351 results match your criteria Tick-Borne Diseases Colorado


Heartland virus infection in a heart transplant recipient from the Heartland.

Transpl Infect Dis 2019 Apr 22:e13098. Epub 2019 Apr 22.

Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, Missouri, USA.

Tick-borne infections represent a significant health risk each year in the United States. Immunocompromised patients are typically at risk of more severe disease manifestations than their immunocompetent counterparts. Here we report a case of a newly emerging phlebovirus, Heartland virus, in a heart transplant recipient. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/tid.13098DOI Listing

Characterization of Novel Reoviruses [Wad Medani virus (Orbivirus) and Kundal (Coltivirus)] collected from ticks in India during CCHF surveillance.

J Virol 2019 Apr 10. Epub 2019 Apr 10.

ICMR-National Institute of Virology, Pune, India

In 2011, ticks were collected from livestock following an outbreak of Crimean Congo Hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) in Gujarat state, India. CCHF-negative tick pools were passaged for virus isolation, and two virus isolates were obtained, designated Karyana virus (KARYV) and Kundal virus (KUNDV) respectively. Traditional RT-PCR identification of known viruses was unsuccessful, but a next-generation sequencing approach identified KARYV and KUNDV as viruses in the family, , and genera, respectively. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JVI.00106-19DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Multistate Survey of American Dog Ticks (Dermacentor variabilis) for Rickettsia Species.

Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis 2019 Apr 3. Epub 2019 Apr 3.

1 Rickettsial Zoonoses Branch, National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Disease, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia.

Dermacentor variabilis, a common human-biting tick found throughout the eastern half and along the west coast of the United States, is a vector of multiple bacterial pathogens. Historically, D. variabilis has been considered a primary vector of Rickettsia rickettsii, the causative agent of Rocky Mountain spotted fever. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/vbz.2018.2415DOI Listing
April 2019
3 Reads

Prevalence and Strains of Colorado Tick Fever Virus in Rocky Mountain Wood Ticks in the Bitterroot Valley, Montana.

Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis 2019 Apr 2. Epub 2019 Apr 2.

1 Laboratory of Zoonotic Pathogens, Rocky Mountain Laboratories, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, Hamilton, Montana.

The Rocky Mountain wood tick, Dermacentor andersoni, has long been known to transmit human pathogens. Within the Bitterroot Valley, Ravalli County, Montana, these agents include Rickettsia rickettsii, Francisella tularensis, and Colorado tick fever virus (CTFV). Found in the western United States where wood ticks occur, CTFV causes a biphasic, febrile illness in humans and persists in enzootic cycles involving the ticks and small mammals. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/vbz.2018.2407DOI Listing

Discovery and Characterization of Bukakata orbivirus (), a Novel Virus from a Ugandan Bat.

Viruses 2019 Mar 2;11(3). Epub 2019 Mar 2.

Department of Microbiology, Immunology, and Pathology, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523, USA.

While serological and virological evidence documents the exposure of bats to medically-important arboviruses, their role as reservoirs or amplifying hosts is less well-characterized. We describe a novel orbivirus () isolated from an Egyptian fruit bat () trapped in 2013 in Uganda and named Bukakata orbivirus. This is the fifth orbivirus isolated from a bat, however genetic information had previously only been available for one bat-associated orbivirus. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/v11030209DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6466370PMC
March 2019
1 Read
3.279 Impact Factor

An mRNA Vaccine Protects Mice against Multiple Tick-Transmitted Flavivirus Infections.

Cell Rep 2018 Dec;25(12):3382-3392.e3

Department of Medicine, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO 63110, USA; Department of Pathology & Immunology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO 63110, USA; Department of Molecular Microbiology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO 63110, USA; The Andrew M. and Jane M. Bursky Center for Human Immunology and Immunotherapy Programs, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO 63110, USA. Electronic address:

Powassan virus (POWV) is an emerging tick-transmitted flavivirus that circulates in North America and Russia. Up to 5% of deer ticks now test positive for POWV in certain regions of the northern United States. Although POWV infections cause life-threatening encephalitis, there is no vaccine or countermeasure available for prevention or treatment. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S22111247183187
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.celrep.2018.11.082DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6353567PMC
December 2018
13 Reads

Interventions to Improve Medication Adherence: A Review.

JAMA 2018 12;320(23):2461-2473

Division of Cardiology, University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus, Aurora.

Importance: Among adults with chronic illness, 30% to 50% of medications are not taken as prescribed. In the United States, it is estimated that medication nonadherence is associated with 125 000 deaths, 10% of hospitalizations, and $100 billion in health care services annually.

Observations: PubMed was searched from January 1, 2000, to September 6, 2018, for English-language randomized clinical trials of interventions to improve medication adherence. Read More

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http://jama.jamanetwork.com/article.aspx?doi=10.1001/jama.20
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jama.2018.19271DOI Listing
December 2018
47 Reads

Human tularaemia associated with exposure to domestic dogs-United States, 2006-2016.

Zoonoses Public Health 2018 Dec 16. Epub 2018 Dec 16.

Division of Vector-Borne Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Fort Collins, Colorado.

Dogs have been implicated in the zoonotic transmission of numerous pathogens. Whereas cats are known to transmit Francisella tularensis to humans via bite and other routes, the role of dogs in facilitating infection is much less understood. We reviewed tularaemia case investigation records collected through national surveillance during 2006-2016 to summarize those with dog involvement, characterize the nature of dog-related exposure and describe associated clinical characteristics. Read More

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https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/zph.12552
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/zph.12552DOI Listing
December 2018
16 Reads

Clinical and Laboratory Effects of Doxycycline and Prednisolone in Ixodes scapularis-Exposed Dogs With Chronic Anaplasma phagocytophilum Infection.

Top Companion Anim Med 2018 Dec 20;33(4):147-149. Epub 2018 Aug 20.

Center for Companion Animal Studies at Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO, USA.

Persistent infection of Anaplasma phagocytophilum (AP) after treatment and immunosuppression has not been studied in dogs infected with AP after Ixodes scapularis infestation. This descriptive pilot study evaluated 6 laboratory-reared beagles that were persistently positive for AP antibodies after infestation with wild-caught I. scapularis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1053/j.tcam.2018.08.001DOI Listing
December 2018

Combatting the Increasing Threat of Vector-Borne Disease in the United States with a National Vector-Borne Disease Prevention and Control System.

Am J Trop Med Hyg 2019 Feb;100(2):242-245

Division of Vector-Borne Diseases, National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Fort Collins, Colorado.

Reported cases of vector-borne diseases in the United States have more than tripled since 2004, characterized by steadily increasing incidence of tick-borne diseases and sporadic outbreaks of domestic and invasive mosquito-borne diseases. An effective public health response to these trends relies on public health surveillance and laboratory systems, proven prevention and mitigation measures, scalable capacity to implement these measures, sensitive and specific diagnostics, and effective therapeutics. However, significant obstacles hinder successful implementation of these public health strategies. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4269/ajtmh.18-0841DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6367643PMC
February 2019
1 Read

A systematic review on the impact of gestational Lyme disease in humans on the fetus and newborn.

PLoS One 2018 12;13(11):e0207067. Epub 2018 Nov 12.

National Microbiology Laboratory, Public Health Agency of Canada, Saint-Hyacinthe, Quebec, Canada.

Lyme disease (LD), caused by bacteria of the Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato species complex, is the most common vector-borne disease in North America and Europe. A systematic review (SR) was conducted to summarize the global literature on adverse birth outcomes associated with gestational LD in humans. The SR followed an a priori protocol of pretested screening, risk of bias, and data extraction forms. Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0207067PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6231644PMC
April 2019
20 Reads

Large-scale health disparities associated with Lyme disease and human monocytic ehrlichiosis in the United States, 2007-2013.

PLoS One 2018 27;13(9):e0204609. Epub 2018 Sep 27.

Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado, United States of America.

Promoting health equity is a fundamental public health objective, yet health disparities remain largely overlooked in studies of vectorborne diseases, especially those transmitted by ticks. We sought to identify health disparities associated with Lyme disease and human monocytic ehrlichiosis, two of the most pervasive tickborne diseases within the United States. We used general linear mixed models to measure associations between county-level disease incidence and six variables representing racial/ethnic and socioeconomic characteristics of counties (percent white non-Hispanic; percent with a bachelors degree or higher; percent living below the poverty line; percent unemployed; percent of housing units vacant; per capita number of property crimes). Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0204609PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6160131PMC
March 2019
2 Reads

Impacts of misclassification on Lyme disease surveillance.

Zoonoses Public Health 2019 02 21;66(1):174-178. Epub 2018 Sep 21.

Emerging Infections Program, Maryland Department of Health, Baltimore, Maryland.

In Maryland, Lyme disease (LD) is the most widely reported tickborne disease. All laboratories and healthcare providers are required to report LD cases to the local health department. Given the large volume of LD reports, the nuances of diagnosing and reporting LD, and the effort required for investigations by local health department staff, surveillance for LD is burdensome and subject to underreporting. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/zph.12525DOI Listing
February 2019
14 Reads

Evidence for Clinical Anaplasmosis and Borreliosis in Cats in Maine.

Top Companion Anim Med 2018 Jun 20;33(2):40-44. Epub 2018 Jun 20.

Center for Companion Animal Studies, Department of Clinical Sciences, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO, USA. Electronic address:

The objectives of this study were to use data from client-owned cats in an Ixodes scapularis endemic area to evaluate for clinical associations with diagnostic test results for Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Borrelia burgdorferi and to provide information from a group of cats with possible borreliosis as the cause of clinical manifestations of disease. All cases were evaluated at one clinic, medical records were evaluated, and sera from all cats were tested using one of two commercially available assays labeled for the use with dog sera (SNAP 4Dx or SNAP 4Dx Plus; IDEXX Laboratories, Westbrook, ME). Of the 159 cats evaluated, 42 cats (26. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S19389736183003
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1053/j.tcam.2018.05.002DOI Listing
June 2018
2 Reads

Impact of Wearing and Washing/Drying of Permethrin-Treated Clothing on Their Contact Irritancy and Toxicity for Nymphal Ixodes scapularis (Acari: Ixodidae) Ticks.

J Med Entomol 2019 Jan;56(1):199-214

Division of Vector-Borne Diseases, National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Fort Collins, CO.

Permethrin-treated clothing is available as consumer products to prevent bites by tick and insect pests. We used bioassays to examine the impact of wearing and washing/drying of permethrin-treated shirts, pants, and socks, and wearing of treated shoes, on their contact irritancy and toxicity for nymphal Ixodes scapularis Say (Acari: Ixodidae) ticks, the primary vectors in the eastern United States of the causative agents of Lyme disease, human anaplasmosis, and human babesiosis. Pristine permethrin-treated clothing displayed strong contact irritancy and toxicity toward I. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jme/tjy138DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6326861PMC
January 2019
9 Reads

Tick-borne illnesses: identification and management in the emergency department

Pediatr Emerg Med Pract 2018 Sep 1;15(9):1-24. Epub 2018 Sep 1.

Clinical Assistant Professor, Ronald O. Perelman Department of Emergency Medicine, Clinical Site Chief, Pediatric Emergency Medicine, Bellevue Hospital Center, New York, NY.

Tick-borne illnesses are increasing in prevalence and geographic reach. Because the presentation of these illnesses is sometimes nonspecific, they can often be misdiagnosed, especially in the early stages of illness. A detailed history with questions involving recent activities and travel and a thorough physical examination will help narrow the diagnosis. Read More

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September 2018
14 Reads

Tick-Borne Illnesses in the United States.

Prim Care 2018 Sep 9;45(3):379-391. Epub 2018 Jul 9.

Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Internal Medicine, Mayo Clinic, 4500 San Pablo Road S, Jacksonville, FL 32224, USA.

Close interaction with nature can lead to tick-borne illnesses, which are seen most frequently in primary care clinics when patients present symptoms. Considerable morbidity can result from untreated infections. Fortunately, these illnesses are often easily managed when diagnosed early. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S00954543183004
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pop.2018.05.011DOI Listing
September 2018
36 Reads

Co-Infection Patterns in Individual Ticks Reveal Associations between Viral, Eukaryotic and Bacterial Microorganisms.

Viruses 2018 07 22;10(7). Epub 2018 Jul 22.

Department of Microbiology, Immunology, and Pathology, College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523, USA.

ticks harbor a variety of microorganisms, including eukaryotes, bacteria and viruses. Some of these can be transmitted to and cause disease in humans and other vertebrates. Others are not pathogenic, but may impact the ability of the tick to harbor and transmit pathogens. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/v10070388DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6071216PMC
July 2018
4 Reads

Using citizen science to describe the prevalence and distribution of tick bite and exposure to tick-borne diseases in the United States.

PLoS One 2018 12;13(7):e0199644. Epub 2018 Jul 12.

Department of Biology, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO, United States of America.

Tick-borne pathogens are increasing their range and incidence in North America as a consequence of numerous factors including improvements in diagnostics and diagnosis, range expansion of primary vectors, changes in human behavior, and an increasing understanding of the diversity of species of pathogens that cause human disease. Public health agencies have access to human incidence data on notifiable diseases e.g. Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0199644PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6042714PMC
December 2018
41 Reads

Generation of a Lineage II Powassan Virus (Deer Tick Virus) cDNA Clone: Assessment of Flaviviral Genetic Determinants of Tick and Mosquito Vector Competence.

Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis 2018 07 21;18(7):371-381. Epub 2018 May 21.

1 Division of Vector-Borne Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention , Fort Collins, Colorado.

The Flavivirus genus comprises a diverse group of viruses that utilize a wide range of vertebrate hosts and arthropod vectors. The genus includes viruses that are transmitted solely by mosquitoes or vertebrate hosts as well as viruses that alternate transmission between mosquitoes or ticks and vertebrates. Nevertheless, the viral genetic determinants that dictate these unique flaviviral host and vector specificities have been poorly characterized. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/vbz.2017.2224DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6026929PMC
July 2018
8 Reads

Human neuroglial cells internalize Borrelia burgdorferi by coiling phagocytosis mediated by Daam1.

PLoS One 2018 10;13(5):e0197413. Epub 2018 May 10.

Bacterial Diseases Branch, Division of Vector Borne Diseases, National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Fort Collins, Colorado, United States of America.

Borrelia burgdorferi, the agent of Lyme borreliosis, can elude hosts' innate and adaptive immunity as part of the course of infection. The ability of B. burgdorferi to invade or be internalized by host cells in vitro has been proposed as a mechanism for the pathogen to evade immune responses or antimicrobials. Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0197413PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5944952PMC
December 2018
6 Reads

Evaluation of Modified Two-Tiered Testing Algorithms for Lyme Disease Laboratory Diagnosis Using Well-Characterized Serum Samples.

J Clin Microbiol 2018 08 26;56(8). Epub 2018 Jul 26.

Division of Vector-Borne Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Fort Collins, Colorado, USA

Standard two-tiered testing (STTT) is the recommended algorithm for laboratory diagnosis of Lyme disease (LD). Several limitations are associated with STTT that include low sensitivity in the early stages of disease, as well as technical complexity and subjectivity associated with second-tier immunoblotting; therefore, modified two-tiered testing (MTTT) algorithms that utilize two sequential first-tier tests and eliminate immunoblotting have been evaluated. Recently, a novel MTTT that uses a VlsE chemiluminescence immunoassay followed by a C6 enzyme immunoassay has been proposed. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JCM.01943-17DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6062810PMC
August 2018
9 Reads

Borrelia burgdorferi adhere to blood vessels in the dura mater and are associated with increased meningeal T cells during murine disseminated borreliosis.

PLoS One 2018 3;13(5):e0196893. Epub 2018 May 3.

Trauma, Health & Hazards Center, University of Colorado, Colorado Springs, Colorado, United States of America.

Borrelia burgdorferi, the causative agent of Lyme disease, is a vector-borne bacterial infection that is transmitted through the bite of an infected tick. If not treated with antibiotics during the early stages of infection, disseminated infection can spread to the central nervous system (CNS). In non-human primates (NHPs) it has been demonstrated that the leptomeninges are among the tissues colonized by B. Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0196893PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5933741PMC
August 2018
9 Reads

Vital Signs: Trends in Reported Vectorborne Disease Cases - United States and Territories, 2004-2016.

MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2018 May 4;67(17):496-501. Epub 2018 May 4.

Division of Vector-Borne Diseases, National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases, CDC, Fort Collins, Colorado.

Introduction: Vectorborne diseases are major causes of death and illness worldwide. In the United States, the most common vectorborne pathogens are transmitted by ticks or mosquitoes, including those causing Lyme disease; Rocky Mountain spotted fever; and West Nile, dengue, and Zika virus diseases. This report examines trends in occurrence of nationally reportable vectorborne diseases during 2004-2016. Read More

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http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/volumes/67/wr/mm6717e1.htm?s_cid=mm6
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http://dx.doi.org/10.15585/mmwr.mm6717e1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5933869PMC
May 2018
82 Reads

Characteristics of hemostasis during experimental Ehrlichia canis infection.

J Vet Intern Med 2018 Jul 27;32(4):1334-1342. Epub 2018 Apr 27.

Department of Clinical Sciences, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado, CO.

Background: Ehrlichia canis infection in dogs can cause thrombocytopenia and clinical evidence of bleeding. It is unknown why some dogs show signs of bleeding whereas others do not despite clinically relevant thrombocytopenia.

Hypothesis/objectives: Activated platelets, decreased fibrinolysis or both mitigate bleeding tendency. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jvim.15130DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6060328PMC
July 2018
2 Reads

Modeling Climate Suitability of the Western Blacklegged Tick in California.

J Med Entomol 2018 Aug;55(5):1133-1142

Department of Environmental Science, Policy and Management, University of California, Berkeley, CA.

Ixodes pacificus Cooley & Kohls (Acari: Ixodidae), the primary vector of Lyme disease spirochetes to humans in the far-western United States, is broadly distributed across Pacific Coast states, but its distribution is not uniform within this large, ecologically diverse region. To identify areas of suitable habitat, we assembled records of locations throughout California where two or more I. pacificus were collected from vegetation from 1980 to 2014. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jme/tjy060DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6119120PMC
August 2018
8 Reads

Update on flea and tick associated diseases of cats.

Authors:
Michael R Lappin

Vet Parasitol 2018 Apr 5;254:26-29. Epub 2018 Mar 5.

The Kenneth W. Smith Professor in Small Animal Clinical Veterinary Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Colorado State University, 300 West Drake Road, Fort Collins, CO, 80523, USA. Electronic address:

There are multiple vector-borne diseases in cats, the most prominent being those transmitted by mosquitos, sand flies, fleas, and ticks. Many of the agents vectored by fleas or ticks have been grown or amplified from blood or have induced antibodies in the serum of normal cats or those with clinical signs like fever and will be the focus of this manuscript. As high as 80% of fleas collected from cats contain at least one organism that could induce illness in cats or people. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vetpar.2018.02.022DOI Listing
April 2018
6 Reads

Powassan Virus Disease in the United States, 2006-2016.

Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis 2018 06 13;18(6):286-290. Epub 2018 Mar 13.

Arboviral Diseases Branch, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention , Fort Collins, Colorado.

Background: Powassan virus (POWV) is a tick-borne flavivirus that causes rare, but often severe, disease in humans. POWV neuroinvasive disease was added to the U.S. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/vbz.2017.2239DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5990475PMC
June 2018
3 Reads

ACVIM consensus update on Lyme borreliosis in dogs and cats.

J Vet Intern Med 2018 May 22;32(3):887-903. Epub 2018 Mar 22.

Department of Veterinary Administration, College of Veterinary Medicine, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana.

An update of the 2006 American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine (ACVIM) Small Animal Consensus Statement on Lyme Disease in Dogs: Diagnosis, Treatment, and Prevention was presented at the 2016 ACVIM Forum in Denver, CO, followed by panel and audience discussion and a drafted consensus statement distributed online to diplomates for comment. The updated consensus statement is presented below. The consensus statement aims to provide guidance on the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of Lyme borreliosis in dogs and cats. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jvim.15085DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5980284PMC
May 2018
9 Reads

Azotemia and Proteinuria in Dogs Infected with Babesia gibsoni.

J Am Anim Hosp Assoc 2018 May/Jun;54(3):156-160. Epub 2018 Mar 20.

T. Ullal's present affiliation is the College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado.

Babesiosis is a hemoprotozoal tick-borne disease that is commonly associated with thrombocytopenia and anemia; however, renal involvement has been documented in dogs. The purpose of this retrospective study was to document azotemia and proteinuria in dogs infected with Babesia sp. and to describe the response to antiprotozoal therapy. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.5326/JAAHA-MS-6693DOI Listing
February 2019
7 Reads

Evaluation of a sequential enzyme immunoassay testing algorithm for Lyme disease demonstrates lack of test independence but high diagnostic specificity.

Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis 2018 Jul 16;91(3):217-219. Epub 2018 Feb 16.

Department of Pathology, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA.

To diagnose Lyme disease, a two-tier testing algorithm is used in which supplemental IgM and IgG immunoblots to detect antibody to Borrelia burgdorferi are reflexively performed if a first-tier assay, such as a whole-cell sonicate-based enzyme immunoassay (WCS EIA), is reactive. Recent data suggest that equal specificity is found by substituting the C6 peptide EIA for immunoblots. In this study using 3956 control sera, we demonstrated that although this two-tier testing algorithm does significantly improve diagnostic specificity compared with each of the EIAs individually, the WCS EIA and the C6 peptide EIA are not independent tests. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.diagmicrobio.2018.02.006DOI Listing
July 2018
6 Reads

What's eating you? clinical manifestations of Dermacentor tick bites.

Cutis 2018 Jan;101(1):19;20;36

Department of Dermatology and Dermatologic Surgery, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, USA.

Dermacentor ticks are hard ticks found throughout most of North America and are easily identified by their large size, ornate scutum, and prominent dorsal pits. They are important disease vectors and are implicated in transmission of Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF), Colorado tick fever, tularemia, and erlichiosis. They also are an important cause of fatal tick paralysis. Read More

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January 2018
22 Reads

Role of glutathione metabolism in host defense against infection.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2018 03 14;115(10):E2320-E2328. Epub 2018 Feb 14.

Department of Internal Medicine, Radboud University Medical Center, 6525 GA Nijmegen, The Netherlands;

Pathogen-induced changes in host cell metabolism are known to be important for the immune response. In this study, we investigated how infection with the Lyme disease-causing bacterium () affects host metabolic pathways and how these metabolic pathways may impact host defense. First, metabolome analysis was performed on human primary monocytes from healthy volunteers, stimulated for 24 h with at low multiplicity of infection (MOI). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1720833115DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5877983PMC
March 2018
22 Reads

Lyme Disease Testing in a High-Incidence State: Clinician Knowledge and Patterns.

Am J Clin Pathol 2018 Feb;149(3):234-240

Division of Vector-Borne Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Fort Collins, Colorado.

Objectives: Lyme disease (LD) incidence is increasing, but data suggest some clinicians are not fully aware of recommended procedures for ordering and interpreting diagnostic tests. The study objective was to assess clinicians' knowledge and practices regarding LD testing in a high-incidence region.

Methods: We distributed surveys to 1,142 clinicians in the University of Vermont Medical Center region, of which 144 were completed (12. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ajcp/aqx153DOI Listing
February 2018
4 Reads

Amblyomma americanum (Acari: Ixodidae) Ticks Are Not Vectors of the Lyme Disease Agent, Borrelia burgdorferi (Spirocheatales: Spirochaetaceae): A Review of the Evidence.

J Med Entomol 2018 May;55(3):501-514

Division of Vector-Borne Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Fort Collins, CO.

In the early 1980s, Ixodes spp. ticks were implicated as the key North American vectors of Borrelia burgdorferi (Johnson, Schmid, Hyde, Steigerwalt and Brenner) (Spirocheatales: Spirochaetaceae), the etiological agent of Lyme disease. Concurrently, other human-biting tick species were investigated as potential B. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jme/tjx250DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6459681PMC
May 2018
9 Reads

Case Report: A Case of Colorado Tick Fever Acquired in Southwestern Saskatchewan.

Am J Trop Med Hyg 2018 03 18;98(3):891-893. Epub 2018 Jan 18.

Department of Medical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, Max Rady College of Medicine, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada.

Colorado tick fever virus is transmitted by ticks. In Canada, these ticks are found in the southern regions of British Columbia (Rocky Mountains) and Alberta, as well as southwestern Saskatchewan. Colorado tick fever should be clinically suspected in patients presenting with a biphasic febrile illness and leukopenia following tick exposure in the appropriate geographic area. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4269/ajtmh.17-0761DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5930916PMC
March 2018
3 Reads

Risk Factors for Clinician-Diagnosed Lyme Arthritis, Facial Palsy, Carditis, and Meningitis in Patients From High-Incidence States.

Open Forum Infect Dis 2018 Jan 18;5(1):ofx254. Epub 2017 Nov 18.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Fort Collins, Colorado.

Background: Clinical features of Lyme disease (LD) range from localized skin lesions to serious disseminated disease. Information on risk factors for Lyme arthritis, facial palsy, carditis, and meningitis is limited but could facilitate disease recognition and elucidate pathophysiology.

Methods: Patients from high-incidence states treated for LD during 2005-2014 were identified in a nationwide insurance claims database using the code for LD (088. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ofid/ofx254DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5757643PMC
January 2018
12 Reads

Surveillance for and Discovery of Borrelia Species in US Patients Suspected of Tickborne Illness.

Clin Infect Dis 2018 Jun;66(12):1864-1871

Division of Vector-Borne Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Fort Collins, Colorado.

Background: Tick-transmitted Borrelia fall into 2 heterogeneous bacterial complexes comprised of multiple species, the relapsing fever (RF) group and the Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato group, which are the causative agents of Lyme borreliosis (LB), the most common tickborne disease in the Northern Hemisphere. Geographic expansion of LB in the United States and discovery of emerging Borrelia pathogens underscores the importance of surveillance for disease-causing Borrelia.

Methods: De-identified clinical specimens, submitted by providers throughout the United States, for patients suspected of LB, anaplasmosis, ehrlichiosis, or babesiosis were screened using a Borrelia genus-level TaqMan polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cid/cix1107DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5985202PMC
June 2018
17 Reads

Borrelia burgdorferi Transcriptome Analysis by RNA-Sequencing.

Methods Mol Biol 2018 ;1690:127-136

Department of Biology, University of Colorado Colorado Springs, 1420 Austin Bluffs Pkwy, Colorado Springs, CO, 80918, USA.

Next-Generation Sequencing (NGS) has revolutionized transcriptomics studies in the last decade. Transcriptome analysis experiments using NGS-based RNA-sequencing have several advantages over DNA microarray analysis. Novel unannotated transcripts and transcriptional start sites can be identified. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4939-7383-5_11DOI Listing
June 2018
1 Read

MOLECULAR SURVEILLANCE FOR BARTONELLA, BORRELIA, AND RICKETTSIA SPECIES IN TICKS FROM DESERT BIGHORN SHEEP ( OVIS CANADENSIS) AND MULE DEER ( ODOCOILEUS HEMIONUS) IN SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA, USA.

J Wildl Dis 2018 01 4;54(1):161-164. Epub 2017 Oct 4.

2 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Division of Vector-Borne Diseases, 3156 Rampart Road, Fort Collins, Colorado 80521, USA.

:  Ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) were collected from 44 desert bighorn sheep ( Ovis canadensis) and 10 mule deer ( Odocoileus hemionus) in southern California, US during health inspections in 2015-16. Specimens were identified and screened by PCR analysis to determine the presence and prevalence of Bartonella, Borrelia, and Rickettsia species in ticks associated with these wild ruminants. None of the 60 Dermacentor hunteri and 15 Dermacentor albipictus ticks tested yielded positive PCR results. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.7589/2017-02-047DOI Listing
January 2018
9 Reads

Isolation and characterization of Tarumizu tick virus: A new coltivirus from Haemaphysalis flava ticks in Japan.

Virus Res 2017 10 28;242:131-140. Epub 2017 Sep 28.

Department of Medical Entomology, National Institute of Infectious Diseases, 1-23-1 Toyama, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 162-8640, Japan; Department of Agricultural and Environmental Biology, Graduate School of Agricultural and Life Sciences, The University of Tokyo, Yayoi 1-1-1, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8657, Japan. Electronic address:

During the course of tick-borne virus surveillance in Japan, three independent isolates of probably the same virus were obtained from three geographically distant populations of the hard tick Haemaphysalis flava. Genome analyses of the three isolates demonstrated that they were closely related but distinct strains of a novel virus, designated Tarumizu tick virus (TarTV), which has a genome of 12 double-stranded RNA segments. The development of the virus-induced cytopathic effects on BHK cells significantly varied according to virus strains. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.virusres.2017.09.017DOI Listing
October 2017
94 Reads

Chromosome and Large Linear Plasmid Sequences of a Strain Isolated from Ticks from California.

Genome Announc 2017 Sep 14;5(37). Epub 2017 Sep 14.

Division of Vector-Borne Diseases, Bacterial Diseases Branch, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Fort Collins, Colorado, USA

a relapsing fever group spirochete, is an emerging tick-borne pathogen. It has been identified in ixodid ticks across the Northern Hemisphere, including the West Coast of the United States. We describe the chromosome and large linear plasmid sequence of a isolate cultured from a California field-collected tick. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/genomeA.00960-17DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5597759PMC
September 2017
17 Reads

Serologic responses to peptides of Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Borrelia burgdorferi in dogs infested with wild-caught Ixodes scapularis.

Vet J 2017 Aug 27;226:6-11. Epub 2017 Jun 27.

The Center for Companion Animal Studies, Colorado State University, 300 West Drake Rd., Fort Collins, CO 80523, United States.

Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Borrelia burgdorferi are both transmitted by Ixodes spp. and are associated with clinical illness in some infected dogs. This study evaluated canine antibody responses to the A. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tvjl.2017.06.005DOI Listing
August 2017
8 Reads

Metabolic differentiation of early Lyme disease from southern tick-associated rash illness (STARI).

Sci Transl Med 2017 Aug;9(403)

Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Pathology, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523, USA.

Lyme disease, the most commonly reported vector-borne disease in the United States, results from infection with Early clinical diagnosis of this disease is largely based on the presence of an erythematous skin lesion for individuals in high-risk regions. This, however, can be confused with other illnesses including southern tick-associated rash illness (STARI), an illness that lacks a defined etiological agent or laboratory diagnostic test, and is coprevalent with Lyme disease in portions of the eastern United States. By applying an unbiased metabolomics approach with sera retrospectively obtained from well-characterized patients, we defined biochemical and diagnostic differences between early Lyme disease and STARI. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/scitranslmed.aal2717DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5773101PMC
August 2017
27 Reads

Small RNAs of : Characterizing Functional Regulators in a Sea of sRNAs
.

Yale J Biol Med 2017 06 23;90(2):317-323. Epub 2017 Jun 23.

University of Montana, Division of Biological Sciences, Missoula, MT.

() and closely related genospecies are the causative agents of Lyme disease, the most common tick-borne disease north of the equator. The bacterium, a member of the spirochete phylum, is acquired by a tick vector that feeds on an infected vertebrate host and is transmitted to another vertebrate during subsequent feeding by the next tick stage. The precise navigation of this enzootic cycle entails the regulation of genes required for these two host-specific phases as well as the transitions between them. Read More

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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5482307PMC
June 2017
15 Reads

Prevalence of Vector-Borne Pathogens in Southern California Dogs With Clinical and Laboratory Abnormalities Consistent With Immune-Mediated Disease.

J Vet Intern Med 2017 Jul 30;31(4):1081-1090. Epub 2017 May 30.

Vector Borne Disease Diagnostic Laboratory, College of Veterinary Medicine, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC.

Background: Studies investigating the prevalence of vector-borne pathogens in southern California dogs are limited. Occult infections might be misdiagnosed as idiopathic immune-mediated disease.

Hypothesis/objectives: (1) To determine the prevalence of vector-borne pathogens in southern California dogs with compatible clinical findings using PCR and serologic panels and (2) to determine whether testing convalescent samples and repeating PCR on acute samples using the same and different gene targets enhance detection. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jvim.14735DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5508353PMC
July 2017
26 Reads

Lyme disease ecology in a changing world: consensus, uncertainty and critical gaps for improving control.

Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 2017 Jun;372(1722)

Department of Ecology, Evolution and Environmental Biology, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027, USA.

Lyme disease is the most common tick-borne disease in temperate regions of North America, Europe and Asia, and the number of reported cases has increased in many regions as landscapes have been altered. Although there has been extensive work on the ecology and epidemiology of this disease in both Europe and North America, substantial uncertainty exists about fundamental aspects that determine spatial and temporal variation in both disease risk and human incidence, which hamper effective and efficient prevention and control. Here we describe areas of consensus that can be built on, identify areas of uncertainty and outline research needed to fill these gaps to facilitate predictive models of disease risk and the development of novel disease control strategies. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2016.0117DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5413869PMC
June 2017
45 Reads

Tick-Borne Zoonoses in the United States: Persistent and Emerging Threats to Human Health.

ILAR J 2017 12;58(3):319-335

Rebecca J. Eisen, PhD, is a Research Biologist in the Bacterial Diseases Branch, Division of Vector-Borne Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in Fort Collins, Colorado. Kiersten J. Kugeler, PhD, is an Epidemiologist in the Bacterial Diseases Branch, Division of Vector-Borne Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in Fort Collins, Colorado. Lars Eisen, PhD, is a Research Entomologist in the Bacterial Diseases Branch, Division of Vector-Borne Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in Fort Collins, Colorado. Charles B. Beard, PhD, is a Branch Chief in the Bacterial Diseases Branch, Division of Vector-Borne Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in Fort Collins, Colorado. Christopher D. Paddock, MD, is a Medical Officer/Pathologist in the Rickettsial Zoonoses Branch, Division of Vector-Borne Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in Atlanta, Georgia.

In the United States, ticks transmit the greatest diversity of arthropod-borne pathogens and are responsible for the most cases of all vector-borne diseases. In recent decades, the number of reported cases of notifiable tick-borne diseases has steadily increased, geographic distributions of many ticks and tick-borne diseases have expanded, and new tick-borne disease agents have been recognized. In this review, we (1) describe the known disease agents associated with the most commonly human-biting ixodid ticks, (2) review the natural histories of these ticks and their associated pathogens, (3) highlight spatial and temporal changes in vector tick distributions and tick-borne disease occurrence in recent decades, and (4) identify knowledge gaps and barriers to more effective prevention of tick-borne diseases. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ilar/ilx005DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5610605PMC
December 2017
5 Reads

Evaluation of bioMérieux's Dissociated Vidas Lyme IgM II and IgG II as a First-Tier Diagnostic Assay for Lyme Disease.

J Clin Microbiol 2017 06 22;55(6):1698-1706. Epub 2017 Mar 22.

Division of Vector-Borne Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Fort Collins, Colorado, USA.

The recommended laboratory diagnostic approach for Lyme disease is a standard two-tiered testing (STTT) algorithm where the first tier is typically an enzyme immunoassay (EIA) that if positive or equivocal is reflexed to Western immunoblotting as the second tier. bioMérieux manufactures one of the most commonly used first-tier EIAs in the United States, the combined IgM/IgG Vidas test (LYT). Recently, bioMérieux launched its dissociated first-tier tests, the Vidas Lyme IgM II (LYM) and IgG II (LYG) EIAs, which use purified recombinant test antigens and a different algorithm than STTT. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JCM.02407-16DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5442525PMC
June 2017
26 Reads

Metabolomics of the tick-Borrelia interaction during the nymphal tick blood meal.

Sci Rep 2017 03 13;7:44394. Epub 2017 Mar 13.

Division of Vector-Borne Diseases, National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Fort Collins, CO 80521, USA.

The causal agents of Lyme disease in North America, Borrelia burgdorferi and Borrelia mayonii, are transmitted primarily by Ixodes scapularis ticks. Due to their limited metabolic capacity, spirochetes rely on the tick blood meal for nutrients and metabolic intermediates while residing in the tick vector, competing with the tick for nutrients in the blood meal. Metabolomics is an effective methodology to explore dynamics of spirochete survival and multiplication in tick vectors before transmission to a vertebrate host via tick saliva. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/srep44394DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5347386PMC
March 2017
6 Reads