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    [Effects and Its Mechanism of IGF-1R on the Synthesis of Hyaluronic Acid in Orbital Fibroblasts of Thyroid Associated Ophthalmopathy].
    Sichuan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban 2017 Sep;48(5):727-731
    Department of Ophthalmology,West China Hospital,Sichuan University,Chengdu 610041,China.
    Objective: To explore the effects of insulin-like growth factor1 (IGF1) receptor (IGF1R) on the synthesis of hyaluronic acid (HA) in orbital fibroblasts of thyroid associated ophthalmopathy (TAO) and its signal pathway.

    Methods: Orbital fibroblasts were harvested from TAO ( n=19) and normal control ( n=5),then were primary cultured and treated with recombinant human IGF1 in different concentrations. Before the treatment of IGF1,the cells were pretreated respectively with 1H7,LY294002 or AKT inhibitor Ⅳ for 24 h. Read More

    Clinical outcomes of graves' ophthalmopathy treated with intensity modulated radiation therapy.
    Radiat Oncol 2017 Nov 6;12(1):171. Epub 2017 Nov 6.
    Department of Oncology, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, No. 37 Guoxuexiang, Chengdu, 610041, People's Republic of China.
    Background: Radiation for Graves' ophthalmopathy (GO) has traditionally utilized lateral opposing fields (LOF) or three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3DCRT) technique. The current study was conducted to report clinical outcomes and therapeutic effects of intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) in treating GO patients.

    Methods: One hundred sixteen patients with GO were treated with IMRT as initial local therapy between July 2010 and August 2013, with a median follow-up of 62 months (range 45-81 months). Read More

    The Role of Cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated Protein 4 (CTLA-4) Gene, Thyroid Stimulating Hormone Receptor (TSHR) Gene and Regulatory T-cells as Risk Factors for Relapse in Patients with Graves Disease.
    Acta Med Indones 2017 Jul;49(3):195-204
    Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, YARSI University, Jakarta, Indonesia.
    Background: graves' disease (GD) is the most common condition of thyrotoxicosis. The management of GD is initiated with the administration of antithyroid drugs; however, it requires a long time to achieve remission. In reality more than 50% of patients who had remission may be at risk for relapse after the drug is stopped. Read More

    Does Graves' Orbitopathy Ever Disappear? Answers to an Old Question.
    Eur Thyroid J 2017 Sep 26;6(5):263-270. Epub 2017 Jun 26.
    Endocrinology Units, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Pisa and University Hospital of Pisa, Pisa, Italy.
    Objectives: There is a general belief that Graves' orbitopathy (GO) is a "chronic" disease, namely that patients' eyes do not return to how they were before GO appeared. Here, we investigate this issue from both the patient's and the physician's point of view.

    Study Design: We studied the disappearance of GO, regardless of treatment, in all consecutive patients with a GO history of at least 10 years who came for a follow-up visit over a period of 5 years. Read More

    Prognostic indicators for the development of strabismus among patients with graves' ophthalmopathy.
    J Clin Transl Endocrinol 2017 Sep 11;9:38-40. Epub 2017 Jul 11.
    Jules Stein Eye Institute, Division of Orbital and Ophthalmic Plastic Surgery, UCLA David Geffen School of Medicine, Los Angeles, CA 90024, USA.
    Objective: Thyroid eye disease (TED), an autoimmune inflammatory process involving the orbital tissues around the eye, is the most common extra-thyroidal manifestation of Graves' disease (GD). Due to changes in the patient's appearance, TED is a socially and visually disabling condition with significant impacts on quality of life. The aim of this study is to assess predictors of strabismus, a severe manifestation of TED. Read More

    Persistent hyperthyroidism and de novo Graves' ophthalmopathy after total thyroidectomy.
    Endocrinol Diabetes Metab Case Rep 2017 13;2017. Epub 2017 Oct 13.
    Department of Endocrinology, Singapore General Hospital, Singapore, Singapore.
    We report a patient with Graves' disease who remained persistently hyperthyroid after a total thyroidectomy and also developed de novo Graves' ophthalmopathy 5 months after surgery. She was subsequently found to have a mature cystic teratoma containing struma ovarii after undergoing a total hysterectomy and salpingo-oophorectomy for an incidental ovarian lesion.

    Learning Points: It is important to investigate for other causes of primary hyperthyroidism when thyrotoxicosis persists after total thyroidectomy. Read More

    Superior ophthalmic vein thrombosis: A rare complication of Graves' orbitopathy.
    Orbit 2017 Oct 20:1-4. Epub 2017 Oct 20.
    a UPMC Eye Center, Eye and Ear Institute , University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine , Pittsburgh , PA , USA.
    Superior ophthalmic vein thrombosis is a rare, life- and sight-threatening complication of both infectious and inflammatory orbital disease as well as hypercoagulable state. Only one case of superior ophthalmic vein thrombosis due to thyroid eye disease has been reported in the literature. This article describes the diagnosis and management of a case of superior ophthalmic vein thrombosis due to Graves' orbitopathy. Read More

    Identification and Functional Characterization of ST3GAL5 and ST8SIA1 Variants in Patients with Thyroid-Associated Ophthalmopathy.
    Yonsei Med J 2017 Nov;58(6):1160-1169
    Department of Pharmacology, College of Medicine, Ewha Womans University, Seoul, Korea.
    Purpose: This study was conducted to identify and to functionally characterize genetic variants in ST3GAL5 and ST8SIA1 in Korean patients with thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy (TAO).

    Materials And Methods: Genetic analyses were conducted using DNA samples from TAO patients (n=50) and healthy subjects (n=48) to identify TAO-specific genetic variants of ST3GAL5 or ST8SIA1. The effect of each genetic variant on the transcription or expression of these genes was examined. Read More

    The Effects of Mitiglinide and Repaglinide on Postprandial Hyperglycemia in Patients Undergoing Methylprednisolone Pulse Therapy.
    Intern Med 2017 Oct 11. Epub 2017 Oct 11.
    First Department of Internal Medicine, School of Medicine, University of Occupational and Environmental Health, Japan, Japan.
    One adverse effect of methylprednisolone (MP) pulse therapy is an acute dose-dependent increase in the blood glucose level. Five patients with thyroid ophthalmopathy but normal glucose tolerance received MP pulse therapy (3 cycles, 3 days/week) and were assessed by continuous glucose monitoring. Steroid therapy increased the mean sensor glucose level, and all patients developed steroid-induced diabetes. Read More

    Treatment of Graves' ophthalmopathy with an in-house Phosphorus-32 source: Initial clinical observations.
    Exp Ther Med 2017 Oct 9;14(4):2795-2800. Epub 2017 Aug 9.
    Department of Nuclear Medicine, Cancer Hospital of Harbin Medical University, Harbin, Heilongjiang 150081, P.R. China.
    The objective of the present study was to observe the therapeutic effect of radiation delivered via a (32)P source on Graves' ophthalmopathy. A(32)P solution was injected into a 10-ml vacuum flask held inside a lead container. A window was cut in the lead, generating a treatment beam. Read More

    Methimazole-induced liver injury overshadowed by methylprednisolone pulse therapy: Case report.
    Medicine (Baltimore) 2017 Sep;96(39):e8159
    aInstitute of Physiology and Pharmacology, Lithuanian University of Health Sciences bInstitute of Endocrinology, Lithuanian University of Health Sciences cInstitute of Physiology and Pharmacology, Lithuanian University of Health Sciences, Kaunas, Lithuania.
    Rationale: Treatment choices are limited, when deciding how to manage thyrotoxicosis and moderate to severe Graves ophthalmopathy (GO) with suspected optic nerve damage in patients with elevated liver transaminase levels. The situation become even more complicated, if methimazole induced hepatotoxicity is suspected and intravenous methylprednisolone is co-administrated.

    Patient Concerns: A 74-year-old woman presented with spontaneous retro-bulbar pain, eyelid swelling and inconstant diplopia. Read More

    [A novel method for quantitative measurement of orbital fat volume based on magnetic resonance images].
    Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao 2017 Sep;37(9):1248-1251
    Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Third Affiliated Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou 510630, China.E-mail:
    Objective: To establish a new method for rapid and quantitative measurement of orbital fat volume based on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data.

    Methods: We collected MRI data from normalized mold and patients with the diagnosis of thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy (TAO). The cross-sectional areas of the orbital fat on each MR image slice were measured to calculate the fat volume on each slice and then the total orbital fat volume. Read More

    Is Graves' disease a primary immunodeficiency? New immunological perspectives on an endocrine disease.
    BMC Med 2017 Sep 25;15(1):174. Epub 2017 Sep 25.
    Medical University Department, Clinic for Endocrinology, Diabetes & Metabolism, Kantonsspital Aarau, Aarau, Switzerland.
    Background: Uncertainty about factors influencing the susceptibility and triggers for Graves' disease persists, along with a wide variation in the response to anti-thyroid drugs, currently at approximately 50% of non-responders. The aim of this narrative review is to summarize immunological concepts, with a combined endocrine and immunological perspective, to highlight potential new areas of research.

    Main Text: Relevant studies were identified through a systematic literature search using the PubMed and EMBASE databases in March 2016. Read More

    TSH/IGF-1 Receptor Cross-Talk Rapidly Activates Extracellular Signal-Regulated Kinases in Multiple Cell Types.
    Endocrinology 2017 Oct;158(10):3676-3683
    Laboratory of Endocrinology and Receptor Biology, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892.
    We previously showed that thyrotropin (TSH)/insulinlike growth factor (IGF)-1 receptor cross-talk appears to be involved in Graves' orbitopathy (GO) pathogenesis and upregulation of thyroid-specific genes in human thyrocytes. In orbital fibroblasts from GO patients, coadministration of TSH and IGF-1 induces synergistic increases in hyaluronan secretion. In human thyrocytes, TSH plus IGF-1 synergistically increased expression of the sodium-iodide symporter that appeared to involve ERK1/2 activation. Read More

    Association of Human Leukocyte Antigens Class I and II with Graves' Disease in Iranian Population.
    Iran J Immunol 2017 Sep;14(3):223-230
    Department of Cellular and Molecular Biology, Kish International Campus, University of Tehran, Kish Island, Iran.
    Background: Graves' disease (GD), a highly rampant autoimmune disorder of the thyroid gland, is responsible for 60-80% of the clinical cases of hyperthyroidism. Over the past decades, genetic association studies have identified several GD susceptibility loci in CTLA-4, TSHR and major histocompatibility complex regions. The information on the association between the human leukocyte antigens (HLA) and GD among Iranians is scarce. Read More

    Association of Polymorphisms in Toll-Like Receptors 4 and 9 with Autoimmune Thyroid Disease in Korean Pediatric Patients.
    Int J Endocrinol 2017 20;2017:2304218. Epub 2017 Aug 20.
    Department of Pediatrics, College of Medicine, Seoul St. Mary's Hospital, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, Republic of Korea.
    Background: Toll-like receptors (TLRs) have been suggested to be associated with the development of AITD.

    Methods: Fifteen single-nucleotide polymorphisms in 7 TLR genes were analyzed in 104 Korean children (girls = 86, boys = 18) with AITD (Hashimoto disease (HD) = 44, Graves' disease (GD) = 60, thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy (TAO) = 29, and non-TAO = 31) with 183 controls.

    Results: GD showed higher frequencies of the TLR4 rs1927911 C allele than control. Read More

    Thyroid Association Ophthalmopathy in Hashimoto's Thyroiditis: a Case Report.
    Maedica (Buchar) 2017 Jan;12(1):65-67
    Assistant Professor, Department of Pathology, Pt.B.D.Sharma PGIMS, Rohtak, India.
    Thyroid associated ophthalmopathy is a constellation of symptoms caused by an autoimmune process involving the orbital tissue. It is common in hyperthyroid patients due to Graves' disease and also reported in euthyroid and hypothyroid Graves' patients with positive thyroid receptor antibodies. But in Hashimoto's thyroiditis, thyroid associated ophthalmopathy is a rarely reported and poorly understood entity. Read More

    Epstein-Barr virus-encoded small RNAs in idiopathic orbital inflammatory pseudotumor tissues: a comparative case series.
    Int J Ophthalmol 2017 18;10(8):1268-1272. Epub 2017 Aug 18.
    Department of Ophthalmology, the First Affiliated Hospital of Guangxi Medical University, Nanning 530021, Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, China.
    Aim: To investigate the positive rate and types of cells that express Epstein-Barr virus-encoded small RNAs (EBERs) and to determine the distribution of EBER-expressing cells in idiopathic orbital inflammatory pseudotumor (IOIP) tissues.

    Methods: We retrospectively examined 40 archived paraffin specimens from two teaching hospitals in Southern China between January 2007 and January 2015 that were pathologically determined to exhibit IOIP. Eleven concurrent paraffin specimens of thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy (TAO) composed the control group. Read More

    Fat-removal orbital decompression for thyroid associated orbitopathy: The right procedure for the right patient.
    Saudi J Ophthalmol 2017 Jul-Sep;31(3):156-161. Epub 2017 Jun 14.
    Department of Ophthalmology, College of Medicine, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.
    Orbital decompression is an effective and invaluable procedure for addressing some of the chronic manifestations of Graves' Ophthalmopathy (GO) such as exophthalmos and orbital congestion. Fat-removal orbital decompression (FROD) started to gain popularity after its introduction in the late 20th century. Among the therapeutic armamentarium of techniques and approaches available for orbital decompression, FROD has proven its efficacy and safety in addition to its ability to reduce proptosis in a relatively predictable manner. Read More

    Use of low-dose radioiodine ablation for Graves' orbitopathy: results of a pilot, perspective study in a small series of patients.
    J Endocrinol Invest 2017 Aug 30. Epub 2017 Aug 30.
    Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Endocrinology Unit I, University of Pisa and University Hospital of Pisa, Via Paradisa 2, 56124, Pisa, Italy.
    Objective: Elimination of thyroid antigens by total thyroid ablation (TTA), namely, thyroidectomy followed by radioiodine, may be beneficial for Graves' Orbitopathy (GO). TTA is usually performed with a (131)I dose of 30 mCi. In Italy, this dose must be followed by a 24-h protected hospitalization, with increase in the waiting lists. Read More

    [The influence factors of quality-of-life in patients with thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy].
    Zhonghua Yan Ke Za Zhi 2017 Aug;53(8):575-582
    Depantment of Ophthalmology, the First Affiliated Hospital with Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing 210029, China.
    Objective: To assess the risk factors associated with decreased quality-of-life in patients with thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy (TAO). Methods: Cross-sectional study. One hundred and twelve patients with TAO and 68 controls were recruited to answer the Graves' ophthalmopathy quality-of-life questionnaire (GO-QOL) from January 2014 to April 2016. Read More

    Thickness of Extraocular Muscle and Orbital Fat in MRI Predicts Response to Glucocorticoid Therapy in Graves' Ophthalmopathy.
    Int J Endocrinol 2017 6;2017:3196059. Epub 2017 Aug 6.
    Department of Endocrinology, Nanfang Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510515, China.
    33 patients with active, moderate-severe Graves' ophthalmopathy (GO) received 4.5 g methylprednisolone for 12 weeks and were divided by efficacy into two groups (responsive and unresponsive). All patients and 10 controls underwent orbital MRI examination at baseline. Read More

    Variants of Interleukin-22 Gene Confer Predisposition to Autoimmune Thyroid Disease.
    Int J Endocrinol 2017 3;2017:3428236. Epub 2017 Aug 3.
    Department of Endocrinology, Jinshan Hospital of Fudan University, No. 1508 Longhang Road, Jinshan District, Shanghai 201508, China.
    As there are no previous studies on the interleukin-22 (IL-22) variants in autoimmune thyroid disease (AITD), the present study aimed to explore the association between polymorphisms of IL-22 and the predisposition to AITD. The study had 975 AITD patients, including 639 Graves' disease (GD) and 336 Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT) individuals and 851 healthy cohorts. Ligase detection reaction (LDR) and direct sequencing method were used for genotyping the IL-22 gene polymorphisms at rs2046068, rs2227478, rs2227485, rs11611206, and rs1179251. Read More

    Advances in the management of thyroid eye diseases: An overview.
    Int Ophthalmol 2017 Aug 18. Epub 2017 Aug 18.
    Department of Eye, AIIMS, Patna, India.
    Introduction: Thyroid eye disease (TED) remains a notorious ailment for both patients and the treating ophthalmologists. Recent years have witnessed considerable research in the immunopathogenic mechanism of TED that has resulted in an expansion and modification of the available management options.

    Aim: Purpose of this review is to summarise the advances in the management of thyroid ophthalmopathy. Read More

    Clinical Implications of Immunoglobulin G4 to Graves' Ophthalmopathy.
    Thyroid 2017 Sep;27(9):1185-1193
    2 Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Internal Medicine, College of Medicine, Hallym University , Chuncheon, Republic of Korea.
    Background: This study aimed to explore the relation of immunoglobulin G4 (IgG4) to clinical and laboratory characteristics of patients newly diagnosed with Graves' disease (GD) without or with Graves' ophthalmopathy (GO) and to analyze association of IgG4 with development and grade of GO in GD patients.

    Methods: Sixty-four GD patients and 64 sex- and age-matched euthyroid subjects were enrolled. Serum levels of thyroid hormones, thyroid autoantibodies, immunoglobulin G (IgG), and IgG4 were measured, and ophthalmological and ultrasonographical evaluation was performed. Read More

    Single nucleotide polymorphism 1623 A/G (rs180195) in the promoter of the Thyroglobulin gene is associated with autoimmune thyroid disease but not with thyroid ophthalmopathy.
    Clin Ophthalmol 2017 25;11:1337-1345. Epub 2017 Jul 25.
    Thyroid Research Laboratory, Sydney Medical School - Nepean Clinical School, The University of Sydney, Kingswood, NSW, Australia.
    Background: Our studies over recent years have focused on some new ideas concerning the pathogenesis for the orbital reaction that characterizes Graves' ophthalmopathy namely, that there are antigens expressed by thyroid tissue and orbital tissue where they are targeted by autoantibodies and/or sensitized T cells, leading to orbital inflammation. While this has been well studied for the thyroid stimulating hormone-receptor, the possible role of another major thyroid antigen, Thyroglobulin (TG), has been largely ignored.

    Methods: We identified novel variant 1623 A/G single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) (rs180195) in the promoter of TG gene associated with autoimmune thyroid disorders. Read More

    Dysthyroid optic neuropathy: update on pathogenesis, diagnosis, and management.
    Expert Rev Ophthalmol 2017 27;12(2):111-121. Epub 2017 Jan 27.
    Cole Eye Institute, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, 9500 Euclid Avenue, Cleveland, OH 44195.
    Introduction: Dysthyroid optic neuropathy (DON) is a severe manifestation of thyroid eye disease (TED) that can result in permanent vision loss. Management is complex, multidisciplinary, and involves medical and/or surgical therapies. This review describes current concepts in the epidemiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis, and treatment of DON. Read More

    Typical graves' ophthalmopathy in primary hypothyroidism.
    J Pak Med Assoc 2017 Jul;67(7):1104-1106
    Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi, Pakistan.
    Graves ophthalmopathy (GO) usually occurs in a close temporal relationship with hyperthyroidism. It is rare in patients with normal thyroid function (euthyroid GO) and in patients with hypothyroid forms of thyroid autoimmune diseases (hypothyroid GO). We report a 52-years old man presenting in our endocrine clinic with diagnosed primary hypothyroidism 3 months back during evaluation for glaucoma. Read More

    Tim3/galectin-9 alleviates the inflammation of TAO patients via suppressing Akt/NF-kB signaling pathway.
    Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2017 Sep 26;491(4):966-972. Epub 2017 Jul 26.
    Department of Endocrinology, Beijing Friendship Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing 100050, China.
    Thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy (TAO) is an autoimmune disease. Studies showed that T helper 1 (Th1), Th2, and Th17 cells play important roles in the pathology of TAO. Tim-3 and its only known ligand Galectin-9 (Gal-9) is related to the suppression of Th1 and Th17 cytokine secretion. Read More

    Hyperthyroidism in Patients with Graves' Ophthalmopathy, and Thyroidal, Skeletal and Eye Muscle Specific Type 2 Deiodinase Enzyme Activities.
    Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes 2017 Sep 27;125(8):514-521. Epub 2017 Jul 27.
    Immunoendocrinology and Osteoporosis Centre, EndoMed, Bem tér 18/C., Debrecen, Hungary.
    Graves' ophthalmopathy is characterized by hyperthyroidism, which is associated with higher serum T3 levels than T4 due to deiodinase enzymes.The effect of Graves' patient's sera (n=52) with elevated thyroid hormone and TSH receptor or thyroid peroxidase antibody (anti-TPO) levels was investigated on thyroidal, skeletal and eye muscle type 2 deiodinase enzyme (DII) activities. DII activities were measured with (125)I-T4 substrate, while thyroid hormone and antibody levels with immunoassays. Read More

    Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone Receptor Antibodies in Pregnancy: Clinical Relevance.
    Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) 2017 30;8:137. Epub 2017 Jun 30.
    Unit of Endocrinology, Department of Medicine and Sciences of Aging, Ce.S.I.-Me.T., University of Chieti-Pescara, Chieti, Italy.
    Graves' disease is the most common cause of thyrotoxicosis in women of childbearing age. Approximately 1% of pregnant women been treated before, or are being treated during pregnancy for Graves' hyperthyroidism. In pregnancy, as in not pregnant state, thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) receptor (TSHR) antibodies (TRAbs) are the pathogenetic hallmark of Graves' disease. Read More

    Update on thyroid-associated Ophthalmopathy with a special emphasis on the ocular surface.
    Clin Diabetes Endocrinol 2016 16;2:19. Epub 2016 Nov 16.
    Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, Kellogg Eye Center, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, MI 48105 USA.
    Thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy (TAO) is a condition associated with a wide spectrum of ocular changes, usually in the context of the autoimmune syndrome, Graves' disease. In this topical review, we attempted to provide a roadmap of the recent advances in current understanding the pathogenesis of TAO, important aspects of its clinical presentation, its impact on the ocular surface, describe the tissue abnormalities frequently encountered, and describe how TAO is managed today. We also briefly review how increased understanding of the disease should culminate in improved therapies for patients with this vexing condition. Read More

    Update on Graves disease: advances in treatment of mild, moderate and severe thyroid eye disease.
    Curr Opin Ophthalmol 2017 Sep;28(5):505-513
    aJohns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland, USA bKing Khaled Eye Specialist Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.
    Purpose Of Review: To report the most recent therapeutic advances of thyroid eye disease (TED) and offer general recommendations for management of TED.

    Recent Findings: Treatment of Graves ophthalmopathy is traditionally based on the use of high doses of corticosteroids and/or radiotherapy (RT) to decrease the activity of the disease, with the subsequent proptosis, strabismus and eyelid deformites treated with different surgical procedures. In recent years, the evidence that oxidative stress plays a relevant role in exacerbating TED severity has encouraged the use of antioxydative agents such as selenium, which has shown a capacity in limiting the disease progression. Read More

    Effect of Antithyroid Therapies on Bone and Body Composition: A Prospective, Randomized, Clinical Study Comparing Antithyroid Drugs with Radioiodine Therapy.
    Indian J Endocrinol Metab 2017 Jul-Aug;21(4):531-534
    Department of Endocrinology, Army Hospital (R & R), New Delhi, India.
    Background: Thyrotoxicosis is associated with loss of body weight and bone mineral content (BMC). Antithyroid drugs (ATD) and radioiodine therapy (RIT) are the common options for the management of thyrotoxicosis. We evaluated the effect of ATD and RIT on BMC and body composition. Read More

    Pathogenic Th17 and Th22 cells are increased in patients with autoimmune thyroid disorders.
    Endocrine 2017 Jul 1. Epub 2017 Jul 1.
    Department of Endocrinology, Immunology and Molecular Biology Unit, Hospital Universitario de la Princesa, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Instituto Princesa, Madrid, Spain.
    Purpose: To study the levels of pathogenic and non-pathogenic Th17 and Th22 cells in autoimmune thyroid disorders patients. Although Th17 cells seem to play an important role in the pathogenesis of thyroid autoimmune disorders, the specific subsets of these lymphocytes have not been analyzed in this condition.

    Methods: We assessed the levels of Th17 (pathogenic and non-pathogenic) and Th22 cells in peripheral blood and thyroid glands of autoimmune thyroid disorders patients (n   =  26, 16 with Graves' disease and 10 with Hashimoto's thyroiditis) and 15 healthy controls by multi-parametric flow cytometry and immunofluorescence microscopy. Read More

    Scintigraphic Profile of Thyrotoxicosis Patients and Correlation with Biochemical and Sonological Findings.
    J Clin Diagn Res 2017 May 1;11(5):OC01-OC03. Epub 2017 May 1.
    Professor and Head, Department of Medicine, AFMC, Pune, Maharashtra, India.
    Introduction: Thyrotoxicosis is a spectrum of disorder with a rather common clinical presentation with different aetiologies. The aetiological diagnosis is important as the management differs. It is essential to accurately diagnose the cause before starting treatment. Read More

    Diplopia in a patient with Hashimoto's thyroiditis: A case report and literature review.
    Medicine (Baltimore) 2017 Jun;96(26):e7330
    Department of Ophthalmology, Shandong University Qilu Hospital, Jinan, Shandong, China.
    Background: A case report of Hashimoto's thyroiditis-associated ophthalmopathy that masqueraded as double elevator palsy in 1 eye.

    Case Presentation: A 54-year-old woman presented to our strabismus clinic with diplopia for 1 year. She was diagnosed with double elevator palsy in the left eye. Read More

    Action of three bioavailable antioxidants in orbital fibroblasts from patients with Graves' orbitopathy (GO): a new frontier for GO treatment?
    J Endocrinol Invest 2017 Jun 27. Epub 2017 Jun 27.
    Endocrinology Unit I, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Pisa and University Hospital of Pisa, Via Paradisa 2, 56124, Pisa, Italy.
    Objective: Oxidative stress is involved in the pathogenesis of Graves' orbitopathy (GO) and an antioxidant approach has been advocated for GO treatment. Here, we investigated the action of three antioxidants in orbital fibroblasts, namely, vitamin C, N-acetyl-L-cysteine, and melatonin.

    Methods: Primary cultures of orbital fibroblasts from six GO patients and six control subjects were established. Read More

    [Progression of the pathogenesis of thyroid associated ophthalmopathy].
    Zhonghua Yan Ke Za Zhi 2017 Jun;53(6):474-480
    Beijing Ophthalmology & Vision Science Key Lab, Tongren Eye Center, Beijing Tongren Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing 100730, China.
    Thyroid associated ophthalmopathy (TAO) is a common complication of Graves' disease (GD). The clinical manifestations are mainly swelling and retracted eyelid, protopsis and limited eye movements, and optic neuropathy can be seen in severe cases. The mechanism of TAO is not yet clear. Read More

    [Bone marrow-derived fibrocytes and thyroid-associated opthalmopathy].
    Zhonghua Yan Ke Za Zhi 2017 Jun;53(6):470-473
    Tianjin Medical University Eye Hospital, Tianjin Medical University Eye Institute, Tianjin Medical University School of Optometry and Ophthalmology, Tianjin 300384, China.
    Thyroid-associated opthalmopathy(TAO) is a common autoimmune syndrome affecting the thyroid and orbit, which can result in the fibrosis of extraoular muscles and hyperplasia of adipose tissue. Advanced TAO patients could even lose vision caused by cornea ulcer and congestion of optic nerve from expansion of the extraocular muscles and orbit fat. Currently, there are no therapies shown to prevent it, because its cellular and molecular mechanisms are not clear. Read More

    [The value of DCE-MRI in assessing the course of thyroid associated ophthalmopathy].
    Zhonghua Yan Ke Za Zhi 2017 Jun;53(6):430-435
    Department of Ophthalmology, Tianjin First Center Hospital, Tianjin 300192, China.
    Objective: To explore the feasibility of the semi-quantitative rectus extraocular muscle (EOM) parameters of dynamic contrast-enhanced magetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) in assessing the clinical course of thyroid associated ophthalmopathy (TAO). Methods: It was a retrospective case series study. A total of 136 cases of TAO were recruited from March 2011 to October 2012 in the Tianjin the first center hospital including 63 males and 72 females, aged 24. Read More

    [Three-dimensional vector analysis after decompression surgery in thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy].
    Zhonghua Yan Ke Za Zhi 2017 Jun;53(6):424-429
    Department of Ophthalmology, Eye & ENT Hospital, Fudan University, Myopia Key Laboratory of Health Ministry, Shanghai 200031, China.
    Objective: To analyze the change of globe position after different orbital decompression in thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy (TAO). Methods: It was a retrosective case series study. Twenty-nine TAO patients (33 eyes) underwent orbital decompression were collected between October 2014 and December 2016 at Eye & ENT Hospital of Fudan University. Read More

    [Therapeutic outcomes and influence factors of maximal orbital decompression in the treatment of severe dysthyroid optic neuropathy].
    Zhonghua Yan Ke Za Zhi 2017 Jun;53(6):416-423
    Institute of orbital diseases, the General Hospital of the Armed Police Force, Beijing 100039, China.
    Objective: To evaluate the effectiveness of maximal orbital decompression in treatment for severe dysthyroid optic neuropathy (DON) of thyroid associated ophthalmopathy (TAO) and predictive factors of this therapy. Methods: The group consisted of 21 patients (30 eyes) with DON. The diagnosis was based on the following criteria: Deterioration of best corrected visual acuity (VA≤0. Read More

    [Investigation of reason and treatment methods for active, refractory and recurrence thyroid associated ophthalmopathy].
    Zhonghua Yan Ke Za Zhi 2017 Jun;53(6):408-412
    Chengdu huaxia Eye Hospital, Chengdu 610041, China.
    TAO is a common autoimmune orbital disease. 20% to 30% patients in active phase of moderate to severe TAO have no reponse to treatment or relapse after treatment, which become a difficult problem in clinical treatment. In this paper, the necessity of the treatment, etiology, treatment difficulties and treatment measures of TAO are discussed, in order to make great efforts to solve the clinical problems and to treat such patients. Read More

    [The stepwise establishment of standardized treatment for the thyroid eye disease].
    Zhonghua Yan Ke Za Zhi 2017 Jun;53(6):404-407
    Department of Ophthalmology, Eye & ENT Hospital, Fudan University, Myopia Key Laboratory of Health Ministry, Shanghai 200031, China.
    Thyroid associated ophthalmopathy is a complex autoimmune disease characterized by inflammation of the orbital tissue, hyaluronan deposition and tissue remodeling due to a skewed production of preadipocytic fibroblasts and increased adipogenesis in the late stage. Its progression is strongly related to the functional status of thyroid. So far, there is no consensus on staging, grading and treatment worldwide owning to the complexity of its clinical manifestations and therapies. Read More

    [Re-evaluate the value of orbital decompression for thyroid associated ophthalmopathy].
    Zhonghua Yan Ke Za Zhi 2017 Jun;53(6):401-403
    Tianjin Medical University Eye Hospital, Tianjin Medical University Eye Institute, Tianjin Medical University School of Optometry and Ophthalmology, Tianjin 300384, China.
    Thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy (TAO) is a common autoimmune syndrome affecting the thyroid and orbit. It can result in the fibrosis of extraoular muscles and hyperplasia of adipose tissue. The mechanism of TAO is not clear and there was few effective treatment. Read More

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