Ticks Tick Borne Dis 2022 05 20;13(3):101942. Epub 2022 Mar 20.
Agricultural Research Council-Onderstepoort Veterinary Research, Onderstepoort, Pretoria, 0110, South Africa; School of Life Sciences, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, Westville, 4001, South Africa. Electronic address:
Heartwater, Ehrlichia ruminantium infection in cattle, sheep, goats, and some wild ruminants, is an economically important disease in Africa characterized by high mortality rates in susceptible populations. In South Africa, the current commercial heartwater vaccine is an infection and treatment type of immunization using virulent live E. ruminantium organisms generated from blood of infected sheep with subsequent treatment of the animals with antibiotics at specific times during the course of infection. Read More