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    Thyroid Microcalcifications in the Absence of Identifiable Nodules and Their Association With Thyroid Cancer.
    J Ultrasound Med 2018 May 21. Epub 2018 May 21.
    Department of Internal Medicine, Universidad del Desarrollo, Santiago, Chile.
    Objectives: To determine ultrasound (US) and clinical findings of thyroid microcalcifications in the absence of a nodule and their association with the risk of malignancy.

    Methods: The Institutional Review Board approved a 5-year retrospective study. Twenty-one patients with clustered or scattered thyroid microcalcifications in the absence of nodules on US images who underwent fine-needle aspiration biopsies (FNABs) were included. Read More

    Current use of molecular profiling for indeterminate thyroid nodules.
    Cir Esp 2018 May 17. Epub 2018 May 17.
    Hospital Universitario Ramón y Cajal, Madrid, España.
    Even though cytology remains the gold standard to assess the nature of thyroid nodules, up to 30% of the results are indeterminate (BethesdaIII and IV). In these cases, current guidelines recommend performing diagnostic surgery, which proves malignancy in only 15-30% of cases. A more precise method is needed to avoid unnecessary surgeries, surgical complications and costs in the process of diagnosing indeterminate nodules. Read More

    Diagnostic performance of ATA, BTA and TIRADS sonographic patterns in the predication of malignancy in histologically proven thyroid nodules.
    Singapore Med J 2018 May 18. Epub 2018 May 18.
    Department of Endocrinology, Singapore General Hospital, Singapore.
    Introduction: We aimed to compare the malignancy risk stratification of histologically proven thyroid nodules using the 2015 American Thyroid Association (ATA) Management Guidelines, 2014 British Thyroid Association (BTA) Guidelines for the Management of Thyroid Cancer and Thyroid Imaging Reporting and Data System (TIRADS).

    Methods: Thyroid nodules measuring > 1 cm resected over 5.5 years were retrospectively studied. Read More

    Interventional radiology of the thyroid gland: critical review and state of the art.
    Gland Surg 2018 Apr;7(2):132-146
    Department of Biotechnology and Applied Clinical Science, University of L'Aquila, L'Aquila, Italy.
    Thyroid nodules are a common incidental finding during a routinely ultrasound (US) exam unrelated to the thyroid gland in the healthy adult population with a prevalence of 20-76%. As treated before with surgery, in the last years new minimally invasive techniques have been developed as an alternative to surgery. The aim of this review, based on newly revised guidelines, is to provide some information regarding the basic principles, indications, materials, techniques, and results of mini-invasive procedures or treatments for thyroid nodules. Read More

    Which needle in the treatment of thyroid nodules?
    Gland Surg 2018 Apr;7(2):111-116
    Dipartimento di Radiologia Interventistica, Istituto Europeo di Oncologia, Milano, Italy.
    Thyroid nodules are a common finding in general population, with a prevalence of 20% to 70% at ultrasound (US) examination. Many of them are benign but treatment can be necessary to relief compressive symptoms. In the last years, percutaneous ablations have achieved amazing development in the treatment of thyroid nodules as they provide a minimally invasive but effective approach. Read More

    Cooled tip radiofrequency ablation of benign thyroid nodules: preliminary experience with two different devices.
    Gland Surg 2018 Apr;7(2):67-79
    Department of Radiology, San Paolo Hospital, Milan, Italy.
    Background: Thyroid nodules are very common in general population. Even if benign, they may require a treatment in case of symptoms or cosmetic concerns. In the last years, minimally invasive treatments alternative to surgery have been developed, in particular ultrasound (US) guided radiofrequency ablation (RFA). Read More

    Quantitative Analysis of Thyroid Tumors Vascularity: A Comparison between 3-D Contrast-Enhanced Ultrasound and 3-D Power Doppler on benign and malignant thyroid nodules.
    Med Phys 2018 May 15. Epub 2018 May 15.
    Biolab, Department of Electronics and Telecommunication, Politecnico di Torino, Turin, Italy.
    Purpose: To perform a comparative quantitative analysis of Power Doppler ultrasound (PDUS) and Contrast-Enhancement ultrasound (CEUS) for the quantification of thyroid nodules vascularity patterns, with the goal of identifying biomarkers correlated to the malignancy of the nodule with both imaging techniques.

    Methods: We propose a novel method to reconstruct the vascular architecture from 3-D PDUS and CEUS images of thyroid nodules, and to automatically extract seven quantitative features related to the morphology and distribution of vascular network. Features include three tortuosity metrics, the number of vascular trees and branches, the vascular volume density and the main spatial vascularity pattern. Read More

    Ultrasound criteria for risk stratification of thyroid nodules in the previously iodine deficient area of Austria - a single centre, retrospective analysis.
    Thyroid Res 2018 9;11. Epub 2018 May 9.
    Schilddruesenpraxis Josefstadt, Laudongasse 12/8, Vienna, AT-1080 Austria.
    Background: We aimed to study the validity of six published ultrasound criteria for risk stratification of thyroid nodules in the former severely iodine deficient population of Austria.

    Methods: Retrospective, single centre, observer blinded study design. All patients with a history of thyroidectomy due to nodules seen in the centre between 2004 and 2014 with preoperative in-house sonography and documented postoperative histology were analyzed ( = 195). Read More

    Agenesis of the isthmus of the thyroid gland.
    Turk J Surg 2018 14;34(1):60-61. Epub 2015 Jul 14.
    Department of Anesthesiology and Reanimation, Giresun University Faculty of Medicine, Giresun, Turkey.
    The thyroid is an endocrine gland composed of two lobes connected by the isthmus tissue. Thyroid isthmus agenesis is a rare condition, and only a few cases have been reported in the literature. Here, we discuss the case of a 56-year-old female patient in whom agenesis of the thyroid isthmus was discovered incidentally during surgery for a multinodular goitre. Read More

    Benign thyroid nodule unresponsive to radiofrequency ablation treated with laser ablation: a case report.
    J Med Case Rep 2018 May 11;12(1):127. Epub 2018 May 11.
    Endocrinology Unit, Istituto di Ricovero e Cura a Carattere Scientifico (IRCCS), Azienda Ospedaliera Universitaria (AOU) San Martino University, Istituto Nazionale per la Ricerca sul Cancro (IST), Largo Rosanna Benzi, n°10, I-16132, Genoa, Italy.
    Background: Radiofrequency ablation and laser ablation are safe and effective techniques for reducing thyroid nodule volume, neck symptoms, and cosmetic complaints. Therapeutic success is defined as a nodule reduction > 50% between 6 and 12 months after the procedure, but a percentage of nodules inexplicably do not respond to thermal ablation.

    Case Presentation: We describe the case of a young Caucasian woman with a solid benign thyroid nodule who refused surgery and who had undergone radiofrequency ablation in 2013. Read More

    Does the ACR TI-RADS scoring allow us to safely avoid unnecessary thyroid biopsy? single center analysis in a large cohort.
    Endocrine 2018 May 9. Epub 2018 May 9.
    Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Dokuz Eylul University Faculty of Medicine, 35340,, Izmir, Turkey.
    Introduction: The American College of Radiology (ACR) has recently proposed a guideline that recommends clinicians to perform thyroid fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) on the basis of ultrasound features. In this study, we focused on nodules for which no biopsy is recommended by the ACR Thyroid Imaging, Reporting and Data System (TI-RADS) guideline.

    Subjects And Methods: Two-thousand eight-hundred and forty-seven consecutive patients with thyroid nodules who underwent FNAB according to the 2009 American Thyroid Association (ATA) guideline were included. Read More

    Comparison of high intensity focused ultrasound and radioiodine for treating toxic thyroid nodules.
    Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 2018 May 9. Epub 2018 May 9.
    Department of Nuclear Medicine and Thyroid Centre, Oncology Institute of Southern Switzerland, 6500, Bellinzona, Switzerland.
    Purpose: We compared the effectiveness of high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) and radioiodine (RAI) to treat patients carrying toxic thyroid nodule (TTN). Normalization of serum thyrotropin (TSH) 1 year after treatment was the primary endpoint; concurrent changes in nodules' volume and scintigraphic pattern were also evaluated as secondary endpoints.

    Materials And Methods: Among patients ≥18 years old with TTN observed at our centre between January 1 , 2016 and December 31 , 2016 we prospectively enrolled 17 and 15 age and sex-matched patients treated with RAI and HIFU, respectively. Read More

    Ultrasound requested by general practitioners or for symptoms unrelated to the thyroid gland may explain higher prevalence of thyroid nodules in females.
    Clin Imaging 2018 May 3;50:289-293. Epub 2018 May 3.
    Instituto Português de Oncologia de Lisboa Francisco Gentil, Lisbon, Portugal. Electronic address:
    Background: A higher prevalence of thyroid nodules/carcinoma in females is well-known from the literature. The reasons for this difference are not fully explained. We intended to assess gender variation in the referral for ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration (FNA) of thyroid nodules, to study reasons for gender referral differences, and to assess differences in nodules characteristics between genders. Read More

    Use of the Thyroid Imaging, Reporting, and Data System (TI-RADS) scoring system for the evaluation of subcentimeter thyroid nodules.
    Cancer Cytopathol 2018 May 7. Epub 2018 May 7.
    Department of Pathology, Microbiology, and Immunology, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, Tennessee.
    Background: The American Thyroid Association (ATA) recommends fine-needle aspiration (FNA) biopsy of nodules measuring >1.5 cm with low-suspicion sonographic patterns or >1.0 cm with high/intermediate-suspicion features. Read More

    Hidden in Plain Sight: Transoral and Submental Thyroidectomy as a Compelling Alternative to "Scarless" Thyroidectomy.
    J Laparoendosc Adv Surg Tech A 2018 May 7. Epub 2018 May 7.
    Section of Endocrine Surgery, Department of Surgery, University of California , San Francisco, San Francisco, California.
    Background: Minimally invasive and remote access thyroid surgery has been evolving with the transoral endoscopic thyroidectomy vestibular approach (TOETVA) emerging as a true "scarless" thyroidectomy. In this study, we describe a hybrid transoral and submental thyroidectomy (TOaST) technique for thyroid lobectomy.

    Materials And Methods: A TOaST right thyroid lobectomy was performed for a 4 cm cytologically benign right thyroid nodule. Read More

    Usefulness of Doppler ultrasound-obtained resistance index in thyroid nodules with ultrasonographic malignant characteristics.
    Gac Med Mex 2018 ;154(2):161-164
    Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social, Centro Médico Nacional del Noreste, Hospital de Especialidades 25, Departamento de Radiología e Imagen. Monterrey, Nuevo León, México.
    Introduction: Thyroid nodular disease is highly prevalent in the general population. Its diagnosis has increased with Doppler ultrasound, by means of which features suggestive of malignancy can be detected, such as resistance and pulsatility indices elevation.

    Objective: To assess the correlation of a high resistance index and histopathological findings in patients with ultrasonographic suspicion of malignant thyroid nodules. Read More

    Recognizing pinhole parallax error for accurate localization of thyroid and parathyroid pathology.
    J Nucl Med Technol 2018 May 3. Epub 2018 May 3.
    Mubarak Al-Kabeer Hospital.
    Parallax error is a pitfall of pinhole scintigraphy which causes mislocalization of the objects. It is important to notice this error on pinhole thyroid and parathyroid scintigraphy and obtain additional images with parallel-hole collimator to accurately determine the upper and lower margins of large goiter and nodules and location of the ectopic thyroid tissue and parathyroid adenomas. In this teaching case report we wanted to revisit pinhole parallax error, present pinhole and SPECT/CT images of a case with large hyperactive thyroid nodule and review the literature and potential solutions to this important problem. Read More

    Clinical utility of EZH1 mutations in the diagnosis of follicular-patterned thyroid tumors.
    Hum Pathol 2018 Apr 30. Epub 2018 Apr 30.
    Department of Surgery, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, Republic of Korea.
    Follicular-patterned tumors of the thyroid gland are characterized by a predominantly follicular growth pattern. They frequently harbor RAS mutations, not BRAF mutations. Technological advances in molecular testing have discovered novel RAS-type mutations. Read More

    Rapid methods to create a positive control and identify the rearrangement in FNA thyroid samples by molecular biology.
    Oncotarget 2018 Apr 10;9(27):19255-19262. Epub 2018 Apr 10.
    Functional Genomics Unit, Istituto Nazionale Tumori -IRCCS -Fondazione G. Pascale, Napoli, Italia.
    Thyroid cancer is the most common malignancy of the endocrine system and includes well-differentiated forms, namely papillary and follicular carcinomas, and the poorly differentiated and undifferentiated forms that result from the transformation of thyroid follicular cells (anaplastic carcinomas). Notably, 5-10% of all thyroid cancers are medullary thyroid cancers that arise from parafollicular cells also known as C cells. The most common genetic mutations in papillary and follicular thyroid cancers are point mutations of the or genes, while the most common chromosomal alterations are and rearrangements. Read More

    The Association of Thyroid Nodules with Metabolic Status: A Cross-Sectional SPECT-China Study.
    Int J Endocrinol 2018 6;2018:6853617. Epub 2018 Mar 6.
    Institute and Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Shanghai Ninth People's Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China.
    Purpose: The aim of this study was to investigate the association of thyroid nodules (TNs) and their ultrasound (US) characteristics related to malignancy with metabolic status.

    Methods: The data were obtained from a cross-sectional study (SPECT-China, 2014-2015). The study included 9898 participants older than 18 years. Read More

    Thyroid Nodules in Pediatric Patients: Sonographic Characteristics and Likelihood of Cancer.
    Radiology 2018 Apr 30:171170. Epub 2018 Apr 30.
    From the Department of Radiology, Brigham and Women's Hospital, 75 Francis St, Boston, MA 02115 (D.M.R., C.B.B., P.M.D., H.E.P., E.A., M.C.F.); and Thyroid Program, Division of Endocrinology, Boston Children's Hospital, Boston, Mass (S.A.H., A.J.W., J.R.S., C.E.C.).
    Purpose To determine the relationship between demographic and sonographic characteristics of thyroid nodules and malignancy in a pediatric population. Materials and Methods All thyroid nodules in patients younger than 19 years that underwent ultrasound (US)-guided fine-needle aspiration biopsy between January 2004 and July 2017 were retrospectively identified. Age, sex, and background appearance of the thyroid gland were recorded for each patient, and sonographic characteristics and pathologic diagnosis were recorded for each nodule. Read More

    Impact of Nodule Size on Malignancy Risk Differs according to the Ultrasonography Pattern of Thyroid Nodules.
    Korean J Radiol 2018 May-Jun;19(3):534-541. Epub 2018 Apr 6.
    Department of Radiology, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul 03080, Korea.
    Objective: To test whether the impact of thyroid-nodule size on the malignancy risk differs according to the ultrasonography (US) patterns of nodules.

    Materials And Methods: This study is a post hoc analysis using data from the Thyroid Imaging Reporting and Data System (TIRADS) multicenter retrospective study which included 2000 consecutive thyroid nodules (≥ 1 cm) with final diagnoses. A total of 2000 consecutive thyroid nodules from 1802 patients (1387 women and 613 men; mean age, 51. Read More

    A survey of current approaches to thyroid nodules and thyroid operations.
    Int J Surg 2018 Apr 28;54(Pt A):100-104. Epub 2018 Apr 28.
    Erzincan University, Faculty of Medicine, General Surgery Clinic, Erzincan, Turkey.
    Introduction: Thyroid nodules are commonly seen. Our aim is to learn the behaviors and operational attitudes of surgeons approaching the thyroid nodules. In a literature search, our study is the first and only study performed merely on surgeons. Read More

    Procalcitonin as a postoperative marker in the follow-up of patients affected by medullary thyroid carcinoma.
    Int J Biol Markers 2018 Apr 1:1724600817747518. Epub 2018 Apr 1.
    2 Endocrinology Unit, Regina Elena National Cancer Institute, Rome - Italy.
    Aim: Due to the limits of calcitonin, other markers are warranted to better manage medullary thyroid carcinoma patients, and procalcitonin has been reported as promising. Here we aimed to evaluate procalcitonin as a marker of medullary thyroid carcinoma in the post-treatment follow-up.

    Methods: Medullary thyroid carcinoma patients previously treated by thyroidectomy were enrolled. Read More

    Thyroid Cancer Detection by Ultrasound Molecular Imaging with SHP2-Targeted Perfluorocarbon Nanoparticles.
    Contrast Media Mol Imaging 2018 8;2018:8710862. Epub 2018 Mar 8.
    Department of Ultrasound, Zhongda Hospital, Southeast University, Nanjing, China.
    Background: Contrast-enhanced ultrasound imaging has been widely used in the ultrasound diagnosis of a variety of tumours with high diagnostic accuracy, especially in patients with hepatic carcinoma, while its application is rarely reported in thyroid cancer. The currently used ultrasound contrast agents, microbubbles, cannot be targeted to molecular markers expressed in tumour cells due to their big size, leading to a big challenge for ultrasound molecular imaging. Phase-changeable perfluorocarbon nanoparticles may resolve the penetrability limitation of microbubbles and serve as a promising probe for ultrasound molecular imaging. Read More

    TIRADS score is of limited clinical value for risk stratification of indeterminate cytological results.
    Eur J Endocrinol 2018 Apr 27. Epub 2018 Apr 27.
    C Buffet, Thyroid and Endocrine Tumors Unit, Hopital Pitie-Salpetriere, Paris, France.
    Context: Thyroid nodules with cytological indeterminate results represent a daily and recurrent issue for patient management.

    Objective: The primary aim of our study was to determine if TIRADS (Thyroid Imaging Reporting and Data System) could be used to stratify the malignancy risk of these nodules and to help in their clinical management. Secondary objective was to estimate if this risk stratification would change after reclassification of encapsulated non-invasive follicular variant of papillary carcinomas (FVPTC) as NIFTP. Read More

    Interobserver Variability of Sonographic Features Used in the American College of Radiology Thyroid Imaging Reporting and Data System.
    AJR Am J Roentgenol 2018 Apr 27:1-6. Epub 2018 Apr 27.
    10 Department of Radiology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL.
    Objective: The purpose of this study was to assess interobserver variability in assigning features in the American College of Radiology Thyroid Imaging Reporting and Data System (ACR TI-RADS) lexicon and in making recommendations for thyroid nodule biopsy.

    Materials And Methods: The study cohort comprised 100 nodules in 92 patients who underwent fine-needle aspiration with definitive cytologic results (Bethesda category II or VI) or diagnostic lobectomy between April 2009 and May 2010. Eight board-certified radiologists evaluated the nodules according to the five feature categories that constitute ACR TI-RADS and gave a biopsy recommendation based on their own practice. Read More

    [Effect of low-dose ionizing radiation exposure on thyroid function in a medical occupational population].
    Zhonghua Lao Dong Wei Sheng Zhi Ye Bing Za Zhi 2018 Feb;36(2):91-94
    Nanjing Prevention and Treatment Center for Occupational Diseases, Nanjing 210042, China.
    We evaluated the effect of low-dose of ionizing radiation on thyroid function of medical occupational group with long-term exposure; furthermore; we analyzed the relationship between the thyroid hormones and the risk factors; such as exposure length; department. Ultimately; providing the scientific basis for setting the ionizing radiation protection standards. The population who engaged radiodiagnosis and radiotherapy in a tertiary-A hospital were set up as occupational exposure; 724 medical professionals as the research object. Read More

    Comparison of Cytopathologist-Performed Ultrasound-Guided Fine-Needle Aspiration With Cytopathologist-Performed Palpation-Guided Fine-Needle Aspiration: A Single Institutional Experience.
    Arch Pathol Lab Med 2018 Apr 26. Epub 2018 Apr 26.
    From the Department of Pathology, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City (Dr Conrad); the Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, California (Drs Yang, Sullivan, Moatamed, and Lu); the Parkland Center for Clinical Innovation, Dallas, Texas (Dr Chang); and the Department of Pathology, Torrance Memorial Medical Center, Torrance, California (Dr Bhasin).
    Context: - Although fine-needle aspiration (FNA) practice by pathologists is now well established, it has been primarily performed by manual palpation. In recent years, pathologists have begun to venture into ultrasound-guided FNAs (UGFNAs). Reports on experiences with this relatively new technique for pathologists have shown promising results. Read More

    Insulin Resistance Associated With Differentiated Thyroid Carcinoma: Penalized Conditional Logistic Regression Analysis of a Matched Case-Control Study Data.
    Int J Endocrinol Metab 2018 Jan 25;16(1):e14545. Epub 2017 Oct 25.
    MD, MPH, PhD, Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran.
    Background: In the recent years, thyroid cancer incidence has increased worldwide. It has been questioned whether factors, such as insulin resistance, are involved in this rise. The main aim of this study was to examine the association between insulin resistance and differentiated thyroid cancer. Read More

    Malignancy Rates in Thyroid Nodules Classified as Bethesda Categories III and IV: Retrospective Data from a Tertiary Center.
    Int J Endocrinol Metab 2018 Jan 13;16(1):e12871. Epub 2017 Dec 13.
    Head and Neck Surgery Department, Instituto do Cancer do Estado de Sao Paulo/Hospital das Clinicas da Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brasil.
    Background: Thyroid fine needle aspiration (FNA) has a well-established role in the diagnosis of thyroid nodules, and the "Bethesda system for reporting thyroid cytopathology" is used to interpret FNA results. Bethesda categories III and IV encompass varying risks of malignancy. In addition, there is some debate in the literature about how to select among many acceptable treatment approaches. Read More

    Association of Pro-apoptotic Gene Expression Changes with Benign Thyroid Nodules.
    In Vivo 2018 May-Jun;32(3):555-559
    Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Internal Medicine, Istanbul Faculty of Medicine, Istanbul University, Istanbul, Turkey.
    Background/aim: This study aimed to investigate the role of the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway in benign thyroid nodules.

    Materials And Methods: Paired samples of nodular and normal tissues were collected from 26 patients with nodular goiters undergoing thyroidectomy. Variable expression of Bcl-2, Bax and Bad genes were evaluated by quantitative PCR. Read More

    Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology for Neck Masses in Childhood. An Illustrative Approach.
    Diagnostics (Basel) 2018 Apr 22;8(2). Epub 2018 Apr 22.
    Department of Lab. Medicine and Pathology, University of Alberta, 8440 112 St., Edmonton, AB T6G 2B7, Canada.
    The primary indication of fine-needle aspiration cytology of the head and neck region is a thyroid nodule or a mass located in the cervical area or the head. Although a thyroid nodule may raise the suspicion of malignancy, less than one in 20 cases results in a carcinoma. In addition, the list of differential diagnoses is quite different according to the age of the patient. Read More

    Endocr Pract 2018 Apr 24. Epub 2018 Apr 24.
    From: 1Memorial Healthcare System - Departments of Integrative Endocrine Surgery and Pathology, Hollywood, Florida.
    Objective: Afirma Gene Expression Classifier (Afirma GEC) molecular analysis (Veracyte, Inc.; San Francisco, CA) is a negative predictive value (NPV) test developed to reduce the number of thyroidectomies in thyroid nodule patients with indeterminate cytology. GEC technology has reportedly reduced unnecessary thyroid surgery, but few studies have examined Afirma GEC false negative rates since usually patients with GEC benign nodules do not undergo surgery for definitive diagnosis. Read More

    Evaluation of thyroid nodule characteristics in subclinical hypothyroid patients under a myo-inositol plus selenium treatment.
    Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci 2018 Apr;22(7):2153-2159
    Department of Experimental Medicine, "Sapienza" University of Rome, Rome, Italy.
    Objective: The anticancer effect of myo-inositol (MI) is catching researchers' attention worldwide. Thyroid nodules (TNs) have been detected by ultrasound (US) in up to 76% of the general population and, although most of them are benign, thyroid cancer is the most common malignancy of the endocrine system.

    Patients And Methods: A retrospective, observational study was conducted in 642 patients with suspected hypothyroidism undergoing US. Read More

    Primary thyroid MALToma- a rare diagnosis of an unassuming thyroid nodule.
    J Community Hosp Intern Med Perspect 2018 6;8(1):42-45. Epub 2018 Feb 6.
    Department of Internal Medicine, Reading Health System, PA, USA.
    Primary thyroid lymphoma, although a rare malignancy, can arise in common chronic inflammatory conditions such as Hashimoto's thyroiditis. Incidental finding of a thyroid nodule with chronic thyroid inflammation warrants further investigation. Early detection of malignancy can play a vital role in improved outcomes. Read More

    Frequencies and malignancy rates of 6-tiered Bethesda categories of thyroid nodules according to ultrasound assessment and nodule size.
    Head Neck 2018 Apr 23. Epub 2018 Apr 23.
    Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiological Science, Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.
    Background: The malignancy risk of thyroid nodules differs according to Bethesda category, ultrasound features, and nodule size.

    Methods: In 2725 thyroid nodules that underwent ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration, frequencies and malignancy rates of Bethesda categories were compared according to size and ultrasound assessment.

    Results: When comparing the ultrasound suspicious nodules ≤10 mm and >10 mm, the frequency of the benign cytology was statistically higher in the >10 mm group, whereas the nondiagnostic and suspicious for malignancy cytology were higher in the ≤10 mm group. Read More

    Image-guided chemical and thermal ablations for thyroid disease: Review of efficacy and complications.
    Head Neck 2018 Apr 23. Epub 2018 Apr 23.
    Coordinator of The International Head and Neck Scientific Group.
    Image-guided ablation of thyroid disease is increasingly being commonly reported. Techniques including ethanol injection and thermal ablation using radio-frequency, laser, and microwave devices have been described. Minimally invasive approaches to the management of benign cystic, solid, and functional thyroid nodules as well as both primary and recurrent thyroid malignancy have been reported. Read More

    Medullary thyroid carcinoma: Application of Thyroid Imaging Reporting and Data System (TI-RADS) Classification.
    Endocrine 2018 Apr 21. Epub 2018 Apr 21.
    Department of Radiology, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul, Korea.
    Purpose: To evaluate the applicability of ultrasound (US)-based Thyroid Imaging Reporting and Data System (TI-RADS) for evaluating medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC).

    Materials And Methods: US images and medical records of patients with cytopathology-confirmed MTC between June 2003 and November 2016 were retrospectively reviewed. Four independent reviewers (two experienced and two inexperienced radiologists) evaluated 57 pre-operative US images of patients with MTC for shape, composition, echogenicity, margin, calcification of the MTC nodules, and categorized the nodules using TI-RADS classification. Read More

    Sclerosing mucoepidermoid carcinoma with eosinophilia of thyroid gland: Not so indolent a neoplasm?
    Indian J Pathol Microbiol 2018 Apr-Jun;61(2):242-244
    Department of Pathology, Regional Cancer Centre, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala, India.
    A 58-year-old female, a known diabetic and hypertensive, presented with left-sided swelling on the anterior aspect of the neck of 1-year duration, which was rapidly increasing in size for the past 6 months. She was on Eltroxin for hypothyroidism for the past 1 year. Computed tomography study of the neck showed a nodule in the left lobe of thyroid which on fine-needle aspiration was suspicious for malignancy. Read More

    Young Age Is Associated With Increased Rates of Residual & Recurrent Pediatric Differentiated Thyroid Carcinoma.
    Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 2018 Apr 19. Epub 2018 Apr 19.
    Division of Endocrinology, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.
    Objective: Differentiated thyroid carcinoma is rare in young children. There are conflicting data as to whether disease in this age group differs from that in adolescents and specifically, if it is more aggressive. Current practice guidelines do not differentiate treatment between these groups, but speculate that differences may exist. Read More

    TERT, HRAS, and EIF1AX Mutations in a Patient with Follicular Adenoma.
    Thyroid 2018 May 18. Epub 2018 May 18.
    1 Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Thomas Jefferson University , Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.
    Background: Molecular markers are increasingly used as diagnostic tools in the management of thyroid nodules. There is a paucity of studies evaluating the prevalence of molecular markers in benign lesions.

    Patient Findings: A 68-year-old woman with hypothyroidism presented with a right thyroid nodule, which was atypia of undetermined significance on cytology. Read More

    Asymptomatic intrathyroidal pyriform sinus fistula mimicking thyroid cancer: A case report and literature review.
    Medicine (Baltimore) 2018 Apr;97(16):e0488
    Department of Otorhinolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul, Republic of Korea.
    Rationale: There have been many reports of non-thyroidal lesions which can be mistaken for thyroidal lesions on ultrasound (US) examination. However, it is not known that pyriform sinus fistula (PSF) can manifest as an incidental thyroid nodule and cause serious complication on fine-needle aspiration (FNA).

    Patient Concerns: We present a 34-year-old man with PSF incidentally detected on US. Read More

    Heterogeneity in Positive Predictive Value of RAS Mutations in Cytologically Indeterminate Thyroid Nodules.
    Thyroid 2018 May 16. Epub 2018 May 16.
    6 Department of Medical Affairs, Veracyte, Inc. , South San Francisco, California.
    Background: RAS mutations are common in the available mutational analysis of cytologically indeterminate (Cyto-I) thyroid nodules. However, their reported positive predictive value (PPV) for cancer is widely variable. The reason for this variability is unknown, and it causes clinical management uncertainty. Read More

    Percutaneous Ethanol Injection in Combination with Laser Ablation for a 100 ml Partially Cystic Thyroid Nodule.
    Case Rep Endocrinol 2018 15;2018:8046378. Epub 2018 Feb 15.
    Division of Endocrinology, "V. Fazzi" Hospital, Lecce, Italy.
    Until nonsurgical techniques like laser ablation (LA) or radiofrequency became available, patients suffering from large nodules with compressive symptoms were addressed to surgery. We describe the case of a 59-year-old woman with a large, partially cystic thyroid nodule having a volume of about 100 ml. As the patient refused surgery, despite her constant local discomfort, such large partially cystic nodule underwent several percutaneous ethanol injections (PEI) and then was submitted to LA. Read More

    Thyroid cancer management: from a suspicious nodule to targeted therapy.
    Anticancer Drugs 2018 Jul;29(6):483-490
    Otolaryngology Unit, Department of Thyroid Surgery, National Tumor Institute of Naples, Foundation G Pascale, Naples.
    Thyroid nodules are very common, and their frequency is four to five times higher in women than in men. Most of them are benign, with only a very little percentage revealing a malignant neoplasm. About 50% of thyroid nodules are detected by self-palpation of neck, whereas the other 50% are diagnosed by neck ultrasonography and following fine-needle aspiration. Read More

    Uptake of Tc-MIBI by Sclerosing Pneumocytoma Raising a False Suspicion of Metastasis From Medullary Thyroid Carcinoma.
    J Endocr Soc 2018 Apr 23;2(4):386-390. Epub 2018 Mar 23.
    Service of Endocrinology, Diabetology and Metabolism, CHUV, Lausanne University Hospital, Lausanne, Switzerland.
    Technetium-99m methoxy isobutyl isonitrile (Tc-MIBI; sestamibi) single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)/computed tomography (CT) performed for preoperative localization of parathyroid adenomas or for other indications can reveal incidentalomas. Interpretation of such findings can be challenging, particularly when thyroid or other endocrine tumors are also present. Preoperative staging of a 59-year-old female patient with medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) showing moderate hypermetabolism on F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/CT also detected a slightly hypermetabolic pulmonary nodule (standardized uptake value normalized by body weight max = 2. Read More

    ERBB1- and ERBB2-Positive Medullary Thyroid Carcinoma: A Case Report.
    Diseases 2018 Apr 10;6(2). Epub 2018 Apr 10.
    DIMES, Department of Experimental Medicine, University of Genoa, Via Antonio de Toni 14, 16132 Genoa, Italy.
    Medullary thyroid carcinomas (MTCs) are rare thyroid tumors occurring in both sporadic and hereditary forms, whose pathogenesis is related to RET proto-oncogene alterations. MTCs originate from parafollicular cells, which produce calcitonin that represents the biochemical activity of MTC. Total thyroidectomy is the main treatment for MTC and often cures patients with confined diseases. Read More

    Metaplastic breast carcinoma composed of epithelial-myoepithelial carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma: A case report.
    Medicine (Baltimore) 2018 Apr;97(15):e0364
    Department of Oncology.
    Rationale: Metaplastic breast carcinomas are a group of breast malignancies with varying histomorphological characteristics and prognoses. The tumor composed of epithelial -myoepithelial carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma was not reported previously.

    Patient Concerns: An 81-year-old woman presented with a palpable nodule in the left breast for 4 days. Read More

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