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    Related quality of life questionnaire specific to dysthyroid ophthalmopathy evaluated in a population of patients with Graves' disease.
    Arch Endocrinol Metab 2017 Feb 16. Epub 2017 Feb 16.
    División Endocrinología, Hospital de Agudos J. M. Ramos Mejía, Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires, Argentina.
    Objective: The aim of this study was to measure quality of life (QOL) impairment in individuals currently suffering from Graves' ophthalmopathy (GO) and to determine the correlation of GO-specific QOL scores with disease severity and activity.

    Subjects And Methods: Seventy three GO-specific QOL surveys were prospectively analysed and compared with GO status. The GO-specific QOL survey was translated into Spanish and applied to Argentine patients with Graves' disease (GD). Read More


    Treatment by rituximab on six Grave's ophthalmopathies resistant to corticosteroids.
    Ann Endocrinol (Paris) 2017 Feb 6;78(1):20-26. Epub 2017 Feb 6.
    Service d'ophtalmologie, hôpital Bretonneau, centre hospitalier universitaire de Tours, 2, boulevard Tonnellé, 37044 Tours cedex 9, France; Faculté de médecine de Tours, 10, boulevard Tonnellé, BP 3223, 37032 Tours cedex 1, France.
    Objectives: Graves' ophthalmopathy occurs in 50% of Graves' disease cases. Treatment is based on smoking cessation, and control of the euthyroidism and ocular repercussions associated with the disease. The active orbital forms are treated with glucocorticoids. Read More

    The Ocular Manifestations of Drugs Used to Treat Multiple Sclerosis.
    Drugs 2017 Mar;77(3):303-311
    York Teaching Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Wigginton Road, York, Yo31 8HE, UK.
    Recent times have seen an increase in the number of options to treat multiple sclerosis. Ocular manifestations of multiple sclerosis are well known to treating physicians; however, the medications used to treat multiple sclerosis can also have ocular side effects. This review article focuses on the ocular manifestations of corticosteroids and disease-modifying agents such as interferon, fingolomod, natalizumab, alemtuzumab and mitoxantron used to treat the disease. Read More

    Changing trend in referral to secondary care specialist thyroid eye disease clinic following the Amsterdam declaration.
    Int Ophthalmol 2017 Feb 8. Epub 2017 Feb 8.
    Department of Endocrinology, Royal Devon and Exeter Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, Exeter, UK.
    Introduction: Early diagnosis and treatment of thyroid eye disease (TED) improves outcomes. Previous studies have highlighted delays in diagnosis and referral to specialist centres. The Amsterdam declaration (2009) aimed to halve the time from presentation to diagnosis and from diagnosis to referral to a specialist centre in five years. Read More

    Poly (ADP-Ribose) Polymerase-1 (PARP-1) in Chinese patients with Graves Disease and Graves Ophthalmopathy.
    Can J Physiol Pharmacol 2017 Jan 29. Epub 2017 Jan 29.
    Tianjin First Center Hospital ,Tianjin , Tianjin , China ;
    We aimed to evaluate the genetic variation of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) as risk factor in development of Graves' disease (GD) and Graves Ophthalmopathy (GO) among Chinese individuals. Patients with confirmed diagnosis of GD or healthy individuals with no clinical symptoms of hyperthyroiditis were enrolled at department of Ophthalmology, Tianjin First Center Hospital, China. Genetic polymorphism was studied in plasma DNA samples of subjects by polymererase chain reaction of restriction fragment length polymorphism to confirm test our hypothesis. Read More

    Does early response to intravenous glucocorticoids predict the final outcome in patients with moderate-to-severe and active Graves' orbitopathy?
    J Endocrinol Invest 2017 Feb 7. Epub 2017 Feb 7.
    Gutenberg University Medical Center, Mainz, Germany.
    Purpose: Intravenous glucocorticoids (ivGCs) given as 12-weekly infusions are the first-line treatment for moderate-to-severe and active Graves' orbitopathy (GO), but they are not always effective. In this study, we evaluated whether response at 6 weeks correlated with outcomes at 12 (end of intervention) and 24 (follow-up) weeks, particularly in patients initially unresponsive.

    Methods: Our database (Bartalena et al. Read More

    [Epidemiological, clinical, therapeutic and evolutive aspects of Basedow-Graves disease in the Depatment of Internal Medicine at CHU Aristide Le Dantec, Dakar (Senegal)].
    Pan Afr Med J 2016 14;25. Epub 2016 Sep 14.
    Médecine Interne, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Aristide Le Dantec, Dakar, Sénégal.
    Basedow-Graves disease is an autoimmune affection characterized by the association of thyrotoxicosis with variable frequency events such as goiter, ophthalmopathy and pretibial myxedema. Its diagnosis is often easy, while its management remains difficult. A simple medical treatment exposes patient to recurrence risk. Read More

    TSHR as a therapeutic target in Graves' disease.
    Expert Opin Ther Targets 2017 Feb 6:1-6. Epub 2017 Feb 6.
    a Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences , University of Michigan , Ann Arbor , MI , USA.
    Introduction: Graves' disease (GD) and thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy (TAO) are thought to result from actions of pathogenic antibodies mediated through the thyrotropin receptor (TSHR). This leads to the unregulated consequences of the antibody-mediated receptor activity in the thyroid and connective tissues of the orbit. Recent studies reveal antibodies that appear to be directed against the insulin-like growth factor-I receptor (IGF-IR). Read More

    Correlation of HLA-D Q and TNF-α gene polymorphisms with ocular myasthenia gravis combined with thyroid associated ophthalmopathy.
    Biosci Rep 2017 Jan 24. Epub 2017 Jan 24.
    Affiliated Hospital of Medical College, Qingdao University, Qingdao, China.
    The study aims to explore the correlation of HLA-DQ and TNF-α gene polymorphisms with ocular myasthenia gravis (OMG) combined with thyroid associated ophthalmopathy (TAO). From March 2009 to March 2015, 56 OMG patients complicated with TAO (OMG + TAO group), 134 patients diagnosed with OMG only (OMG group) and 236 healthy individuals (control group) were enrolled in this study. Polymerase chain reaction-sequence specific primer (PCR-SSP) was used for HLA-DQ genotyping and polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RELP) for TNF-α genotyping. Read More


    Building the Case for Insulin-Like Growth Factor Receptor-I Involvement in Thyroid-Associated Ophthalmopathy.
    Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) 2016 3;7:167. Epub 2017 Jan 3.
    Department of Internal Medicine, Erasmus Medical Center, Division of Endocrinology , Rotterdam , Netherlands.
    The pathogenesis of orbital Graves' disease (GD), a process known as thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy (TAO), remains incompletely understood. The thyrotropin receptor (TSHR) represents the central autoantigen involved in GD and has been proposed as the thyroid antigen shared with the orbit that could explain the infiltration of immune cells into tissues surrounding the eye. Another cell surface protein, insulin-like growth factor-I receptor (IGF-IR), has recently been proposed as a second antigen that participates in TAO by virtue of its interactions with anti-IGF-IR antibodies generated in GD, its apparent physical and functional complex formation with TSHR, and its necessary involvement in TSHR post-receptor signaling. Read More

    Smoking and Eye Pathologies. A systemic review. Part II. Retina diseases, uveitis, optic neuropathies, thyroid-associated orbitopathy.
    Curr Pharm Des 2017 Jan 10. Epub 2017 Jan 10.
    Jozef Strus Poznan City Hospital, Department of Ophthalmology, 3 Szwajcarska St, 361-285 Poznań, Poland.
    Background: Tobacco smoking has detrimental influence on human health.

    Aim: The analysis of influence of tobacco smoking on retina diseases, uveitis, optic neuropathies, and thyroid-associated orbitopathy in adults and children.

    Methods: A comprehensive review of the literature performed through MEDLINE and PubMed searches, covering the years 2000-2016. Read More

    [Autoimmune diseases of the thyroid gland].
    Internist (Berl) 2017 Jan;58(1):47-58
    Funktionsbereich Spezielle Endokrinologie, Universitätsklinikum Düsseldorf, Moorenstr. 5, 40225, Düsseldorf, Deutschland.
    Autoimmune diseases of the thyroid gland are considered to be the most frequent cause of thyroid gland disorders. Autoimmune thyroid diseases consist of two subgroups: autoimmune thyroiditis (AIT) and Graves' disease. The AIT is the most common human autoimmune disease. Read More

    Radiotherapy for the treatment of thyroid eye disease-a prospective comparison: Is orbital radiotherapy a suitable alternative to steroids?
    Ir J Med Sci 2017 Jan 3. Epub 2017 Jan 3.
    Department of Neuroscience, Odontostomatological and Reproductive Sciences, University "Federico II" of Naples, via Pansini no 5, 80131, Naples, Italy.
    Background And Aims: To evaluate the efficacy of orbital radiotherapy (OR) for the treatment of thyroid eye disease (TED).

    Methods: Thirty-five consecutive patients with active TED with contraindications to steroid therapy received a course of OR. Bilateral retrobulbar irradiation was performed with a total dose of 20 Gy. Read More

    The Efficacy of Rituximab Combined with 131I for Ophthalmic Outcomes of Graves' Ophthalmopathy Patients.
    Pharmacology 2017 Jan 4;99(3-4):144-152. Epub 2017 Jan 4.
    Department of Thyroid Breast Surgery, Yinzhou Hospital of Ningbo University Medical College, Ningbo, China.
    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to examine the effectiveness of introducing both rituximab (RTX) and 131I for active Graves' ophthalmopathy (GO) with hyperthyroidism.

    Methods: In total, 217 patients suffering from active GO with hyperthyroidism were included in this research. All subjects were randomly assigned to 3 groups. Read More

    Clinical Update in Aspects of the Management of Autoimmune Thyroid Diseases.
    Endocrinol Metab (Seoul) 2016 Dec;31(4):493-499
    Department of Endocrinology and Diabetes, The Alfred, Melbourne, Australia.
    Aspects of autoimmune thyroid disease updated in this review include: immunoglobulin G4 (IgG4)-related thyroid disease (Riedel's thyroiditis, fibrosing variant of Hashimoto's thyroiditis, IgG4-related Hashimoto's thyroiditis, and Graves' disease with elevated IgG4 levels); recent epidemiological studies from China and Denmark indicating that excess iodine increases the incidence of Hashimoto's thyroiditis and hypothyroidism; immunomodulatory agents (ipilimumab, pembrolizumab, nivolumab) activate immune response by inhibiting T-cell surface receptors which down-regulate immune response, i.e., cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4 and programmed cell death protein 1 pathways; alemtuzumab is a humanised monoclonal antibody to CD52 which causes immune depletion and thyroid autoimmune disease especially Graves' hyperthyroidism; small molecule ligand (SML) agonists which activate receptors, SML neutral antagonists, which inhibit receptor activation by agonists, and SML inverse agonists which inhibit receptor activation by agonists and inhibit constitutive agonist independent signaling have been identified. Read More

    Measurement Properties of the Persian Translated Version of Graves Orbitopathy Quality of Life Questionnaire: A Validation Study.
    Ophthalmic Epidemiol 2017 Feb 21;24(1):3-10. Epub 2016 Dec 21.
    d Department of Biostatistics, School of Public Health , Iran University of Medical Sciences , Tehran , Iran.
    Purpose: To determine the measurement properties of the Persian language version of the Graves orbitopathy quality of life questionnaire (GO-QOL).

    Methods: Following a systematic translation and cultural adaptation process, 141 consecutive unselected thyroid eye disease (TED) patients answered the Persian GO-QOL and underwent complete ophthalmic examination. The questionnaire was again completed by 60 patients on the second visit, 2-4 weeks later. Read More

    The Second Antithyroid Drug Treatment Is Effective in Relapsed Graves' Disease Patients: A Median 11-Year Follow-Up Study.
    Thyroid 2017 Jan 24. Epub 2017 Jan 24.
    6 Department of Internal Medicine, Chung-Ang University College of Medicine , Seoul, Korea.
    Background: Antithyroid drug (ATD) is a widely used treatment for Graves' disease (GD). However, its long-term efficiency remains unclear. This study investigated the long-term disease prognosis and predictive factors for relapse in ATD-treated GD patients. Read More

    Histological and clinical evaluation of the hard palate mucous membrane graft for treatment of lower eyelid retraction.
    Acta Ophthalmol 2016 Dec 20. Epub 2016 Dec 20.
    Eye Clinic, Rigshospitalet, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Purpose: To evaluate the histological appearances of the epithelial cells and the clinical effect of the hard palate mucous membrane (HPM) graft for the treatment of lower eyelid retraction (LER).

    Methods: This was a follow-up study involving 15 patients, with a total of 16 eyes operated. Five patients had LER as a result of Graves' ophthalmopathy and/or inferior rectus recession, six patients because of wearing an eye prosthesis, two patients because of previous tumour excision, one patient because of proptosis due to sphenoid wing meningioma and one patient because of previous lower eyelid blepharoplasty. Read More

    Evaluation of retinal nerve fiber layer thickness profile in thyroid ophthalmopathy without optic nerve dysfunction.
    Int J Ophthalmol 2016 18;9(11):1634-1637. Epub 2016 Nov 18.
    Department of Ophthalmology, King George's Medical University, Lucknow 226003, India.
    Aim: To evaluate retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness profile in patients of thyroid ophthalmopathy with no clinical signs of optic nerve dysfunction.

    Methods: A prospective, case-control, observational study conducted at a tertiary care centre. Inclusion criteria consisted of patients with eyelid retraction in association with any one of: biochemical thyroid dysfunction, exophthalmos, or extraocular muscle involvement; or thyroid dysfunction in association with either exophthalmos or extra-ocular muscle involvement; or a clinical activity score (CAS)>3/7. Read More

    Inhibiting thyrotropin/insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor crosstalk to treat Graves' ophthalmopathy: studies in orbital fibroblasts in vitro.
    Br J Pharmacol 2017 Feb 27;174(4):328-340. Epub 2017 Jan 27.
    Laboratory of Endocrinology and Receptor Biology, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK), National Institutes of Health (NIH), Bethesda, MD, USA.
    Background And Purpose: Crosstalk between thyrotropin (TSH) receptors and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) receptors initiated by activation of TSH receptors could be important in the development of Graves' ophthalmopathy (GO). Specifically, TSH receptor activation alone is sufficient to stimulate hyaluronic acid (HA) secretion, a major component of GO, through both IGF-1 receptor-dependent and -independent pathways. Although an anti-IGF-1 receptor antibody is in clinical trials, its effectiveness depends on the relative importance of IGF-1 versus TSH receptor signalling in GO pathogenesis. Read More

    Graves' orbitopathy, idiopathic orbital inflammatory pseudotumor and Epstein-Barr virus infection: a serological and molecular study.
    J Endocrinol Invest 2016 Dec 16. Epub 2016 Dec 16.
    Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Endocrinology Unit I, University of Pisa and University Hospital of Pisa, Via Paradisa 2, 56124, Pisa, Italy.
    Objective: One of the hypotheses on the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases, including Graves' disease (GD) and Graves' orbitopathy (GO), involves bacterial or viral infections. Recently, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) has been proposed to play a role in the pathogenesis of idiopathic orbital inflammatory pseudotumor (IOIP) in Asians. The aim of the present study was to investigate the possible association of GO with EBV infection/exposure, as compared with IOIP, using serum and tissue samples, as well as primary cultures of orbital fibroblasts. Read More

    Time course of Graves' orbitopathy after total thyroidectomy and radioiodine therapy for thyroid cancer.
    Medicine (Baltimore) 2016 Nov;95(48):e5474
    aCHU Clermont-Ferrand, Endocrinology Department, Clermont-Ferrand, France bDepartment of Clinical and Experimental Medicine and Surgery "F. Magrassi, A. Lanzara," Second University of Naples, Naples, Italy cCHU Clermont-Ferrand, Biostatistics Unit (Clinical Research and Innovation Direction), Clermont-Ferrand dDepartment of nuclear medicine, Hospices civils de Lyon, Groupement hospitalier Est, Bron, France eNuclear Medicine, Jean Perrin Cancer Center, Clermont-Ferrand fUMR CNRS 6293, INSERM U1103, Génétique Reproduction et Développement, Université Clermont-Auvergne, Aubiere gDepartment of Endocrinology, Hospices Civils de Lyon, Bron, Université Lyon I hLyon 1 University, CRCL, INSERM U1052, Lyon, France.
    The risk of cancer is relatively higher in Graves' patients presenting simultaneously with thyroid nodules. Radioiodine (RAI) therapy recommended in high-risk differentiated thyroid carcinoma may be associated with worsening of a pre-existing Graves' orbitopathy (GO) or developing a new onset. The impact of RAI therapy in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer on the course of a pre-exisiting GO has not been specifically investigated. Read More

    Retinal Vessel Oxygen Saturation and Vessel Diameter in Inactive Graves Ophthalmopathy.
    Ophthal Plast Reconstr Surg 2016 Nov 23. Epub 2016 Nov 23.
    Zhongshan Ophthalmic Center, State Key Laboratory of Ophthalmology, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, China.
    Purpose: To investigate whether inactive thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy (TAO) affects retinal oxygen saturation and/or vessel diameter.

    Methods: Via an observational case-control study, retinal circulation was measured in patients with inactive TAO (mild, moderate, and severe) and normal subjects by retinal oximetry. Complete ophthalmologic examination, including noncontact tonometry and Hertel exophthalmometry, was performed; history of smoking and dysthyroid disease were recorded. Read More

    The Evolving Functions of Autophagy in Ocular Health: A Double-edged Sword.
    Int J Biol Sci 2016 25;12(11):1332-1340. Epub 2016 Oct 25.
    Department of Ophthalmology, Ninth People's Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, P.R. China.
    Autophagy plays an adaptive role in cell survival, development, differentiation and intracellular homeostasis. Autophagy is recognized as a 'self-cannibalizing' process that is active during stresses such as starvation, chemotherapy, infection, ageing, and oxygen shortage to protect organisms from various irritants and to regenerate materials and energy. However, autophagy can also lead to a form of programmed cell death distinct from apoptosis. Read More

    Comparative analysis of radioactive iodine versus thyroidectomy for definitive treatment of Graves disease.
    Surgery 2017 Jan 15;161(1):147-155. Epub 2016 Nov 15.
    Departments of Surgery and Radiology, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA. Electronic address:
    Background: Management of Graves disease includes antithyroid drugs, (131)I therapy, or thyroidectomy. Our aim was to review our institutional experience with definitive treatments for Graves disease.

    Methods: This was a retrospective review of patients undergoing (131)I therapy (n = 295) or thyroidectomy (n = 103) for Graves disease (2003-2015). Read More

    Imbalance of Th17/Treg in Different Subtypes of Autoimmune Thyroid Diseases.
    Cell Physiol Biochem 2016 18;40(1-2):245-252. Epub 2016 Nov 18.
    Department of Geriatrics, Xijing Hospital of Fourth Military Medical University, Xi'an China.
    Aims: To clarify the imbalance of Th17/Treg in different subtypes of autoimmune thyroid diseases (AITDs) including Graves' disease(GD), Hashimoto's thyroiditis(HT) and Graves' ophthalmopathy (GO).

    Methods: 47 patients with AITD (including 16 GD, 15 HT, and 16 GO) and 12 healthy controls were enrolled in this study. The percentages of Th17 and Treg cells, the ratio of Th17/Treg, as well as their related transcription factors RORγt and Foxp3 mRNA in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were measured by flow cytometry and real-time quantitative PCR Results: Compared with those in control group, the percentage of CD4+IL-17+T cell(Th17) and the mRNA expression of its transcription factor RORγt were higher in PBMCs of AITDs (P<0. Read More

    Comparison of two different regimens of intravenous methylprednisolone for patients with moderate to severe and active Graves' ophthalmopathy: a prospective, randomized controlled trial.
    Endocr J 2017 Feb 16;64(2):141-149. Epub 2016 Nov 16.
    Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, The Affiliated Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science & Technology, Wuhan 430030, P.R. China.
    The intravenous methylprednisolone (iv MP) strategy for Graves' ophthalmopathy (GO) and evaluation of its activity against the disease warrants further exploration. A prospective randomized controlled trial for 3 months was performed in a tertiary referral teaching hospital to compare the efficacy and safety of two different regimens of iv MP, and determine the value of clinical activity score (CAS) and T2 relaxation time (T2RTs) and areas of extraocular muscles (EOMs) by magnetic resonance imaging for diagnosis of active GO. Forty patients with moderate to severe GO and CAS ≥ 3 or 1 ≤ CAS < 3 with prolonged T2RTs on EOMs were randomly assigned to a monthly (MR: 1. Read More

    IL-17A Promotes RANTES Expression, But Not IL-16, in Orbital Fibroblasts Via CD40-CD40L Combination in Thyroid-Associated Ophthalmopathy.
    Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2016 Nov;57(14):6123-6133
    Department of Ophthalmology, Shanghai Ninth People's Hospital, Shanghai JiaoTong University School of Medicine, Shanghai.
    Purpose: This present study aims to investigate the phenotype of IL-17A-producing T cells in thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy (TAO) and the role of IL-17A on RANTES and IL-16 expression in orbital fibroblasts (OFs) from TAO patients.

    Methods: Blood samples were obtained from TAO patients and healthy controls and were subjected to ELISA and flow cytometry analysis. Primary human OFs cultured from surgical wastes were stimulated with IL-17A in the presence or absence of CD40L and were examined by qRT-PCR, ELISA, Western blotting, and apoptosis assays. Read More

    Gender-dependent and age-of-onset-specific association of the rs11675434 single-nucleotide polymorphism near TPO with susceptibility to Graves' ophthalmopathy.
    J Hum Genet 2017 Mar 10;62(3):373-377. Epub 2016 Nov 10.
    Department of Internal Medicine and Endocrinology, Medical University of Warsaw, Warsaw, Poland.
    The role of TPO gene polymorphism in the susceptibility to Graves' disease (GD) remains unclear. However, single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) near TPO have been recently associated with serum levels of thyroid peroxidase (TPO) antibody in two independent genome-wide association studies. Moreover, we have observed a strong association between the rs11675434 SNP located near TPO and the presence of clinically evident Graves' ophthalmopathy (GO). Read More

    Antioxidant Actions of Selenium in Orbital Fibroblasts: A Basis for the Effects of Selenium in Graves' Orbitopathy.
    Thyroid 2017 Feb 16;27(2):271-278. Epub 2016 Dec 16.
    1 Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Endocrinology Units, University of Pisa and University Hospital of Pisa , Pisa, Italy .
    Background: A recent clinical trial has shown a beneficial effect of the antioxidant agent selenium in Graves' orbitopathy (GO). In order to shed light on the cellular mechanisms on which selenium may act, this study investigated its effects in cultured orbital fibroblasts.

    Methods: Primary cultures of orbital fibroblasts from six GO patients and six control subjects were established. Read More

    Serum immunoglobulin G4 levels and Graves' disease phenotype.
    Endocrine 2017 Feb 7;55(2):478-484. Epub 2016 Nov 7.
    Endocrinology Department, Carol Davila University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Bucharest, Romania.
    Purpose: We investigated, at diagnosis, the relationship between serum immunoglobulin G4 levels and the main characteristics of Graves' disease: hyperthyroidism severity, goiter size, presence of active Graves' ophthalmopathy, antithyroid antibodies status, and titer.

    Methods: This prospective study included 80 newly diagnosed Graves' disease patients. The main parameters measured at diagnosis: thyroid-stimulating hormone, free thyroxine, free triiodothyronine, total triiodothyronine, thyroglobulin, antithyroid peroxidase antibodies, anti-thyroglobulin antibodies, thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor antibodies, immunoglobulin G4. Read More

    Serum total IgG and IgG4 levels in thyroid eye disease.
    Int Med Case Rep J 2016 20;9:325-328. Epub 2016 Oct 20.
    Department of Ophthalmology, California Pacific Medical Center, San Francisco, CA, USA.
    Purpose: To investigate the relationship between immunoglobulin G (IgG)4-related disease (IgG4-RD) and thyroid eye disease (TED) with respect to IgG levels.

    Patients And Methods: A retrospective review of total IgG, IgG subclass, and thyroid stimulating immunoglobulin (TSI) levels in 24 patients with TED.

    Results: Five patients (20. Read More

    Graves' Disease.
    N Engl J Med 2016 Oct;375(16):1552-1565
    From the Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, Kellogg Eye Center, and the Department of Internal Medicine, University of Michigan Medical School - both in Ann Arbor (T.J.S.); and the Departments of Endocrinology and Metabolism (L.H.) and Ophthalmology (T.J.S.), Odense University Hospital, University of Southern Denmark, Odense.

    Clinical challenge: An orbital Hickam's dictum.
    Surv Ophthalmol 2016 Nov - Dec;61(6):799-805. Epub 2016 Mar 17.
    Skull Base Division, Neuro-Ophthalmology Service, Wills Eye Hospital, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA.
    A 53-year-old man with hyperthyroidism presented with asymmetric proptosis and diplopia. Thyroid-stimulating immunoglobulin was elevated, suggesting active thyroid eye disease. Imaging of the orbits revealed enlargement of the extraocular muscles, including irregular enlargement of the left lateral rectus muscle. Read More

    Botulinum toxin for treatment of restrictive strabismus.
    J Optom 2016 Oct 19. Epub 2016 Oct 19.
    Ocular Motility Section, Department of Ophthalmology, Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Marañón, Madrid, Spain.
    Purpose: To study the types of acquired restrictive strabismus treated in a tertiary hospital and the outcome of treatment with botulinum toxin.

    Methods: We performed a 10-year retrospective study of patients with restrictive strabismus aged ≥18 years who were treated with botulinum toxin. Treatment was considered successful if the final vertical deviation was ≤5 PD, horizontal deviation ≤10 PD, with no head turn or diplopia. Read More

    Elevated serum tetrac in Graves' disease: potential pathogenic role in thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy.
    J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2016 Oct 21:jc20162762. Epub 2016 Oct 21.
    1 Departments of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences and.
    Context: The sources and biological impact of 3,3',5,5' tetraiodothyroacetic acid (TA4) are uncertain. CD34(+) fibrocytes express several proteins involved in the production of thyroid hormones. They infiltrate the orbit in Graves' disease (GD), an autoimmune process known as thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy. Read More

    Role of targeted magnetic resonance imaging sequences in the surgical management of anterior skull base pathology.
    J Laryngol Otol 2017 Jan 20;131(S1):S57-S61. Epub 2016 Oct 20.
    Department of ENT Head and Neck Surgery,Princess Alexandra Hospital,Brisbane,Australia.
    Background: The skull base is a highly complex anatomical region that provides passage for important nerves and vessels as they course into and out of the cranial cavity. Key to the management of pathology in this region is a thorough understanding of the anatomy, with its variations, and the relationship of various neurovascular structures to the pathology in question. Targeted high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging on high field strength magnets can enable the skull base surgeon to understand this intricate relationship and deal with the pathology from a position of relative advantage. Read More

    MANAGEMENT OF ENDOCRINE DISEASE: Rituximab therapy for Graves' orbitopathy - lessons from randomized control trials.
    Eur J Endocrinol 2017 Feb 19;176(2):R101-R109. Epub 2016 Oct 19.
    Department of Clinical SciencesGraves' Orbitopathy Center, Endocrinology, Fondazione Cà Granda IRCCS and University of Milan, Milan, Italy.
    Rituximab (RTX) use in open-label series has been associated with very encouraging responses in patients with active and moderate-to-severe Graves' orbitopathy (GO). Recently, randomized controlled trials of RTX have been performed in such patients to answer the question of clinical efficacy and the safety profile of this agent. That data, reported separately, focused on Clinical Activity Score (CAS) and indicated in one trial a strong benefit of RTX in comparison with IV glucocorticoids, whereas the other trial noted the absence of a benefit by comparison with placebo. Read More

    Statins are not a risk factor for liver damage associated with intravenous glucocorticoid pulse therapy for Graves' orbitopathy.
    J Endocrinol Invest 2016 Nov 27;39(11):1323-1327. Epub 2016 Jul 27.
    Endocrinology Unit I, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Pisa and University Hospital of Pisa, Via Paradisa 2, 56124, Pisa, Italy.
    Objective: Acute liver damage (ALD) is associated with high-dose intravenous (iv) glucocorticoid (GC) (ivGC) pulse therapy in ~1 % of patients for Graves' orbitopathy (GO). It has been proposed that statins may increase the risk of ALD. Here we investigated the frequency of ALD according to the assumption of statins in a large retrospective cohort study. Read More

    Relation between therapy options for Graves' disease and the course of Graves' ophthalmopathy: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
    J Endocrinol Invest 2016 Nov 24;39(11):1225-1233. Epub 2016 May 24.
    Tianjin Eye Hospital, Clinical College of Ophthalmology, Tianjin Medical University, Tianjin, 300020, China.
    Background: The relation between therapy options for Graves' disease (GD) and the course of Graves' ophthalmopathy (GO) are still controversial. Our aim was to compare the occurrence of development or worsening of GO in patients who were treated with antithyroid drugs (ATDs) or radioactive iodine (RAI) or thyroidectomy (TX).

    Methods: We conducted a comprehensive search of the Embase and PubMed database. Read More

    Acute liver damage following intravenous glucocorticoid treatment for Graves' ophthalmopathy.
    Endocrine 2016 Oct 22;54(1):259-268. Epub 2016 Mar 22.
    Dipartimento di Medicina Clinica e Sperimentale, University of Pisa, Pisa, Italy.
    Purpose: Over the last years, there have been several reports on the occurrence of acute liver damage (ALD) in patients affected with Graves' ophthalmopathy (GO) receiving intravenous glucocorticoids (ivGCs). This article is aimed at reviewing the literature on this specific topic and reporting two new cases of ALD occurring in GO patients while on ivGCs.

    Methods: The terms "glucocorticoid therapy" and "Graves' Ophthalmopathy"/"Graves' Orbitopathy"/"Thyroid eye disease" were used both separately and in conjunction with the terms "liver disease," "liver damage," "hepatotoxicity," "liver failure," to search MEDLINE for articles published since the first report of ALD in 2000 and up to 2015. Read More

    Thyrotropin and CD40L Stimulate Interleukin-12 Expression in Fibrocytes: Implications for Pathogenesis of Thyroid-Associated Ophthalmopathy.
    Thyroid 2016 Dec 18;26(12):1768-1777. Epub 2016 Oct 18.
    1 Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, University of Michigan Medical School , Ann Arbor, Michigan.
    Background: Increased numbers of bone marrow-derived progenitor cells, known as fibrocytes, populate the peripheral circulation, orbit, and thyroid of patients with Graves' disease (GD). These cells have been implicated in the development of thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy. They can differentiate into myofibroblasts or adipocytes, produce inflammatory cytokines, and remodel tissue. Read More

    The Change of Lacrimal Gland Volume in Korean Patients with Thyroid-associated Ophthalmopathy.
    Korean J Ophthalmol 2016 Oct 29;30(5):319-325. Epub 2016 Sep 29.
    Department of Ophthalmology, Gyeongsang National University College of Medicine, Jinju, Korea.; Gyeongsang Institute of Health Science, Gyeongsang National University, Jinju, Korea.
    Purpose: To describe the change of lacrimal gland volumes in Korean patients with thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy (TAO) via computed tomography (CT).

    Methods: A retrospective review of CT images from 217 TAO patients and 135 control subjects was performed. The TAO patients were diagnosed between May 2005 and May 2014 and had a CT performed on initial presentation (330 orbital CT scans). Read More

    Severe pediatric Graves orbitopathy in adolescents of African origin.
    Orbit 2016 Dec 12;35(6):317-320. Epub 2016 Aug 12.
    b Department of Oculoplastic and Orbital Surgery , The Rotterdam Eye Hospital , Rotterdam , The Netherlands.
    This article reports on two cases of severe pediatric Graves orbitopathy (GO) in two adolescents of African origin. Two black male adolescents presented with highly active GO and signs of beginning compressive optic neuropathy. Neither of them were smokers nor had a family history of GO. Read More

    Natural history of graves' orbitopathy after treatment.
    Endocrine 2016 Oct 5. Epub 2016 Oct 5.
    Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Endocrinology Units, University of Pisa and University Hospital of Pisa, Pisa, Italy.
    Intravenous glucocorticoids are used for Graves' orbitopathy, alone or associated with/followed by additional treatments (orbital radiotherapy, orbital decompression, palpebral or eye surgery). However, the relation between associated/additional treatments and other variables with Graves' orbitopathy outcome following intravenous glucocorticoids is not clear. Thus, the present study was conducted to investigate retrospectively the impact of associated/additional treatments and other variables on Graves' orbitopathy outcome after intravenous glucocorticoids. Read More

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