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    Reflectance confocal microscopy of tinea nigra: comparing images with dermoscopy and mycological examination results.
    An Bras Dermatol 2017 Jul-Aug;92(4):568-569
    Dermatology Clinic at Hospital Santa Casa de São Paulo - São Paulo (SP), Brazil.
    Tinea nigra is a superficial mycosis whose diagnosis is confirmed by isolating the infectious agent Hortae werneckii through mycological examinations. In vivo reflectance confocal microscopy, initially used in melanocytic dermatosis, has been used with skin infectious diseases to identify the parasite at the cellular level. We report, for the first time in the scientific literature, the use of reflectance confocal microscopy in a case of tinea nigra and compare its findings to dermoscopy and mycological examination results. Read More

    Superficial Phaeohyphomycosis Caused by Aureobasidium melanogenum Mimicking Tinea Nigra in an Immunocompetent Patient and Review of Published Reports.
    Mycopathologia 2016 Aug 16;181(7-8):555-60. Epub 2016 Feb 16.
    Department of Dermatology, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Linkou, No. 5, Fushin Street, Taoyuan, Taiwan.
    Aureobasidium pullulans is a ubiquitous black yeast-like fungus belonging to order Dothideales. It was regarded as a contaminant, but is now considered a pathogen causing a wide range of human infections. We report a case of superficial phaeohyphomycosis in an immunocompetent patient with clinical presentations mimicking tinea nigra. Read More

    Bilateral Tinea Nigra Plantaris with Good Response to Isoconazole Cream: A Case Report.
    Case Rep Dermatol 2015 Sep-Dec;7(3):306-10. Epub 2015 Oct 28.
    Sector of Dermatology, University Hospital and School of Medicine, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
    Tinea nigra is a superficial fungal infection caused by Hortaea werneckii. It typically affects young individuals as an asymptomatic unilateral macule, from light brown to black on the palms and soles, mainly in tropical and subtropical regions. In 1997, Gupta et al. Read More

    Dermatoscopy in inflammatory and infectious skin disorders.
    G Ital Dermatol Venereol 2015 Oct;150(5):521-31
    Dermatology Clinic, University of Catania, A.O.U. Policlinico Vittorio Emanuele, Catania, Italy -
    Dermatoscopy is a non-invasive technique that allows a rapid and magnified in vivo observation of the skin surface. By definition, it is performed with handheld devices (dermatoscopes) allowing X10 magnification. More expensive, computer-assisted digital systems (videodermatoscopes) may be equipped with lenses that ensure magnifications up to X1000; in this case the term videodermatoscopy is generally used. Read More

    Tinea nigra showing a parallel ridge pattern on dermoscopy.
    J Dermatol 2015 May 13;42(5):518-20. Epub 2015 Mar 13.
    Noguchi Dermatology Clinic, Kumamoto, Japan; Department of Immunology, Allergy & Vascular Biology, Kumamoto University, Kumamoto, Japan.
    An 18-year-old healthy female student noticed a brown macule measuring 21 mm in diameter on the left palm and visited our clinic concerned about a cancerous mole. Dermoscopic examination revealed a brown, fine-dotted and granule-like structure overlapping an amorphous light brown macule. However, unlike previous cases, analysis of the high dynamic range-converted image revealed the parallel ridge pattern frequently observed in malignant melanomas. Read More

    Tinea nigra presenting speckled or "salt and pepper" pattern.
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 2014 Jun;90(6):981
    Department of Dermatology, University of Vale do Itajaí (Univali), Itajaí, SC, Brazil; Department of Pharmaceuticals-Biochemistry, University of Vale do Itajaí (Univali), Itajaí, SC, Brazil; Department of Dermatology, Botucatu School of Medical, Universidade Estadual Paulista "Júlio de Mesquita Filho"-São Paulo, State University (FMBUNESP), Vital Brazil Hospital, Butantan Institute, São Paulo, SP, Brazil.
    A 7-year-old Caucasian female resident of the southern coast of Brazil presented dark spots on the left palm that converged to a unique macule with speckled pattern at about 1 month. The mycological exam and the fungi culture were typical of Hortaea werneckii, the agent of the superficial mycosis Tinea nigra. The patient received butenafine hydrochloride 1% for 30 days, resulting in a complete remission of the lesion. Read More

    Scanning electron microscopy of tinea nigra.
    An Bras Dermatol 2014 Mar-Apr;89(2):334-6
    Federal University of Pelotas, Pelotas, RS, Brazil.
    Tinea nigra is a rare superficial mycosis caused by Hortaea werneckii. This infection presents as asymptomatic brown to black maculae mostly in palmo-plantar regions. We performed scanning electron microscopy of a superficial shaving of a tinea nigra lesion. Read More

    A case of Tinea nigra associated to a bite from a European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus, Leporidae): the role of dermoscopy in diagnosis.
    An Bras Dermatol 2014 Jan-Feb;89(1):165-6
    Universidade Estadual Paulista, Botucatu School of Medicine, São PauloSP, Brazil, Dermatologist, Associate Professor, Botucatu School of Medicine, Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP) - São Paulo, SP, Brazil.
    We report a case of Tinea nigra in an adolescent living in Itapema, Santa Catarina, Brazil, who presented a hyperchromic macule on the palm of the left hand, close to another erythematous macule caused by a rabbit bite. The patient received guidance on accidents and animal bites and evolved well treated with topical butenafine for the dermatomycosis. The authors also highlight the efficacy of the dermoscopic exam in diagnosing Tinea nigra with animal bite lesions and other traumas. Read More

    Bilateral Tinea Nigra of palm: a rare case report from Eastern India.
    Indian J Med Microbiol 2014 Jan-Mar;32(1):86-8
    Department of Microbiology, Shrirama Chandra Bhanj Medical College and Hospital, Cuttack, Odisha, India.
    A 14 year old girl from a coastal district of Odisha presented with a six month history of asymptomatic brownish patches on the palm of the both hands. Epidermal scrape from these patches showed brown septate hyphae with occasional yeast like cells. Hortaea wernekii was isolated from the fungal culture. Read More

    Palmar lichen planus mimicking tinea nigra.
    Indian J Dermatol 2013 Sep;58(5):407
    Department of Skin and VD, Topiwala National Medical College and BYL Nair Hospital, Mumbai, India.
    Lichen planus (LP) is a chronic inflammatory skin disease characterized by polygonal, violaceous papules commonly involving flexural areas of the wrists, legs, and oral and genital mucous membranes. This report describes a patient who presented with asymptomatic black colored patches on both palms simulating Tinea nigra, a superficial fungal infection. She was previously diagnosed as allergic contact dermatitis and was being treated with potent topical steroid i. Read More

    Double-blind study with topical Isoconazole and Terbinafine for the treatment of one patient with bilateral Tinea nigra plantaris and suggestions for new differential diagnosis.
    Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo 2013 Mar-Apr;55(2):125-8
    University of Vale do Itajaí/Univali, SC, Brazil.
    The authors report a case of bilateral Tinea nigra plantaris treated through a double-blind study with the topical antifungal agents Isoconazole and Terbinafine. The objective of the study was to clinically compare the efficacy of these two topical antifungal agents on days 10, 20 and 30 of the treatment. No significant clinical differences were found, as all the plantar lesions regressed completely by the end of the treatment. Read More

    Dermoscopy revealing a case of Tinea Nigra.
    An Bras Dermatol 2013 Jan-Feb;88(1):128-9
    State of São Paulo Cancer Institute, Faculty of Medicine, University of São Paulo (ICESP - FMUSP), São Paulo, SP, Brazil.
    Dermoscopy has being used over the past twenty years as a noninvasive aid in the diagnosis of innumerable skin conditions, including infectious diseases and infestations (Entodermoscopy).Tinea nigra is a superficial phaeohyfomycosis that affects mainly the glabrous skin of palms and soles. We describe a 14 year-old girl with a three-month history of an enlarging brown patch of her hand diagnosed as Tinea Nigra following clinical and dermoscopy examination. Read More

    [Tinea nigra: a allochthonous case report in Chile].
    Rev Chilena Infectol 2013 Feb;30(1):90-3
    Servicio de Dermatología, Clínica Alemana de Santiago, Chile.
    Tinea nigra is a superficial mycosis caused by Hortaea werneckii. It is an infrequent asymptomatic infection that affects mainly human palms and soles, and it is mostly seen in tropical countries. It has not been reported in Chile yet. Read More

    Dermoscopy for the pediatric dermatologist part I: dermoscopy of pediatric infectious and inflammatory skin lesions and hair disorders.
    Pediatr Dermatol 2013 Mar-Apr;30(2):163-71. Epub 2013 Feb 14.
    Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, Hauppauge, New York 11788, USA.
    The dermoscope allows physicians to examine the macroscopic and microscopic primary morphology of skin lesions, identify subtle clinical clues, confirm naked-eye clinical diagnoses, and monitor treatment progress while posing little threat to the young patient. This review summarizes important dermoscopic structures seen in infectious and inflammatory skin conditions and hair disorders in children. Scabies, pediculosis, phthiriasis, molluscum contagiosum, tinea nigra, and verrucae are well characterized dermoscopically by delta-shaped structures, ovoid-shaped nits, the crab louse, red corona, brown strands or spicules, and multiple densely packed papilla with a central black dot surrounded by a whitish halo, respectively. Read More

    Tinea nigra: successful treatment with topical butenafine.
    An Bras Dermatol 2012 Nov-Dec;87(6):939-41
    University of Vale of Itajaí (Universidade do Vale do Itajai - Univali) - Itajai (SC), Brazil.
    The authors report a case of Tinea nigra in an 8-year-old child, male, from Itajaí, SC, Brazil, with lesions of the macular hyperchromic type, unique, asymptomatic, localized in the right palmar area. The lesion was treated with the topical antifungal butenafine, with remission of symptoms and without recurrence at follow-up for two years. Read More

    Identification of Hortaea werneckii Isolated from mangrove plant Aegiceras comiculatum based on morphology and rDNA sequences.
    Mycopathologia 2012 Dec 3;174(5-6):457-66. Epub 2012 Aug 3.
    Institute of Medicinal Plant Development, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing 100193, People's Republic of China.
    Hortaea werneckii is a black yeast-like ascomycetous fungi associated with the human superficial infection tinea nigra, which commonly occurs in tropical and subtropical countries. Now, this fungus has been found in the halophilic environment all over the world and recognized as a new model organism in exploring the mechanisms of salt tolerance in eukaryotes. During a survey of endophytic fungi of mangrove forest at South China Sea, two isolates of H. Read More

    Subcutaneous phaeohyphomycosis (mycotic cyst).
    Clin Dermatol 2012 Jul-Aug;30(4):425-31
    Instituto Dermatológico y Cirugía de Piel Dr. Huberto Bogaert Díaz, Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic.
    Phaeohyphomycosis designates fungal infections caused by pheoid or melanized fungi and characterized histopathologically by the presence of septate hyphae, pseudohyphae, and yeasts. Etiologic agents include Exophiala, Phoma, Bipolaris, Phialophora, Colletotrichum, Curvularia, Alternaria, Exserohilum, and Phialemonium sp. The most common are Exophiala jeanselmei and Wangiella dermatitidis. Read More

    Hortaea werneckii isolated from silicone scuba diving equipment in Spain.
    Med Mycol 2012 Nov 2;50(8):852-7. Epub 2012 May 2.
    Department of Animal Health and Anatomy, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Bellaterra, Barcelona, Spain.
    During a survey of black yeasts of marine origin, some isolates of Hortaea werneckii were recovered from scuba diving equipment, such as silicone masks and snorkel mouthpieces, which had been kept under poor storage conditions. These yeasts were unambiguously identified by phenotypic and genotypic methods. Phylogenetic analysis of both the D1/D2 regions of 26S rRNA gene and ITS-5. Read More

    Spontaneous cure in a case of Tinea nigra.
    An Bras Dermatol 2012 Jan-Feb;87(1):160-2
    Vale do Itajai University, Itajai, SC, Brazil.
    The authors report a case (in Itajai, Santa Catarina State, Brazil) of tinea nigra in a 4-year-old female child which spontaneously healed. We discuss the clinical and epidemiological aspects of the mycosis and this rare case of spontaneous healing. Read More

    Dermoscopy improves diagnosis of tinea nigra: a study of 50 cases.
    Australas J Dermatol 2011 Aug 23;52(3):191-4. Epub 2011 Jun 23.
    Department of Dermatology, Royal Brisbane and Women's Hospital, Brisbane, Australia.
    Background/objectives: Tinea nigra is a relatively uncommon dematiaceous fungal infection of the palms and soles, which clinically may mimic a melanocytic lesion. We sought to ascertain how frequently misdiagnosis of this infection occurred and whether the use of dermoscopy helped in its diagnosis.

    Methods: Fifty consecutive cases of tinea nigra diagnosed at a dermatopathology laboratory were examined with regard to the clinical diagnosis, use of dermoscopy and the mode of management. Read More

    Tinea nigra in geographical forms of "heart" and "parrot beak".
    An Bras Dermatol 2011 Mar-Apr;86(2):389-90
    Dermatology Outpatient Clinic at University of Vale do Itajaí (Univali) - Itajaí (SC), Brazil.
    Through a photographic essay, we identified similarities between hyperchromic maculas of two cases of Tinea Nigra with images of a heart-shaped mangrove called "Coeur de Voh", located on the French island of New Caledonia (Oceania) and of a rock formation called "Parrot Beak" located on Cabeçudas Beach, Itajaí, Santa Catarina State (Brazil). Read More

    Study of the dermatoscopic pattern of tinea nigra: report of 6 cases.
    Skinmed 2010 Nov-Dec;8(6):319-21
    Department of Dermatology, Faculdade de Medicina do ABC, Santo André, São Paulo, Brazil.
    Digital dermatoscopy, a noninvasive auxiliary method that can improve the diagnosis of nearly all pigment skin lesions, was used to study 6 cases of tinea nigra, a rare dematiaceous superficial fungal infection and a potential mimicker of melanocytic nevus. Patients were first evaluated by a manual dermatoscope using a 10-fold magnification. The same patients were then reevaluated using a digital dermatoscope with 20-, 50-, and 70-fold magnifications. Read More

    Tinea versicolor, tinea nigra, white piedra, and black piedra.
    Clin Dermatol 2010 Mar;28(2):140-5
    Dermatology Service and Mycology Department, General Hospital of Mexico DO, Dr. Balmis 148, Colonia Doctores México DF, 06720, Mexico.
    Superficial mycoses are fungal infections limited to the stratum corneum and its adnexal structures. The most frequent types are dermatophytoses or tineas. Tinea versicolor involves the skin in the form of hypochromic or hyperchromic plaques, and tinea nigra affects the skin of the palms with dark plaques. Read More

    Historical aspects of dermatomycoses.
    Clin Dermatol 2010 Mar;28(2):125-32
    Microbiology and Parasitology Department, Universidad de Buenos Aires and the Hospital de Infecciosas Francisco Javier Muñiz, Juncal 3474, 4(a) piso C, Buenos Aires, CP 1425, Argentina.
    Physicians have been aware of superficial fungal infections for centuries, but the causal agents and treatments of fungal infections remained unknown until the mid-1800s, when numerous important findings were reported. Among the relevant researchers in the field of superficial mycoses were Remak, who found the fungal nature of favus in 1837; Berg, who reported oral candidosis in 1841; and Wilkinson, who described vaginal candidosis in 1849. Tinea versicolor was described clinically in 1846 by Eichstedt, and its etiologic agent was identified in 1853. Read More

    Dermatoscopy in the diagnosis of tinea nigra.
    Dermatol Online J 2008 Aug 15;14(8):15. Epub 2008 Aug 15.
    Universidade Federal Fluminense, Hospital Universitário Antônio Pedro, Serviço de Dermatologia, Niterói, Rio de janeiro, Brazil.
    Tinea nigra is an asymptomatic superficial fungal infection caused by Phaeoannelomyces werneckii, generally affecting the skin of the palms and characterized by deeply pigmented macular non-scaly patches. These lesions are quite characteristic. However, they can be misdiagnosed as a malignant melanoma or a junctional melanocytic nevus and unnecessary biopsies may be performed. Read More

    Cladophialophora saturnica sp. nov., a new opportunistic species of Chaetothyriales revealed using molecular data.
    Med Mycol 2009 Feb;47(1):51-62
    Centraalbureau voor Schimmelcultures, Utrecht, The Netherlands.
    While many members of the black yeasts genus Cladophialophora have been reported to cause diseases in humans, understanding of their natural niche is frequently lacking. Some species can be recovered from the natural environment by means of selective isolation techniques. The present study focuses on a Cladophialophora strain that caused an interdigital tinea nigra-like lesion in a HIV-positive Brazilian child. Read More

    Delimiting Cladosporium from morphologically similar genera.
    Stud Mycol 2007 ;58:33-56
    CBS Fungal Biodiversity Centre, P.O. Box 85167, 3508 AD Utrecht, The Netherlands.
    The genus Cladosporium is restricted to dematiaceous hyphomycetes with a coronate scar type, and Davidiella teleomorphs. In the present study numerous cladosporium-like taxa are treated, and allocated to different genera based on their morphology and DNA phylogeny derived from the LSU nrRNA gene. Several species are introduced in new genera such as Hyalodendriella, Ochrocladosporium, Rachicladosporium, Rhizocladosporium, Toxicocladosporium and Verrucocladosporium. Read More

    [Tinea nigra palmaris: a clinical case in Argentina].
    Rev Argent Microbiol 2007 Oct-Dec;39(4):218-20
    Laboratorio Central, Sección Microbiología, Hospital Alemán, Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires, Argentina.
    A clinical case of a female patient with a black spot on the palm of her left hand is presented. The infection was due to a black fungus identified as Hortaea werneckii, the aetiological agent of tinea nigra palmaris. This infection can be easily diagnosed and it is important to establish the differential diagnosis from other skin pathologies. Read More

    Bilateral tinea nigra in a temperate climate.
    Dermatol Online J 2007 Jul 13;13(3):25. Epub 2007 Jul 13.
    Federal University of Pelotas, Brazil.
    Tinea nigra is a superficial mycosis associated with a dematiaceous fungus called Phaeoannellomyces werneckii. It is clinically characterized by asymptomatic non-scaly brown and black macules, the most common localization is the palmar region. Only one bilateral case occurring on the plantar skin and four palmar bilateral cases have been reported. Read More

    Prevalence of skin diseases among schoolchildren in Magong, Penghu, Taiwan: a community-based clinical survey.
    J Formos Med Assoc 2008 Jan;107(1):21-9
    Department of Dermatology, Armed Forces Taichung General Hospital, Central Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Taichung, Taiwan.
    Background/purpose: Skin diseases are common in children. Epidemiologic studies of skin diseases in schoolchildren performed by direct inspection by dermatologists are limited in Taiwan. The current study surveyed the prevalence of selected childhood dermatoses in Magong City, Penghu, the largest offshore island of Taiwan. Read More

    Tinea nigra by Hortaea werneckii, a report of 22 cases from Mexico.
    Stud Mycol 2008 ;61:77-82
    Department of Mycology, Hospital General de México, Sánchez Azcona 317-202, Col del Valle, México D.F. CP 03020, Mexico.
    Tinea nigra is a superficial mycosis caused by Hortaea werneckii. It is an infrequent asymptomatic infection that affects human palms and soles, and is mostly observed in tropical countries. We evaluate retrospectively twenty-two confirmed cases of tinea nigra from a total of eleven yr (1997-2007) and discuss the epidemiology, clinical features and treatment of this disease. Read More

    [A case of bronchial infection of Wangiella dermatitidis].
    Nihon Kokyuki Gakkai Zasshi 2007 Nov;45(11):907-11
    A 81-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital because of bloody sputum. Chest radiograph showed an enhanced right pulmonary hilum shadow. Computed tomography (CT) revealed localized bronchiectasis of the right lower lung and a nodule protruding into the bronchus. Read More

    Entodermoscopy: a new tool for diagnosing skin infections and infestations.
    Dermatology 2008 ;216(1):14-23
    Department of Dermatology, Medical University of Graz, Graz, Austria.
    Background: There is upcoming evidence that dermoscopy facilitates the in vivo diagnosis of skin infections and infestations. As such, dermoscopy connects the research fields of dermatologists and entomologists, opening a new research field of 'entodermoscopy'.

    Objective: To provide an overview on the current applications of entodermoscopy. Read More

    Prevalence of dermatophytes and other fungal agents isolated from clinical samples.
    Indian J Med Microbiol 2006 Jul;24(3):212-5
    Centre for Biotechnology, SPIC Sciences Foundation, Chennai - 600 032, Tamilnadu, India.
    The common cause of skin infections are dermatophytes and opportunistic fungi. Aim of this study was to isolate and identify the fungal agents from clinical samples from patients with different mycoses. Clinical samples from 165 patients were subjected to potassium hydroxide (KOH) examination and culture isolation; causative agents were identified macroscopically and microscopically. Read More

    [Cutaneous mycoses as a problem of the tropics. I. Superficial tropical mycoses].
    Wiad Parazytol 2001 ;47(4):629-32
    Klinika Chorób Zakaźnych Akademii Medycznej, 91-347 Lódź, ul. Kniaziewicza 1/5.
    Cutaneous mycoses are third among diseases after parasitic and infectious ones that pose problems for persons returning from the tropics. The paper presents semiotics of the following tropical superficial mycoses: tinea imbricata, infections with Scytalidium, tinea nigra, zakazenia grzybami Scytalidium, lupieZ czarny, black piedra, white piedra. Treatment, diagnostics and prophylaxis are discussed. Read More

    A case of tinea nigra palmaris in Okinawa, Japan.
    J Dermatol 2006 Jan;33(1):23-9
    Department of Dermatology, Ryukyu University School of Medicine, Okinawa, Japan.
    We report a case of tinea nigra on the left palm of a 13-year-old girl. She had noticed a pigmented, asymptomatic macule on the left palm approximately 4-5 years prior to her first visit to our hospital. The color of the lesion tended to change before and after a bath; it became lighter after a bath and darkened some time later. Read More

    Tinea nigra: report of twelve cases in Venezuela.
    Mycopathologia 2005 Oct;160(3):235-8
    Sección de Micología Médica, Instituto de Medicina Tropical, 1041 Caracas, Venezuela.
    Tinea nigra is a superficial mycotic infection produced by Hortaea werneckii, formerly known as Phaeoannelomyces werneckii, formerly known as Exophiala werneckii, and Stenella araguata, the latter autochthonous in Venezuela, it was first described and named as Cladosporium castellanii in 1973. The present report describes 12 cases in the period of 1972-2002, diagnosed at the Medical Mycology Section at the Tropical Institute of the Universidad Central de Venezuela, in Caracas. This mycosis is more prevalent among young people, with fair skin, from 3 to 28 years of age, who visited beaches and in whom the lesions are more evident. Read More

    The mycological and molecular study of Hortaea werneckii isolated from blood and splenic abscess.
    Mycopathologia 2005 Jun;159(4):495-500
    Department of Medical Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, 50603, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.
    Hortaea werneckii is an environmental dematiaceous fungus found in the halophilic environment. It causes tinea nigra. We report the isolation of H. Read More

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