233,733 results match your criteria Toxic Shock Syndrome


Factors that can influence the survival rates of coral snakes (Micrurus corallinus) for antivenom production.

J Anim Sci 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Laboratório de Herpetologia do Instituto Butantan, Av. Vital Brazil, São Paulo - Brasil.

Envenoming and deaths resulting from snakebites are a particularly important public health problem in rural tropical areas of Africa, Asia, Latin America and New Guinea. In 2015 The Lancet highlighted snake-bite envenoming as a neglected tropical disease and urged the world to increase antivenom production. In Brazil around 20,000 snakebites occur per year affecting mostly agricultural workers and children, of which 1% are caused by coral snakes (Micrurus sp). Read More

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December 2018

Disruption of the microbiota affects physiological and evolutionary aspects of insecticide resistance in the German cockroach, an important urban pest.

PLoS One 2018 12;13(12):e0207985. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Apex Bait Technologies, Inc., Santa Clara, California, United States of America.

The German cockroach, Blatella germanica, is a common pest in urban environments and is among the most resilient insects in the world. The remarkable ability of the German cockroach to develop resistance when exposed to toxic insecticides is a prime example of adaptive evolution and makes control of this insect an ongoing struggle. Like many other organisms, the German cockroach is host to a diverse community of symbiotic microbes that play important roles in its physiology. Read More

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December 2018

The Impact of Photorefractive Keratectomy and Mitomycin C on Corneal Nerves and Their Regeneration.

J Refract Surg 2018 Dec;34(12):790-798

Purpose: To determine how photorefractive keratectomy (PRK) and mitomycin C (MMC) affect corneal nerves and their regeneration over time after surgery.

Methods: Twenty-eight New Zealand rabbits had corneal epithelial scraping with (n = 3) and without (n = 3) MMC 0.02% or -9. Read More

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December 2018

Autophagy and intermittent fasting: the connection for cancer therapy?

Clinics (Sao Paulo) 2018 Dec 10;73(suppl 1):e814s. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Departamento de Farmacologia, Escola Paulista de Medicina, Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (EPM-UNIFESP), Sao Paulo, SP, BR.

Cancer is a leading cause of death worldwide, and its incidence is continually increasing. Although anticancer therapy has improved significantly, it still has limited efficacy for tumor eradication and is highly toxic to healthy cells. Thus, novel therapeutic strategies to improve chemotherapy, radiotherapy and targeted therapy are an important goal in cancer research. Read More

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December 2018

Commercial drugs containing flavonoids are active in mice with malaria and in vitro against chloroquine-resistant Plasmodium falciparum.

Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz 2018 Dec 6;113(12):e180279. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Fundação Oswaldo Cruz-Fiocruz, Instituto René Rachou, Laboratório de Malária Experimental e Humana, Belo Horizonte, MG, Brasil.

BACKGROUND The main strategy to control human malaria still relies on specific drug treatment, limited now by Plasmodium falciparum-resistant parasites, including that against artemisinin derivatives. Despite the large number of active compounds described in the literature, few of them reached full development against human malaria. Drug repositioning is a fast and less expensive strategy for antimalarial drug discovery, because these compounds are already approved for human use. Read More

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December 2018

Comparisons of skin toxicity in patients with extranodal nasal-type natural killer/T-cell lymphoma after treatment with intensity-modulated radiotherapy and conventional radiotherapy.

J Cancer Res Ther 2018 Dec;14(Supplement):S975-S979

Department of Radiation Oncology, First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, Henan Province 450052, P.R. China.

Background: Intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) has been more widely used in extranodal nasal-type natural killer/T-cell lymphoma (NKTCL) because it can maximally improve the local control rate of tumor and reduce the radiation dose received by surrounding normal tissues. However, there has been no consensus on whether IMRT can help to lower the toxic and adverse reactions caused by radiation therapy. The aim of this study is to compare skin toxicity caused by IMRT and conventional radiotherapy in Stage I-II NKTCL. Read More

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December 2018
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Symptoms as Patient-Reported Outcomes in Cancer Patients Undergoing Immunotherapies.

Authors:
Tito R Mendoza

Adv Exp Med Biol 2018 ;995:165-182

Department of Symptom Research, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX, USA.

Cancer therapies are toxic. Newer oncological treatments such as immunotherapy produce unconventional adverse events that are collectively referred to as immune-related adverse events (irAEs). These irAEs are clinician-rated and typically reported via tabulation of adverse events from the National Cancer Institute's Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAE). Read More

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January 2018

Sediment pollution in an urban water supply lake in southern Brazil.

Environ Monit Assess 2018 Dec 11;191(1):12. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Soil Department, UFRGS, Porto Alegre, Brazil.

Urbanization and anthropogenic activities create many environmental issues in urban water supply reservoirs, especially in metropolitan regions. Thus, this study was carried out aiming to evaluate the variance in the physical-chemical characteristics of bottom sediment along the Lake Guaíba, Brazil. Lake Guaíba is a freshwater lake situated in a metropolitan region in southern Brazil, being the main water supply to the region. Read More

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December 2018

Chemical fractionation of heavy metals in fine particulate matter and their health risk assessment through inhalation exposure pathway.

Environ Geochem Health 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Department of Chemistry, Dayalbagh Educational Institute, Agra, U.P., 282005, India.

Samples of PM were collected from an urban area close to a national highway in Agra, India and sequentially extracted into four different fractions: water soluble (F1), reducible (F2), oxidizable (F3) and residual fraction (F4) for chemical fractionation of arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), cobalt (Co), chromium (Cr), nickel (Ni) and lead (Pb). The metals were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy in each fraction. The average mass concentration of PM was 93 ± 24 μg m. Read More

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December 2018

Impact of different approaches to calculation of treatment activities on achieved doses in radioiodine therapy of benign thyroid diseases.

EJNMMI Phys 2018 Dec 12;5(1):32. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Department of Nuclear Medicine, University Hospital of Cologne, Kerpener Str. 62, 50937, Cologne, Germany.

Purpose: Radioiodine has been used for the treatment of benign thyroid diseases for over 70 years. However, internationally, there is no common standard for pretherapeutic dosimetry to optimally define the individual therapy activity. Here, we analyze how absorbed tissue doses are influenced by different approaches to pretherapeutic activity calculation of varying complexity. Read More

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December 2018

ALDH2 Activity Reduces Mitochondrial Oxygen Reserve Capacity in Endothelial Cells and Induces Senescence Properties.

Oxid Med Cell Longev 2018 14;2018:9765027. Epub 2018 Nov 14.

Department of Life Sciences, University of Siena, Siena, Italy.

Endothelial cells (ECs) are dynamic cells that turn from growth into senescence, the latter being associated with cellular dysfunction, altered metabolism, and age-related cardiovascular diseases. Aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2) is a mitochondrial enzyme metabolizing acetaldehyde and other toxic aldehydes, such as 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE). In conditions in which lipid peroxidation products and reactive oxygen species (ROS) are accumulated, ECs become dysfunctional and significantly contribute to the progression of vascular-dependent diseases. Read More

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November 2018

Zhuang Gu Guan Jie Wan: Reasonable Application Can Alleviate the Liver Injury for Osteoarthritis Treatment.

Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2018 12;2018:6716529. Epub 2018 Nov 12.

Institute of Basic Research in Clinical Medicine, China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences, Beijing 100700, China.

The potential toxicity of herbal drugs, particularly drug-induced liver injury (DILI), has received extensive attention as the use of Chinese herbal medicine has rapidly increased globally. As a classic Chinese patent medicine, Zhuang Gu Guan Jie Wan (ZGGJW) has been brought into focus recently because of its satisfactory therapeutic effects on osteoarthritis (OA) as well as its unanticipated side effects. This study aimed to decipher the puzzling phenomenon of liver injury developing in response to ZGGJW that varies by the subtype of OA. Read More

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November 2018

Simultaneous Determination of Cr, As, Se, and Other Trace Metal Elements in Seawater by ICP-MS with Hybrid Simultaneous Preconcentration Combining Iron Hydroxide Coprecipitation and Solid Phase Extraction Using Chelating Resin.

Int J Anal Chem 2018 13;2018:9457095. Epub 2018 Nov 13.

Department of Environmental Science, School of Life and Environmental Science, Azabu University, 1-17-71, Fuchinobe, Chuo-ku, Sagamihara-shi, Kanagawa 252-5201, Japan.

In the present study, ICP-MS with a new hybrid simultaneous preconcentration combining solid phase extraction using chelating resin and iron hydroxide coprecipitation in one batch at a single pH adjustment (pH 6.0) were developed for multielement determination of trace metal ions in seawater. In multielement determination, the present method makes it possible to determine Cr(III), As(V), Se (IV), and other 14 trace metal elements (Ti, V, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Zr, Ge, Cd, Sb, Sn, W, Pb, and U) in seawater. Read More

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November 2018

First-line chemotherapy regimens for locally advanced and metastatic pancreatic adenocarcinoma: a Bayesian analysis.

Cancer Manag Res 2018 20;10:5965-5978. Epub 2018 Nov 20.

Department of Pancreatic and Gastric Surgery, National Cancer Center/Cancer Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College,

Background: Systemic chemotherapy is the standard treatment for locally advanced and metastatic pancreatic cancer, but there is no consensus on the optimum regimen. We aimed to compare and rank the locally advanced and metastatic pancreatic adenocarcinoma chemotherapy regimens evaluated in randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in the past 15 years.

Materials And Methods: PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Collaboration database, and ClinicalTrials. Read More

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November 2018

Safe decontamination of cytostatics from the nitrogen mustards family. Part one: cyclophosphamide and ifosfamide.

Int J Nanomedicine 2018 26;13:7971-7985. Epub 2018 Nov 26.

Department of Oncology, 1st Faculty of Medicine, Charles University and General University Hospital in Prague, Prague, Czech Republic,

Introduction: Macrocrystalline oxides of alkaline earth metals (Mg and Ca) or light metals (Al and Ti) can respond to standard warfare agents such as sulfur mustard, soman, or agent VX. In this paper, we compared the decontamination ability of sodium hydroxide (NaOH) and sodium hypochlorite (NaClO) for nitrogen mustards (cyclophosphamide [CP] and ifosfamide [IFOS]) with a new procedure using a destructive sorbent based on nanocrystalline and nanodispersive titanium dioxide (TiO) as a new efficient and cheap material for complete decontamination of surfaces.

Methods: Titanium (IV) dioxide nanoparticles were prepared by the homogeneous hydrolysis of titanium(IV) oxysulfate (TiOSO) with urea. Read More

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November 2018

Vascular targeted nanotherapeutic approach for obesity treatment.

Int J Nanomedicine 2018 23;13:7915-7929. Epub 2018 Nov 23.

Department of Science and Technology/Mintek Nanotechnology Innovation Centre, Biolabels Unit, Department of Biotechnology, University of the Western Cape, Bellville, South Africa,

Obesity is a global epidemic that poses a serious health concern due to it being a risk factor for life-threatening chronic diseases, such as type 2 diabetes, cancer, and cardiovascular diseases. Pharmacotherapy remains the mainstay for the management of obesity; however, its usefulness is limited due to poor drug efficacy, non-specificity and toxic side effects. Therefore, novel approaches that could provide insights into obesity and obesity-associated diseases as well as development of novel anti-obesity treatment modalities or improvement on the existing drugs are necessary. Read More

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November 2018

Redox/pH dual-controlled release of chlorhexidine and silver ions from biodegradable mesoporous silica nanoparticles against oral biofilms.

Int J Nanomedicine 2018 19;13:7697-7709. Epub 2018 Nov 19.

Department of Oral Implantology, Affiliated Hospital of Stomatology, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, 210029, China,

Background: Oral plaque biofilms pose a threat to periodontal health and are challenging to eradicate. There is a growing belief that a combination of silver nanoparticles and chlorhexidine (CHX) is a promising strategy against oral biofilms.

Purpose: To overcome the side effects of this strategy and to exert maximum efficiency, we fabricated biodegradable disulfide-bridged mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) to co-deliver silver nanoparticles and CHX for biofilm inhibition. Read More

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November 2018

Membrane water for probing neuronal membrane potentials and ionic fluxes at the single cell level.

Nat Commun 2018 12 11;9(1):5287. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Laboratory for fundamental BioPhotonics (LBP), Institute of Bioengineering (IBI), and Institute of Materials Science (IMX), School of Engineering (STI), and Lausanne Centre for Ultrafast Science (LACUS), École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL), 1015, Lausanne, Switzerland.

Neurons communicate through electrochemical signaling within a complex network. These signals are composed of changes in membrane potentials and are traditionally measured with the aid of (toxic) fluorescent labels or invasive electrical probes. Here, we demonstrate an improvement in label-free second harmonic neuroimaging sensitivity by ~3 orders of magnitude using a wide-field medium repetition rate illumination. Read More

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December 2018

Objective Versus Self-Reported Adherence to Airway Clearance Therapy in Cystic Fibrosis.

Respir Care 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Division of Pediatric Pulmonary and Sleep Medicine, as well as the Gregory Fleming James Cystic Fibrosis Research Center, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Alabama.

Background: Historically, studies of adherence to airway clearance therapy in cystic fibrosis (CF) have relied on self-reporting. We compared self-reported airway clearance therapy adherence to actual usage data from home high-frequency chest wall compressions (HFCWC) vests and identified factors associated with overestimation of adherence in self-reports.

Methods: Pediatric patients who perform airway clearance therapy with a HFCWC vest were eligible to participate. Read More

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December 2018

Targeted radiotherapy of pigmented melanoma with I-5-IPN.

J Exp Clin Cancer Res 2018 Dec 11;37(1):306. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Department of Nuclear Medicine, Wuhan Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, No. 1277 Jiefang Ave, Wuhan, 430022, Hubei Province, China.

Purpose: There has been no satisfactory treatment for advanced melanoma until now. Targeted radionuclide therapy (TRNT) may be a promising option for this heretofore lethal disease. Our goal in this study was to synthesize I-N-(2-(diethylamino)ethyl)-5-(iodo-131I)picolinamide (I-5-IPN) and evaluate its therapeutic ability and toxicity as a radioiodinated melanin-targeting therapeutic agent. Read More

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December 2018

Maternal dietary consumption of legumes, vegetables and fruit during pregnancy, does it protect against small for gestational age?

BMC Pregnancy Childbirth 2018 Dec 11;18(1):486. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Department of Health Sciences, University of Jaen, Campus de Las Lagunillas s n Edificio B3, 23071, Jaén, Spain.

Background: Different diets during pregnancy might have an impact on the health, reflected in the birthweight of newborns. The consumption of fruits and vegetables during pregnancy and the relationship with newborn health status have been studied by several authors. However, these studies have shown inconsistent results. Read More

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December 2018

Exercise-related QT interval shortening with a peaked T wave in a boy with MEN 2 syndrome.

J Cardiol Cases 2013 Apr 1;7(4):e93-e96. Epub 2012 Dec 1.

Department of Cardiology, Bayindir Hospital, Ankara, Turkey.

Multiple endocrine neoplasia 2 (MEN 2) is a hereditary syndrome associated with medullary thyroid carcinoma, pheochromocytoma (PCC), and hyperparathyroidism. PCCs in patients with MEN 2 are usually found in the adrenals after the manifestation of medullary thyroid cancer and are commonly bilateral and hormonally active. Unfortunately, a diagnosis of MEN 2 or PCC often is delayed until after the patient has developed an advanced MEN 2-related tumor. Read More

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miR-494 Sensitizes Gastric Cancer Cells to TRAIL Treatment Through Downregulation of Survivin.

Cell Physiol Biochem 2018 7;51(5):2212-2223. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

Department of Internal Medicine, Affiliated Tumor Hospital of Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou,

Background/aims: TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) is a novel and low-toxic anti-tumor drug used for various cancers. However, cancer cells usually develop mechanisms to acquire the resistance against TRAIL. Among these changes, dysregulation of microRNAs (miRNAs) usually occurs in cancer cells and is responsible for induction of drug resistance. Read More

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December 2018

Environmentally benign conversion of waste polyethylene terephthalate to fluorescent carbon dots for "on-off-on" sensing of ferric and pyrophosphate ions.

J Colloid Interface Sci 2018 Dec 4;538:481-488. Epub 2018 Dec 4.

School of Materials Science and Chemical Engineering, Ningbo University, Ningbo 315211, China. Electronic address:

The increasing production of waste polyethylene terephthalate (PET) is a growing problem worldwide. Environmentally benign conversion of waste PET to valuable materials remains a substantial challenge. In this paper, we developed a green route to reuse waste PET for low-cost synthesis of fluorescent carbon dots (CDs) via air oxidation followed by hydrothermal treatment in aqueous HO solution. Read More

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December 2018

Piezoelectric barium titanate nanostimulators for the treatment of glioblastoma multiforme.

J Colloid Interface Sci 2018 Dec 4;538:449-461. Epub 2018 Dec 4.

Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, Smart Bio-Interfaces, Viale Rinaldo Piaggio 34, 56025 Pontedera, Italy; Politecnico di Torino, Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Corso Duca degli Abruzzi 24, 10129 Torino, Italy. Electronic address:

Major obstacles to the successful treatment of gliolastoma multiforme are mostly related to the acquired resistance to chemotherapy drugs and, after surgery, to the cancer recurrence in correspondence of residual microscopic foci. As innovative anticancer approach, low-intensity electric stimulation represents a physical treatment able to reduce multidrug resistance of cancer and to induce remarkable anti-proliferative effects by interfering with Ca and K homeostasis and by affecting the organization of the mitotic spindles. However, to preserve healthy cells, it is utterly important to direct the electric stimuli only to malignant cells. Read More

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December 2018

Metabolic profiling study on potential toxicity in male mice treated with Dechlorane 602 using UHPLC-ESI-IT-TOF-MS.

Environ Pollut 2018 Nov 27;246:141-147. Epub 2018 Nov 27.

Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China; University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China. Electronic address:

Dechlorane 602 (Dec 602), a chlorinated flame retardant, has been widely detected in different environmental matrices and biota. However, toxicity data for Dec 602 seldom have been reported. A metabolomics study based on ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled with ion trap time-of-flight mass spectrometry was employed to study the urine and sera metabolic profiles of mice administered with Dec 602 (0, 0. Read More

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November 2018

A novel MUC1 aptamer-modified PLGA-epirubicin-PβAE-antimir-21 nanocomplex platform for targeted co-delivery of anticancer agents in vitro and in vivo.

Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces 2018 Dec 4;175:231-238. Epub 2018 Dec 4.

Targeted Drug Delivery Research Center, Pharmaceutical Technology Institute, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran; Department of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, School of Pharmacy, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran. Electronic address:

Conventional chemotherapy suffers from several drawbacks, including toxic side effects together with the development of resistance to the chemical agents. Therefore, exploring alternative therapeutic approaches as well as developing targeted delivery systems are in demand. Oligonucleotide-based therapy has emerged as a promising and alternative procedure for treating malignancies involving gene-related diseases. Read More

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December 2018

Occurrence and contamination of heavy metals in urban mangroves: A case study in Shenzhen, China.

Chemosphere 2018 Nov 27;219:165-173. Epub 2018 Nov 27.

Guangdong Neilingding Futian National Nature Reserve, Shenzhen, 518000, China.

Urban mangroves are affected by surrounding anthropogenic activities. Heavy metals in urban mangroves lack systematic evaluation, and their relationships with surrounding anthropogenic activities have not been explored with quantified data. In this study, urban mangroves with different urban functional zonings were selected in Shenzhen, South China, including: Shajing mangrove (SJM) and Xixiang mangrove (XXM) featured with industry district, Futian mangrove (FTM) and Baguang mangrove (BGM) featured with central business district and ecological preserve, respectively. Read More

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November 2018

Cadmium induces apoptotic program imbalance and cell cycle inhibitor expression in cultured human astrocytes.

Environ Toxicol Pharmacol 2018 Dec 3;65:53-59. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Science, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand; Translational Medicine Graduate Program, Faculty of Medicine Ramathibodi Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand. Electronic address:

Cadmium is a highly neurotoxic heavy metal impairing neurogenesis and induces neurodegenerative disorders. Toxic concentrations of cadmium induce astrocytic apoptosis by depleting intracellular glutathione levels, elevating intracellular calcium levels, altering mitochondria membrane potentials, and activating JNK and PI3K/Akt signaling pathways. Cadmium suppresses cell proliferation in kidney epithelial cells, lung fibroblasts, and primary myelocytes; however, cadmium's effects on proteins regulating oxidative stress, apoptosis, and cell proliferation in astrocytes are less known. Read More

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December 2018

Reactions in Water-A Greener Approach Using Ruthenium Catalysts.

Chem Rec 2018 Dec 7. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

Polymers and Functional Materials Division, CSIR-Indian Institute of Chemical Technology, Uppal Road, Tarnaka, Hyderabad, 500007.

Reactions using transition metals as catalysts have emerged as an efficient method in the recent times. However, the selection of solvent plays a crucial role in this regard. Several solvents used traditionally suffer majorly with problems of toxicity; high boiling point etc. Read More

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December 2018

Better Biomarkers for Lupus Disease Activity - Tools for Treating to Target.

Authors:
Susan A Boackle

Arthritis Rheumatol 2018 Dec 7. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

Division of Rheumatology, University of Colorado Denver School of Medicine, Aurora, CO.

Sometimes new ideas come from old places. Complement's central role in lupus pathogenesis has been known for years, and a reduction in C3 and C4 levels is one of the strongest biomarkers for increased lupus disease activity. However, every rheumatologist knows that some patients with no symptoms of active lupus will present with low complement levels, whereas some patients with aggressive disease have levels that never budge from the "normal" range. Read More

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December 2018

Edge-Functionalized Graphene Nanoplatelets as Metal-Free Electrocatalysts for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells.

Adv Mater 2018 Dec 9:e1804440. Epub 2018 Dec 9.

Center for Dimension-Controllable Organic Frameworks, School of Energy and Chemical Engineering, Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology (UNIST), 50 UNIST, Ulsan, 44919, Korea.

A scalable and low-cost production of graphene nanoplatelets (GnPs) is one of the most important challenges for their commercialization. A simple mechanochemical reaction has been developed and applied to prepare various edge-functionalized GnPs (EFGnPs). EFGnPs can be produced in a simple and ecofriendly manner by ball milling of graphite with target substances (X = nonmetals, halogens, semimetals, or metalloids). Read More

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December 2018

A clinical trial with protracted infusion 5-fluorouracil and mitomycin C for localized squamous cell carcinoma of the anus.

Asia Pac J Clin Oncol 2018 Dec 9. Epub 2018 Dec 9.

Department of Radiation Oncology, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia.

Purpose: Mitomycin C (MMC) plus standard 5-fluorouracil (FU) infusion in weeks 1 and 5 often contributes to radiotherapy interruptions and possibly less-than-ideal outcomes in anal cancer. This study was to evaluate alternative strategies for chemotherapy delivery that might be less toxic or more efficacious, and outcomes of patient-initiated treatment interruption for severe acute toxicity.

Materials And Methods: This was a prospective, nonrandomized study for patients with T1-4N0-3M0 anal squamous carcinoma. Read More

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December 2018
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Nanocatalysts-Augmented and Photothermal-Enhanced Tumor-Specific Sequential Nanocatalytic Therapy in Both NIR-I and NIR-II Biowindows.

Adv Mater 2018 Dec 9:e1805919. Epub 2018 Dec 9.

State Key Laboratory of High Performance Ceramics and Superfine Microstructure, Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai, 200050, P. R. China.

The tumor microenvironment (TME) has been increasingly recognized as a crucial contributor to tumorigenesis. Based on the unique TME for achieving tumor-specific therapy, here a novel concept of photothermal-enhanced sequential nanocatalytic therapy in both NIR-I and NIR-II biowindows is proposed, which innovatively changes the condition of nanocatalytic Fenton reaction for production of highly efficient hydroxyl radicals (•OH) and consequently suppressing the tumor growth. Evidence suggests that glucose plays a vital role in powering cancer progression. Read More

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December 2018

Impact of Oxidative Metabolism on the Cytotoxic and Genotoxic Potential of Genistein in Human Colon Cancer Cells.

Mol Nutr Food Res 2018 Nov 22:e1800635. Epub 2018 Nov 22.

Department of Food Chemistry and Toxicology, University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria.

Scope: Genistein (GEN) is known to be genotoxic via targeting topoisomerase-II (TOPII). Oxidative metabolism of GEN is shown to generate hydroxylated metabolites with catecholic structures. The present study focuses on the impact of oxidative metabolism of GEN, exemplified for 3'-hydroxygenistein (3'-OH-GEN) and 6-hydroxygenistein (6-OH-GEN), on topoisomerase interference and the resulting genotoxic potential in HT-29 human colon carcinoma cells. Read More

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November 2018

Artemisinin inhibits breast cancer-induced osteolysis by inhibiting osteoclast formation and breast cancer cell proliferation.

J Cell Physiol 2018 Dec 7. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

Research Centre for Regenerative Medicine and Guangxi Key Laboratory of Regenerative Medicine, Guangxi Medical University, Nanning, People's Republic of China.

In addition to being used to treat malaria, artemisinin (Art) can be used as an anti-inflammatory and antitumor agent. In this study, we evaluated the effects of Art on osteoclast formation and activation and on the development of breast cancer cells in bone. To evaluate the effect of Art on osteoclast differentiation in vitro, we treated bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMMs) with various concentrations of Art and evaluated the expression of genes and proteins involved in osteoclast formation. Read More

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December 2018

Inflammasomes in CNS Diseases.

Exp Suppl 2018 ;108:41-60

School of Biomedical Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD, Australia.

Neuroinflammation is a common pathological feature in almost all neurological diseases and is a response triggered as a consequence of the chronic activation of the innate immune response in the CNS against a variety of stimuli, including infection, traumatic brain injury, toxic metabolites, aggregated proteins, or autoimmunity. Crucial mediators of this neurinflammatory process are the intracellular protein complexes known as inflammasomes which can be triggered by pathogens as well as pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) and damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs). However, chronic inflammasome activation can eventually result in cellular death and tissue damage, leading to the release of DAMPs that can reactivate the inflammasome, thereby propagating a vicious cycle of inflammation. Read More

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January 2018

Hyper-ammonia stress causes induction of inducible nitric oxide synthase gene and more production of nitric oxide in air-breathing magur catfish, Clarias magur (Hamilton).

Fish Physiol Biochem 2018 Dec 8. Epub 2018 Dec 8.

Biochemical Adaptation Laboratory, Department of Zoology, North-Eastern Hill University, Shillong, 793022, India.

Nitric oxide (NO) is an important signalling molecule that plays diverse physiological functions in several vertebrates including that of adaptation to various stressful stimuli. The air-breathing magur catfish (Clarias magur) is known to tolerate a very high external ammonia (HEA) stress in its natural habitats. We report here the possible induction of inducible nitric oxide (inos) gene and more generation of NO in magur catfish exposed to HEA. Read More

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December 2018

Population Pharmacokinetics and Exposure-Response of Lithium Carbonate in Patients Based on Tubular Reabsorption Mechanisms.

Eur J Drug Metab Pharmacokinet 2018 Dec 7. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

Department of Pharmacy, Fukuoka University Hospital, 7-45-1 Nanakuma, Zyounan-ku, Fukuoka, 814-0180, Japan.

Background And Objective: Lithium, which is used to treat bipolar disorder, has a narrow therapeutic blood concentration range and quickly reaches clinically toxic levels. We performed a population pharmacokinetic analysis with a lithium tubular reabsorption model including urinary pH and investigated the relationship between blood lithium concentration and tremor as a side effect.

Methods: Routine clinical data, including 389 serum concentrations, were collected from 214 patients orally administered an adjusted amount of lithium carbonate. Read More

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December 2018

Preparation of Hollow Polyaniline Micro/Nanospheres and Their Removal Capacity of Cr (VI) from Wastewater.

Nanoscale Res Lett 2018 Dec 7;13(1):401. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

Key Laboratory of Materials Physics and Anhui Key Laboratory of Nanomaterials and Nanotechnology, Institute of Solid State Physics, Hefei Institutes of Physical Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P. O. Box 1129, Hefei, 230031, People's Republic of China.

The hollow polyaniline (PANI) micro/nanospheres are obtained through a simple monomer polymerization in alkaline solution with Triton X-100 Micelles as soft templates. The hollow PANI micro/nanospheres demonstrate rapid and effective removal ability for Chromium (VI) (Cr (VI)) in a wide pH range, and the maximum removal capacity can reach 127.88 mg/g at pH 3. Read More

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December 2018

Thyroidectomy Then and Now: A 50-Year Australian Perspective.

World J Surg 2018 Dec 7. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

Department of General Surgery, Monash University Endocrine Surgery Unit, The Alfred Hospital, 55 Commercial Rd, Melbourne, VIC, 3004, Australia.

Background: Since the mid-1800s, thyroidectomy has transformed from a procedure associated with high to near-zero mortality. Nonetheless, surgeons must continue to strive to improve patient care. Using historical records and contemporary data, this study compares the practice and outcomes of thyroid surgery at a tertiary institution during two periods, 50 years apart. Read More

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December 2018
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BH3 Profiling: A Functional Assay to Measure Apoptotic Priming and Dependencies.

Methods Mol Biol 2019 ;1877:61-76

John B. Little Center for Radiation Sciences, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, MA, USA.

Apoptosis (programmed cell death) is activated by a wide variety of cellular stresses or insults and is vital for proper mammalian development as well as the maintenance of organismal homeostasis. The apoptosis pathway is also engaged by many common types of anticancer therapies and ionizing radiation, which contributes to the regressions of tumors or the toxic side effects of treatment. Due to the importance of maintaining healthy cell survival or the efficient clearance of cancer cells, the BH3 profiling assay was developed to functionally measure the state of the apoptosis pathway in any given cells. Read More

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January 2019

Interactive Effects of Mixtures of Phototoxic PAHs.

Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 2018 Dec 10. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Department of Environmental and Molecular Toxicology, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR, USA.

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are ubiquitous in the environment as components in complex mixtures derived from petroleum based products. PAHs are unique in their ability to absorb UV light, resulting in significant increases in acute toxicity. The objective of this study was to determine if mixtures of the phototoxic PAHs fluoranthene, pyrene, and anthracene conform to the additive model of toxicity. Read More

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December 2018

Comparative transcriptome analysis in the hepatopancreas of Helice tientsinensis exposed to the toxic metal cadmium.

Genes Genomics 2018 Dec 7. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Bioresources of Saline Soils, Jiangsu Synthetic Innovation Center for Coastal Bio-agriculture, Jiangsu Provincial Key Laboratory of Coastal Wetland Bioresources and Environmental Protection, School of Ocean and Biological Engineering, Yancheng Teachers University, Yancheng, 224001, Jiangsu Province, China.

Background: The mudflat crab Helice tientsinensis is one of the most commercially valuable species for crabmeat production due to its delicious taste. These crabs are mainly found in coastal wetland where they are seriously threatened by toxic heavy metal pollution. In crustaceans, the hepatopancreas is an important organ for detoxification, and metal toxic substances can be converted to non-toxic or less toxic compounds in this organ. Read More

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December 2018

Scientific mistakes from the agri-food biotech critics.

Life Sci Soc Policy 2018 Dec 10;14(1):25. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

, Carugo, Como, Italy.

Critics of the use of advanced biotechnologies in the agri-food sector ("New Breeding Techniques", comprising CRISPR) demand a strict regulation of any such method, even more severe than rules applied to so-called "Genetically Modified Organisms" (i.e. recombinant DNA processes and products). Read More

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December 2018
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An Interesting Case of Carbamazepine-Induced Stevens-Johnson Syndrome.

Drug Saf Case Rep 2018 Dec 10;6(1). Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Division of Psychiatry, Harare Central Hospital, PO Box ST 14, Southerton, Harare, Zimbabwe.

A 29-year-old Black female patient was admitted to a psychiatric ward with symptoms of major depressive disorder with psychosis. The patient was started on amitriptyline 50 mg/day and haloperidol 10 mg/day. On day 4 post-admission, the preferred first-line antidepressant, fluoxetine, became available and the patient was switched from amitriptyline to fluoxetine 20 mg/day. Read More

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December 2018
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Analgesic-antitumor peptide inhibits angiogenesis by suppressing AKT activation in hepatocellular carcinoma.

Mol Cell Biochem 2018 Dec 10. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Affiliated Hospital of Integrated Traditional Chinese and Western Medicine, Nanjing University of Chinese Medicine, Nanjing, 210028, Jiangsu, People's Republic of China.

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of leading causes of cancer-related death, and its increasing incidence worldwide is a cause for concern. The recombinant analgesic-antitumor peptide (rAGAP), a protein consisting of small ubiquitin-related modifier linked with a hexa-histidine tag, exhibited the antitumor activity in HepG2 tumors in our previous study. However, the underlying molecular mechanism of its antitumor activity was still elusive. Read More

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December 2018

The AIB1siRNA-loaded hyaluronic acid-assembled PEI/heparin/Ca2+ nanocomplex as a novel therapeutic strategy in lung cancer treatment.

Int J Mol Med 2018 Dec 3. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Department of Respiratory Medicine, Yanbian University Hospital, Yanji, Jilin 133000, P.R. China.

In the present study, AIB1siRNA‑loaded polyethyleneimine (PEI)/heparin/Ca2+ nanoparticles (NPs) were successfully prepared and evaluated for their efficacy in lung cancer cells. The results demonstrated that the PEI and heparin complex reduced the toxic effect in cancer cells while maintaining its transfection efficiency. A nanosized particle of ~25 nm was formulated and siRNA was demonstrated to possess excellent binding efficiency in the particles. Read More

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December 2018