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    Association of Human Leukocyte Antigens Class I and II with Graves' Disease in Iranian Population.
    Iran J Immunol 2017 Sep;14(3):223-230
    Department of Cellular and Molecular Biology, Kish International Campus, University of Tehran, Kish Island, Iran.
    Background: Graves' disease (GD), a highly rampant autoimmune disorder of the thyroid gland, is responsible for 60-80% of the clinical cases of hyperthyroidism. Over the past decades, genetic association studies have identified several GD susceptibility loci in CTLA-4, TSHR and major histocompatibility complex regions. The information on the association between the human leukocyte antigens (HLA) and GD among Iranians is scarce. Read More

    Association of Polymorphisms in Toll-Like Receptors 4 and 9 with Autoimmune Thyroid Disease in Korean Pediatric Patients.
    Int J Endocrinol 2017 20;2017:2304218. Epub 2017 Aug 20.
    Department of Pediatrics, College of Medicine, Seoul St. Mary's Hospital, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, Republic of Korea.
    Background: Toll-like receptors (TLRs) have been suggested to be associated with the development of AITD.

    Methods: Fifteen single-nucleotide polymorphisms in 7 TLR genes were analyzed in 104 Korean children (girls = 86, boys = 18) with AITD (Hashimoto disease (HD) = 44, Graves' disease (GD) = 60, thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy (TAO) = 29, and non-TAO = 31) with 183 controls.

    Results: GD showed higher frequencies of the TLR4 rs1927911 C allele than control. Read More

    Thyroid Association Ophthalmopathy in Hashimoto's Thyroiditis: a Case Report.
    Maedica (Buchar) 2017 Jan;12(1):65-67
    Assistant Professor, Department of Pathology, Pt.B.D.Sharma PGIMS, Rohtak, India.
    Thyroid associated ophthalmopathy is a constellation of symptoms caused by an autoimmune process involving the orbital tissue. It is common in hyperthyroid patients due to Graves' disease and also reported in euthyroid and hypothyroid Graves' patients with positive thyroid receptor antibodies. But in Hashimoto's thyroiditis, thyroid associated ophthalmopathy is a rarely reported and poorly understood entity. Read More

    Retina and Nerve Fiber Layer Thickness in Eyes with Thyroid-Associated Ophthalmopathy.
    Isr Med Assoc J 2017 May;19(5):277-281
    Department of Ophthalmology, Tel Aviv Sourasky Medical Center, Tel Aviv, affiliated with Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel.
    Background: Thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy (TAO) is an inflammatory disease that affects the thyroid gland and the eye orbit. Of patients with TAO, 3%-5% have severe sight-threatening disease due to optic neuropathy Optical coherence tomography (OCT), the non-invasive imaging technology that yields high-resolution cross-sectional images of the retina, provides qualitative and quantitative data on the retina.

    Objectives: To apply this technique to quantitatively assess retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) and macular ring thicknesses in healthy subjects and in patients with TAO to determine their relationship to the severity of the orbital disease. Read More

    Epstein-Barr virus-encoded small RNAs in idiopathic orbital inflammatory pseudotumor tissues: a comparative case series.
    Int J Ophthalmol 2017 18;10(8):1268-1272. Epub 2017 Aug 18.
    Department of Ophthalmology, the First Affiliated Hospital of Guangxi Medical University, Nanning 530021, Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, China.
    Aim: To investigate the positive rate and types of cells that express Epstein-Barr virus-encoded small RNAs (EBERs) and to determine the distribution of EBER-expressing cells in idiopathic orbital inflammatory pseudotumor (IOIP) tissues.

    Methods: We retrospectively examined 40 archived paraffin specimens from two teaching hospitals in Southern China between January 2007 and January 2015 that were pathologically determined to exhibit IOIP. Eleven concurrent paraffin specimens of thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy (TAO) composed the control group. Read More

    Fat-removal orbital decompression for thyroid associated orbitopathy: The right procedure for the right patient.
    Saudi J Ophthalmol 2017 Jul-Sep;31(3):156-161. Epub 2017 Jun 14.
    Department of Ophthalmology, College of Medicine, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.
    Orbital decompression is an effective and invaluable procedure for addressing some of the chronic manifestations of Graves' Ophthalmopathy (GO) such as exophthalmos and orbital congestion. Fat-removal orbital decompression (FROD) started to gain popularity after its introduction in the late 20th century. Among the therapeutic armamentarium of techniques and approaches available for orbital decompression, FROD has proven its efficacy and safety in addition to its ability to reduce proptosis in a relatively predictable manner. Read More

    Use of low-dose radioiodine ablation for Graves' orbitopathy: results of a pilot, perspective study in a small series of patients.
    J Endocrinol Invest 2017 Aug 30. Epub 2017 Aug 30.
    Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Endocrinology Unit I, University of Pisa and University Hospital of Pisa, Via Paradisa 2, 56124, Pisa, Italy.
    Objective: Elimination of thyroid antigens by total thyroid ablation (TTA), namely, thyroidectomy followed by radioiodine, may be beneficial for Graves' Orbitopathy (GO). TTA is usually performed with a (131)I dose of 30 mCi. In Italy, this dose must be followed by a 24-h protected hospitalization, with increase in the waiting lists. Read More

    [The influence factors of quality-of-life in patients with thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy].
    Zhonghua Yan Ke Za Zhi 2017 Aug;53(8):575-582
    Depantment of Ophthalmology, the First Affiliated Hospital with Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing 210029, China.
    Objective: To assess the risk factors associated with decreased quality-of-life in patients with thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy (TAO). Methods: Cross-sectional study. One hundred and twelve patients with TAO and 68 controls were recruited to answer the Graves' ophthalmopathy quality-of-life questionnaire (GO-QOL) from January 2014 to April 2016. Read More

    Thickness of Extraocular Muscle and Orbital Fat in MRI Predicts Response to Glucocorticoid Therapy in Graves' Ophthalmopathy.
    Int J Endocrinol 2017 6;2017:3196059. Epub 2017 Aug 6.
    Department of Endocrinology, Nanfang Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510515, China.
    33 patients with active, moderate-severe Graves' ophthalmopathy (GO) received 4.5 g methylprednisolone for 12 weeks and were divided by efficacy into two groups (responsive and unresponsive). All patients and 10 controls underwent orbital MRI examination at baseline. Read More

    Variants of Interleukin-22 Gene Confer Predisposition to Autoimmune Thyroid Disease.
    Int J Endocrinol 2017 3;2017:3428236. Epub 2017 Aug 3.
    Department of Endocrinology, Jinshan Hospital of Fudan University, No. 1508 Longhang Road, Jinshan District, Shanghai 201508, China.
    As there are no previous studies on the interleukin-22 (IL-22) variants in autoimmune thyroid disease (AITD), the present study aimed to explore the association between polymorphisms of IL-22 and the predisposition to AITD. The study had 975 AITD patients, including 639 Graves' disease (GD) and 336 Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT) individuals and 851 healthy cohorts. Ligase detection reaction (LDR) and direct sequencing method were used for genotyping the IL-22 gene polymorphisms at rs2046068, rs2227478, rs2227485, rs11611206, and rs1179251. Read More

    Advances in the management of thyroid eye diseases: An overview.
    Int Ophthalmol 2017 Aug 18. Epub 2017 Aug 18.
    Department of Eye, AIIMS, Patna, India.
    Introduction: Thyroid eye disease (TED) remains a notorious ailment for both patients and the treating ophthalmologists. Recent years have witnessed considerable research in the immunopathogenic mechanism of TED that has resulted in an expansion and modification of the available management options.

    Aim: Purpose of this review is to summarise the advances in the management of thyroid ophthalmopathy. Read More

    Clinical Implications of Immunoglobulin G4 to Graves' Ophthalmopathy.
    Thyroid 2017 Sep;27(9):1185-1193
    2 Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Internal Medicine, College of Medicine, Hallym University , Chuncheon, Republic of Korea.
    Background: This study aimed to explore the relation of immunoglobulin G4 (IgG4) to clinical and laboratory characteristics of patients newly diagnosed with Graves' disease (GD) without or with Graves' ophthalmopathy (GO) and to analyze association of IgG4 with development and grade of GO in GD patients.

    Methods: Sixty-four GD patients and 64 sex- and age-matched euthyroid subjects were enrolled. Serum levels of thyroid hormones, thyroid autoantibodies, immunoglobulin G (IgG), and IgG4 were measured, and ophthalmological and ultrasonographical evaluation was performed. Read More

    Single nucleotide polymorphism 1623 A/G (rs180195) in the promoter of the Thyroglobulin gene is associated with autoimmune thyroid disease but not with thyroid ophthalmopathy.
    Clin Ophthalmol 2017 25;11:1337-1345. Epub 2017 Jul 25.
    Thyroid Research Laboratory, Sydney Medical School - Nepean Clinical School, The University of Sydney, Kingswood, NSW, Australia.
    Background: Our studies over recent years have focused on some new ideas concerning the pathogenesis for the orbital reaction that characterizes Graves' ophthalmopathy namely, that there are antigens expressed by thyroid tissue and orbital tissue where they are targeted by autoantibodies and/or sensitized T cells, leading to orbital inflammation. While this has been well studied for the thyroid stimulating hormone-receptor, the possible role of another major thyroid antigen, Thyroglobulin (TG), has been largely ignored.

    Methods: We identified novel variant 1623 A/G single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) (rs180195) in the promoter of TG gene associated with autoimmune thyroid disorders. Read More

    Dysthyroid optic neuropathy: update on pathogenesis, diagnosis, and management.
    Expert Rev Ophthalmol 2017 27;12(2):111-121. Epub 2017 Jan 27.
    Cole Eye Institute, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, 9500 Euclid Avenue, Cleveland, OH 44195.
    Introduction: Dysthyroid optic neuropathy (DON) is a severe manifestation of thyroid eye disease (TED) that can result in permanent vision loss. Management is complex, multidisciplinary, and involves medical and/or surgical therapies. This review describes current concepts in the epidemiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis, and treatment of DON. Read More

    Typical graves' ophthalmopathy in primary hypothyroidism.
    J Pak Med Assoc 2017 Jul;67(7):1104-1106
    Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi, Pakistan.
    Graves ophthalmopathy (GO) usually occurs in a close temporal relationship with hyperthyroidism. It is rare in patients with normal thyroid function (euthyroid GO) and in patients with hypothyroid forms of thyroid autoimmune diseases (hypothyroid GO). We report a 52-years old man presenting in our endocrine clinic with diagnosed primary hypothyroidism 3 months back during evaluation for glaucoma. Read More

    Tim3/galectin-9 alleviates the inflammation of TAO patients via suppressing Akt/NF-kB signaling pathway.
    Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2017 Sep 26;491(4):966-972. Epub 2017 Jul 26.
    Department of Endocrinology, Beijing Friendship Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing 100050, China.
    Thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy (TAO) is an autoimmune disease. Studies showed that T helper 1 (Th1), Th2, and Th17 cells play important roles in the pathology of TAO. Tim-3 and its only known ligand Galectin-9 (Gal-9) is related to the suppression of Th1 and Th17 cytokine secretion. Read More

    Hyperthyroidism in Patients with Graves' Ophthalmopathy, and Thyroidal, Skeletal and Eye Muscle Specific Type 2 Deiodinase Enzyme Activities.
    Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes 2017 Sep 27;125(8):514-521. Epub 2017 Jul 27.
    Immunoendocrinology and Osteoporosis Centre, EndoMed, Bem tér 18/C., Debrecen, Hungary.
    Graves' ophthalmopathy is characterized by hyperthyroidism, which is associated with higher serum T3 levels than T4 due to deiodinase enzymes.The effect of Graves' patient's sera (n=52) with elevated thyroid hormone and TSH receptor or thyroid peroxidase antibody (anti-TPO) levels was investigated on thyroidal, skeletal and eye muscle type 2 deiodinase enzyme (DII) activities. DII activities were measured with (125)I-T4 substrate, while thyroid hormone and antibody levels with immunoassays. Read More

    Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone Receptor Antibodies in Pregnancy: Clinical Relevance.
    Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) 2017 30;8:137. Epub 2017 Jun 30.
    Unit of Endocrinology, Department of Medicine and Sciences of Aging, Ce.S.I.-Me.T., University of Chieti-Pescara, Chieti, Italy.
    Graves' disease is the most common cause of thyrotoxicosis in women of childbearing age. Approximately 1% of pregnant women been treated before, or are being treated during pregnancy for Graves' hyperthyroidism. In pregnancy, as in not pregnant state, thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) receptor (TSHR) antibodies (TRAbs) are the pathogenetic hallmark of Graves' disease. Read More

    Update on thyroid-associated Ophthalmopathy with a special emphasis on the ocular surface.
    Clin Diabetes Endocrinol 2016 16;2:19. Epub 2016 Nov 16.
    Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, Kellogg Eye Center, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, MI 48105 USA.
    Thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy (TAO) is a condition associated with a wide spectrum of ocular changes, usually in the context of the autoimmune syndrome, Graves' disease. In this topical review, we attempted to provide a roadmap of the recent advances in current understanding the pathogenesis of TAO, important aspects of its clinical presentation, its impact on the ocular surface, describe the tissue abnormalities frequently encountered, and describe how TAO is managed today. We also briefly review how increased understanding of the disease should culminate in improved therapies for patients with this vexing condition. Read More

    Update on Graves disease: advances in treatment of mild, moderate and severe thyroid eye disease.
    Curr Opin Ophthalmol 2017 Sep;28(5):505-513
    aJohns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland, USA bKing Khaled Eye Specialist Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.
    Purpose Of Review: To report the most recent therapeutic advances of thyroid eye disease (TED) and offer general recommendations for management of TED.

    Recent Findings: Treatment of Graves ophthalmopathy is traditionally based on the use of high doses of corticosteroids and/or radiotherapy (RT) to decrease the activity of the disease, with the subsequent proptosis, strabismus and eyelid deformites treated with different surgical procedures. In recent years, the evidence that oxidative stress plays a relevant role in exacerbating TED severity has encouraged the use of antioxydative agents such as selenium, which has shown a capacity in limiting the disease progression. Read More

    Referral Trends for Surgical Management of Graves' Disease.
    Thyroid 2017 Jul 12. Epub 2017 Jul 12.
    Henry Ford Hospital, Otolaryngology , 6777 West Maple Road , West Bloomfield, Michigan, United States , 48322 ;
    Background: Treatment algorithms for Graves' disease (GD) differ internationally and frequency of referral for surgical intervention varies markedly between areas. Given the potential benefits of thyroidectomy over radioactive iodine (RAI) and medical therapy, surgery may be underutilized. To better understand the approach of endocrinologists to GD, we assessed the rationale for consultation among patients referred for thyroidectomy to an endocrine surgery practice in the United States. Read More

    Effect of Antithyroid Therapies on Bone and Body Composition: A Prospective, Randomized, Clinical Study Comparing Antithyroid Drugs with Radioiodine Therapy.
    Indian J Endocrinol Metab 2017 Jul-Aug;21(4):531-534
    Department of Endocrinology, Army Hospital (R & R), New Delhi, India.
    Background: Thyrotoxicosis is associated with loss of body weight and bone mineral content (BMC). Antithyroid drugs (ATD) and radioiodine therapy (RIT) are the common options for the management of thyrotoxicosis. We evaluated the effect of ATD and RIT on BMC and body composition. Read More

    Pathogenic Th17 and Th22 cells are increased in patients with autoimmune thyroid disorders.
    Endocrine 2017 Jul 1. Epub 2017 Jul 1.
    Department of Endocrinology, Immunology and Molecular Biology Unit, Hospital Universitario de la Princesa, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Instituto Princesa, Madrid, Spain.
    Purpose: To study the levels of pathogenic and non-pathogenic Th17 and Th22 cells in autoimmune thyroid disorders patients. Although Th17 cells seem to play an important role in the pathogenesis of thyroid autoimmune disorders, the specific subsets of these lymphocytes have not been analyzed in this condition.

    Methods: We assessed the levels of Th17 (pathogenic and non-pathogenic) and Th22 cells in peripheral blood and thyroid glands of autoimmune thyroid disorders patients (n   =  26, 16 with Graves' disease and 10 with Hashimoto's thyroiditis) and 15 healthy controls by multi-parametric flow cytometry and immunofluorescence microscopy. Read More

    Scintigraphic Profile of Thyrotoxicosis Patients and Correlation with Biochemical and Sonological Findings.
    J Clin Diagn Res 2017 May 1;11(5):OC01-OC03. Epub 2017 May 1.
    Professor and Head, Department of Medicine, AFMC, Pune, Maharashtra, India.
    Introduction: Thyrotoxicosis is a spectrum of disorder with a rather common clinical presentation with different aetiologies. The aetiological diagnosis is important as the management differs. It is essential to accurately diagnose the cause before starting treatment. Read More

    Diplopia in a patient with Hashimoto's thyroiditis: A case report and literature review.
    Medicine (Baltimore) 2017 Jun;96(26):e7330
    Department of Ophthalmology, Shandong University Qilu Hospital, Jinan, Shandong, China.
    Background: A case report of Hashimoto's thyroiditis-associated ophthalmopathy that masqueraded as double elevator palsy in 1 eye.

    Case Presentation: A 54-year-old woman presented to our strabismus clinic with diplopia for 1 year. She was diagnosed with double elevator palsy in the left eye. Read More

    Action of three bioavailable antioxidants in orbital fibroblasts from patients with Graves' orbitopathy (GO): a new frontier for GO treatment?
    J Endocrinol Invest 2017 Jun 27. Epub 2017 Jun 27.
    Endocrinology Unit I, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Pisa and University Hospital of Pisa, Via Paradisa 2, 56124, Pisa, Italy.
    Objective: Oxidative stress is involved in the pathogenesis of Graves' orbitopathy (GO) and an antioxidant approach has been advocated for GO treatment. Here, we investigated the action of three antioxidants in orbital fibroblasts, namely, vitamin C, N-acetyl-L-cysteine, and melatonin.

    Methods: Primary cultures of orbital fibroblasts from six GO patients and six control subjects were established. Read More

    [Progression of the pathogenesis of thyroid associated ophthalmopathy].
    Zhonghua Yan Ke Za Zhi 2017 Jun;53(6):474-480
    Beijing Ophthalmology & Vision Science Key Lab, Tongren Eye Center, Beijing Tongren Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing 100730, China.
    Thyroid associated ophthalmopathy (TAO) is a common complication of Graves' disease (GD). The clinical manifestations are mainly swelling and retracted eyelid, protopsis and limited eye movements, and optic neuropathy can be seen in severe cases. The mechanism of TAO is not yet clear. Read More

    [Bone marrow-derived fibrocytes and thyroid-associated opthalmopathy].
    Zhonghua Yan Ke Za Zhi 2017 Jun;53(6):470-473
    Tianjin Medical University Eye Hospital, Tianjin Medical University Eye Institute, Tianjin Medical University School of Optometry and Ophthalmology, Tianjin 300384, China.
    Thyroid-associated opthalmopathy(TAO) is a common autoimmune syndrome affecting the thyroid and orbit, which can result in the fibrosis of extraoular muscles and hyperplasia of adipose tissue. Advanced TAO patients could even lose vision caused by cornea ulcer and congestion of optic nerve from expansion of the extraocular muscles and orbit fat. Currently, there are no therapies shown to prevent it, because its cellular and molecular mechanisms are not clear. Read More

    [The value of DCE-MRI in assessing the course of thyroid associated ophthalmopathy].
    Zhonghua Yan Ke Za Zhi 2017 Jun;53(6):430-435
    Department of Ophthalmology, Tianjin First Center Hospital, Tianjin 300192, China.
    Objective: To explore the feasibility of the semi-quantitative rectus extraocular muscle (EOM) parameters of dynamic contrast-enhanced magetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) in assessing the clinical course of thyroid associated ophthalmopathy (TAO). Methods: It was a retrospective case series study. A total of 136 cases of TAO were recruited from March 2011 to October 2012 in the Tianjin the first center hospital including 63 males and 72 females, aged 24. Read More

    [Three-dimensional vector analysis after decompression surgery in thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy].
    Zhonghua Yan Ke Za Zhi 2017 Jun;53(6):424-429
    Department of Ophthalmology, Eye & ENT Hospital, Fudan University, Myopia Key Laboratory of Health Ministry, Shanghai 200031, China.
    Objective: To analyze the change of globe position after different orbital decompression in thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy (TAO). Methods: It was a retrosective case series study. Twenty-nine TAO patients (33 eyes) underwent orbital decompression were collected between October 2014 and December 2016 at Eye & ENT Hospital of Fudan University. Read More

    [Therapeutic outcomes and influence factors of maximal orbital decompression in the treatment of severe dysthyroid optic neuropathy].
    Zhonghua Yan Ke Za Zhi 2017 Jun;53(6):416-423
    Institute of orbital diseases, the General Hospital of the Armed Police Force, Beijing 100039, China.
    Objective: To evaluate the effectiveness of maximal orbital decompression in treatment for severe dysthyroid optic neuropathy (DON) of thyroid associated ophthalmopathy (TAO) and predictive factors of this therapy. Methods: The group consisted of 21 patients (30 eyes) with DON. The diagnosis was based on the following criteria: Deterioration of best corrected visual acuity (VA≤0. Read More

    [Investigation of reason and treatment methods for active, refractory and recurrence thyroid associated ophthalmopathy].
    Zhonghua Yan Ke Za Zhi 2017 Jun;53(6):408-412
    Chengdu huaxia Eye Hospital, Chengdu 610041, China.
    TAO is a common autoimmune orbital disease. 20% to 30% patients in active phase of moderate to severe TAO have no reponse to treatment or relapse after treatment, which become a difficult problem in clinical treatment. In this paper, the necessity of the treatment, etiology, treatment difficulties and treatment measures of TAO are discussed, in order to make great efforts to solve the clinical problems and to treat such patients. Read More

    [The stepwise establishment of standardized treatment for the thyroid eye disease].
    Zhonghua Yan Ke Za Zhi 2017 Jun;53(6):404-407
    Department of Ophthalmology, Eye & ENT Hospital, Fudan University, Myopia Key Laboratory of Health Ministry, Shanghai 200031, China.
    Thyroid associated ophthalmopathy is a complex autoimmune disease characterized by inflammation of the orbital tissue, hyaluronan deposition and tissue remodeling due to a skewed production of preadipocytic fibroblasts and increased adipogenesis in the late stage. Its progression is strongly related to the functional status of thyroid. So far, there is no consensus on staging, grading and treatment worldwide owning to the complexity of its clinical manifestations and therapies. Read More

    [Re-evaluate the value of orbital decompression for thyroid associated ophthalmopathy].
    Zhonghua Yan Ke Za Zhi 2017 Jun;53(6):401-403
    Tianjin Medical University Eye Hospital, Tianjin Medical University Eye Institute, Tianjin Medical University School of Optometry and Ophthalmology, Tianjin 300384, China.
    Thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy (TAO) is a common autoimmune syndrome affecting the thyroid and orbit. It can result in the fibrosis of extraoular muscles and hyperplasia of adipose tissue. The mechanism of TAO is not clear and there was few effective treatment. Read More

    Neuroanatomic Variations in Graves' Dysthyroid Ophthalmopathy as Studied With MRI.
    Trans Am Ophthalmol Soc 2016 Aug 24;114:T9. Epub 2017 May 24.
    Department of Ophthalmology, California Pacific Medical Center (Dr Silkiss or and Department of Psychology, University of York (Dr Wade or
    Purpose: To evaluate whether patients with Graves' dysthyroid ophthalmopathy (GDO) have changes in brain anatomy that can be assessed by neuroimaging as compared to age-matched controls.

    Methods: We examined 10 female, euthyroid patients with GDO and 14 age and gender matched controls using high-resolution structural MRI scanning. An automatic cortical segmentation algorithm was used to estimate the thickness of each subject's gray matter across the brain. Read More

    Thyrotoxicosis - investigation and management .
    Clin Med (Lond) 2017 Jun;17(3):274-277
    King's College Hospital, Denmark Hill, London
    Graves' disease (GD) and toxic nodular (TN) goitre account for most cases of thyrotoxicosis associated with hyperthyroidism. Hyperthyroidism is confirmed with measurement of a suppressed serum thyrotropin concentration (TSH) and elevated free thyroid hormones. The three therapeutic options are antithyroid drugs, radioactive iodine and surgery. Read More

    Serum CYR61 Is Associated with Disease Activity in Graves' Orbitopathy.
    Ocul Immunol Inflamm 2017 May 26:1-7. Epub 2017 May 26.
    a Institute of Vision Research, Department of Ophthalmology , Yonsei University College of Medicine , Seoul , South Korea.
    Purpose: To investigate the clinical implications of cysteine-rich angiogenic inducer 61 (CYR61) in Graves' orbitopathy (GO).

    Methods: Sera from 52 GO patients, 23 Graves' disease (GD) patients, and 20 healthy controls, and orbital fat tissue samples from 12 of 52 GO patients and 8 control subjects were included for analysis. Concentrations of CYR61 were measured from sera with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and CYR61 mRNA expression levels were evaluated from orbital fat tissue with polymerase chain reaction. Read More

    Changes in Choroidal Perfusion after Orbital Decompression Surgery for Graves' Ophthalmopathy.
    J Ophthalmic Vis Res 2017 Apr-Jun;12(2):183-186
    Private Practice, Retina Group of Washington, Chevy Chase, Maryland, USA.
    Purpose: To assess choroidal perfusion before and after orbital decompression surgery in patients with Graves' ophthalmopathy.

    Methods: In this interventional case series, surgical decompression for optic nerve compromise was performed on four eyes of three patients with Graves' disease. Complete ophthalmic examination including visual acuity, color vision, and intraocular pressure assessment were done pre- and postoperatively. Read More

    [Calculation of orbital fat volumes for determining treatment timing for thyroid- associated ophthalmopathy].
    Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao 2017 May;37(5):640-645
    Department of Endocrinology, Third Affiliated Hospital of Southern Medical University, Guangzhou 510630, China.E-mail:
    Objective: To analyze the relationship between orbital fat volume and the progression and prognosis of thyroid- associated ophthalmopathy (TAO) and determine the optimal treatment timing for TAO.

    Methods: The clinical data were collected from 35 patients (70 orbits) with a definite diagnosis of TAO between January, 2016 and December, 2016. The correlation between orbital fat volume and the clinical parameters was evaluated. Read More

    [The complications of transethmoidal decompressive orbitotomy associated with endocrine ophthalmopathy].
    Vestn Otorinolaringol 2017;82(2):33-37
    The Helmholtz Moscow Research Institute of Eye Diseases, Moscow, Russia, 119021.
    The objective of the present study was the analysis of the results of transethmoidal decompressive orbitotomy (TEDO) with the resection of the bone matrix of the medial and inferior orbital walls in the patients presenting with endocrine ophthalmopathy (EOP) with the purpose of reduction of the risk of development of this pathological conditions. A total of 51 patient with EOP at the stage of complete remission or pharmacotherapeutic compensation underwent transethmoidal decompressive medial orbitotomy in the ENT Clinic of 1 I.M. Read More

    Retina and Nerve Fiber Layer Thickness in Eyes with Thyroid-Associated Ophthalmopathy.
    Isr Med Assoc J 2017 May;19(5):277-281
    Department of Ophthalmology, Tel Aviv Sourasky Medical Center, Tel Aviv, affiliated with Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel.
    Background: Thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy (TAO) is an inflammatory disease that affects the thyroid gland and the eye orbit. Of patients with TAO, 3%-5% have severe sight-threatening disease due to optic neuropathy Optical coherence tomography (OCT), the non-invasive imaging technology that yields high-resolution cross-sectional images of the retina, provides qualitative and quantitative data on the retina.

    Objectives: To apply this technique to quantitatively assess retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) and macular ring thicknesses in healthy subjects and in patients with TAO to determine their relationship to the severity of the orbital disease. Read More

    A case-control study of selenoprotein genes polymorphisms and autoimmune thyroid diseases in a Chinese population.
    BMC Med Genet 2017 May 12;18(1):54. Epub 2017 May 12.
    Department of Endocrinology, Jinshan Hospital of Fudan University, No. 1508 Longhang Road, Shanghai, 201508, People's Republic of China.
    Background: Selenium is an essential trace and there is a high selenium concentration in the thyroid gland. Selenium deficiency may impair the thyroid function. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between three selenoprotein genes polymorphisms and autoimmune thyroid diseases. Read More

    Sphingosine-1-Phosphate Mediates Fibrosis in Orbital Fibroblasts in Graves' Orbitopathy.
    Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2017 May;58(5):2544-2553
    Department of Ophthalmology, Severance Hospital, Institute of Vision Research, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.
    Purpose: To investigate the effect of sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) on fibrosis in orbital fibroblasts in Graves' orbitopathy (GO).

    Methods: Orbital fibroblasts were cultured from orbital adipose/connective tissues of patients with GO and healthy control subjects. Effects of treatment with TGF-β and cigarette smoke extract (CSE) on S1P receptor (S1PR) messenger RNA (mRNA) and S1P expression were evaluated by real-time polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting. Read More

    Radiologic Parameters of Orbital Bone Remodeling in Thyroid Eye Disease.
    Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2017 May;58(5):2527-2533
    Orbit and Oculofacial Service, Department of Ophthalmology, National University Hospital, Singapore.
    Purpose: To radiologically examine for the presence of bony remodeling of the orbit in thyroid eye disease (TED).

    Methods: Computed tomography (CT) scans of 248 orbits of 124 patients with TED and 185 orbits of 138 controls were retrospectively reviewed, and the following parameters measured: the angle of the inferomedial orbital strut (AIOS), the angle of the medial wall (AMW), and the diameters of the extraocular muscles. The association of TED with the AIOS or AMW was analyzed with linear regression models, and the correlations between the AMW or AIOS measurements with the extraocular muscle measurements were determined. Read More

    Orbital T-Cell Lymphoma with Discrete Enlargements of All Extraocular Muscles Bilaterally in Patient with Moon Face Countenance.
    Case Rep Ophthalmol Med 2017 9;2017:8902162. Epub 2017 Apr 9.
    Department of Pathology, Gifu Municipal Hospital, Gifu, Japan.
    Purpose. To report our findings in a case of orbital T-cell lymphoma in which all of the extraocular muscles (EOMs) were bilaterally and discretely enlarged and the patient had a moon face countenance. Case. Read More

    Decreased microRNA-146a in CD4+T cells promote ocular inflammation in thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy by targeting NUMB.
    Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci 2017 Apr;21(8):1803-1809
    Department of Ophthalmology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Guangxi Medical University, Nanning, Guangxi, China.
    Objective: The aim of the study was to explore the functional role of miR-146a in CD4+T cells of active thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy (TAO) patients and to identify the possible molecular mechanism for the modulation of miR-146a in TAO.

    Patients And Methods: The experimental group collected six cases of peripheral venous blood of patients with active TAO. The healthy control group collected six cases of normal peripheral venous blood. Read More

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