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    Efficacy of a new nail brace for the treatment of ingrown toenails.
    J Dtsch Dermatol Ges 2018 Apr 3;16(4):417-423. Epub 2018 Mar 3.
    Department of Dermatology, Wan Fang Hospital, Taipei Medical University, Taipei City, Taiwan.
    Background And Objectives: Surgery is the mainstay of treatment for complicated ingrown toenails. However, alternative treatments using nail braces have been reported to show good efficacy. The objective of the present study was to investigate the efficacy of a new nail brace for the treatment of ingrown toenails. Read More

    A new perspective on the nail plate for treatment of ingrown toenail.
    Dermatol Pract Concept 2018 Jan 31;8(1):22-27. Epub 2018 Jan 31.
    Department of Hand Surgery, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, P.R. China.
    Background: Our routine treatment for ingrown toenail was removal of the surrounding soft tissue and shortening the bone of the distal phalanx. We determined the range and volume of excision based on our experience without an objective standard and routinely performed avulsion of the nail plate.

    Objective: To take the nail plate as an objective mark during surgical treatment of ingrown toenail to ensure accurate excision. Read More

    Risk Factors and Frequency of Ingrown Nails in Adult Diabetic Patients.
    J Foot Ankle Surg 2018 Mar - Apr;57(2):289-295. Epub 2018 Jan 10.
    Professor, Department of Neurology, Faculty of Medicine, Ankara University, Ankara, Turkey.
    The present study evaluated the properties of nails, frequency of ingrown nails in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM), risk factors for developing ingrown nails, and effect of diabetic polyneuropathy and vasculopathy on the development and outcome of ingrown nails. Our 6-month epidemiologic prospective study included 300 patients with type 2 DM attending a DM outpatient clinic for routine examinations. The general characteristics and foot changes of the study population were investigated. Read More

    Periungual Eccrine Poroma Masquerading as Ingrown Toenails .
    J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 2017 Nov;107(6):551-555
    Eccrine poroma is a rare benign adnexal neoplasm originating from a portion of the intraepidermal eccrine sweat gland duct and the acrosyringium. Typically, the lesions are asymptomatic, slow-growing nodules, which may be found in any sweat gland-bearing area. Multiple red lacunae, glomerular vessels, hairpin vessels, flower- and leaf-like vascular patterns, a polymorphic vascular pattern, globule/lacunae-like structures, a frog egg-like appearance, and comedo-like openings have been defined as characteristic dermoscopic patterns of the disease. Read More

    Paronychia with Sporangium Formation Causing an Ingrown Toenail .
    J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 2018 Mar 8;108(2):186-188. Epub 2017 Nov 8.
    Ingrown toenail, or onychocryptosis, is a common inflammatory disease of the hallux. It results from the alteration of fit of the nail plate in the lateral nail fold. Ingrown toenails are usually seen in adolescents and young adults and can affect daily activities and social life. Read More

    Children Receiving Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation are at Increased Risk of Onychocryptosis Requiring Surgical Management.
    J Pediatr Hematol Oncol 2017 Oct;39(7):e353-e356
    *Department of Surgery †Division of Pediatric Hematology and Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC.
    Purpose: At our institution, a high proportion of children with onychocryptosis (ingrown toenail) requiring surgical intervention were noted to have a history of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). We analyzed the characteristics of patients who underwent surgical intervention for onychocryptosis and examined our institutional HSCT database to determine if an association exists between onychocryptosis and HSCT.

    Materials And Methods: Surgical cases for onychocryptosis performed from 2000 to 2012 were identified. Read More

    Marjolin's squamous cell carcinoma of the hallux following recurrent ingrown toenail infections.
    BMJ Case Rep 2017 Jun 14;2017. Epub 2017 Jun 14.
    Department of Trauma and Orthopaedics, University Hospital of Wales, Cardiff, UK.
    Marjolin's squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) affecting the toe is rare. Due to resemblance with benign conditions it can often result in misdiagnosis. We report a case of Marjolin's SCC affecting the proximal hallux in a patient with recurrent ingrown toenail infections. Read More

    Operative Treatment of the Ingrown Toenail With a Less-Invasive Technique: Flashback to the Original Winograd Technique.
    Foot Ankle Spec 2018 Apr 6;11(2):138-141. Epub 2017 Jun 6.
    Department of Orthopaedics and Traumatology, Erzincan University Faculty of Medicine, Erzincan, Turkey (YC, HS, AI, NK).
    Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the results of the partial nail plate excision and curettage of nail bed and matrix (the original Winograd technique) in patients with ingrown toenail.

    Materials And Methods: Patients with ingrown toenail who were treated surgically from May 2014 to June 2015, with a minimum follow-up of 1 year were included in this study. Those who had previous ingrown toenail surgery were excluded. Read More

    Relation Between Nail Consistency and Incidence of Ingrown Toenails in Young Male Runners.
    J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 2017 Mar;107(2):137-143
    Background: This study examines the possible influence of factors such as nail shape and consistency, sex, and sports activity on the development of the most common nail disorders in a population of young people.

    Methods: The nail plates of 140 young people (66 females and 74 males) were studied. Of these 140 participants, 72 were runners who trained more than 10 hours a week and competed regularly, and 68 did not habitually do any sports activity. Read More

    The Effectiveness of Matrix Cauterization With Bichloracetic Acid in the Treatment of Ingrown Toenails.
    Dermatol Surg 2017 May;43(5):728-733
    *Department of Dermatology, Orhangazi State Hospital, Bursa, Turkey; †Department of Dermatology, Yenişehir Hospital, Mersin, Turkey; ‡Department of Dermatology, Sistem Hospital, Mersin, Turkey; §Department of Dermatology, Mersin University, School of Medicine, Mersin, Turkey.
    Background: Chemical matricectomy is performed mainly by 2 agents, phenol and sodium hydroxide. Chemical matricectomy with phenol has a low recurrence rate and good cosmetic results, but it produces extensive tissue destruction and can result in drainage and a delayed healing time. These adverse effects have brought forward the use of chemical agents such as sodium hydroxide and trichloroacetic acid for matricectomy. Read More

    Super U Technique for Ingrown Nails.
    Actas Dermosifiliogr 2017 Jun 8;108(5):438-444. Epub 2017 Mar 8.
    Unidad de Cirugía Dermatológica de la Cátedra de Dermatología Médico Quirúrgica, Hospital de Clínicas Dr. Manuel Quintela, Universidad de la República, Montevideo, Uruguay.
    Introduction And Objectives: Ingrown nails are a common problem, seen mostly in young adults. Also known as onychcrypotisis, this condition typically affects the great toenail. Four stages have been defined according to the severity and duration of the condition, and treatment varies from conservative to surgical techniques depending on the stage. Read More

    Toenail Bracing Complicated With Group-A Beta-Haemolytic Streptococcus Infection.
    Dermatol Surg 2017 09;43(9):1184-1185
    Department of Dermatology, Nicolina Medical Center, Iasi, Romania Department of Dermato-Physiollogy, Apollonia University, Iasi, Romania "P. Poni" Institute of Macromolecular Chemistry, Iasi, Romania Department of Dermatology, Nicolina Medical Center, Iasi, Romania Department of Surgery, University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Tirgu-Mures, Romania Department of Pathology, University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Tirgu-Mures, Romania.

    Winograd Method Versus Winograd Method With Electrocoagulation in the Treatment of Ingrown Toenails.
    J Foot Ankle Surg 2017 May - Jun;56(3):474-477. Epub 2017 Feb 24.
    Orthopedist and Hand Surgeon, Department of Orthopedics and Traumatology, Hand and Upper Extremity Surgery Division, Konya Necmettin Erbakan University Meram School of Medicine, Konya, Turkey. Electronic address:
    An important component of the Winograd surgical method for an ingrown toenail is total excision of the associated germinal matrix. However, this might not always be accomplished with the procedure. We hypothesized that the surgical results might be improved by adding electrocoagulation of the germinal matrix to the Winograd method. Read More

    Nonrandomized assessment of ingrown toenails treated with excision of skinfold rather than toenail (NAILTEST): An observational study of the Vandenbos procedure.
    J Pediatr Surg 2017 May 29;52(5):832-836. Epub 2017 Jan 29.
    Division of Pediatric Surgery, Western University, London, Ontario, Canada. Electronic address:
    Background: The Vandenbos procedure for ingrown toenails consists of excising the surrounding skinfold and allowing the wound to heal by secondary intention. Previous studies have documented low rates of recurrence, but patient-reported outcomes remain uncertain.

    Methods: This study was a prospective, observational assessment of children and adolescents who underwent the Vandenbos procedure for one or more ingrown toenails. Read More

    Nail changes in casted and braced clubfoot: A preliminary study.
    Foot Ankle Surg 2016 Dec 27;22(4):229-232. Epub 2015 Oct 27.
    Department of Paediatric Orthopaedics, Chacha Nehru Bal Chikitsalaya, Geeta Colony, Delhi 110031, India. Electronic address:
    Background: The study aimed at finding whether there are any nail changes specific to treatment in clubfoot.

    Methods: Sixty new, 26 undergoing serial corrective casting, and 247 clubfoot patients using foot abduction braces were prospectively studied. The casted and braced group formed the basis of the study to observe nail changes, if any. Read More

    Toenail paronychia.
    Foot Ankle Surg 2016 Dec 21;22(4):219-223. Epub 2015 Sep 21.
    Royal National Orthopaedic Hospital, Brockley Hill, Stanmore, Middlesex HA7 4LP, United Kingdom.
    Paronychia is an inflammation of the tissues alongside the nail. It may be acute or chronic and can be seen in isolation or in association with an ingrowing toenail. Acute paronychial infections develop when a disruption occurs between the seal of the nail fold and the nail plate, providing a portal of entry for invading organisms. Read More

    A new and simple suturing technique applied after surgery to correct ingrown toenails may improve clinical outcomes: A randomized controlled trial.
    Int J Surg 2016 Oct 8;34:1-5. Epub 2016 Aug 8.
    Orthopaedics and Traumatology, Düzce University Hospital, Düzce, Turkey. Electronic address:
    Introduction: In the present study, we investigated the efficacy of a new suturing technique applied after the Winograd procedure has been completed.

    Methods: This study was prospective, randomized, and controlled. In total, 128 patients were recruited and divided into two groups. Read More

    Onychocryptosis: a long-term retrospective and comparative follow-up study of surgical and phenol chemical matricectomy in 520 procedures.
    Int J Dermatol 2017 Feb 12;56(2):221-224. Epub 2016 Oct 12.
    Department of Dermatology, University General Hospital of Alicante, Alicante, Spain.
    Background: Onychocryptosis or ingrown toenail is a common condition for which there are several treatment options. Surgical matricectomy (SM) is the classical procedure, whereas chemical matricectomy with phenol (CMP) is the most widely used nowadays.

    Objectives: This study was designed to evaluate the success rate, postoperative comfort, postoperative complications, and patient satisfaction provided by each of these procedures. Read More

    The Stainless Steel Wire-based Method of Sogawa Effectively Corrects Severe Ingrown Nails.
    Plast Reconstr Surg Glob Open 2016 Aug 15;4(8):e846. Epub 2016 Aug 15.
    Department of Plastic, Reconstructive, and Aesthetic Surgery, Nippon Medical School, Tokyo, Japan; Department of Dermatology, Oki Dermatology Clinic, Tokyo, Japan; and Department of Orthopedics, Sogawa Clinic, Mitoyo, Japan.
    Ingrown nails are defined as inflammation of the lateral nail fold that is caused by penetration by the nail plate and associates with pain and/or infection. The pain associated with ingrown nail hampers walking, raises the risk of falls, and decreases the quality of life. The Sogawa method is a novel conservative medical treatment for ingrown nails that is based on stainless steel wire. Read More

    Chronic, severe onychocryptosis successfully treated with nail tube splinting in a 13-year-old girl with multiple prior failed matricectomies.
    Dermatol Online J 2016 Jun 15;22(6). Epub 2016 Jun 15.
    Department of Dermatology, University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinic, Iowa City.
    Onychocryptosis, also known as ingrown toenail, is caused by growth of the lateral edge of the nail into the nail fold. This results in inflammation of the invaded tissue. It is a common problem with ~70% of cases occurring in people between the ages of 12-30 years and causes significant discomfort, pain, and restriction in activity [1]. Read More

    Effect of Phenol and Sodium Hydroxide in the Bacterial Load at Nail Fold After Partial Matricectomy.
    Dermatol Surg 2017 Feb;43(2):316-317
    DEDAP Research Group, BiOPiEx Research Group, Nursing Department, University of Extremadura, Plasencia (Cáceres), Spain University of Extremadura, Plasencia (Cáceres), Spain Nursing Department, University of Extremadura, Plasencia (Cáceres), Spain.

    Treatment of Ingrown Toenail with a Shape Memory Alloy Device.
    J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 2016 Jul;106(4):252-6
    Background: We sought to report the clinical results of a new conservative treatment modality that uses a shape memory alloy device in patients with ingrown toenail.

    Methods: A retrospective review was performed on 41 patients with ingrown toenail treated with the K-D device (S&C Biotech, Seoul, South Korea) between April 2013 and July 2014. Recurrence rate, cosmetic results, pain during the treatment period, and patient satisfaction were the major outcome measures. Read More

    Partial matricectomy with cryotherapy in treatment of ingrown toenails.
    Acta Orthop Traumatol Turc 2016 ;50(3):262-8
    Adana Numume Training and Research Hospital, Department of Dermatology, Adana, Turkey.
    Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of cryotherapy applied for the purpose of matricectomy following partial nail removal in treatment of ingrown nails.

    Methods: Between 2010 and 2013, 76 ingrown toenails of 62 patients were included in this prospective study. Following partial toenail removal, matricectomy with cryotherapy was performed. Read More

    Nail alterations during pregnancy: a clinical study.
    Int J Dermatol 2016 Oct 20;55(10):1172-5. Epub 2016 Apr 20.
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Faculty of Medicine, Turgut Ozal University, Ankara, Turkey.
    During pregnancy, cutaneous and appendageal alterations manifest and may cause concern in the subject. The nails may be affected by pregnancy. This study investigated the frequency and nature of nail changes occurring during pregnancy in 312 healthy, 18-40-year-old pregnant women in gestation weeks 16-40. Read More

    Common surgery, uncommon complication.
    Dermatol Pract Concept 2015 Oct 31;5(4):1-3. Epub 2015 Oct 31.
    Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetics Surgery Department, Ankara Training and Research Hospital. Ankara, Turkey.
    Ingrown nail surgery is the one of the most common surgeries in outpatient clinics that are generally perfomed in response to patient complaints. Still, making simple observations, taking patient histories and conducting further tests are often neglected by outpatient clinics. Consequently, it is important to be aware if ingrown nail is associated with any underlying diseases that can lead to major complications. Read More

    Nail Deformities and Injuries.
    Prim Care 2015 Dec;42(4):677-91
    Department of Family and Community Medicine, Penn State Milton S. Hershey Medical Center, 500 University Avenue, Hershey, PA 17033, USA. Electronic address:
    A variety of nail deformities commonly presents in the primary care office. An understanding of nail anatomy coupled with inspection of the nails at routine office visits can reveal undetected disorders. Some problems are benign, and treatment should be attempted by the primary care provider, such as onychomycosis, paronychia, or ingrown toenails. Read More

    Relationship between the presence of abnormal hallux interphalangeal angle and risk of ingrown hallux nail: a case control study.
    BMC Musculoskelet Disord 2015 Oct 15;16:301. Epub 2015 Oct 15.
    Departamento de Podología, Universidad de Sevilla, C/ Avicena, s/n, Sevilla, Sevilla 41009, Spain.
    Background: Many risk factors have been identified to be associated with ingrown toenail. Internal pressure by the distal phalanx of the hallux and the second toe and external compression from the shoes has been proposed as a reason for the pathology. The main objective of the study was to analyze the existence of a correlation between the presence of pathological hallux interphalangeal angle (HIA) and risk of ingrown hallux nail. Read More

    "Retronychia--clinical and pathophysiological aspects".
    J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol 2016 Jan 5;30(1):16-9. Epub 2015 Oct 5.
    Centro de Dermatologia Epidermis, Instituto CUF, Porto, Portugal.
    Retronychia represents proximal ingrowth of the nail that occurs when the nail embeds backwards into the proximal nail fold. It is suspected when there is a persistent paronychia, particularly in the setting of trauma. Important clinical criteria for diagnosis are inflammation of the proximal nail fold, granulation tissue emerging from under the nail fold, thickening of the proximal portion of the nail plate and interruption of nail growth. Read More

    Comparison between knot and Winograd techniques on ingrown nail treatment.
    Acta Orthop Traumatol Turc 2015 ;49(5):539-43
    Necmettin Erbakan University Meram Faculty of Medicine, Department of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgery, Konya, Turkey.
    Objective: The aim of this study was to compare the Winograd and knot techniques based on efficiency, complication rate, surgery time, and amount of local anesthetic required. This study also aimed to determine the etiology of ingrown nails, whether due to involvement of the nail or soft tissue.

    Methods: Seventy-five patients with a total of 90 ingrown nails (stages 2 and 3) who presented at our clinic between 2012-2014 were included in this study. Read More

    Controlled trial comparing the efficacy of 88% phenol versus 10% sodium hydroxide for chemical matricectomy in the management of ingrown toenail.
    Indian J Dermatol Venereol Leprol 2015 Sep-Oct;81(5):472-7
    Department of Dermatology and STD, University College of Medical Sciences and Guru Teg Bahadur Hospital, Dilshad Garden, Delhi, India.
    Background: Partial nail avulsion with lateral chemical matricectomy is the treatment of choice for ingrown toenails. Phenol (88%) is the most widely used chemical agent but prolonged postoperative drainage and collateral damage are common. Sodium hydroxide (NaOH) 10% has fewer side-effects. Read More

    Foot loading is different in people with and without pincer nails: a case control study.
    J Foot Ankle Res 2015 19;8:43. Epub 2015 Aug 19.
    Department of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgery, Nippon Medical School, 1-1-5 Sendagi, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, 113-8603 Japan.
    Background: Recent studies suggest that pincer nails are caused by lack of upward mechanical forces on the toe pad. However, clinically significant pincer nails are also often observed among healthy walkers. It was hypothesized that in these cases, the affected toes do not receive adequate physical stimulation from walking and loading. Read More

    Operative treatment of ingrown toenail by nail fold resection without matricectomy.
    J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 2015 Jul;105(4):295-301
    Background: Many operative techniques have been studied for correction of ingrown toenails, yet the role of nail fold resection without matricectomy is poorly defined. Current literature on this topic is sparse, and previous systematic reviews are absent.

    Methods: A MEDLINE/Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature/Scopus search was performed and a systematic review was undertaken for articles discussing surgical treatment of ingrown toenail by nail fold resection without matricectomy. Read More

    Onychomycosis treatment in the United States.
    Cutis 2015 May;95(5):E15-21
    Department of Dermatology, Wake Forest School of Medicine, 4618 Country Club Rd, Winston-Salem, NC 27104, USA.
    Onychomycosis is a common progressive infection of the nails that may result in remarkable morbidity. Although there are a variety of treatments available for fungal nail infections with different efficacy and safety profiles, there are limited reports on the ways in which physicians use these treatments or the frequency with which they prescribe them. In this retrospective study, major trends in the prescription and use of antifungal agents for treatment of onychomycosis in the United States were evaluated using data from the National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey. Read More

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