Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am 2022 Jun 11;51(2):287-304. Epub 2022 May 11.
Division of Diabetes, Endocrinology and Metabolic Diseases, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, National Institutes of Health, 6707 Democracy Boulevard, Room 6054, Bethesda, MD 20892-5460, USA; Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, Bethesda, MD 20814, USA. Electronic address:
The management of hyperthyroidism and extrathyroidal manifestations of Graves disease remains complex. Considerations that include patient preference, age, comorbidity, pregnancy, tobacco smoking, and social determinants of health must all be weaved into a cohesive management plan. A multidisciplinary team is required to manage all aspects of Graves disease, particularly thyroid eye disease, for which new therapeutic options are now available. Read More