4,878 results match your criteria Thyroid Nodule Imaging

Management of thyroid nodules.

Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol 2022 Jul;10(7):540-548

Department of Pathology, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA.

In the past 30 years, there has been a substantial rise in the detection of thyroid nodules. Largely asymptomatic, thyroid nodules are most often incidental findings that typically pose minimal risk. Data supporting these findings show a rapid rise in the incidental detection of thyroid nodules and cancer, but minimal effect on mortality rates, despite treatment. Read More

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Clinical and diagnostic imaging findings in a bengal tiger () with cervical spondylomyelopathy: A case report.

Rev Bras Med Vet 2022 12;44:e003921. Epub 2022 Apr 12.

Veterinarian, PhD, Head of Opsedale Veterinario San Michele, Tavazzano con Villavesco, (LO), Italy.

An adult neutered male Bengal tiger () presented with abnormal gait. Neurological examination showed poor left ambulatory hemiparesis, spontaneous proprioceptive deficit in the left anterior limb, and decreased flexor reflex in the forelimbs. The neurological symptoms suggested a caudal cervical spinal cord lesion. Read More

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Superb microvascular imaging for distinguishing thyroid nodules: A meta-analysis (PRISMA).

Medicine (Baltimore) 2022 Jun 17;101(24):e29505. Epub 2022 Jun 17.

Department of Ultrasound, the First Affiliated Hospital of Dalian Medical University, Dalian, China.

Background: Earlier studies have shown that the superb microvascular imaging (SMI) can detect tumor angiogenesis to distinguish thyroid nodules, but there is no systematic review. This meta-analysis aimed to identify the accuracy of ultrasound SMI for the diagnosis of thyroid nodules.

Methods: We searched PubMed, Cochrane Library, and CBM databases. Read More

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Empirical Method for Thyroid Disease Classification Using a Machine Learning Approach.

Biomed Res Int 2022 7;2022:9809932. Epub 2022 Jun 7.

University of Chinese Academy of Sciences (UCAS), Beijing, China.

There are many thyroid diseases affecting people all over the world. Many diseases affect the thyroid gland, like hypothyroidism, hyperthyroidism, and thyroid cancer. Thyroid inefficiency can cause severe symptoms in patients. Read More

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A Practical CEUS Thyroid Reporting System for Thyroid Nodules.

Radiology 2022 Jun 14:212319. Epub 2022 Jun 14.

From the Department of Ultrasound, Sun Yat-sen Memorial Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University (J.R., X.X., M.L., W.Z., R.L., P.L., B.O., B.L.), Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Malignant Tumor Epigenetics and Gene Regulation (J.R., X.X., M.L., W.Z., R.L., B.O., B.L.), and Department of Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery (P.L.), No. 33 Yingfeng Rd, Guangzhou 510289, China; Department of Ultrasound, Central People's Hospital of Zhanjiang, Zhanjiang, China (Y.C., Y.X.); and Department of Ultrasound, Affiliated Huadu Hospital of Southern Medical University, Guangzhou 510810, China (H.Z., Q.Y.).

Background The role of contrast-enhanced US (CEUS) in reducing unnecessary biopsies of thyroid nodules has received little attention. Purpose To construct and externally validate a thyroid imaging reporting and data system (TI-RADS) based on nonenhanced US and CEUS to stratify the malignancy risk of thyroid nodules. Materials and Methods This retrospective study evaluated 756 patients with 801 thyroid nodules who underwent nonenhanced US, CEUS, and fine-needle aspiration and received a final diagnosis from January 2018 to December 2019. Read More

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Parameters of dual-energy CT for the differential diagnosis of thyroid nodules and the indirect prediction of lymph node metastasis in thyroid carcinoma: a retrospective diagnostic study.

Gland Surg 2022 May;11(5):913-926

Department of Gastrointestinal Surgery, First Affiliated Hospital of Guangxi Medical University, Nanning, China.

Background: To further investigate the differential diagnosis of thyroid nodules using dual-energy computed tomography (DECT) and explore the relationship between DECT parameters and lymph node metastasis in thyroid carcinoma for clinical practice, especially difficult diagnosis by routine imaging examination.

Methods: A total of 150 patients with thyroid nodules who underwent preoperative DECT and Thyroid Imaging Report and Data System (TIRADS) classification were enrolled in this study, including 96 patients with malignant tumors and 54 with benign tumors. The DECT parameters were got form regions of interest (ROI) by an experienced radiologist team and thyroid nodules and lymph node status of all patients were identified by cytology and histopathology. Read More

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A machine-learning algorithm for distinguishing malignant from benign indeterminate thyroid nodules using ultrasound radiomic features.

J Med Imaging (Bellingham) 2022 May 26;9(3):034501. Epub 2022 May 26.

The University of Chicago, Department of Radiology, Chicago, Illinois, United States.

: Ultrasound (US)-guided fine needle aspiration (FNA) cytology is the gold standard for the evaluation of thyroid nodules. However, up to 30% of FNA results are indeterminate, requiring further testing. In this study, we present a machine-learning analysis of indeterminate thyroid nodules on ultrasound with the aim to improve cancer diagnosis. Read More

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Clinical Efficacy of Chinese and Western Medicine in the Treatment of Benign Thyroid Nodules: A Meta-Analysis.

Contrast Media Mol Imaging 2022 28;2022:3108485. Epub 2022 May 28.

Hospital of Chengdu University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Chengdu 610072, China.

Background: Studies have shown that Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) effectively improved the response rate and reduced the maximum nodule diameter of benign thyroid nodules (BTN). This study aimed at systematically reviewing all related studies to assess the clinical efficacy of CHM and Western medicine in the treatment of BTN.

Methods: PubMed, Web of Science, Embase, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, and Wanfang databases were searched for randomized controlled trials, published between 2000 and 2021, on CHM for treating BTN. Read More

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The European Institute of Oncology Thyroid Imaging Reporting and Data System for Classification of Thyroid Nodules: A Prospective Study.

J Clin Med 2022 Jun 6;11(11). Epub 2022 Jun 6.

Department of Oncology and Hematology-Oncology, University of Milan, 20122 Milan, Italy.

Background: To evaluate the performance, quality and effectiveness of "IEO-TIRADS" in assigning a TI-RADS score to thyroid nodules (TN) when compared with "EU-TIRADS" and the US risk score calculated with the S-Detect software ("S-Detect"). The primary objective is the evaluation of diagnostic accuracy (DA) by "IEO-TIRADS", "S-Detect" and "EU-TIRADS", and the secondary objective is to evaluate the diagnostic performances of the scores, using the histological report as the gold standard.

Methods: A radiologist collected all three scores of the TNs detected and determined the risk of malignancy. Read More

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Dysregulation of KRT19, TIMP1, and CLDN1 gene expression is associated with thyroid cancer.

Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2022 Aug 31;617(Pt 1):55-59. Epub 2022 May 31.

Laboratorio de Biomedicina y Biología Molecular, Ingeniería en Biotecnología, Universidad Politécnica de Sinaloa, Mazatlán, 82199, Mexico. Electronic address:

Thyroid nodules are the main indicators of thyroid cancer, their malignancy is evaluated by cytological analysis and imaging technology, however, there are still cases where the result is not enough to classify thyroid cancer. Therefore, there is a necessity for accurate molecular biomarkers to collaborate in the diagnosis. Here, we analyzed the mRNA relative expression of CLDN1, TIMP1, and KRT19 genes in FNA of malignant (n = 48) and benign (n = 49) thyroid nodules by RT-qPCR analysis to assess their predictive value as cancer biomarkers. Read More

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Usefulness of ultrasound-guided core biopsy in thyroid nodules with inconclusive fine-needle aspiration biopsy findings.

Radiologia (Engl Ed) 2022 May-Jun;64(3):195-205

Servicio de Cirugía, Agencia Sanitaria Costa del Sol, Marbella, Málaga, Spain.

Objectives: To determine the diagnostic performance of ultrasound-guided core-needle biopsy in thyroid nodules after two inconclusive fine-needle aspiration biopsies. To assess the complications of core-needle biopsy. To analyze the reliability of diagnoses obtained with core-needle biopsy. Read More

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Hürthle cell-predominant thyroid fine needle aspiration cytology: A four risk-factor model highly accurate in excluding malignancy and predicting neoplasm.

Diagn Cytopathol 2022 Jun 8. Epub 2022 Jun 8.

Department of Pathology, Pathology and Laboratory Medicine Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio, USA.

Background: Interpretation of Hürthle cell-predominant cytologies (HCP) is very challenging as a majority is diagnosed as indeterminate. Prior studies have reported various cytologic features to help distinguish non-neoplastic (NN) from neoplastic and malignant lesions but had contradicting results. Our aim was to identify risk factors predictive of neoplasm and/or malignancy by correlating cytologic features with clinical and ultrasound findings. Read More

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Fine-Needle Aspiration Under Guidance of Ultrasound Examination of Thyroid Lesions.

Methods Mol Biol 2022 ;2534:29-37

Cancer Molecular Pathology of School of Medicine and Dentistry, Menzies Health Institute Queensland, Griffith University, Gold Coast, QLD, Australia.

Fine-needle aspiration biopsy is the most common method for preoperative diagnosis of thyroid carcinomas including papillary carcinoma. The procedure is best performed with ultrasound by operator with professional skill and knowledge. Several guidelines recommend the indication of fine-needle aspiration concerning the pattern of ultrasound and size of nodules. Read More

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Assessment of Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma with Ultrasound Examination.

Methods Mol Biol 2022 ;2534:17-28

Cancer Molecular Pathology of School of Medicine and Dentistry, Menzies Health Institute Queensland, Griffith University, Gold Coast, QLD, Australia.

Ultrasound examination of the thyroid is useful for preoperative assessment of thyroid nodules including papillary thyroid carcinoma. The examination mainly is to determine the malignant potential of thyroid nodule(s). There are different systems to predict malignant potential in the thyroid nodules and cervical lymph nodes by ultrasound. Read More

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Clinical Application of C-TIRADS Category and Contrast-Enhanced Ultrasound in Differential Diagnosis of Solid Thyroid Nodules Measuring ≥1 cm.

Med Sci Monit 2022 Jun 7;28:e936368. Epub 2022 Jun 7.

Department of Ultrasound, General Hospital of Northern Theater Command, Shenyang, Liaoning, China (mainland).

BACKGROUND The aim of this study was to investigate the performance of Chinese Thyroid Imaging Reporting and Data System (C-TIRADS) category combined with contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) in diagnosing thyroid cancer. MATERIAL AND METHODS From October 2020 to March 2021, 116 thyroid nodules from 113 patients who underwent conventional ultrasound and CEUS examinations at the General Hospital of Northern Theater Command were reviewed. In the conventional ultrasound examination, thyroid nodules were categorized by C-TIRADS. Read More

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The Future of Thyroid Nodule Risk Stratification.

Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am 2022 Jun 4;51(2):305-321. Epub 2022 May 4.

Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism, Department of Medicine, The Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center, 1581 Dodd Drive, Columbus, OH 43210, USA. Electronic address:

Clinical evidence supports the association of ultrasound features with benign or malignant thyroid nodules and serves as the basis for sonographic stratification of thyroid nodules, according to an estimated thyroid cancer risk. Contemporary guidelines recommend management strategies according to thyroid cancer risk, thyroid nodule size, and the clinical scenario. Yet, reproducible and accurate thyroid nodule risk stratification requires expertise, time, and understanding of the weight different ultrasound features have on thyroid cancer risk. Read More

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Machine Learning-Assisted Diagnostic System for Indeterminate Thyroid Nodules.

Ultrasound Med Biol 2022 Jun 1. Epub 2022 Jun 1.

Department of Radiology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA. Electronic address:

To develop an ultrasound-based machine learning classifier to diagnose benignity within indeterminate thyroid nodules (ITNs) by fine-needle aspiration, 180 patients with 194 ITNs (Bethesda classes III, IV and V) undergoing surgery over a 5-y study period were analyzed. The data set was randomly divided into training and testing data sets with 155 and 39 ITNs, respectively. All nodules were evaluated by ultrasound using the American College of Radiology Thyroid Imaging Reporting and Data System by manually scoring composition, echogenicity, shape, margin and echogenic foci. Read More

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Toward Reduction in False-Positive Thyroid Nodule Biopsies with a Deep Learning-based Risk Stratification System Using US Cine-Clip Images.

Radiol Artif Intell 2022 May 11;4(3):e210174. Epub 2022 May 11.

Departments of Biomedical Data Science (R.Y., T.K., M.N.A., A.G., M.U.A., E.A., N.D.S., H.S., D.L.R.) and Radiology (S.A.S., A.L.W., N.M., D.G., V.B., D.L.R., T.S.D.), Stanford University School of Medicine, 300 Pasteur Dr, Stanford, CA 94305.

Purpose: To develop a deep learning-based risk stratification system for thyroid nodules using US cine images.

Materials And Methods: In this retrospective study, 192 biopsy-confirmed thyroid nodules (175 benign, 17 malignant) in 167 unique patients (mean age, 56 years ± 16 [SD], 137 women) undergoing cine US between April 2017 and May 2018 with American College of Radiology (ACR) Thyroid Imaging Reporting and Data System (TI-RADS)-structured radiology reports were evaluated. A deep learning-based system that exploits the cine images obtained during three-dimensional volumetric thyroid scans and outputs malignancy risk was developed and compared, using fivefold cross-validation, against a two-dimensional (2D) deep learning-based model (Static-2DCNN), a radiomics-based model using cine images (Cine-Radiomics), and the ACR TI-RADS level, with histopathologic diagnosis as ground truth. Read More

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Analysis of Differential Diagnosis of Benign and Malignant Partially Cystic Thyroid Nodules Based on Ultrasound Characterization With a TIRADS Grade-4a or Higher Nodules.

Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) 2022 16;13:861070. Epub 2022 May 16.

Department of Gastroenterological Surgery, Peking University People's Hospital, Beijing, China.

Partially cystic thyroid nodules (PCTNs) are a kind of thyroid nodule with both solid and cystic components, and are usually misdiagnosed as benign nodules. The objective of this study was to determine the ultrasound (US) characterizations with a TIRADS Grade-4a or higher partially cystic thyroid nodules (PCTNs) which are associated with being malignant or benign. In this study, 133 PCTNs with a TIRADS Grade-4a or higher were enrolled; 83 were malignant and 50 were benign. Read More

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Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of American College of Radiology TI-RADS Inter-Reader Reliability for Risk Stratification of Thyroid Nodules.

Front Oncol 2022 13;12:840516. Epub 2022 May 13.

Department of Medical Imaging, Jiangsu Vocational College of Medicine, Yancheng, China.

Purpose: To investigate the inter-reader agreement of using the American College of Radiology (ACR) Thyroid Imaging Reporting and Data System (TI-RADS) for risk stratification of thyroid nodules.

Methods: A literature search of Web of Science, PubMed, Cochrane Library, EMBASE, and Google Scholar was performed to identify eligible articles published from inception until October 31, 2021. We included studies reporting inter-reader agreement of different radiologists who applied ACR TI-RADS for the classification of thyroid nodules. Read More

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rFOV-DWI and SMS-RESLOVE-DWI in patients with thyroid nodules: Comparison of image quality and apparent diffusion coefficient measurements.

Magn Reson Imaging 2022 09 26;91:62-68. Epub 2022 May 26.

Department of Radiology, Chongqing University Cancer Hospital, Chongqing 400030, China. Electronic address:

Objectives: To compare reduced field of view technique diffusion-weighted imaging (rFOV-DWI) and simultaneous multislice readout segmentation of long variable echo-trains diffusion-weighted imaging (SMS-RESOLVE-DWI) in terms of image quality and diagnostic performance of the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) for thyroid nodules.

Materials And Methods: A total of 27 benign thyroid nodules and 26 malignant thyroid nodules were enrolled. rFOV-DWI and SMS-RESOLVE-DWI were performed at b values of 0 and 1000 s/mm. Read More

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September 2022

Clinical diagnostic value of American College of Radiology thyroid imaging report and data system in different kinds of thyroid nodules.

BMC Endocr Disord 2022 May 31;22(1):145. Epub 2022 May 31.

Ultrasonography Department, Fujian Provincial Hospital, 134 Fuzhou East Street, Fuzhou, 350001, China.

Background: To evaluate the diagnostic value of American College of Radiology (ACR) score and ACR Thyroid Imaging Report and Data System (TI-RADS) for benign nodules, medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) and papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) through comparing with Kwak TI-RADS.

Methods: Five hundred nine patients diagnosed with PTC, MTC or benign thyroid nodules were included and classified into the benign thyroid nodules group (n = 264), the PTC group (n = 189) and the MTC group (n = 56). The area under the curve (AUC) values were analyzed and the receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curves were drawn to compare the diagnostic efficiencies of ACR score, ACR TI-RADS and KWAK TI-RADS on benign thyroid nodules, MTC and PTC. Read More

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Combined Conventional Ultrasound and Contrast-Enhanced Computed Tomography for Cervical Lymph Node Metastasis Prediction in Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma.

J Ultrasound Med 2022 May 30. Epub 2022 May 30.

Department of Ultrasound, The Cancer Hospital of the University of Chinese Academy of Sciences (Zhejiang Cancer Hospital), Institute of Basic Medicine and Cancer (IBMC), Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hangzhou, China.

Objectives: This study aimed to evaluate conventional ultrasound (US) combined with contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) of the neck to predict central lymph node metastasis (CLNM) in clinical lymph-negative patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC), establish a simple preoperative risk-scoring model, and validate its effectiveness in a two-center dataset.

Methods: A total of 423 patients with PTC preoperatively evaluated by US and contrast-enhanced CT were included in the modeling group, and 102 patients from two hospitals were enrolled in the validation group. Independent predictive factors were determined using multivariate logistic regression analysis. Read More

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The Effectiveness and Quality of Life Outcomes by Transoral Endoscopic Vestibular Thyroidectomy Using Intraoperative Indocyanin Green Fluorescence Imaging and Neuromonitoring-A Cohort Study.

Healthcare (Basel) 2022 May 21;10(5). Epub 2022 May 21.

Surgery Unit, College of Medicine, University of Sharjah, Sharjah P.O. Box 27272, United Arab Emirates.

Background: Transoral endoscopic vestibular thyroidectomy (TOEVT), a variant of natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery, offers a scar-less thyroid to young females. However, few studies have compared the effectiveness and quality of life (QoL) outcomes of the TOEVT with open thyroidectomy (OT). This is the first study in the Middle East and North Africa region that compares the effectiveness, safety profile and QoL outcomes between TOEVT with OT. Read More

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Thyroid Cancer Detection in a Routine Clinical Setting: Performance of ACR TI-RADS, FNAC, and Molecular Testing in Prospective Cohort Study.

Biomedicines 2022 Apr 20;10(5). Epub 2022 Apr 20.

Institute of Endocrinology, Narodni 8, 11694 Prague, Czech Republic.

The aim of our study was to address the potential for improvements in thyroid cancer detection in routine clinical settings using a clinical examination, the American College of Radiology Thyroid Imaging Reporting and Database System (ACR TI-RADS), and fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) concurrently with molecular diagnostics. A prospective cohort study was performed on 178 patients. DNA from FNA samples was used for next-generation sequencing to identify mutations in the genes , , , , and . Read More

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Case Report: Recurrent Malignant Struma Ovarii With Hyperthyroidism and Metastases, A Rare Case Report and Review of the Literature.

Pathol Oncol Res 2022 10;28:1610221. Epub 2022 May 10.

Department of Nuclear Medicine, Tianjin Medical University General Hospital, Tianjin, China.

SO (Struma ovarii) is a rare form of ovarian teratoma which originates from ovarian dermoid cysts. Due to the rarity of this disease, relevant studies might not be sufficiently documented, especially cases with hyperthyroidism and multiple metastases. A 40-year-old female patient was admitted to our hospital due to management of early pregnancy along with a recurrent abdominal and pelvic mass. Read More

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Primary thyroid leiomyosarcoma with transvenous extension to the right atrium: a case report.

Eur Heart J Case Rep 2022 May 3;6(5):ytac193. Epub 2022 May 3.

Department of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, Comenius University in Bratislava, 81108 Bratislava, Slovakia.

Background: Primary thyroid leiomyosarcoma (LMS) is a very rare tumour with less than 40 published cases yet. Direct metastatic extension into the great cervical veins and caval veins is extremely uncommon. Extension to the right heart has not yet been reported. Read More

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Multitask network for thyroid nodule diagnosis based on TI-RADS.

Med Phys 2022 May 24. Epub 2022 May 24.

Department of Diagnostic and Therapeutic Ultrasonography, Tianjin Medical University Cancer Institute and Hospital, National Clinical Research Center for Cancer, Key laboratory of Cancer Prevention and Therapy, Tianjin's Clinical Research Center for Cancer, Tianjin, China.

Purpose: Assessment of thyroid nodules is usually relied on the experience of the radiologist and is time-consuming. Classification model of thyroid nodules cannot only reduce the burden on physicians but also provide objective recommendations. However, most classification models based on deep learning simply give a prediction result of the benignity or malignancy of nodules; thus, physicians have no way of knowing how the deep learning gets the prediction result due to the black-box nature of neural networks. Read More

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Classification of Thyroid Nodules by Using Deep Learning Radiomics Based on Ultrasound Dynamic Video.

J Ultrasound Med 2022 May 23. Epub 2022 May 23.

Department of Medical Imaging, The First Affiliated Hospital of Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an, China.

Objectives: We aimed to design a radiomics model for differential diagnosis of thyroid carcinoma based on dynamic ultrasound video, and compare its diagnostic performance with that of radiomics model based on static ultrasound images.

Methods: Between January 2019 and May 2021, 890 patients with 1015 thyroid nodules (775 for training, 240 for validation) were prospectively enrolled. In total 890 patients underwent thyroidectomy within 1 month, and ultrasound dynamic video and static images were both acquired. Read More

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Application of contrast-enhanced ultrasound in minimally invasive ablation of benign thyroid nodules.

J Interv Med 2022 Feb 26;5(1):32-36. Epub 2022 Feb 26.

Department of Ultrasound, Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai, China.

Objective: This study aimed to investigate the application value of contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) before and after minimally invasive ablation procedures for benign thyroid nodule(s) (BTN).

Methods: This prospective study included patients with BTNs scheduled to undergo ultrasound-guided minimally invasive ablation treatment. CEUS was performed before and after ablation (at 1 day, and 1, 6, and 12 months after ablation). Read More

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February 2022