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    Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone Receptor Antibodies in Pregnancy: Clinical Relevance.
    Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) 2017 30;8:137. Epub 2017 Jun 30.
    Unit of Endocrinology, Department of Medicine and Sciences of Aging, Ce.S.I.-Me.T., University of Chieti-Pescara, Chieti, Italy.
    Graves' disease is the most common cause of thyrotoxicosis in women of childbearing age. Approximately 1% of pregnant women been treated before, or are being treated during pregnancy for Graves' hyperthyroidism. In pregnancy, as in not pregnant state, thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) receptor (TSHR) antibodies (TRAbs) are the pathogenetic hallmark of Graves' disease. Read More

    Update on thyroid-associated Ophthalmopathy with a special emphasis on the ocular surface.
    Clin Diabetes Endocrinol 2016 16;2:19. Epub 2016 Nov 16.
    Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, Kellogg Eye Center, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, MI 48105 USA.
    Thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy (TAO) is a condition associated with a wide spectrum of ocular changes, usually in the context of the autoimmune syndrome, Graves' disease. In this topical review, we attempted to provide a roadmap of the recent advances in current understanding the pathogenesis of TAO, important aspects of its clinical presentation, its impact on the ocular surface, describe the tissue abnormalities frequently encountered, and describe how TAO is managed today. We also briefly review how increased understanding of the disease should culminate in improved therapies for patients with this vexing condition. Read More

    Update on Graves disease: advances in treatment of mild, moderate and severe thyroid eye disease.
    Curr Opin Ophthalmol 2017 Jul 11. Epub 2017 Jul 11.
    aJohns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland, USA bKing Khaled Eye Specialist Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.
    Purpose Of Review: To report the most recent therapeutic advances of thyroid eye disease (TED) and offer general recommendations for management of TED.

    Recent Findings: Treatment of Graves ophthalmopathy is traditionally based on the use of high doses of corticosteroids and/or radiotherapy (RT) to decrease the activity of the disease, with the subsequent proptosis, strabismus and eyelid deformites treated with different surgical procedures. In recent years, the evidence that oxidative stress plays a relevant role in exacerbating TED severity has encouraged the use of antioxydative agents such as selenium, which has shown a capacity in limiting the disease progression. Read More

    Referral Trends for Surgical Management of Graves' Disease.
    Thyroid 2017 Jul 12. Epub 2017 Jul 12.
    Henry Ford Hospital, Otolaryngology , 6777 West Maple Road , West Bloomfield, Michigan, United States , 48322 ;
    Background: Treatment algorithms for Graves' disease (GD) differ internationally and frequency of referral for surgical intervention varies markedly between areas. Given the potential benefits of thyroidectomy over radioactive iodine (RAI) and medical therapy, surgery may be underutilized. To better understand the approach of endocrinologists to GD, we assessed the rationale for consultation among patients referred for thyroidectomy to an endocrine surgery practice in the United States. Read More

    Effect of Antithyroid Therapies on Bone and Body Composition: A Prospective, Randomized, Clinical Study Comparing Antithyroid Drugs with Radioiodine Therapy.
    Indian J Endocrinol Metab 2017 Jul-Aug;21(4):531-534
    Department of Endocrinology, Army Hospital (R & R), New Delhi, India.
    Background: Thyrotoxicosis is associated with loss of body weight and bone mineral content (BMC). Antithyroid drugs (ATD) and radioiodine therapy (RIT) are the common options for the management of thyrotoxicosis. We evaluated the effect of ATD and RIT on BMC and body composition. Read More

    Pathogenic Th17 and Th22 cells are increased in patients with autoimmune thyroid disorders.
    Endocrine 2017 Jul 1. Epub 2017 Jul 1.
    Department of Endocrinology, Immunology and Molecular Biology Unit, Hospital Universitario de la Princesa, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Instituto Princesa, Madrid, Spain.
    Purpose: To study the levels of pathogenic and non-pathogenic Th17 and Th22 cells in autoimmune thyroid disorders patients. Although Th17 cells seem to play an important role in the pathogenesis of thyroid autoimmune disorders, the specific subsets of these lymphocytes have not been analyzed in this condition.

    Methods: We assessed the levels of Th17 (pathogenic and non-pathogenic) and Th22 cells in peripheral blood and thyroid glands of autoimmune thyroid disorders patients (n   =  26, 16 with Graves' disease and 10 with Hashimoto's thyroiditis) and 15 healthy controls by multi-parametric flow cytometry and immunofluorescence microscopy. Read More

    Scintigraphic Profile of Thyrotoxicosis Patients and Correlation with Biochemical and Sonological Findings.
    J Clin Diagn Res 2017 May 1;11(5):OC01-OC03. Epub 2017 May 1.
    Professor and Head, Department of Medicine, AFMC, Pune, Maharashtra, India.
    Introduction: Thyrotoxicosis is a spectrum of disorder with a rather common clinical presentation with different aetiologies. The aetiological diagnosis is important as the management differs. It is essential to accurately diagnose the cause before starting treatment. Read More

    Diplopia in a patient with Hashimoto's thyroiditis: A case report and literature review.
    Medicine (Baltimore) 2017 Jun;96(26):e7330
    Department of Ophthalmology, Shandong University Qilu Hospital, Jinan, Shandong, China.
    Background: A case report of Hashimoto's thyroiditis-associated ophthalmopathy that masqueraded as double elevator palsy in 1 eye.

    Case Presentation: A 54-year-old woman presented to our strabismus clinic with diplopia for 1 year. She was diagnosed with double elevator palsy in the left eye. Read More

    Action of three bioavailable antioxidants in orbital fibroblasts from patients with Graves' orbitopathy (GO): a new frontier for GO treatment?
    J Endocrinol Invest 2017 Jun 27. Epub 2017 Jun 27.
    Endocrinology Unit I, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Pisa and University Hospital of Pisa, Via Paradisa 2, 56124, Pisa, Italy.
    Objective: Oxidative stress is involved in the pathogenesis of Graves' orbitopathy (GO) and an antioxidant approach has been advocated for GO treatment. Here, we investigated the action of three antioxidants in orbital fibroblasts, namely, vitamin C, N-acetyl-L-cysteine, and melatonin.

    Methods: Primary cultures of orbital fibroblasts from six GO patients and six control subjects were established. Read More

    [Progression of the pathogenesis of thyroid associated ophthalmopathy].
    Zhonghua Yan Ke Za Zhi 2017 Jun;53(6):474-480
    Beijing Ophthalmology & Vision Science Key Lab, Tongren Eye Center, Beijing Tongren Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing 100730, China.
    Thyroid associated ophthalmopathy (TAO) is a common complication of Graves' disease (GD). The clinical manifestations are mainly swelling and retracted eyelid, protopsis and limited eye movements, and optic neuropathy can be seen in severe cases. The mechanism of TAO is not yet clear. Read More

    [Bone marrow-derived fibrocytes and thyroid-associated opthalmopathy].
    Zhonghua Yan Ke Za Zhi 2017 Jun;53(6):470-473
    Tianjin Medical University Eye Hospital, Tianjin Medical University Eye Institute, Tianjin Medical University School of Optometry and Ophthalmology, Tianjin 300384, China.
    Thyroid-associated opthalmopathy(TAO) is a common autoimmune syndrome affecting the thyroid and orbit, which can result in the fibrosis of extraoular muscles and hyperplasia of adipose tissue. Advanced TAO patients could even lose vision caused by cornea ulcer and congestion of optic nerve from expansion of the extraocular muscles and orbit fat. Currently, there are no therapies shown to prevent it, because its cellular and molecular mechanisms are not clear. Read More

    [The value of DCE-MRI in assessing the course of thyroid associated ophthalmopathy].
    Zhonghua Yan Ke Za Zhi 2017 Jun;53(6):430-435
    Department of Ophthalmology, Tianjin First Center Hospital, Tianjin 300192, China.
    Objective: To explore the feasibility of the semi-quantitative rectus extraocular muscle (EOM) parameters of dynamic contrast-enhanced magetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) in assessing the clinical course of thyroid associated ophthalmopathy (TAO). Methods: It was a retrospective case series study. A total of 136 cases of TAO were recruited from March 2011 to October 2012 in the Tianjin the first center hospital including 63 males and 72 females, aged 24. Read More

    [Three-dimensional vector analysis after decompression surgery in thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy].
    Zhonghua Yan Ke Za Zhi 2017 Jun;53(6):424-429
    Department of Ophthalmology, Eye & ENT Hospital, Fudan University, Myopia Key Laboratory of Health Ministry, Shanghai 200031, China.
    Objective: To analyze the change of globe position after different orbital decompression in thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy (TAO). Methods: It was a retrosective case series study. Twenty-nine TAO patients (33 eyes) underwent orbital decompression were collected between October 2014 and December 2016 at Eye & ENT Hospital of Fudan University. Read More

    [Therapeutic outcomes and influence factors of maximal orbital decompression in the treatment of severe dysthyroid optic neuropathy].
    Zhonghua Yan Ke Za Zhi 2017 Jun;53(6):416-423
    Institute of orbital diseases, the General Hospital of the Armed Police Force, Beijing 100039, China.
    Objective: To evaluate the effectiveness of maximal orbital decompression in treatment for severe dysthyroid optic neuropathy (DON) of thyroid associated ophthalmopathy (TAO) and predictive factors of this therapy. Methods: The group consisted of 21 patients (30 eyes) with DON. The diagnosis was based on the following criteria: Deterioration of best corrected visual acuity (VA≤0. Read More

    [Investigation of reason and treatment methods for active, refractory and recurrence thyroid associated ophthalmopathy].
    Zhonghua Yan Ke Za Zhi 2017 Jun;53(6):408-412
    Chengdu huaxia Eye Hospital, Chengdu 610041, China.
    TAO is a common autoimmune orbital disease. 20% to 30% patients in active phase of moderate to severe TAO have no reponse to treatment or relapse after treatment, which become a difficult problem in clinical treatment. In this paper, the necessity of the treatment, etiology, treatment difficulties and treatment measures of TAO are discussed, in order to make great efforts to solve the clinical problems and to treat such patients. Read More

    [The stepwise establishment of standardized treatment for the thyroid eye disease].
    Zhonghua Yan Ke Za Zhi 2017 Jun;53(6):404-407
    Department of Ophthalmology, Eye & ENT Hospital, Fudan University, Myopia Key Laboratory of Health Ministry, Shanghai 200031, China.
    Thyroid associated ophthalmopathy is a complex autoimmune disease characterized by inflammation of the orbital tissue, hyaluronan deposition and tissue remodeling due to a skewed production of preadipocytic fibroblasts and increased adipogenesis in the late stage. Its progression is strongly related to the functional status of thyroid. So far, there is no consensus on staging, grading and treatment worldwide owning to the complexity of its clinical manifestations and therapies. Read More

    [Re-evaluate the value of orbital decompression for thyroid associated ophthalmopathy].
    Zhonghua Yan Ke Za Zhi 2017 Jun;53(6):401-403
    Tianjin Medical University Eye Hospital, Tianjin Medical University Eye Institute, Tianjin Medical University School of Optometry and Ophthalmology, Tianjin 300384, China.
    Thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy (TAO) is a common autoimmune syndrome affecting the thyroid and orbit. It can result in the fibrosis of extraoular muscles and hyperplasia of adipose tissue. The mechanism of TAO is not clear and there was few effective treatment. Read More

    Neuroanatomic Variations in Graves' Dysthyroid Ophthalmopathy as Studied With MRI.
    Trans Am Ophthalmol Soc 2016 Aug 24;114:T9. Epub 2017 May 24.
    Department of Ophthalmology, California Pacific Medical Center (Dr Silkiss or and Department of Psychology, University of York (Dr Wade or
    Purpose: To evaluate whether patients with Graves' dysthyroid ophthalmopathy (GDO) have changes in brain anatomy that can be assessed by neuroimaging as compared to age-matched controls.

    Methods: We examined 10 female, euthyroid patients with GDO and 14 age and gender matched controls using high-resolution structural MRI scanning. An automatic cortical segmentation algorithm was used to estimate the thickness of each subject's gray matter across the brain. Read More

    Thyrotoxicosis - investigation and management .
    Clin Med (Lond) 2017 Jun;17(3):274-277
    King's College Hospital, Denmark Hill, London
    Graves' disease (GD) and toxic nodular (TN) goitre account for most cases of thyrotoxicosis associated with hyperthyroidism. Hyperthyroidism is confirmed with measurement of a suppressed serum thyrotropin concentration (TSH) and elevated free thyroid hormones. The three therapeutic options are antithyroid drugs, radioactive iodine and surgery. Read More

    Serum CYR61 Is Associated with Disease Activity in Graves' Orbitopathy.
    Ocul Immunol Inflamm 2017 May 26:1-7. Epub 2017 May 26.
    a Institute of Vision Research, Department of Ophthalmology , Yonsei University College of Medicine , Seoul , South Korea.
    Purpose: To investigate the clinical implications of cysteine-rich angiogenic inducer 61 (CYR61) in Graves' orbitopathy (GO).

    Methods: Sera from 52 GO patients, 23 Graves' disease (GD) patients, and 20 healthy controls, and orbital fat tissue samples from 12 of 52 GO patients and 8 control subjects were included for analysis. Concentrations of CYR61 were measured from sera with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and CYR61 mRNA expression levels were evaluated from orbital fat tissue with polymerase chain reaction. Read More

    Changes in Choroidal Perfusion after Orbital Decompression Surgery for Graves' Ophthalmopathy.
    J Ophthalmic Vis Res 2017 Apr-Jun;12(2):183-186
    Private Practice, Retina Group of Washington, Chevy Chase, Maryland, USA.
    Purpose: To assess choroidal perfusion before and after orbital decompression surgery in patients with Graves' ophthalmopathy.

    Methods: In this interventional case series, surgical decompression for optic nerve compromise was performed on four eyes of three patients with Graves' disease. Complete ophthalmic examination including visual acuity, color vision, and intraocular pressure assessment were done pre- and postoperatively. Read More

    [Calculation of orbital fat volumes for determining treatment timing for thyroid- associated ophthalmopathy].
    Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao 2017 May;37(5):640-645
    Department of Endocrinology, Third Affiliated Hospital of Southern Medical University, Guangzhou 510630, China.E-mail:
    Objective: To analyze the relationship between orbital fat volume and the progression and prognosis of thyroid- associated ophthalmopathy (TAO) and determine the optimal treatment timing for TAO.

    Methods: The clinical data were collected from 35 patients (70 orbits) with a definite diagnosis of TAO between January, 2016 and December, 2016. The correlation between orbital fat volume and the clinical parameters was evaluated. Read More

    [The complications of transethmoidal decompressive orbitotomy associated with endocrine ophthalmopathy].
    Vestn Otorinolaringol 2017;82(2):33-37
    The Helmholtz Moscow Research Institute of Eye Diseases, Moscow, Russia, 119021.
    The objective of the present study was the analysis of the results of transethmoidal decompressive orbitotomy (TEDO) with the resection of the bone matrix of the medial and inferior orbital walls in the patients presenting with endocrine ophthalmopathy (EOP) with the purpose of reduction of the risk of development of this pathological conditions. A total of 51 patient with EOP at the stage of complete remission or pharmacotherapeutic compensation underwent transethmoidal decompressive medial orbitotomy in the ENT Clinic of 1 I.M. Read More

    Retina and Nerve Fiber Layer Thickness in Eyes with Thyroid-Associated Ophthalmopathy.
    Isr Med Assoc J 2017 May;19(5):277-281
    Department of Ophthalmology, Tel Aviv Sourasky Medical Center, Tel Aviv, affiliated with Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel.
    Background: Thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy (TAO) is an inflammatory disease that affects the thyroid gland and the eye orbit. Of patients with TAO, 3%-5% have severe sight-threatening disease due to optic neuropathy Optical coherence tomography (OCT), the non-invasive imaging technology that yields high-resolution cross-sectional images of the retina, provides qualitative and quantitative data on the retina.

    Objectives: To apply this technique to quantitatively assess retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) and macular ring thicknesses in healthy subjects and in patients with TAO to determine their relationship to the severity of the orbital disease. Read More

    A case-control study of selenoprotein genes polymorphisms and autoimmune thyroid diseases in a Chinese population.
    BMC Med Genet 2017 May 12;18(1):54. Epub 2017 May 12.
    Department of Endocrinology, Jinshan Hospital of Fudan University, No. 1508 Longhang Road, Shanghai, 201508, People's Republic of China.
    Background: Selenium is an essential trace and there is a high selenium concentration in the thyroid gland. Selenium deficiency may impair the thyroid function. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between three selenoprotein genes polymorphisms and autoimmune thyroid diseases. Read More

    Sphingosine-1-Phosphate Mediates Fibrosis in Orbital Fibroblasts in Graves' Orbitopathy.
    Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2017 May;58(5):2544-2553
    Department of Ophthalmology, Severance Hospital, Institute of Vision Research, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.
    Purpose: To investigate the effect of sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) on fibrosis in orbital fibroblasts in Graves' orbitopathy (GO).

    Methods: Orbital fibroblasts were cultured from orbital adipose/connective tissues of patients with GO and healthy control subjects. Effects of treatment with TGF-β and cigarette smoke extract (CSE) on S1P receptor (S1PR) messenger RNA (mRNA) and S1P expression were evaluated by real-time polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting. Read More

    Radiologic Parameters of Orbital Bone Remodeling in Thyroid Eye Disease.
    Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2017 May;58(5):2527-2533
    Orbit and Oculofacial Service, Department of Ophthalmology, National University Hospital, Singapore.
    Purpose: To radiologically examine for the presence of bony remodeling of the orbit in thyroid eye disease (TED).

    Methods: Computed tomography (CT) scans of 248 orbits of 124 patients with TED and 185 orbits of 138 controls were retrospectively reviewed, and the following parameters measured: the angle of the inferomedial orbital strut (AIOS), the angle of the medial wall (AMW), and the diameters of the extraocular muscles. The association of TED with the AIOS or AMW was analyzed with linear regression models, and the correlations between the AMW or AIOS measurements with the extraocular muscle measurements were determined. Read More

    Orbital T-Cell Lymphoma with Discrete Enlargements of All Extraocular Muscles Bilaterally in Patient with Moon Face Countenance.
    Case Rep Ophthalmol Med 2017 9;2017:8902162. Epub 2017 Apr 9.
    Department of Pathology, Gifu Municipal Hospital, Gifu, Japan.
    Purpose. To report our findings in a case of orbital T-cell lymphoma in which all of the extraocular muscles (EOMs) were bilaterally and discretely enlarged and the patient had a moon face countenance. Case. Read More

    Decreased microRNA-146a in CD4+T cells promote ocular inflammation in thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy by targeting NUMB.
    Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci 2017 Apr;21(8):1803-1809
    Department of Ophthalmology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Guangxi Medical University, Nanning, Guangxi, China.
    Objective: The aim of the study was to explore the functional role of miR-146a in CD4+T cells of active thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy (TAO) patients and to identify the possible molecular mechanism for the modulation of miR-146a in TAO.

    Patients And Methods: The experimental group collected six cases of peripheral venous blood of patients with active TAO. The healthy control group collected six cases of normal peripheral venous blood. Read More

    Pingmu Decoction Induces Orbital Preadipocytes Apoptosis In Vitro.
    Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2017 18;2017:2109249. Epub 2017 Apr 18.
    Department of Pharmacy, Long Hua Hospital Affiliated to Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, South Wan Ping Road No. 725, Shanghai 200032, China.
    Pingmu Decoction is the Traditional Chinese Medicine which has treated Graves' Ophthalmopathy (GO) in the inactive stage for more than ten years. This study was to explore the mechanism of Pingmu Decoction of inhibiting preadipocytes in GO patients from differentiating into mature adipocytes. Human orbital preadipocytes were isolated and cultured through tissue explant method. Read More

    Structural-Functional Features of the Thyrotropin Receptor: A Class A G-Protein-Coupled Receptor at Work.
    Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) 2017 24;8:86. Epub 2017 Apr 24.
    Leibniz-Institut für Molekulare Pharmakologie (FMP), Berlin, Germany.
    The thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor (TSHR) is a member of the glycoprotein hormone receptors, a sub-group of class A G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). TSHR and its endogenous ligand thyrotropin (TSH) are of essential importance for growth and function of the thyroid gland and proper function of the TSH/TSHR system is pivotal for production and release of thyroid hormones. This receptor is also important with respect to pathophysiology, such as autoimmune (including ophthalmopathy) or non-autoimmune thyroid dysfunctions and cancer development. Read More

    Clinical characteristics of moderate-to-severe thyroid associated ophthalmopathy in 354 Chinese cases.
    PLoS One 2017 4;12(5):e0176064. Epub 2017 May 4.
    Zhongshan Ophthalmic Center, State Key laboratory of Ophthalmology, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, Guangdong, P.R. China.
    Thyroid associated ophthalmopathy (TAO) is an autoimmune inflammatory disorder which disfigures appearance, threatens vision, and results in a pronounced loss of quality of life. The diversity and ethnic difference of the disease manifestations have made it difficult to tailor therapies for each patient. Few studies have analyzed its characteristics in Chinese populations. Read More

    MicroRNA-146a contributes to CD4(+) T lymphocyte differentiation in patients with thyroid ophthalmopathy.
    Am J Transl Res 2017 15;9(4):1801-1809. Epub 2017 Apr 15.
    Department of Ophthalmology, Shenzhou Eye HospitalLuoyang 471000, Henan, China.
    MicroRNA-146a (miR-146a) is associated with human inflammatory disease, such as thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy (TAO), but its role in human T cells and relevance to TAO remains ambiguous. In this study, T cells of TAO patients showed downregulated expression of miR-146a. We characterized miR-146a in T cells and examined miR-146a as a critical inhibitor of Th1 differentiation processes. Read More

    Teprotumumab for Thyroid-Associated Ophthalmopathy.
    N Engl J Med 2017 05;376(18):1748-1761
    From the Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, Kellogg Eye Center (T.J.S., R.S.D.), and the Division of Metabolism, Endocrinology, and Diabetes, Department of Internal Medicine (T.J.S.), University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor; the Department of Medicine, Johannes Gutenberg University Medical Center, Mainz, Germany (G.J.K.); Moorfields Eye Hospital, London (D.G.E.); the University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis (J.C.F.); the Oculofacial Plastic Surgery Division, Oregon Health and Science University, Portland (R.A.D.); Eye Wellness Center, Neuro-Ophthalmology of Texas, Houston (R.A.T.); the Department of Ophthalmology, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee (G.J.H.); the Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Pisa, Pisa (A.A.), and the Endocrinology and Diabetology Unit, Fondazione IRCCS Ca' Granda, University of Milan, Milan (M.S.) - both in Italy; the Jules Stein Eye Institute, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles (R.A.G.); the University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha (J.W.G.); Barnes-Jewish Hospital, Washington University, St. Louis (S.M.C.); the Department of Ophthalmology, University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics, Iowa City (E.M.S.); the Department of Ophthalmology, Emory University, Atlanta (B.R.H.); the Department of Ophthalmology, University of Colorado, Aurora (E.M.H.); and River Vision Development, New York (R.M.W., K.G., G.M.).
    Background: Thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy, a condition commonly associated with Graves' disease, remains inadequately treated. Current medical therapies, which primarily consist of glucocorticoids, have limited efficacy and present safety concerns. Inhibition of the insulin-like growth factor I receptor (IGF-IR) is a new therapeutic strategy to attenuate the underlying autoimmune pathogenesis of ophthalmopathy. Read More

    Postoperative Outcomes in Graves' Disease Patients: Results from the Nationwide Inpatient Sample Database.
    Thyroid 2017 Jun 22;27(6):825-831. Epub 2017 May 22.
    1 Division of Endocrine Surgery, DeWitt Daughtry Family Department of Surgery, University of Miami Leonard M. Miller School of Medicine , Miami, Florida.
    Background: Current surgical indications for Graves' disease include intractability to medical and/or radioablative therapy, compressive symptoms, and worsening ophthalmopathy. Total thyroidectomy for Graves' disease may be technically challenging and lead to untoward perioperative outcomes. This study examines outcomes in patients with Graves' disease who underwent total thyroidectomy and assesses its safety for this patient population. Read More

    Long-term outcomes of orbital fat decompression in Graves' orbitopathy.
    Br J Ophthalmol 2017 Apr 27. Epub 2017 Apr 27.
    Department of Ophthalmology, National Taiwan University Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan.
    Purpose: To evaluate the long-term clinical efficacy of orbital fat decompression in treating proptosis in Graves' ophthalmopathy (GO).

    Methods: Retrospective review of 1604 eyes of 845 patients with symmetric (1518 eyes) and asymmetric (86 eyes) proptosis who received orbital fat decompression between 2003 and 2014. Changes in Hertel values were evaluated at baseline, 6 months postoperatively and yearly thereafter. Read More

    Graves' orbitopathy as a rare disease in Europe: a European Group on Graves' Orbitopathy (EUGOGO) position statement.
    Orphanet J Rare Dis 2017 Apr 20;12(1):72. Epub 2017 Apr 20.
    Academic Medical Center, 22660 1100 DD, Amsterdam, Netherlands.
    Background: Graves' orbitopathy (GO) is an autoimmune condition, which is associated with poor clinical outcomes including impaired quality of life and socio-economic status. Current evidence suggests that the incidence of GO in Europe may be declining, however data on the prevalence of this disease are sparse. Several clinical variants of GO exist, including euthyroid GO, recently listed as a rare disease in Europe (ORPHA466682). Read More

    Establishment of a tear protein biomarker panel differentiating between Graves' disease with or without orbitopathy.
    PLoS One 2017 18;12(4):e0175274. Epub 2017 Apr 18.
    Hormone Laboratory, Department of Medical Biochemistry, Oslo University Hospital, Oslo, Norway.
    Background: Graves' orbitopathy (GO) is an autoimmune inflammatory ocular complication and one of the most frequent manifestations of Graves' disease (GD). Clinical judgment of GO is subjective sometimes leading to clinical and therapeutic challenges. Better tools to diagnose this severe complication are warranted. Read More

    Thyroid-associated Ophthalmopathy.
    Turk J Ophthalmol 2017 Apr 1;47(2):94-105. Epub 2017 Apr 1.
    Ankara University Faculty of Medicine, Department of Ophthalmology, Ankara, Turkey.
    Thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy is the most frequent extrathyroidal involvement of Graves' disease but it sometimes occurs in euthyroid or hypothyroid patients. Thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy is an autoimmune disorder, but its pathogenesis is not completely understood. Autoimmunity against putative antigens shared by the thyroid and the orbit plays a role in the pathogenesis of disease. Read More

    (99)Tc(m)-octreotide scintigraphy and serum eye muscle antibodies in evaluation of active thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy.
    Eye (Lond) 2017 May 7;31(5):668-676. Epub 2017 Apr 7.
    The Key Laboratory of National Ministry of Health for Forensic Science, College of Medicine, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an, Shaanxi, China.
    PurposeAs an autoimmune inflammatory disorder, active thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy (TAO) is managed optimally by immunosuppression. In this study, we aimed to evaluate octreotide scintigraphy and the level of serum extraocular muscle antibodies in TAO activity.Patients and methodsThis prospective study comprised 304 patients with active TAO (the clinical activity score; CAS≥3), 73 with inactive TAO (CAS<3), 128 with Graves' disease (GD) without ophthalmopathy, and 100 healthy subjects. Read More

    Environmental Issues in Thyroid Diseases.
    Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) 2017 20;8:50. Epub 2017 Mar 20.
    Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Messina School of Medicine, Messina, Italy; Master Program of Childhood, Adolescence and Women's Endocrine Health, University of Messina School of Medicine, Messina, Italy; Interdepartmental Program of Molecular & Clinical Endocrinology, and Women's Endocrine Health, University Hospital, Policlinico G. Martino, Messina, Italy.
    Environmental factors are determinant for the appearance of autoimmune thyroid diseases (AITD) in susceptible subjects. Increased iodine intake, selenium, and vitamin D deficiency, exposure to radiation, from nuclear fallout or due to medical radiation, are environmental factors increasing AITD. Cigarette smoking is associated with Graves' disease and Graves' ophthalmopathy, while it decreases the risk of hypothyroidism and thyroid autoimmunity. Read More

    Graves' Ophthalmopathy in a Paediatric Population.
    Klin Monbl Augenheilkd 2017 Apr 22;234(4):591-594. Epub 2017 Mar 22.
    Oculoplastic surgery unit, Jules Gonin Eye Hospital, University of Lausanne, Switzerland.
    Background Graves' disease is an autoimmune disorder leading to hyperthyroidism. It is often associated with ophthalmic manifestations. Graves' disease is reported to be rare in the paediatric population. Read More

    Simultaneous induction of Graves' hyperthyroidism and Graves' ophthalmopathy by TSHR genetic immunization in BALB/c mice.
    PLoS One 2017 20;12(3):e0174260. Epub 2017 Mar 20.
    Department of Endocrinology, Jingling Hospital, Medical School of Nanjing University, Nanjing, P.R. China.
    Background: Graves' disease is the most common form of autoimmune thyroid disorder, characterized by hyperthyroidism due to circulating autoantibodies. To address the pathological features and establish a therapeutic approach of this disease, an animal model carrying the phenotype of Graves' disease (GD) in concert with Graves' Ophthalmopathy (GO) will be very important. However, there are no ideal animal models that are currently available. Read More

    Measuring TSH receptor antibody to influence treatment choices in Graves' disease.
    Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 2017 May;86(5):652-657
    Department of Diabetes and Endocrinology, Aberdeen Royal Infirmary, Aberdeen, UK.
    TSH receptor antibody (TRAb) plays a key role in the pathogenesis of Graves' disease (GD), and its levels correlate with the clinical course. The second- and third-generation TRAb assays have >95% sensitivity and specificity for the diagnosis of GD and have improved the utility of TRAb to predict relapse. TRAb levels decline with antithyroid drug (ATD) therapy and after thyroidectomy. Read More

    [Surgical rehabilitation of patients with thyroid eye disease: systematic approach].
    Vestn Oftalmol 2017;133(1):4-10
    Endocrinology Research Center of Russian Ministry of Public Health, 11 Dmitry Ulyanov St., Moscow, Russian Federation, 117036.
    Aim: to analyze the results of surgical treatment of patients with thyroid eye disease (TED), including the type of surgery, indications, and outcomes.

    Material And Methods: Hundred thirty-nine patients with TED (112 females, 27 males) aged 45.8±13. Read More

    Mechanism of MicroRNA-146a/Notch2 Signaling Regulating IL-6 in Graves Ophthalmopathy.
    Cell Physiol Biochem 2017 8;41(4):1285-1297. Epub 2017 Mar 8.
    Department of Gastric Cancer Surgery, Fudan University Shanghai Cancer Center, Shanghai, China.
    Background/aims: We intended to investigate the significance of microRNA-146a, Notch2 and IL-6 on Graves ophthalmopathy (GO) and the relationships among them.

    Methods: About 27 GO patients were incorporated in this study, including 13 patients with inactive GO and14 patients with active GO. Another 15 patients who had previously received strabismus orthopedics or ophthalmectomy due to trauma were selected as the control population. Read More

    [Multi-wall orbital decompression for disfiguring proptosis in patients with mild or moderate thyroid eye disease].
    Zhonghua Yan Ke Za Zhi 2017 Feb;53(2):128-135
    Institute of orbital diseases, the General Hospital of the Armed Police Force, Beijing100039, China.
    Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of orbital decompression by transconjunctival medial and inferior wall combined transpalpebral lateral wall for disfiguring proptosis with mild or moderate thyroid eye disease (TED). Methods: It is a retrospective case series study. The clinical data of 18 TED cases (28 orbits) between Dec 2013 and Dec 2015 at the Institute of Orbital Diseases of the General Hospital of the Armed Police were reviewed. Read More

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