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    Operative Treatment of the Ingrown Toenail With a Less-Invasive Technique: Flashback to the Original Winograd Technique.
    Foot Ankle Spec 2017 Jun 1:1938640017713615. Epub 2017 Jun 1.
    Department of Orthopaedics and Traumatology, Erzincan University Faculty of Medicine, Erzincan, Turkey (YC, HS, AI, NK).
    Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the results of the partial nail plate excision and curettage of nail bed and matrix (the original Winograd technique) in patients with ingrown toenail.

    Materials And Methods: Patients with ingrown toenail who were treated surgically from May 2014 to June 2015, with a minimum follow-up of 1 year were included in this study. Those who had previous ingrown toenail surgery were excluded. Read More

    Relation Between Nail Consistency and Incidence of Ingrown Toenails in Young Male Runners.
    J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 2017 Mar;107(2):137-143
    Background: This study examines the possible influence of factors such as nail shape and consistency, sex, and sports activity on the development of the most common nail disorders in a population of young people.

    Methods: The nail plates of 140 young people (66 females and 74 males) were studied. Of these 140 participants, 72 were runners who trained more than 10 hours a week and competed regularly, and 68 did not habitually do any sports activity. Read More

    The Effectiveness of Matrix Cauterization With Bichloracetic Acid in the Treatment of Ingrown Toenails.
    Dermatol Surg 2017 May;43(5):728-733
    *Department of Dermatology, Orhangazi State Hospital, Bursa, Turkey; †Department of Dermatology, Yenişehir Hospital, Mersin, Turkey; ‡Department of Dermatology, Sistem Hospital, Mersin, Turkey; §Department of Dermatology, Mersin University, School of Medicine, Mersin, Turkey.
    Background: Chemical matricectomy is performed mainly by 2 agents, phenol and sodium hydroxide. Chemical matricectomy with phenol has a low recurrence rate and good cosmetic results, but it produces extensive tissue destruction and can result in drainage and a delayed healing time. These adverse effects have brought forward the use of chemical agents such as sodium hydroxide and trichloroacetic acid for matricectomy. Read More

    Super U Technique for Ingrown Nails.
    Actas Dermosifiliogr 2017 Jun 8;108(5):438-444. Epub 2017 Mar 8.
    Unidad de Cirugía Dermatológica de la Cátedra de Dermatología Médico Quirúrgica, Hospital de Clínicas Dr. Manuel Quintela, Universidad de la República, Montevideo, Uruguay.
    Introduction And Objectives: Ingrown nails are a common problem, seen mostly in young adults. Also known as onychcrypotisis, this condition typically affects the great toenail. Four stages have been defined according to the severity and duration of the condition, and treatment varies from conservative to surgical techniques depending on the stage. Read More

    Winograd Method Versus Winograd Method With Electrocoagulation in the Treatment of Ingrown Toenails.
    J Foot Ankle Surg 2017 May - Jun;56(3):474-477. Epub 2017 Feb 24.
    Orthopedist and Hand Surgeon, Department of Orthopedics and Traumatology, Hand and Upper Extremity Surgery Division, Konya Necmettin Erbakan University Meram School of Medicine, Konya, Turkey. Electronic address:
    An important component of the Winograd surgical method for an ingrown toenail is total excision of the associated germinal matrix. However, this might not always be accomplished with the procedure. We hypothesized that the surgical results might be improved by adding electrocoagulation of the germinal matrix to the Winograd method. Read More

    Nonrandomized assessment of ingrown toenails treated with excision of skinfold rather than toenail (NAILTEST): An observational study of the Vandenbos procedure.
    J Pediatr Surg 2017 May 29;52(5):832-836. Epub 2017 Jan 29.
    Division of Pediatric Surgery, Western University, London, Ontario, Canada. Electronic address:
    Background: The Vandenbos procedure for ingrown toenails consists of excising the surrounding skinfold and allowing the wound to heal by secondary intention. Previous studies have documented low rates of recurrence, but patient-reported outcomes remain uncertain.

    Methods: This study was a prospective, observational assessment of children and adolescents who underwent the Vandenbos procedure for one or more ingrown toenails. Read More

    A new and simple suturing technique applied after surgery to correct ingrown toenails may improve clinical outcomes: A randomized controlled trial.
    Int J Surg 2016 Oct 8;34:1-5. Epub 2016 Aug 8.
    Orthopaedics and Traumatology, Düzce University Hospital, Düzce, Turkey. Electronic address:
    Introduction: In the present study, we investigated the efficacy of a new suturing technique applied after the Winograd procedure has been completed.

    Methods: This study was prospective, randomized, and controlled. In total, 128 patients were recruited and divided into two groups. Read More

    The Stainless Steel Wire-based Method of Sogawa Effectively Corrects Severe Ingrown Nails.
    Plast Reconstr Surg Glob Open 2016 Aug 15;4(8):e846. Epub 2016 Aug 15.
    Department of Plastic, Reconstructive, and Aesthetic Surgery, Nippon Medical School, Tokyo, Japan; Department of Dermatology, Oki Dermatology Clinic, Tokyo, Japan; and Department of Orthopedics, Sogawa Clinic, Mitoyo, Japan.
    Ingrown nails are defined as inflammation of the lateral nail fold that is caused by penetration by the nail plate and associates with pain and/or infection. The pain associated with ingrown nail hampers walking, raises the risk of falls, and decreases the quality of life. The Sogawa method is a novel conservative medical treatment for ingrown nails that is based on stainless steel wire. Read More

    Chronic, severe onychocryptosis successfully treated with nail tube splinting in a 13-year-old girl with multiple prior failed matricectomies.
    Dermatol Online J 2016 Jun 15;22(6). Epub 2016 Jun 15.
    Department of Dermatology, University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinic, Iowa City.
    Onychocryptosis, also known as ingrown toenail, is caused by growth of the lateral edge of the nail into the nail fold. This results in inflammation of the invaded tissue. It is a common problem with ~70% of cases occurring in people between the ages of 12-30 years and causes significant discomfort, pain, and restriction in activity [1]. Read More

    Effect of Phenol and Sodium Hydroxide in the Bacterial Load at Nail Fold After Partial Matricectomy.
    Dermatol Surg 2017 Feb;43(2):316-317
    DEDAP Research Group, BiOPiEx Research Group, Nursing Department, University of Extremadura, Plasencia (Cáceres), Spain University of Extremadura, Plasencia (Cáceres), Spain Nursing Department, University of Extremadura, Plasencia (Cáceres), Spain.

    Partial matricectomy with cryotherapy in treatment of ingrown toenails.
    Acta Orthop Traumatol Turc 2016 ;50(3):262-8
    Adana Numume Training and Research Hospital, Department of Dermatology, Adana, Turkey.
    Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of cryotherapy applied for the purpose of matricectomy following partial nail removal in treatment of ingrown nails.

    Methods: Between 2010 and 2013, 76 ingrown toenails of 62 patients were included in this prospective study. Following partial toenail removal, matricectomy with cryotherapy was performed. Read More

    Nail alterations during pregnancy: a clinical study.
    Int J Dermatol 2016 Oct 20;55(10):1172-5. Epub 2016 Apr 20.
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Faculty of Medicine, Turgut Ozal University, Ankara, Turkey.
    During pregnancy, cutaneous and appendageal alterations manifest and may cause concern in the subject. The nails may be affected by pregnancy. This study investigated the frequency and nature of nail changes occurring during pregnancy in 312 healthy, 18-40-year-old pregnant women in gestation weeks 16-40. Read More

    Common surgery, uncommon complication.
    Dermatol Pract Concept 2015 Oct 31;5(4):1-3. Epub 2015 Oct 31.
    Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetics Surgery Department, Ankara Training and Research Hospital. Ankara, Turkey.
    Ingrown nail surgery is the one of the most common surgeries in outpatient clinics that are generally perfomed in response to patient complaints. Still, making simple observations, taking patient histories and conducting further tests are often neglected by outpatient clinics. Consequently, it is important to be aware if ingrown nail is associated with any underlying diseases that can lead to major complications. Read More

    Nail Deformities and Injuries.
    Prim Care 2015 Dec;42(4):677-91
    Department of Family and Community Medicine, Penn State Milton S. Hershey Medical Center, 500 University Avenue, Hershey, PA 17033, USA. Electronic address:
    A variety of nail deformities commonly presents in the primary care office. An understanding of nail anatomy coupled with inspection of the nails at routine office visits can reveal undetected disorders. Some problems are benign, and treatment should be attempted by the primary care provider, such as onychomycosis, paronychia, or ingrown toenails. Read More

    Relationship between the presence of abnormal hallux interphalangeal angle and risk of ingrown hallux nail: a case control study.
    BMC Musculoskelet Disord 2015 Oct 15;16:301. Epub 2015 Oct 15.
    Departamento de Podología, Universidad de Sevilla, C/ Avicena, s/n, Sevilla, Sevilla 41009, Spain.
    Background: Many risk factors have been identified to be associated with ingrown toenail. Internal pressure by the distal phalanx of the hallux and the second toe and external compression from the shoes has been proposed as a reason for the pathology. The main objective of the study was to analyze the existence of a correlation between the presence of pathological hallux interphalangeal angle (HIA) and risk of ingrown hallux nail. Read More

    "Retronychia--clinical and pathophysiological aspects".
    J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol 2016 Jan 5;30(1):16-9. Epub 2015 Oct 5.
    Centro de Dermatologia Epidermis, Instituto CUF, Porto, Portugal.
    Retronychia represents proximal ingrowth of the nail that occurs when the nail embeds backwards into the proximal nail fold. It is suspected when there is a persistent paronychia, particularly in the setting of trauma. Important clinical criteria for diagnosis are inflammation of the proximal nail fold, granulation tissue emerging from under the nail fold, thickening of the proximal portion of the nail plate and interruption of nail growth. Read More

    Comparison between knot and Winograd techniques on ingrown nail treatment.
    Acta Orthop Traumatol Turc 2015 ;49(5):539-43
    Necmettin Erbakan University Meram Faculty of Medicine, Department of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgery, Konya, Turkey.
    Objective: The aim of this study was to compare the Winograd and knot techniques based on efficiency, complication rate, surgery time, and amount of local anesthetic required. This study also aimed to determine the etiology of ingrown nails, whether due to involvement of the nail or soft tissue.

    Methods: Seventy-five patients with a total of 90 ingrown nails (stages 2 and 3) who presented at our clinic between 2012-2014 were included in this study. Read More

    Controlled trial comparing the efficacy of 88% phenol versus 10% sodium hydroxide for chemical matricectomy in the management of ingrown toenail.
    Indian J Dermatol Venereol Leprol 2015 Sep-Oct;81(5):472-7
    Department of Dermatology and STD, University College of Medical Sciences and Guru Teg Bahadur Hospital, Dilshad Garden, Delhi, India.
    Background: Partial nail avulsion with lateral chemical matricectomy is the treatment of choice for ingrown toenails. Phenol (88%) is the most widely used chemical agent but prolonged postoperative drainage and collateral damage are common. Sodium hydroxide (NaOH) 10% has fewer side-effects. Read More

    Foot loading is different in people with and without pincer nails: a case control study.
    J Foot Ankle Res 2015 19;8:43. Epub 2015 Aug 19.
    Department of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgery, Nippon Medical School, 1-1-5 Sendagi, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, 113-8603 Japan.
    Background: Recent studies suggest that pincer nails are caused by lack of upward mechanical forces on the toe pad. However, clinically significant pincer nails are also often observed among healthy walkers. It was hypothesized that in these cases, the affected toes do not receive adequate physical stimulation from walking and loading. Read More

    Operative treatment of ingrown toenail by nail fold resection without matricectomy.
    J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 2015 Jul;105(4):295-301
    Background: Many operative techniques have been studied for correction of ingrown toenails, yet the role of nail fold resection without matricectomy is poorly defined. Current literature on this topic is sparse, and previous systematic reviews are absent.

    Methods: A MEDLINE/Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature/Scopus search was performed and a systematic review was undertaken for articles discussing surgical treatment of ingrown toenail by nail fold resection without matricectomy. Read More

    Onychomycosis treatment in the United States.
    Cutis 2015 May;95(5):E15-21
    Department of Dermatology, Wake Forest School of Medicine, 4618 Country Club Rd, Winston-Salem, NC 27104, USA.
    Onychomycosis is a common progressive infection of the nails that may result in remarkable morbidity. Although there are a variety of treatments available for fungal nail infections with different efficacy and safety profiles, there are limited reports on the ways in which physicians use these treatments or the frequency with which they prescribe them. In this retrospective study, major trends in the prescription and use of antifungal agents for treatment of onychomycosis in the United States were evaluated using data from the National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey. Read More

    Nail Braces as an Alternative Treatment for Ingrown Toenails: Results From a Comparison With the Winograd Technique.
    J Foot Ankle Surg 2015 Jul-Aug;54(4):620-4. Epub 2015 Apr 27.
    Assistant Professor, Department of Orthopedics and Traumatology, Medipol University, Medical Faculty, Istanbul, Turkey.
    Ingrown toenails are one of the most frequent nail disorders and can be treated with conservative or surgical approaches. Although discovered a long time ago, the available data are still very limited on the potential effectiveness of nail braces for ingrown toenail treatment. In the present retrospective study, we compared nail braces with surgical wedge excision using the Winograd technique with respect to the time to return to work, recurrence, interval to recurrence, and patient satisfaction. Read More

    Glomus Tumors in the Foot: Case Series.
    Foot Ankle Spec 2015 Dec 28;8(6):460-5. Epub 2015 Apr 28.
    Orthopaedic Residency Program (SKT), Hospital for Special Surgery, New YorkDepartment of Foot and Ankle Surgery (DSS, SJE), Hospital for Special Surgery, New YorkDepartment of Radiology and Imaging (DNM), Hospital for Special Surgery, New YorkDepartment of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine (GP), Hospital for Special Surgery, New York
    Unlabelled: Glomus tumors are painful, benign neoplasms that frequently are associated with delayed diagnosis. Commonly in the hand, they rarely present in the foot. The purpose of this case series is to characterize the clinical presentation, radiology, pathology, and surgical outcomes associated with foot glomus tumors. Read More

    "Super u"--a technique for the treatment of ingrown nail.
    Dermatol Surg 2015 May;41(5):652-3
    Department of Dermatology, Federal University of Sao Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil Department of Dermatology, Hospital do Servidor Pu[Combining Acute Accent]blico Municipal, São Paulo, Brazil Department of Dermatology, Federal University of Sao Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil.

    Onychomatricoma: a tumor unknown to dermatologists.
    An Bras Dermatol 2015 Mar-Apr;90(2):265-7
    Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil.
    A sixty-one year old white female was referred to the Dermatology Department to treat an ingrown nail in the inner corner of the left hallux. Examination of the entire nail unit showed the presence of xanthonychia in the outer corner besides thickening and increase in the transverse curvature of the nail plate. Dermoscopy and nuclear magnetic resonance of the free edge of the nail plate detected characteristic signs of onychomatricoma, a diagnosis that was later confirmed by anatomopathological exam. Read More

    Best way to treat an ingrown toenail.
    Dermatol Clin 2015 Apr 15;33(2):277-82. Epub 2015 Feb 15.
    Dermatologic Clinic, Hospital do Servidor Público Municipal de São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil; Department of Dermatology, Medical School of ABC, São Paulo, Brazil.
    Nail phenolization is considered a useful procedure for treating ingrowing toenails. Nail phenolization is indicated when partial and definitive removal of the nail plate is necessary. Nail phenolization is simple and inexpensive, and associated with little postoperative discomfort, a quick return to normal activities, and a low rate of complication and recurrence. Read More

    Diagnosis using the proximal and lateral nail folds.
    Dermatol Clin 2015 Apr 21;33(2):207-41. Epub 2015 Feb 21.
    Dermatology Service Social Security General Hospital - IGSS, 9ª. Street 7-55, Zone 9, Guatemala City 01009, Guatemala. Electronic address:
    This article includes the etiology and pathophysiological data of each entity, classifying them as dermatologic, systemic, infectious, neoplastic, traumatic, and other classifications. The entities inherent to the periungual folds are also included, such as acute paronychia, chronic paronychia, retronychia, hangnails, hematomas of the proximal fold caused by oximeter, onychocryptosis, hypertrophy of the lateral folds, and infections caused by Candida albicans, Pseudomonas, and Staphylococcus aureus. Additionally, pathologies caused by diabetes mellitus, sepsis, endocarditis, drug reactions, and finally less frequent diseases that also affect the nail folds are discussed. Read More

    Anatomical characteristics and surgical treatments of pincer nail deformity.
    Arch Plast Surg 2015 Mar 16;42(2):207-13. Epub 2015 Mar 16.
    Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Bundang Jesaeng General Hospital, Seongnam, Korea.
    Background: Pincer nail deformity is a transverse overcurvature of the nail. This study aimed to define the anatomical characteristics of pincer nail deformity and to evaluate the surgical outcomes.

    Methods: A retrospective review was conducted on 20 cases of pincer nail deformity of the great toe. Read More

    Ingrown toenails: the role of the GP.
    Aust Fam Physician 2015 Mar;44(3):102-5
    BSc (Pod), MSc, PhD, Professor and Head, Podiatric Medicine Unit, School of Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, Dentistry and Health Sciences, University of Western Australia, Crawley, WA.
    Background: An ingrown toenail or onychocryptosis may occur at any age and is the mostly commonly encountered toenail problem likely to be seen in general practice.

    Objective: This article will discuss the common surgical approaches available for the management of an ingrown toenail.

    Discussion: Ingrown toenail can be a painful condition that can become infected and may require surgical treatment. Read More

    "Cotton nail cast": a simple solution for mild and painful lateral and distal nail embedding.
    Dermatol Surg 2015 Mar;41(3):411-4
    *National Reference Center for Nail Diseases, Department of Dermatologic Surgery, Hospital General "Dr. Manuel Gea González," Mexico City, Mexico; †Department of Dermatologic Surgery, Hospital General "Dr. Manuel Gea González", Mexico City, Mexico; ‡Department of Dermatology, Instituto Nacional de la Nutrición y Ciencias Médicas Salvador Zubirán, México City, México.
    Background: Onychocryptosis is one of the most common painful nail conditions. Conservative treatment may take a long time to obtain effective results.

    Objective: The purpose of this study is to show the effectiveness of a conservative treatment of ingrown nails that shows rapid results. Read More

    Skin bridging secondary to ingrown toenail.
    Pak J Med Sci 2014 Nov-Dec;30(6):1425-7
    Ozan Bitik, MD, Department of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, Hacettepe University, Ankara, Turkey.
    Ingrown toenails are painful conditions that especially affect young people and may become chronic if not treated. We describe a case of chronically inflamed ingrown toenail left untreated for three years. In the physical examination, skin bridging and epithelialization was observed in midline secondary to soft tissue hypertrophy of the lateral nail matrixes. Read More

    Treatment of ingrown toe nail-comparison of phenolization after partial nail avulsion and partial nail avulsion alone.
    J Ayub Med Coll Abbottabad 2014 Oct-Dec;26(4):522-5
    Background: Ingrown toe nail is common problem presenting to the surgeon. Partial Nail avulsion only results in recurrence of the ingrown toe nail. The aim of this study was too see the effect of phenolization in preventing recurrence after partial nail avulsion. Read More

    Retrospective evaluation of conservative treatment for 140 ingrown toenails with a novel taping procedure.
    Acta Derm Venereol 2015 Sep;95(7):822-5
    Department of Dermatology, Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Seiryo-machi 1-1 Aoba-ku, Sendai, 980-8574, Japan.
    The aim of this study is retrospectively to review the efficacy of a taping procedure for treating ingrown toe-nails or for supporting other conservative treatments of ingrown toenails. A total of 140 ingrown toenails treated at the Dermatology Clinic in Tohoku University Hospital were retrospectively reviewed for demographic characteristics, association with granulation tissue or infection, treatment modalities and their outcomes, and classified according the treatment modalities. All the ingrown toe-nails were treated with a novel taping procedure, "slit tape-strap procedure" alone or in conjunction with other conservative treatments. Read More

    The effectiveness of matrix cauterization with trichloroacetic acid in the treatment of ingrown toenails.
    Indian Dermatol Online J 2015 Jan-Feb;6(1):4-8
    Department of Dermatology, Medical School, Mersin University, Mersin, Turkey.
    Ingrown toenail is an often painful clinical condition that usually affects the big toe. Chemical matricectomy with phenol has a low recurrence rate and good cosmetic results. However, it produces extensive tissue destruction that can result in drainage and delayed healing. Read More

    Knot technique: a new treatment of ingrown nails.
    Dermatol Surg 2015 Feb;41(2):250-4
    *All the authors are affiliated with the Department of Plastic and Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgery, Faculty of Meram Medicine, Necmettin Erbakan University, Konya, Turkey.
    Background: Ingrown nails are a painful problem that affects all ages, particularly the young, and it may become chronic if not treated.

    Objective: A new technique was used to treat patients with Stages 2 and 3 ingrown nails in whom conservative and surgical methods were attempted.

    Materials And Methods: A total of 30 patients presenting with Stages 2 and 3 ingrown nails to the clinic between 2010 and 2012 were included. Read More

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