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    Does rituximab improve clinical outcomes of patients with thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy? A systematic review and meta-analysis.
    BMC Ophthalmol 2018 Feb 17;18(1):46. Epub 2018 Feb 17.
    Department of Ophthalmology, the Second Affiliated Hospital of Zhejiang University, College of Medicine, Hangzhou, 310009, China.
    Background: The current therapies of thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy (TAO) were still a challenging matter. In this study, we aimed to contrast the impact of before- after rituximab (RTX) therapy in the patients with TAO.

    Methods: We searched the PubMed, EMBASE, and SCOPUS databases for articles published up to July 3, 2017. Read More

    Utility of rituximab treatment for exophthalmos, myxedema, and osteoarthropathy syndrome resistant to corticosteroids due to Graves' disease: a case report.
    J Med Case Rep 2018 Feb 16;12(1):38. Epub 2018 Feb 16.
    Departamento de Endocrinología, Hospital de Especialidades, Centro Médico Nacional Siglo XXI, IMSS, Mexico City, Mexico.
    Background: Exophthalmos, myxedema, and osteoarthropathy syndrome is a very rare condition that is associated with Graves' disease. The presence of dermopathy and the involvement of joint/bone tissues indicate that it seems to be related with the severity of the autoimmune process. Owing to its low incidence, there is a lack of information regarding its treatment and clinical follow-up. Read More

    Epidemiology and Clinical Features of Thyroid-associated Orbitopathy in Accra.
    Middle East Afr J Ophthalmol 2017 Oct-Dec;24(4):183-189
    Department of Surgery, Eye Unit, School of Medicine and Dentistry, University of Ghana, Accra, Ghana.
    Purpose: Thyroid-associated orbitopathy (TAO), a clinical manifestation of Graves' disease, is an autoimmune disorder of the orbital and periorbital tissue. Data on the epidemiology and clinical presentation of TAO in Africa are generally scarce and unavailable in Ghana. We investigated the epidemiology and clinical features of TAO among patients with thyroid disorders attending the Korle Bu Teaching Hospital, Accra. Read More

    Establishment of MRI 3D Reconstruction Technology of Orbital Soft Tissue and Its Preliminary Application in Patients with Thyroid-Associated Ophthalmopathy.
    Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 2018 Feb 7. Epub 2018 Feb 7.
    Department of Anatomy, Southern Medical University School of Basic Medical Science, Guangzhou, 510515, China.
    Objective: Effective management of thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy (TAO) requires precise identification of the disease activity period as it is responsive to immunosuppressive treatment. Quantitative evaluations of orbital soft tissue is useful for analysing disease stages. We aimed to establish a method for orbital soft tissue volume calculation based on MRI data using 3D reconstruction technology. Read More

    Serum selenium and selenoprotein-P levels in autoimmune thyroid diseases patients in a select center: a transversal study.
    Arch Endocrinol Metab 2017 Dec;61(6):600-607
    Endocrinología, Hospital do Servidor Público Estadual (IAMSPE), São Paulo, SP Brasil.
    Objective: Selenium (Se) supplementation has been used to help prevent the progression of Graves' ophthalmopathy (GO) and autoimmune thyroid diseases (AITD) patients. We investigated Se serum and selenoprotein P (SePP) levels in Graves' disease (GD) with and without GO, Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT) patients and in 27 control individuals (C).

    Subjects And Methods: We studied 54 female and 19 male patients: 19 with GD without GO, 21 GD with GO, 14 with HT and 19 with HT+LT4. Read More

    Combined immunosuppression and radiotherapy in thyroid eye disease (CIRTED): a multicentre, 2 × 2 factorial, double-blind, randomised controlled trial.
    Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol 2018 Jan 30. Epub 2018 Jan 30.
    Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Bristol, Bristol, UK; Thyroid Research Group, Systems Immunity Research Institute, Cardiff University School of Medicine, Cardiff, UK; University Hospital of Wales, Cardiff, UK.
    Background: Standard treatment for thyroid eye disease is with systemic corticosteroids. We aimed to establish whether orbital radiotherapy or antiproliferative immunosuppression would confer any additional benefit.

    Methods: CIRTED was a multicentre, double-blind, randomised controlled trial with a 2 × 2 factorial design done at six centres in the UK. Read More

    Thyroid-associated orbitopathy in patients with thyroid carcinoma: A case report of 5 cases.
    Medicine (Baltimore) 2017 Nov;96(47):e8768
    Department of Internal Medicine.
    Rationale: Thyroid-associated orbitopathy (TAO) is most often seen in patients with autoimmune thyroid disease. Data about TAO occurred in patients with thyroid carcinoma are rare. We give a report of 5 patients to present the clinical characteristics, treatment, and prognosis of this type of case. Read More

    Is there a clinical usefulness for radiolabeled somatostatin analogues beyond the consolidated role in NETs?
    Indian J Radiol Imaging 2017 Oct-Dec;27(4):509-516
    Nuclear Medicine Unit, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, F. Magrassi, A. Lanzara, Seconda Università di Napoli, Napoli, Italy.
    The somatostatin (SS) receptor scintigraphy (SRS), using octreotide radiolabelled withIn (Ocreoscan©, OCT), is a consolidated diagnostic procedure in patients with neuroendocrine tumors (NET) because of an increased expression of somatostatin receptors (SS-R) on neoplastic cells. Uptake of SS analogues (SSA) can also be due to SS-R expression on nonmalignant cells when activated as lymphocytes, macrophages, fibroblasts, vascular cells. Because of this uptake, clinical indications can be found either in neoplasms not overexpressing SS-R, as nonsmall cell lung cancer, and in active benign diseases. Read More

    A Promising Modified Procedure for Upper Eyelid Retraction-Associated Graves' Ophthalmopathy: Transconjunctival Lateral Levator Aponeurectomy.
    Med Hypothesis Discov Innov Ophthalmol 2017 ;6(2):44-48
    Isfahan Eye Research Center, Department of Ophthalmology, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran.
    Upper eyelid retraction is a characteristic feature of thyroid eye disease, including Graves' orbitopathy. In this study, a new surgical technique for correction of lid retraction secondary to Graves' orbitopathy is described. Sixteen eyelids of patients older than 18 years old underwent surgical correction for moderate to severe lid retraction secondary to Graves' orbitopathy. Read More

    Recurrence of Graves' disease in ectopic thyroid tissue.
    BMJ Case Rep 2018 Jan 23;2018. Epub 2018 Jan 23.
    Department of Endocrinology, Detroit Medical Center, Wayne State University, Detroit, Michigan, USA.
    A 40-year-old woman with a history of Graves' disease status postorbital decompression for severe ophthalmopathy underwent total thyroidectomy by a high volume thyroid surgeon in July 2013 with a benign final pathology. Eight months later, she presented with a mass on the right anterior neck that showed minimal growth over time. Her thyroid stimulating immunoglobulin and thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor antibody levels were consistently elevated and increasing. Read More

    High Serum Cholesterol Is a Novel Risk Factor for Graves' Orbitopathy: Results of a Cross-Sectional Study.
    Thyroid 2018 Feb 9. Epub 2018 Feb 9.
    1 Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Endocrinology Units, University of Pisa and University Hospital of Pisa , Pisa, Italy .
    Background: Limited data suggest that treatment with statins is associated with a reduced risk of Graves' orbitopathy (GO) in patients with Graves' disease (GD), attributed to the anti-inflammatory rather than to the hypolipemic effects of these medications. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether there is an association between high cholesterol and GO. The primary outcome was the relation between GO and low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol. Read More

    IGF-I receptor and thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy.
    J Mol Endocrinol 2017 Dec 22. Epub 2017 Dec 22.
    T Smith, Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, United States
    Thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy (TAO) is a vexing and poorly understood autoimmune process involving the upper face and tissues surrounding the eyes. In TAO, the orbit can become inflamed and undergo substantial remodeling that is disfiguring and can lead to loss of vision. These are currently no approved medical therapies for TAO, the consequence of its uncertain pathogenic nature. Read More

    Three dimensional orbital magnetic resonance T2-mapping in the evaluation of patients with Graves' ophthalmopathy.
    J Huazhong Univ Sci Technolog Med Sci 2017 Dec 21;37(6):938-942. Epub 2017 Dec 21.
    Department of Ophthalmology, Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, 430030, China.
    The clinical application of orbital magnetic resonance (MR) T2-mapping imaging in detecting the disease activity of Graves' ophthalmopathy (GO), and the predictive values of therapy response to intravenous glucocorticoid (ivGC) were investigated. Approved by the local institutional review board (IRB), 106 consecutive patients with GO were included in this prospective study. All subjects were divided into two groups according to the patients' clinical activity score (CAS): the CAS positive group (CAS ≥3) or the CAS negative group (CAS <3). Read More

    Ultrasonographic motion analysis of lower eyelid compartments in patients with chronic thyroid associated ophthalmopathy.
    J Curr Ophthalmol 2017 Dec 10;29(4):310-317. Epub 2017 Aug 10.
    Division of Orbital and Ophthalmic Plastic Surgery, Jules Stein Eye Institute, University of California, Los Angeles, CA, USA.
    Purpose: To present the qualitative and quantitative ultrasonographic findings of lower eyelid compartments in patients with chronic thyroid associated ophthalmopathy (TAO) compared to normal subjects.

    Methods: In a prospective study, dynamic and static ultrasonographic investigation, applying high resolution (15 MHz) ultrasound was performed to assess the lower eyelid, in 15 TAO patients that were in chronic phase and 10 normal subjects. The thickness and echogenisity of dermis, orbicular oculi muscle, lower eyelid retractor muscle, lower eyelid fat pads, and their qualitative relationships during vertical excursion of the globe were evaluated in static and dynamic investigation. Read More

    TSH-receptor autoantibodies: pathophysiology, assay methods, and clinical applications.
    Minerva Endocrinol 2017 Dec 21. Epub 2017 Dec 21.
    Division for Specific Endocrinology, Medical Faculty, University of Duesseldorf, Duesseldorf, Germany.
    TSH receptor antibodies (TRAbs) are characteristic indicators for the common autoimmune thyroid disease Graves' disease (GD). In almost all patients stimulating TRAbs are found leading to hyperthyroidism as these antibodies act in an agonistic manner to TSH. Besides stimulating TRAbs, other TRAbs are also frequently found leading to inhibition of TSH receptor signaling (blocking TRAbs) or to the activation of different signaling cascades resulting in e. Read More

    Optic nerve compression: the role of the lamina cribrosa and translaminar pressure.
    Int J Ophthalmol 2017 18;10(12):1883-1888. Epub 2017 Dec 18.
    Department of Neurosciences, Reproductive Sciences and Dentistry, University of Naples Federico II, Naples 80100, Italy.
    Aim: To describe the morphological changes of the lamina cribrosa (LC) in patients with optic nerve compression.

    Methods: Cross-sectional study. Twenty eyes with optic nerve compression, affected by Graves' ophthalmopathy (GO) were compared with 18 refractive error-matched healthy eyes. Read More

    Antioxidant effects of β-carotene, but not of retinol and vitamin E, in orbital fibroblasts from patients with Graves' orbitopathy (GO).
    J Endocrinol Invest 2017 Dec 18. Epub 2017 Dec 18.
    Endocrinology Unit I, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University Hospital of Pisa, University of Pisa, Via Paradisa 2, 56124, Pisa, Italy.
    Background: Oxidative stress is involved in the pathogenesis of Graves' orbitopathy (GO) and several antioxidant agents, namely, selenium, quercetin, enalapril, vitamin C, N-acetyl-L-cysteine, and melatonin, have been shown to reduce oxidative stress and its consequences in primary culture of orbital fibroblasts. In addition, selenium is effective for the treatment of mild GO. Here, we investigated the action of three additional antioxidants in orbital fibroblasts, namely, retinol, β-carotene, and vitamin E. Read More

    The efficacy of intensity modulated radiation therapy in treating thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy and predictive factors for treatment response.
    Sci Rep 2017 Dec 13;7(1):17533. Epub 2017 Dec 13.
    Department of Oncology, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, PR China.
    The study evaluated clinical efficacy of intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) in treating patients with thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy (TAO) and defined predictive factors that associated with treatment response. A total of 178 TAO patients were treated with retro-orbital IMRT with radiation dose of 20 Gy in 10 fractions. The immediate and long-term treatment response and complications were evaluated. Read More

    The Influence of Juvenile Graves' Ophthalmopathy on Graves' Disease Course.
    J Ophthalmol 2017 31;2017:4853905. Epub 2017 Oct 31.
    Eye Clinic of Lithuanian University of Health Sciences, Kaunas, Lithuania.
    Purpose: To investigate juvenile Graves' ophthalmopathy (GO) signs and compare Graves' disease (GD) course in patients with or without GO.

    Patients And Methods: There were analyzed data (visual acuity, proptosis, palpebral fissure measurements, clinical activity score (CAS), and the course of GD) of 67 children who have been newly diagnosed with GD. 26. Read More

    Regression of Ophthalmopathic Exophthalmos in Graves' Disease After Total Thyroidectomy: a Prospective Study of a Surgical Series.
    Indian J Surg 2017 Dec 22;79(6):521-526. Epub 2016 Jun 22.
    Endocare Hospital, Vijayawada, 520002 India.
    Autoimmune ophthalmopathy is one of the salient clinical features associated with Graves' disease. Exophthalmos is one of the commonest manifestations of Graves' associated ophthalmopathy. It is reported to regress after thyroidectomy favourably compared to radioiodine or antithyroid drug therapy. Read More

    RNA-Sequencing Gene Expression Profiling of Orbital Adipose-Derived Stem Cell Population Implicate HOX Genes and WNT Signaling Dysregulation in the Pathogenesis of Thyroid-Associated Orbitopathy.
    Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2017 Dec;58(14):6146-6158
    Dr. Nasser Al-Rashid Orbital Vision Research Center, Bascom Palmer Eye Institute, Department of Ophthalmology, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, Florida, United States.
    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to characterize the intrinsic cellular properties of orbital adipose-derived stem cells (OASC) from patients with thyroid-associated orbitopathy (TAO) and healthy controls.

    Methods: Orbital adipose tissue was collected from a total of nine patients: four controls and five patients with TAO. Isolated OASC were characterized with mesenchymal stem cell-specific markers. Read More

    Quantitative Analysis of Inflammation in Orbital Fat of Thyroid-associated Ophthalmopathy Using MRI Signal Intensity.
    Sci Rep 2017 Dec 4;7(1):16874. Epub 2017 Dec 4.
    Department of Ophthalmology, Shiga University of Medical Science, Otsu, Japan.
    We quantitatively analyzed inflammation in orbital fat from cases of thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy (TAO) using short-tau inversion recovery (STIR) sequences from magnetic resonance imaging. The signal intensity ratios (SIRs) of orbital fat as well as the superior rectus (SR), inferior rectus (IR), lateral rectus (LR), medial rectus (MR), and superior oblique (SO) muscles on STIR images were measured in 70 eyes from 70 treatment-naive TAO patients (active TAO group, 19 patients; inactive TAO group, 51 patients) and 20 eyes from 20 controls. The mean SIR in the active TAO group was significantly higher than that in the inactive TAO group and controls (P < 0. Read More

    [Management of moderate and severe dysthyroid orbitopathy: about 22 cases].
    Pan Afr Med J 2017 7;27:257. Epub 2017 Aug 7.
    Service d'Ophtalmologie, CHU Farhat Hached, Sousse, Tunisie.
    Our study aimed to describe the therapeutic management of moderate and severe dysthyroid orbitopathies and to evaluate the factors associated with optic neuropathy as well as the prognostic factors of poor visual outcome using a statistical analysis. We conducted a retrospective study of 22 patients presenting with moderate to severe dysthyroid orbitopathy in at least one eye and hospitalized in the Department of Ophthalmology at the University Hospital Farhat Hached, Sousse over the period from 1998 to 2015. Therapeutic indications were based on activity and severity criteria of the Eugogo (European Group On Graves' Orbitopathy) as well as on the assessment of prognostic factors of poor visual outcome. Read More

    Ophthalmic manifestations of endocrine disorders-endocrinology and the eye.
    Transl Pediatr 2017 Oct;6(4):286-299
    Department of Ophthalmology, the Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, PA, USA.
    Disorders of the endocrine system usually manifest in a multi-organ fashion. More specifically, many endocrinopathies become apparent in the eye first through a variety of distinct pathophysiologic disturbances. The eye provides physicians with valuable clues for the recognition and management of numerous systemic diseases, including many disorders of the endocrine pathway. Read More

    Radioiodine associated de novo Graves' opthalmopathy in an Asian cohort.
    Hell J Nucl Med 2017 Sep-Dec;20(3):227-231. Epub 2017 Nov 27.
    Department of Endocrinology, Singapore General Hospital, Outram Road, Singapore 169608, Singapore.
    Radioactive iodine in the treatment of Graves' disease has been associated with the development of de novo Graves' ophthalmopathy (GO). In this report, we describe five individuals who required extensive ophthalmic treatment for post-RAI de novo GO. Read More

    [Effects and Its Mechanism of IGF-1R on the Synthesis of Hyaluronic Acid in Orbital Fibroblasts of Thyroid Associated Ophthalmopathy].
    Sichuan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban 2017 Sep;48(5):727-731
    Department of Ophthalmology,West China Hospital,Sichuan University,Chengdu 610041,China.
    Objective: To explore the effects of insulin-like growth factor1 (IGF1) receptor (IGF1R) on the synthesis of hyaluronic acid (HA) in orbital fibroblasts of thyroid associated ophthalmopathy (TAO) and its signal pathway.

    Methods: Orbital fibroblasts were harvested from TAO (=19) and normal control (=5),then were primary cultured and treated with recombinant human IGF1 in different concentrations. Before the treatment of IGF1,the cells were pretreated respectively with 1H7,LY294002 or AKT inhibitor Ⅳ for 24 h. Read More

    The Value of Multidetector Computed Tomography of Orbits in Globe Protrusion in Comparison to Hertel Exophthalmometry
    Acta Clin Croat 2017 03;56(1):21-27
    School of Medicine, University of Belgrade
    The use of multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) is an integral part of contemporary diagnostics of Graves‘ orbitopathy. The aim of this study was to assess proptosis measurement by MDCT and to compare it to the current standard, Hertel exophthalmometry. A cross-sectional study was conducted at the Clinical Centre of Serbia and included 91 patients (19 male and 72 female) with verified Graves‘ orbitopathy. Read More

    Clinical outcomes of graves' ophthalmopathy treated with intensity modulated radiation therapy.
    Radiat Oncol 2017 Nov 6;12(1):171. Epub 2017 Nov 6.
    Department of Oncology, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, No. 37 Guoxuexiang, Chengdu, 610041, People's Republic of China.
    Background: Radiation for Graves' ophthalmopathy (GO) has traditionally utilized lateral opposing fields (LOF) or three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3DCRT) technique. The current study was conducted to report clinical outcomes and therapeutic effects of intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) in treating GO patients.

    Methods: One hundred sixteen patients with GO were treated with IMRT as initial local therapy between July 2010 and August 2013, with a median follow-up of 62 months (range 45-81 months). Read More

    The Role of Cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated Protein 4 (CTLA-4) Gene, Thyroid Stimulating Hormone Receptor (TSHR) Gene and Regulatory T-cells as Risk Factors for Relapse in Patients with Graves Disease.
    Acta Med Indones 2017 Jul;49(3):195-204
    Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, YARSI University, Jakarta, Indonesia.
    Background: graves' disease (GD) is the most common condition of thyrotoxicosis. The management of GD is initiated with the administration of antithyroid drugs; however, it requires a long time to achieve remission. In reality more than 50% of patients who had remission may be at risk for relapse after the drug is stopped. Read More

    Does Graves' Orbitopathy Ever Disappear? Answers to an Old Question.
    Eur Thyroid J 2017 Sep 26;6(5):263-270. Epub 2017 Jun 26.
    Endocrinology Units, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Pisa and University Hospital of Pisa, Pisa, Italy.
    Objectives: There is a general belief that Graves' orbitopathy (GO) is a "chronic" disease, namely that patients' eyes do not return to how they were before GO appeared. Here, we investigate this issue from both the patient's and the physician's point of view.

    Study Design: We studied the disappearance of GO, regardless of treatment, in all consecutive patients with a GO history of at least 10 years who came for a follow-up visit over a period of 5 years. Read More

    Prognostic indicators for the development of strabismus among patients with graves' ophthalmopathy.
    J Clin Transl Endocrinol 2017 Sep 11;9:38-40. Epub 2017 Jul 11.
    Jules Stein Eye Institute, Division of Orbital and Ophthalmic Plastic Surgery, UCLA David Geffen School of Medicine, Los Angeles, CA 90024, USA.
    Objective: Thyroid eye disease (TED), an autoimmune inflammatory process involving the orbital tissues around the eye, is the most common extra-thyroidal manifestation of Graves' disease (GD). Due to changes in the patient's appearance, TED is a socially and visually disabling condition with significant impacts on quality of life. The aim of this study is to assess predictors of strabismus, a severe manifestation of TED. Read More

    Persistent hyperthyroidism andGraves' ophthalmopathy after total thyroidectomy.
    Endocrinol Diabetes Metab Case Rep 2017 13;2017. Epub 2017 Oct 13.
    Department of Endocrinology, Singapore General Hospital, Singapore, Singapore.
    We report a patient with Graves' disease who remained persistently hyperthyroid after a total thyroidectomy and also developedGraves' ophthalmopathy 5 months after surgery. She was subsequently found to have a mature cystic teratoma containing struma ovarii after undergoing a total hysterectomy and salpingo-oophorectomy for an incidental ovarian lesion.

    Learning Points: It is important to investigate for other causes of primary hyperthyroidism when thyrotoxicosis persists after total thyroidectomy. Read More

    Superior ophthalmic vein thrombosis: A rare complication of Graves' orbitopathy.
    Orbit 2017 Oct 20:1-4. Epub 2017 Oct 20.
    a UPMC Eye Center, Eye and Ear Institute , University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine , Pittsburgh , PA , USA.
    Superior ophthalmic vein thrombosis is a rare, life- and sight-threatening complication of both infectious and inflammatory orbital disease as well as hypercoagulable state. Only one case of superior ophthalmic vein thrombosis due to thyroid eye disease has been reported in the literature. This article describes the diagnosis and management of a case of superior ophthalmic vein thrombosis due to Graves' orbitopathy. Read More

    Identification and Functional Characterization of ST3GAL5 and ST8SIA1 Variants in Patients with Thyroid-Associated Ophthalmopathy.
    Yonsei Med J 2017 Nov;58(6):1160-1169
    Department of Pharmacology, College of Medicine, Ewha Womans University, Seoul, Korea.
    Purpose: This study was conducted to identify and to functionally characterize genetic variants in ST3GAL5 and ST8SIA1 in Korean patients with thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy (TAO).

    Materials And Methods: Genetic analyses were conducted using DNA samples from TAO patients (n=50) and healthy subjects (n=48) to identify TAO-specific genetic variants of ST3GAL5 or ST8SIA1. The effect of each genetic variant on the transcription or expression of these genes was examined. Read More

    The Effects of Mitiglinide and Repaglinide on Postprandial Hyperglycemia in Patients Undergoing Methylprednisolone Pulse Therapy.
    Intern Med 2018 Jan 11;57(1):65-70. Epub 2017 Oct 11.
    First Department of Internal Medicine, School of Medicine, University of Occupational and Environmental Health, Japan, Japan.
    One adverse effect of methylprednisolone (MP) pulse therapy is an acute dose-dependent increase in the blood glucose level. Five patients with thyroid ophthalmopathy but normal glucose tolerance received MP pulse therapy (3 cycles, 3 days/week) and were assessed by continuous glucose monitoring. Steroid therapy increased the mean sensor glucose level, and all patients developed steroid-induced diabetes. Read More

    Treatment of Graves' ophthalmopathy with an in-house Phosphorus-32 source: Initial clinical observations.
    Exp Ther Med 2017 Oct 9;14(4):2795-2800. Epub 2017 Aug 9.
    Department of Nuclear Medicine, Cancer Hospital of Harbin Medical University, Harbin, Heilongjiang 150081, P.R. China.
    The objective of the present study was to observe the therapeutic effect of radiation delivered via aP source on Graves' ophthalmopathy. AP solution was injected into a 10-ml vacuum flask held inside a lead container. A window was cut in the lead, generating a treatment beam. Read More

    Methimazole-induced liver injury overshadowed by methylprednisolone pulse therapy: Case report.
    Medicine (Baltimore) 2017 Sep;96(39):e8159
    aInstitute of Physiology and Pharmacology, Lithuanian University of Health Sciences bInstitute of Endocrinology, Lithuanian University of Health Sciences cInstitute of Physiology and Pharmacology, Lithuanian University of Health Sciences, Kaunas, Lithuania.
    Rationale: Treatment choices are limited, when deciding how to manage thyrotoxicosis and moderate to severe Graves ophthalmopathy (GO) with suspected optic nerve damage in patients with elevated liver transaminase levels. The situation become even more complicated, if methimazole induced hepatotoxicity is suspected and intravenous methylprednisolone is co-administrated.

    Patient Concerns: A 74-year-old woman presented with spontaneous retro-bulbar pain, eyelid swelling and inconstant diplopia. Read More

    [A novel method for quantitative measurement of orbital fat volume based on magnetic resonance images].
    Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao 2017 Sep;37(9):1248-1251
    Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Third Affiliated Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou 510630, China.E-mail:
    Objective: To establish a new method for rapid and quantitative measurement of orbital fat volume based on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data.

    Methods: We collected MRI data from normalized mold and patients with the diagnosis of thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy (TAO). The cross-sectional areas of the orbital fat on each MR image slice were measured to calculate the fat volume on each slice and then the total orbital fat volume. Read More

    Is Graves' disease a primary immunodeficiency? New immunological perspectives on an endocrine disease.
    BMC Med 2017 09 25;15(1):174. Epub 2017 Sep 25.
    Medical University Department, Clinic for Endocrinology, Diabetes & Metabolism, Kantonsspital Aarau, Aarau, Switzerland.
    Background: Uncertainty about factors influencing the susceptibility and triggers for Graves' disease persists, along with a wide variation in the response to anti-thyroid drugs, currently at approximately 50% of non-responders. The aim of this narrative review is to summarize immunological concepts, with a combined endocrine and immunological perspective, to highlight potential new areas of research.

    Main Text: Relevant studies were identified through a systematic literature search using the PubMed and EMBASE databases in March 2016. Read More

    TSH/IGF-1 Receptor Cross-Talk Rapidly Activates Extracellular Signal-Regulated Kinases in Multiple Cell Types.
    Endocrinology 2017 10;158(10):3676-3683
    Laboratory of Endocrinology and Receptor Biology, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892.
    We previously showed that thyrotropin (TSH)/insulinlike growth factor (IGF)-1 receptor cross-talk appears to be involved in Graves' orbitopathy (GO) pathogenesis and upregulation of thyroid-specific genes in human thyrocytes. In orbital fibroblasts from GO patients, coadministration of TSH and IGF-1 induces synergistic increases in hyaluronan secretion. In human thyrocytes, TSH plus IGF-1 synergistically increased expression of the sodium-iodide symporter that appeared to involve ERK1/2 activation. Read More

    Regulation of Orbital Fibrosis and Adipogenesis by Pathogenic Th17 Cells in Graves Orbitopathy.
    J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2017 Nov;102(11):4273-4283
    Department of Ophthalmology, Shanghai Ninth People's Hospital, Shanghai JiaoTong University School of Medicine, Shanghai 200011, China.
    Context: T helper (Th)17 cells are correlated with many human autoimmune disorders, including Graves disease, and may play key roles in the pathogenesis of Graves orbitopathy (GO).

    Objective: To study the phenotype of Th17 cells in patients with GO and healthy subjects, investigate the fibrosis and adipogenesis in orbital fibroblasts (OFs) modulated by interleukin (IL)-17A, and determine the interaction between Th17 cells and OFs.

    Design/setting/participants: Blood samples and orbital tissues from GO patients and healthy controls were collected. Read More

    The best of the best: a review of select pediatric ophthalmology and strabismus case reports published in 2015.
    Digit J Ophthalmol 2016 14;22(4):72-74. Epub 2016 Nov 14.
    University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics, Iowa City, Iowa.
    This review highlights 4 case reports in the field of pediatric ophthalmology and strabismus published in the year 2015. The first article describes ocular presentations of acute childhood leukemia relapse. The second demonstrates the association of sector iris hemangioma with diffuse choroidal hemangioma. Read More

    Association of Human Leukocyte Antigens Class I and II with Graves' Disease in Iranian Population.
    Iran J Immunol 2017 Sep;14(3):223-230
    Department of Cellular and Molecular Biology, Kish International Campus, University of Tehran, Kish Island, Iran.
    Background: Graves' disease (GD), a highly rampant autoimmune disorder of the thyroid gland, is responsible for 60-80% of the clinical cases of hyperthyroidism. Over the past decades, genetic association studies have identified several GD susceptibility loci in CTLA-4, TSHR and major histocompatibility complex regions. The information on the association between the human leukocyte antigens (HLA) and GD among Iranians is scarce. Read More

    Association of Polymorphisms inandwith Autoimmune Thyroid Disease in Korean Pediatric Patients.
    Int J Endocrinol 2017 20;2017:2304218. Epub 2017 Aug 20.
    Department of Pediatrics, College of Medicine, Seoul St. Mary's Hospital, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, Republic of Korea.
    Background: () have been suggested to be associated with the development of AITD.

    Methods: Fifteen single-nucleotide polymorphisms in 7genes were analyzed in 104 Korean children (girls = 86, boys = 18) with AITD (Hashimoto disease (HD) = 44, Graves' disease (GD) = 60, thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy (TAO) = 29, and non-TAO = 31) with 183 controls.

    Results: GD showed higher frequencies of theC allele than control. Read More

    Thyroid Association Ophthalmopathy in Hashimoto's Thyroiditis: a Case Report.
    Maedica (Buchar) 2017 Jan;12(1):65-67
    Assistant Professor, Department of Pathology, Pt.B.D.Sharma PGIMS, Rohtak, India.
    Thyroid associated ophthalmopathy is a constellation of symptoms caused by an autoimmune process involving the orbital tissue. It is common in hyperthyroid patients due to Graves' disease and also reported in euthyroid and hypothyroid Graves' patients with positive thyroid receptor antibodies. But in Hashimoto's thyroiditis, thyroid associated ophthalmopathy is a rarely reported and poorly understood entity. Read More

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