Biology, Federal University of Rio Grande do Norte, Natal 59072-970, RN, Brazil; Post-Graduation Programme in Health Science, Federal University of Rio Grande do Norte, Natal 59072-970, RN, Brazil. Electronic address:

This study aimed to elucidate the anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant and antifibrotic effects of gold nanoparticles (GNPs) in rats subjected to liver injury with ethanol and Methamphetamine (METH). The liver injury was induced by gavage administrations of 30% alcoholic solution (7 g/kg) once a day during 28 days, followed by METH (10 mg/kg) on the 20th and 28th days of treatment. GNPs treatment (724. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijpharm.2018.06.008DOI Listing
September 2018
3 Reads

Effects of acute and chronic methamphetamine administration on cynomolgus monkey hippocampus structure and cellular transcriptome.

Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 2018 09 23;355:68-79. Epub 2018 May 23.

Department of Psychiatry, Seoul St. Mary's Hospital, The Catholic University of Korea College of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

Methamphetamine (MA), a psychostimulant abused worldwide, gives rise to neurotoxicity in the hippocampus, resulting in cognitive impairments and hippocampal volume reduction. The cellular and molecular mechanisms associated with hippocampal impairments due to MA remain unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of MA on structural alterations and gene expressions in the hippocampus. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.taap.2018.05.031DOI Listing
September 2018
2 Reads

17 β-Estradiol exacerbates methamphetamine-induced anxiety-like behavior in female mice.

Neurosci Lett 2018 08 20;681:44-49. Epub 2018 May 20.

Neuroscience Program, Dickinson College, Carlisle, PA, 17013, USA. Electronic address:

The present experiment investigated the effect of 17 β-estradiol (E) on anxiety-like behavior following methamphetamine administration in female, Swiss-Webster mice. Mice underwent bilateral ovariectomy (OVX) followed by a subcutaneous implantation of a Silastic capsule containing either sesame oil (OVX + Oil) or E (36 μg/ml; OVX + E). One week later, mice were placed in an open-field chamber for an 8-h session. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neulet.2018.05.025DOI Listing
August 2018
7 Reads

Autophagy plays a pro-survival role against methamphetamine-induced apoptosis in H9C2 cells.

Toxicol Lett 2018 Sep 12;294:156-165. Epub 2018 May 12.

Key Lab of Modern Toxicology (NJMU), Ministry of Education, Department of Toxicology, School of Public Health, Nanjing Medical University, 818 Tian Yuan East Road, Nanjing, Jiangsu, 211166, China. Electronic address:

Methamphetamine (METH) is a commonly abused psychostimulant that can induce severe neurotoxicity. Cardiovascular injury caused by METH has recently gained increasing attention; however, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. As autophagy has been shown to be associated with cell injury, the association between autophagy and METH-mediated cell apoptosis was investigated in the present study. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S03784274183020
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.toxlet.2018.05.017DOI Listing
September 2018
12 Reads

Behavioural, Pharmacokinetic, Metabolic, and Hyperthermic Profile of 3,4-Methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV) in the Wistar Rat.

Front Psychiatry 2018 24;9:144. Epub 2018 Apr 24.

Department of Experimental Neurobiology, National Institute of Mental Health, Klecany, Czechia.

3,4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV) is a potent pyrovalerone cathinone that is substituted for amphetamines by recreational users. We report a comprehensive and detailed description of the effects of subcutaneous MDPV (1-4 mg/kg) on pharmacokinetics, biodistribution and metabolism, acute effects on thermoregulation under isolated and aggregated conditions, locomotion (open field) and sensory gating (prepulse inhibition, PPI). All studies used male Wistar rats. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpsyt.2018.00144DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5928397PMC
April 2018
12 Reads

DARK Classics in Chemical Neuroscience: Cathinone-Derived Psychostimulants.

ACS Chem Neurosci 2018 Oct 11;9(10):2379-2394. Epub 2018 May 11.

Department of Psychology , Arizona State University , Tempe , Arizona 85281 , United States.

Cathinone is a plant alkaloid found in khat leaves of perennial shrubs grown in East Africa. Similar to cocaine, cathinone elicits psychostimulant effects which are in part attributed to its amphetamine-like structure. Around 2010, home laboratories began altering the parent structure of cathinone to synthesize derivatives with mechanisms of action, potencies, and pharmacokinetics permitting high abuse potential and toxicity. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acschemneuro.8b00147DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6197900PMC
October 2018
11 Reads

The Effects of Exposure to Mephedrone During Adolescence on Brain Neurotransmission and Neurotoxicity in Adult Rats.

Neurotox Res 2018 Oct 30;34(3):525-537. Epub 2018 Apr 30.

Department of Pharmacology, Institute of Pharmacology, Polish Academy of Sciences, 12 Smętna, 31-343, Kraków, Poland.

According to the European Drug Report (2016), the use of synthetic cathinones, such as mephedrone, among young people has rapidly increased in the last years. Studies in humans indicate that psychostimulant drug use in adolescence increases risk of drug abuse in adulthood. Mephedrone by its interaction with transporters for dopamine (DAT) and serotonin (SERT) stimulates their release to the synaptic cleft. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12640-018-9908-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6154178PMC
October 2018
6 Reads

Effects of HIV-1 TAT protein and methamphetamine exposure on visual discrimination and executive function in mice.

Behav Brain Res 2018 09 27;349:73-79. Epub 2018 Apr 27.

Department of Psychiatry, School of Medicine, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA, USA.

Mild neurocognitive impairments are common in people with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. HIV-encoded proteins, such as trans-activator of transcription (TAT), contribute to neuropathology and cognitive function in medicated subjects. The combination of TAT and comorbid methamphetamine use may further impair neurocognitive function in HIV-positive individuals by affecting dopaminergic systems in the brain. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbr.2018.04.046DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6320247PMC
September 2018
3 Reads

CDK5-mediated tau accumulation triggers methamphetamine-induced neuronal apoptosis via endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation pathway.

Toxicol Lett 2018 Aug 26;292:97-107. Epub 2018 Apr 26.

School of Forensic Medicine, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou 510515, China. Electronic address:

Overexposure to methamphetamine (METH) causes apoptosis in a number of cell types, particularly neuronal cells. However, the underlying mechanisms of METH-induced neuronal apoptosis remain to be elucidated. Accumulation of microtubule-associated protein Tau can lead to activation of multiple neurotoxic pathways, which is closely correlated with neuronal apoptosis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.toxlet.2018.04.027DOI Listing
August 2018
50 Reads