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    High-Resolution Ecological Niche Modeling of Ixodes scapularis Ticks Based on Passive Surveillance Data at the Northern Frontier of Lyme Disease Emergence in North America.
    Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis 2018 Mar 22. Epub 2018 Mar 22.
    2 School of Epidemiology and Public Health, University of Ottawa , Ottawa, Canada .
    Background: Lyme disease (LD) is a bacterial infection transmitted by the black-legged tick (Ixodes scapularis) in eastern North America. It is an emerging disease in Canada due to the expanding range of its tick vector. Environmental risk maps for LD, based on the distribution of the black-legged tick, have focused on coarse determinants such as climate. Read More

    Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Virus andsensu lato in Ticks from Kosovo and Albania.
    Front Vet Sci 2018 6;5:38. Epub 2018 Mar 6.
    Department of Pathobiology, Institute of Parasitology, University of Veterinary Medicine Vienna, Vienna, Austria.
    Tick-borne diseases pose a serious threat to human health in South-Eastern Europe, including Kosovo. While Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is a well-known emerging infection in this area, there are no accurate data on Lyme borreliosis and tick-borne encephalitis (TBE). Therefore, we sampled and tested 795 ticks. Read More

    Assessment of HMGB-1 concentration in tick-borne encephalitis and neuroborreliosis.
    Int J Infect Dis 2018 Mar 17. Epub 2018 Mar 17.
    Department of Infectious Diseases and Neuroinfections, Medical University in Białystok, Białystok, Poland.
    Aim: The aim of the study was to determine HMGB-1 concentration in serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of patients suffering from tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) and neuroborreliosis (NB). We focused on HMGB-1 measurement in CSF or sera in order to establish whether it could help to differentiate between NB and TBE.

    Methods: 80 patients with meningitis and meningoencephalitis were enrolled in the study. Read More

    The Tick Project: Testing Environmental Methods of Preventing Tick-borne Diseases.
    Trends Parasitol 2018 Mar 13. Epub 2018 Mar 13.
    Cary Institute of Ecosystem Studies, Millbrook, NY 12545, USA.
    Prevention of tick-borne diseases in humans is challenging. To date, no prevention strategies have been shown to be consistently effective. Here, we describe the design of a new large-scale study, involving hundreds of households in Dutchess County, New York, testing whether environmental interventions, applied intensively and over 4 years, can prevent human cases. Read More

    Otolaryngological symptoms in patients treated for tick-borne diseases.
    Otolaryngol Pol 2018 Feb;72(1):30-34
    Otolaryngology Clinic, Jagiellonian University Collegium Medicu, Krakow, Poland; Head Department: Jacek Składzień, PH, MD.
    infections are borreliosis (Lyme disease) and tick-borne encephalitis (TBE). Lately there is growing incidence of Bartonella, Babesia, Anaplasma and Brucella co-infections. The similarity between the symptoms of tick-borne diseases and other pathologies causes serious diagnostic issues. Read More

    Control of Lyme borreliosis and other Ixodes ricinus-borne diseases.
    Parasit Vectors 2018 Mar 6;11(1):145. Epub 2018 Mar 6.
    Center for Experimental and Molecular Medicine, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam, the Netherlands.
    Lyme borreliosis (LB) and other Ixodes ricinus-borne diseases (TBDs) are diseases that emerge from interactions of humans and domestic animals with infected ticks in nature. Nature, environmental and health policies at (inter)national and local levels affect the risk, disease burden and costs of TBDs. Knowledge on ticks, their pathogens and the diseases they cause have been increasing, and resulted in the discovery of a diversity of control options, which often are not highly effective on their own. Read More

    Comparison of phenoxymethylpenicillin, amoxicillin, and doxycycline for erythema migrans in general practice. A randomised controlled trial with a one-year follow-up.
    Clin Microbiol Infect 2018 Mar 2. Epub 2018 Mar 2.
    Antibiotic Centre for Primary Care (ASP), Department of General Practice, Institute of Health and Society, University of Oslo, Norway.
    Objectives: Comparison of the three most commonly used antibiotics for erythema migrans (EM) in Norwegian primary care.

    Methods: A randomised, parallel, controlled trial. Treatments were open to the patients, but blinded for the GPs and investigators. Read More

    Widespread distribution of ticks and selected tick-borne pathogens in Kentucky (USA).
    Ticks Tick Borne Dis 2018 Mar 2;9(3):738-741. Epub 2018 Mar 2.
    Warnell School of Forestry and Natural Resources, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602, USA; Southeastern Cooperative Wildlife Disease Study, Department of Population Health, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602, USA. Electronic address:
    The geographical distribution of Ixodes scapularis and Amblyomma maculatum ticks is poorly understood in Kentucky. We conducted a convenience survey of wildlife species (white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), elk (Cervus canadensis) and black bears (Ursus americanus)) for ticks from October 2015 to January 2017. We detected four tick species including Amblyomma americanum, Dermacentor albipictus, I. Read More

    Citizen Science and Community Engagement in Tick Surveillance-A Canadian Case Study.
    Healthcare (Basel) 2018 Mar 2;6(1). Epub 2018 Mar 2.
    Department. Biology, Mount Allison University, Sackville, NB E4L 1G7, Canada.
    Lyme disease is the most common tick-borne disease in North America and Europe, and on-going surveillance is required to monitor the spread of the tick vectors as their populations expand under the influence of climate change. Active surveillance involves teams of researchers collecting ticks from field locations with the potential to be sites of establishing tick populations. This process is labor- and time-intensive, limiting the number of sites monitored and the frequency of monitoring. Read More

    A field-based indicator for determining the likelihood of Ixodes scapularis establishment at sites in Ontario, Canada.
    PLoS One 2018 27;13(2):e0193524. Epub 2018 Feb 27.
    Department of Pathobiology, Ontario Veterinary College, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario, Canada.
    The emergence of the vector Ixodes scapularis in Ontario, Canada poses a significant public health risk. Both passive and active surveillance approaches have been employed by public health professionals (i.e. Read More

    The Complement Binding and Inhibitory Protein CbiA ofDegrades Extracellular Matrix Components by Interacting with Plasmin(ogen).
    Front Cell Infect Microbiol 2018 2;8:23. Epub 2018 Feb 2.
    Institute of Medical Microbiology and Infection Control, University Hospital of Frankfurt, Frankfurt, Germany.
    The emerging relapsing fever spirochete(.)is transmitted by ixodid ticks and causes the so-called hard tick-borne relapsing fever ordisease (BMD). More recently, we identified a surface-exposed molecule, CbiA exhibiting complement binding and inhibitory capacity and rendering spirochetes resistant to complement-mediated lysis. Read More

    A multiplex serologic platform for diagnosis of tick-borne diseases.
    Sci Rep 2018 Feb 16;8(1):3158. Epub 2018 Feb 16.
    Center for Infection and Immunity, Mailman School of Public Health, Columbia University, New York, NY, USA.
    Tick-borne diseases are the most common vector-borne diseases in the United States, with serology being the primary method of diagnosis. We developed the first multiplex, array-based assay for serodiagnosis of tick-borne diseases called the TBD-Serochip. The TBD-Serochip was designed to discriminate antibody responses to 8 major tick-borne pathogens present in the United States, including Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Babesia microti, Borrelia burgdorferi, Borrelia miyamotoi, Ehrlichia chaffeensis, Rickettsia rickettsii, Heartland virus and Powassan virus. Read More

    Data-driven predictions and novel hypotheses about zoonotic tick vectors from the genus Ixodes.
    BMC Ecol 2018 Feb 15;18(1). Epub 2018 Feb 15.
    Cary Institute of Ecosystem Studies, Box AB, Millbrook, NY, 12545, USA.
    Background: With the resurgence of tick-borne diseases such as Lyme disease and the emergence of new tick-borne pathogens such as Powassan virus, understanding what distinguishes vectors from non-vectors, and predicting undiscovered tick vectors is a crucial step towards mitigating disease risk in humans. We aimed to identify intrinsic traits that predict which Ixodes tick species are confirmed or strongly suspected to be vectors of zoonotic pathogens.

    Methods: We focused on the well-studied tick genus Ixodes from which many species are known to transmit zoonotic diseases to humans. Read More

    Knowledge and preventive behaviors towards tick-borne diseases in Delaware.
    Ticks Tick Borne Dis 2018 Mar 3;9(3):615-622. Epub 2018 Feb 3.
    Delaware State University, Student Research Team, USA.
    Delaware is among the top 10 states in the United States with the highest incidence for Lyme disease. The Delaware Division of Public Health (DPH) therefore has been working diligently to prevent and control tick-borne diseases through a variety of interventions including awareness campaigns and educational programs. To assess if tick-borne disease related information is reaching Delawareans through these programs, DPH in collaboration with Delaware State University administered an anonymous survey to 1755 participants in all three of Delaware counties during May 2017. Read More

    Lyme disease in Poland in 2015
    Przegl Epidemiol 2017 ;71(4):513-517
    National Institute of Public Health –National Institute of Hygiene in Warsaw Department of Epidemiology
    Introduction: Lyme disease is the most common tick-borne disease in Poland. Borrelia burgdorferi spirochete can occur in the whole country, which, according to ECDC, should be considered as an endemic area. Borrelia strains are transmitted to humans and certain other animals by Ixodes (1). Read More

    Transient influence of blood meal and natural environment on blacklegged tick bacterial communities.
    Ticks Tick Borne Dis 2018 Mar 31;9(3):563-572. Epub 2018 Jan 31.
    Department of Biological Sciences, Fordham University, Bronx, NY, USA; Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, SUNY Downstate Medical Center, Brooklyn, NY, USA. Electronic address:
    Blacklegged ticks (Ixodes scapularis) spend the majority of their life cycle off host, typically in woodland habitat, but require a blood meal at each of three life stages (larva, nymph, adult) to reach maturity and reproduce. Blood feeding usually lasts for several days each time and as blood is imbibed, a range of known pathogens from the host may also be acquired. Using next generation sequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons, we examined the influence of host blood meal on the internal bacterial community within nymphal blacklegged ticks across host-seeking, feeding, blood meal digestion, and after molting into the adult stage. Read More

    Pathogen transmission in relation to duration of attachment by Ixodes scapularis ticks.
    Ticks Tick Borne Dis 2018 Mar 31;9(3):535-542. Epub 2018 Jan 31.
    Division of Vector-Borne Diseases, National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 3156, Rampart Road, Fort Collins, CO 80521, United States. Electronic address:
    The blacklegged tick, Ixodes scapularis, is the primary vector to humans in the eastern United States of the deer tick virus lineage of Powassan virus (Powassan virus disease); the protozoan parasite Babesia microti (babesiosis); and multiple bacterial disease agents including Anaplasma phagocytophilum (anaplasmosis), Borrelia burgdorferi and Borrelia mayonii (Lyme disease), Borrelia miyamotoi (relapsing fever-like illness, named Borrelia miyamotoi disease), and Ehrlichia muris eauclairensis (a minor causative agent of ehrlichiosis). With the notable exception of Powassan virus, which can be transmitted within minutes after attachment by an infected tick, there is no doubt that the risk of transmission of other I. scapularis-borne pathogens, including Lyme disease spirochetes, increases with the length of time (number of days) infected ticks are allowed to remain attached. Read More

    Amblyomma americanum (Acari: Ixodidae) Ticks Are Not Vectors of the Lyme Disease Agent, Borrelia burgdorferi (Spirocheatales: Spirochaetaceae): A Review of the Evidence.
    J Med Entomol 2018 Jan 31. Epub 2018 Jan 31.
    Division of Vector-Borne Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Fort Collins, CO.
    In the early 1980s, Ixodes spp. ticks were implicated as the key North American vectors of Borrelia burgdorferi (Johnson, Schmid, Hyde, Steigerwalt and Brenner) (Spirocheatales: Spirochaetaceae), the etiological agent of Lyme disease. Concurrently, other human-biting tick species were investigated as potential B. Read More

    [A case of Lyme neuroborreliosis without erythema migrans].
    Rinsho Shinkeigaku 2018 Feb 31;58(2):124-126. Epub 2018 Jan 31.
    Department of Neurology, Faculty of Medicine and Graduate School of Medicine, Hokkaido University.
    A 56-year-old man was sustained ticks at the left axilla and flank. He did not have a rash. About 3 months after the tick bites, he developed back pain, right leg weakness, right abducens nerve palsy, and left facial palsy. Read More

    Lack of Evidence for Transovarial Transmission of the Lyme Disease Spirochete Borrelia mayonii by Infected Female Ixodes scapularis (Acari: Ixodidae) Ticks.
    J Med Entomol 2018 Jan 20. Epub 2018 Jan 20.
    Division of Vector-Borne Diseases, National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Fort Collins, CO 80521.
    The recently described Lyme disease spirochete Borrelia mayonii is associated with human illness in the Upper Midwest of the United States. Experimental laboratory studies and field observations on natural infection indicate that B. mayonii is maintained by horizontal transmission between tick vectors and vertebrate reservoirs. Read More

    Multiflora rose invasion amplifies prevalence of Lyme disease pathogen, but not necessarily Lyme disease risk.
    Parasit Vectors 2018 Jan 23;11(1):54. Epub 2018 Jan 23.
    Department of Entomology and Wildlife Ecology, University of Delaware, Newark, DE, USA.
    Background: Forests in urban landscapes differ from their rural counterparts in ways that may alter vector-borne disease dynamics. In urban forest fragments, tick-borne pathogen prevalence is not well characterized; mitigating disease risk in densely-populated urban landscapes requires understanding ecological factors that affect pathogen prevalence. We trapped blacklegged tick (Ixodes scapularis) nymphs in urban forest fragments on the East Coast of the United States and used multiplex real-time PCR assays to quantify the prevalence of four zoonotic, tick-borne pathogens. Read More

    The Blacklegged Tick, Ixodes scapularis: An Increasing Public Health Concern.
    Trends Parasitol 2018 Jan 11. Epub 2018 Jan 11.
    Division of Vector-Borne Diseases, National Center for Emerging Zoonotic Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Fort Collins, CO, USA.
    In the United States, the blacklegged tick, Ixodes scapularis, is a vector of seven human pathogens, including those causing Lyme disease, anaplasmosis, babesiosis, Borrelia miyamotoi disease, Powassan virus disease, and ehrlichiosis associated with Ehrlichia muris eauclarensis. In addition to an accelerated rate of discovery of I. scapularis-borne pathogens over the past two decades, the geographic range of the tick, and incidence and range of I. Read More

    Risk Factors for Clinician-Diagnosed Lyme Arthritis, Facial Palsy, Carditis, and Meningitis in Patients From High-Incidence States.
    Open Forum Infect Dis 2018 Jan 18;5(1):ofx254. Epub 2017 Nov 18.
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Fort Collins, Colorado.
    Background: Clinical features of Lyme disease (LD) range from localized skin lesions to serious disseminated disease. Information on risk factors for Lyme arthritis, facial palsy, carditis, and meningitis is limited but could facilitate disease recognition and elucidate pathophysiology.

    Methods: Patients from high-incidence states treated for LD during 2005-2014 were identified in a nationwide insurance claims database using thecode for LD (088. Read More

    Seroprevalence againstandSpecies in Patients with Uveitis: A Prospective Survey.
    J Ophthalmol 2017 26;2017:9247465. Epub 2017 Nov 26.
    Department of Medical Sciences, Section of Clinical Microbiology, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Vector-borne diseases such as Lyme borreliosis and rickettsioses have been associated with ocular inflammation. Our aim was to study patients with diagnosed uveitis to evaluate serological signs of infection or exposure to these tick-borne agents. Forty-eight patients were prospectively examined with serology together with medical records and a questionnaire concerning previous exposure, diseases, and treatments. Read More

    Design, construction and evaluation of multi-epitope antigens for diagnosis of Lyme disease.
    Ann Agric Environ Med 2017 Dec 18;24(4):696-701. Epub 2017 Dec 18.
    Laboratory of Biomedical Microbiology and Immunology, Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Veterinary Medicine and Pharmacy, 041 81 Kosice, Slovakia.
    Introduction: Introduction and objective. Lyme disease (LD) is the most common vector-borne disease in the temperate zone of the Northern Hemisphere. Diagnosis of LD is mainly based on clinical symptoms supported with serology (detection of anti-Borrelia antibodies) and is often misdiagnosed in areas of endemicity. Read More

    Northward range expansion of Ixodes scapularis evident over a short timescale in Ontario, Canada.
    PLoS One 2017 27;12(12):e0189393. Epub 2017 Dec 27.
    Department of Pathobiology, Ontario Veterinary College, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario, Canada.
    The invasion of the blacklegged tick, Ixodes scapularis into Ontario, Canada poses a significant risk to public health because it is a vector for numerous pathogens, including Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto, the causative agent of Lyme disease. Baseline field sampling in 2014 and 2015 detected I. scapularis and B. Read More

    Surveillance for and Discovery of Borrelia Species in US Patients Suspected of Tickborne Illness.
    Clin Infect Dis 2017 Dec 20. Epub 2017 Dec 20.
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Division of Vector-Borne Diseases, Fort Collins, CO.
    Background: Tick-transmitted Borrelia species fall into two heterogeneous bacterial complexes comprised of multiple species, the relapsing fever (RF) group and the Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato group, which are the causative agents of Lyme borreliosis (LB), the most common tickborne disease in the northern hemisphere. Geographic expansion of human LB in the United States and discovery of emerging Borrelia pathogens underscores the importance of surveillance for disease causing Borrelia.

    Methods: De-identified clinical specimens, submitted by providers throughout the United States, for patients suspected of LB, anaplasmosis, ehrlichiosis, or babesiosis, were screened using a Borrelia genus level TaqMan PCR. Read More

    A historical snapshot of Ixodes scapularis-borne pathogens in New Jersey ticks reflects a changing disease landscape.
    Ticks Tick Borne Dis 2018 Feb 15;9(2):418-426. Epub 2017 Dec 15.
    Tick-Borne Disease Program, Monmouth County Mosquito Control Division, Tinton Falls, NJ, USA; Center for Vector Biology, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ, USA.
    Historical specimens, when available, can provide new insight into the distribution and evolution of pathogens that may not be discernible from more recent samples. We used ticks collected from hunter-killed white-tailed deer in New Jersey in 2002 to examine the prevalence and distribution of four pathogens transmitted by Ixodes scapularis, the blacklegged tick. Infection with Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto, Babesia microti, and Anaplasma phagocytophilum (the agents of Lyme disease, human babesiosis, and human granulocytic anaplasmosis, respectively) was highest in the Coastal Plain and lowest in the northwestern Skylands region. Read More

    Molecular identification of Borrelia spirochetes in questing Ixodes ricinus from northwestern Spain.
    Parasit Vectors 2017 Dec 20;10(1):615. Epub 2017 Dec 20.
    Departamento de Patología Animal (Grupo INVESAGA), Facultad de Veterinaria, Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, Lugo, Spain.
    Background: Ixodes ricinus, the predominant tick species in Europe, can transmit the causative agents of important human diseases such as Lyme borreliosis (LB), caused by Borrelia spirochetes. In northern Spain, LB is considered endemic; recently, a significant increase of the annual incidence of LB was reported in the northwestern (NW) region.

    Methods: In order to provide information on the prevalence of Borrelia spp. Read More

    [Clinical presentation of Ixodes tick-borne borreliosis caused by Borrelia miyamotoi in the context of an immune response to the pathogen].
    Ter Arkh 2017;89(11):35-43
    Central Research Institute of Epidemiology, Russian Federal Service for Supervision of Consumer Rights Protection and Human Welfare, Moscow, Russia.
    Ixodes tick-borne borreliosis caused by Borrelia miyamotoi (ITBB-BM) is a previously unknown infectious disease discovered in Russia.

    Aim: The present study continues the investigation of the clinical features of ITBB-BM in the context of an immune system-pathogen interaction.

    Subjects And Methods: The study enrolled 117 patients with ITBB-BM and a comparison group of 71 patients with Lyme disease (LD) that is ITBB with erythema migrans. Read More

    A molecular algorithm to detect and differentiate human pathogens infecting Ixodes scapularis and Ixodes pacificus (Acari: Ixodidae).
    Ticks Tick Borne Dis 2018 Feb 10;9(2):390-403. Epub 2017 Dec 10.
    Division of Vector-Borne Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 3156 Rampart Rd., Fort Collins, CO 80521, United States.
    The incidence and geographic range of tick-borne illness associated with Ixodes scapularis and Ixodes pacificus have dramatically increased in recent decades. Anaplasmosis, babesiosis, and Borrelia spirochete infections, including Lyme borreliosis, account for tens of thousands of reported cases of tick-borne disease every year. Assays that reliably detect pathogens in ticks allow investigators and public health agencies to estimate the geographic distribution of human pathogens, assess geographic variation in their prevalence, and evaluate the effectiveness of prevention strategies. Read More

    Serological detection of Tick-Borne Relapsing Fever in Texan domestic dogs.
    PLoS One 2017 12;12(12):e0189786. Epub 2017 Dec 12.
    Texas A&M Veterinary Medical Diagnostic Laboratory, College Station, Texas, United States of America.
    Tick-Borne Relapsing Fever (TBRF) is caused by spirochetes in the genus Borrelia. Very limited information exists on the incidence of this disease in humans and domestic dogs in the United States. The main objective of this study is to evaluate exposure of dogs to Borrelia turicatae, a causative agent of TBRF, in Texas. Read More

    Reduction in human Lyme neuroborreliosis associated with a major epidemic among roe deer.
    Ticks Tick Borne Dis 2018 Feb 6;9(2):379-381. Epub 2017 Dec 6.
    Department of Plant- and Environmental Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark. Electronic address:
    Lyme neuroborreliosis is the most severe clinical manifestation of Lyme borreliosis. In most of Denmark, and also Europe, the overall prevalence of Lyme borreliosis seems to be stabilising. This is not the case on the island of Funen, Denmark, where the number of human Lyme neuroborreliosis cases has markedly declined throughout the last decade. Read More

    Potential impact of climate change on emerging vector-borne and other infections in the UK.
    Environ Health 2017 Dec 5;16(Suppl 1):112. Epub 2017 Dec 5.
    Liverpool University Climate and Infectious Diseases of Animals group, Institute of Infection and Global Health, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, UK.
    Climate is one of several causes of disease emergence. Although half or more of infectious diseases are affected by climate it appears to be a relatively infrequent cause of human disease emergence. Climate mostly affects diseases caused by pathogens that spend part of their lifecycle outside of the host, exposed to the environment. Read More

    Time trend of clinical cases of Lyme disease in two hospitals in Belgium, 2000-2013.
    BMC Infect Dis 2017 Dec 5;17(1):748. Epub 2017 Dec 5.
    Institut de Recherche Expérimentale et Clinique (IREC), Pôle Epidémiologie et Biostatistique, Faculté de Santé Publique (FSP), Université catholique de Louvain (UCL), Bruxelles, Belgium.
    Background: As several studies indicated an increase in Lyme disease (LD), notably in neighbouring countries, concerns have arisen regarding the evolution of Lyme disease in Belgium. In order to confirm or infirm the increase of LD in Belgium, we focused on hospital admissions of patients diagnosed with LD between 2000 and 2013 based on hospital admission databases from two hospitals in Belgium.

    Methods: Hospital databases are a stable recording system. Read More

    Climate change influences on the potential geographic distribution of the disease vector tick Ixodes ricinus.
    PLoS One 2017 5;12(12):e0189092. Epub 2017 Dec 5.
    Entomology Department, Faculty of Science, Ain Shams University, Abbassia, Cairo, Egypt.
    Background: Ixodes ricinus is a species of hard tick that transmits several important diseases in Europe and North Africa, including Lyme borreliosis and tick-borne encephalitis. Climate change is affecting the geographic distributions and abundances of arthropod vectors, which in turn influence the geographic distribution and epidemiology of associated vector-borne diseases. To date, few studies have investigated effects of climate change on the spatial distribution of I. Read More

    Prevention of tick bites: an evaluation of a smartphone app.
    BMC Infect Dis 2017 12 4;17(1):744. Epub 2017 Dec 4.
    Faculty of Health, Medicine and Life Sciences, Care and Public Health Research Institute (CAPHRI), Department of Health Promotion, Maastricht University, P.O. Box 616, 6200, MD, Maastricht, the Netherlands.
    Background: Lyme borreliosis (LB) is the most common reported tick-borne infection in Europe, and involves transmission of Borrelia by ticks. As long as a vaccine is not available and effective measures for controlling tick populations are insufficient, LB control is focused on preventive measures to avoid tick bites. To inform citizens about the risk of ticks, motivate them to check for tick bites, and encourage them to remove any attached tick as quickly as possible, a mobile app called 'Tekenbeet' (Dutch for 'tick bite') was developed and released. Read More

    Identification of Borrelia protein candidates in mouse skin for potential diagnosis of disseminated Lyme borreliosis.
    Sci Rep 2017 Dec 1;7(1):16719. Epub 2017 Dec 1.
    EA7290, Virulence bactérienne précoce, groupe Borréliose de Lyme, Facultés de Médecine et de Pharmacie, Fédération de Médecine Translationnelle de Strasbourg, Université de Strasbourg, F-67000, Strasbourg, France.
    In vector-borne diseases, the skin plays an essential role in the transmission of vector-borne pathogens between the vertebrate host and blood-feeding arthropods and in pathogen persistence. Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato is a tick-borne bacterium that causes Lyme borreliosis (LB) in humans. This pathogen may establish a long-lasting infection in its natural vertebrate host where it can persist in the skin and some other organs. Read More

    Evaluating acarological risk for exposure to Ixodes scapularis and Ixodes scapularis-borne pathogens in recreational and residential settings in Washington County, Minnesota.
    Ticks Tick Borne Dis 2018 Feb 22;9(2):340-348. Epub 2017 Nov 22.
    Division of Vector-Borne Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 3156 Rampart Road, Fort Collins, CO 80521, USA. Electronic address:
    The distribution of I. scapularis, the tick vector of the bacteria that cause Lyme disease, has been expanding over the last two decades in the north-central United States in parallel with increasing incidence of human cases of Lyme disease in that region. However, assessments of residential risk for exposure to ticks are lacking from this region. Read More

    Internet-based biosurveillance methods for vector-borne diseases: Are they novel public health tools or just novelties?
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2017 Nov 30;11(11):e0005871. Epub 2017 Nov 30.
    Viral Diseases Branch, Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, Silver Spring, Maryland, United States of America.
    Internet-based surveillance methods for vector-borne diseases (VBDs) using "big data" sources such as Google, Twitter, and internet newswire scraping have recently been developed, yet reviews on such "digital disease detection" methods have focused on respiratory pathogens, particularly in high-income regions. Here, we present a narrative review of the literature that has examined the performance of internet-based biosurveillance for diseases caused by vector-borne viruses, parasites, and other pathogens, including Zika, dengue, other arthropod-borne viruses, malaria, leishmaniasis, and Lyme disease across a range of settings, including low- and middle-income countries. The fundamental features, advantages, and drawbacks of each internet big data source are presented for those with varying familiarity of "digital epidemiology. Read More

    Borrelia miyamotoi: Should this pathogen be considered for the diagnosis of tick-borne infectious diseases in Spain?
    Enferm Infecc Microbiol Clin 2017 Nov 26. Epub 2017 Nov 26.
    Centro de Rickettsiosis y Enfermedades Transmitidas por Artrópodos Vectores, Departamento de Enfermedades Infecciosas, Hospital San Pedro-CIBIR, Logroño (La Rioja), Spain. Electronic address:
    Introduction: Borrelia miyamotoi is a tick-borne pathogen belonging to the relapsing fever group. It had not been reported from Spain, but its wide distribution and the presence of the tick-vector (Ixodes ricinus) made us suspect its circulation. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of Borrelia spp. Read More

    Seasonal cycles of the TBE and Lyme borreliosis vector Ixodes ricinus modelled with time-lagged and interval-averaged predictors.
    Exp Appl Acarol 2017 Dec 27;73(3-4):439-450. Epub 2017 Nov 27.
    Institute for Veterinary Public Health, University of Veterinary Medicine Vienna, Veterinärplatz 1, 1210, Vienna, Austria.
    Ticks of the species Ixodes ricinus (L.) are the major vectors for tick-borne diseases in Europe. The aim of this study was to quantify the influence of environmental variables on the seasonal cycle of questing I. Read More

    Social-cognitive determinants of the tick check: a cross-sectional study on self-protective behavior in combatting Lyme disease.
    BMC Public Health 2017 Nov 25;17(1):900. Epub 2017 Nov 25.
    Environmental Systems Analysis Group, Wageningen University, Droevendaalsesteeg 3, 6708, PB, Wageningen, The Netherlands.
    Background: Performing a tick check after visiting nature is considered the most important preventive measure to avoid contracting Lyme disease. Checking the body for ticks after visiting nature is the only measure that can fully guarantee whether one has been bitten by a tick and provides the opportunity to remove the tick as soon as possible, thereby greatly reducing the chance of contracting Lyme disease. However, compliance to performing the tick check is low. Read More

    Emergence of tick-borne diseases at northern latitudes in Europe: a comparative approach.
    Sci Rep 2017 Nov 24;7(1):16316. Epub 2017 Nov 24.
    Centre for Ecological and Evolutionary Synthesis (CEES), Department of Biosciences, University of Oslo, P.O. Box 1066 Blindern, NO-0316, Oslo, Norway.
    The factors that drive the emergence of vector-borne diseases are difficult to identify due to the complexity of the pathogen-vector-host triad. We used a novel comparative approach to analyse four long-term datasets (1995-2015) on the incidence of tick-borne diseases in humans and livestock (Lyme disease, anaplasmosis and babesiosis) over a geographic area that covered the whole of Norway. This approach allowed us to separate general (shared vector) and specific (pathogen reservoir host) limiting factors of tick-borne diseases, as well as the role of exposure (shared and non-shared pathogens in different hosts). Read More

    Accuracy of Clinician Suspicion of Lyme Disease in the Emergency Department.
    Pediatrics 2017 Dec;140(6)
    Departments of Pediatrics and Emergency Medicine, Brown University and Rhode Island Hospital, Providence, Rhode Island.
    Background: To make initial management decisions, clinicians must estimate the probability of Lyme disease before diagnostic test results are available. Our objective was to examine the accuracy of clinician suspicion for Lyme disease in children undergoing evaluation for Lyme disease.

    Methods: We assembled a prospective cohort of children aged 1 to 21 years who were evaluated for Lyme disease at 1 of the 5 participating emergency departments. Read More

    Risk factors for tick exposure in suburban settings in the Northeastern United States.
    Ticks Tick Borne Dis 2018 Feb 21;9(2):319-324. Epub 2017 Nov 21.
    Bacterial Diseases Branch, Division of Vector-borne Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Fort Collins, CO, USA.
    Prevention of tick-borne diseases requires an understanding of when and where exposure to ticks is most likely. We used an epidemiologic approach to define these parameters for residents of a Lyme-endemic region. Two persons in each of 500 Connecticut households were asked to complete a log each night for one week during June, 2013. Read More

    Integrated Control of Nymphal Ixodes scapularis: Effectiveness of White-Tailed Deer Reduction, the Entomopathogenic Fungus Metarhizium anisopliae, and Fipronil-Based Rodent Bait Boxes.
    Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis 2018 Jan 27;18(1):55-64. Epub 2017 Nov 27.
    1 Center for Vector Biology & Zoonotic Diseases , The Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station, New Haven, Connecticut.
    Pathogens transmitted by ticks are the leading cause of arthropod-associated human diseases in the United States and managing the risk of exposure to potentially infected ticks is of vital public health importance. A 3-year integrated tick management program to control blacklegged ticks, Ixodes scapularis, the primary vector for the pathogenic agents of Lyme disease, human anaplasmosis, and babesiosis, was implemented in the town of Redding in southwestern Connecticut beginning in 2013. Combinations of white-tailed deer, Odocoileus virginianus, reduction, area application of the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae, and fipronil-based rodent bait boxes were evaluated for their ability to reduce nymphal I. Read More

    Colony formation in solid medium by the relapsing fever spirochetes Borrelia hermsii and Borrelia turicatae.
    Ticks Tick Borne Dis 2018 Feb 12;9(2):281-287. Epub 2017 Nov 12.
    Laboratory of Bacteriology, Rocky Mountain Laboratories, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Hamilton, MT, USA. Electronic address:
    Relapsing fever (RF) in North America is caused primarily by the spirochete Borrelia hermsii and is associated with the bite of its tick vector Ornithodoros hermsi. Although this spirochete was known long before the discovery of the Lyme disease (LD) spirochete, Borrelia burgdorferi, basic methods to facilitate the study of B. hermsii have lagged behind. Read More

    Modeling co-infection of Ixodes tick-borne pathogens.
    Math Biosci Eng 2017 Oct/Dec 1;14(5-6):1301-1316
    Mathematics and Science College, Shanghai Normal University, Shanghai 200234, China
    Ticks, including the Ixodes ricinus and Ixodes scapularis hard tick species, are regarded as the most common arthropod vectors of both human and animal diseases in Europe and the United States capable of transmitting a large number of bacteria, viruses and parasites. Since ticks in larval and nymphal stages share the same host community which can harbor multiple pathogens, they may be co-infected with two or more pathogens, with a subsequent high likelihood of co-transmission to humans or animals. This paper is devoted to the modeling of co-infection of tick-borne pathogens, with special focus on the co-infection of Borrelia burgdorferi (agent of Lyme disease) and Babesia microti (agent of human babesiosis). Read More

    The tick biocontrol agent Metarhizium brunneum (= M. anisopliae) (strain F52) does not reduce non-target arthropods.
    PLoS One 2017 20;12(11):e0187675. Epub 2017 Nov 20.
    Cary Institute of Ecosystem Studies, Sharon Turnpike, Millbrook, NY, United States of America.
    Previous studies have found that Met52®, which contains the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium brunneum, is effective in reducing the abundance of Ixodes scapularis, the tick vector for the bacterium causing Lyme disease and for other tick-borne pathogens. Given widespread interest in effective, safe methods for controlling ticks, Met52 has the potential to be used at increasing scales. The non-target impacts of Met52, as applied for tick control, have not yet been assessed. Read More

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