63,942 results match your criteria Thyroid Anatomy


Quality of life in obese patients after thyroidectomy for goiter.

Gland Surg 2021 Apr;10(4):1339-1346

Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis, TN, USA.

Background: Compressive symptoms are common in thyroid disease. Many studies have focused on the size of the gland and its effects on patients. However, few have taken into account the body mass of the patient. Read More

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Artificial intelligence in ultrasound.

Eur J Radiol 2021 Apr 12;139:109717. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Department of Medical Ultrasound, Shanghai Tenth People's Hospital, Ultrasound Research and Education Institute, Tongji University School of Medicine, Tongji University Cancer Center, Shanghai Engineering Research Center of Ultrasound Diagnosis and Treatment, National Clnical Research Center of Interventional Medicine, Shanghai, 200072, PR China. Electronic address:

Ultrasound (US), a flexible green imaging modality, is expanding globally as a first-line imaging technique in various clinical fields following with the continual emergence of advanced ultrasonic technologies and the well-established US-based digital health system. Actually, in US practice, qualified physicians should manually collect and visually evaluate images for the detection, identification and monitoring of diseases. The diagnostic performance is inevitably reduced due to the intrinsic property of high operator-dependence from US. Read More

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PET/CT Variants and Pitfalls in Head and Neck Cancers Including Thyroid Cancer.

Semin Nucl Med 2021 May 1. Epub 2021 May 1.

Department of Radiology, St Vincent's University Hospital, Elm Park, Dublin 4, Ireland; UCD - SVUH PET CT Research Centre, St Vincent's University Hospital, Elm Park, Dublin 4, Ireland.

PET/CT imaging is a dual-modality diagnostic technology that merges metabolic and structural imaging. There are several currently available radiotracers, but F-FDG is the most commonly utilized due to its widespread availability. F-FDG PET/CT is a cornerstone of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma imaging. Read More

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Plasma levels of Th17-associated cytokines and selenium status in autoimmune thyroid diseases.

Immun Inflamm Dis 2021 May 4. Epub 2021 May 4.

Department of Internal Medicine, Riga Stradins University, Riga, Latvia.

Introduction: The contribution of Th17 cytokines to autoimmune thyroid disease (AITD) is generally accepted. However, the roles of Th17 cells in the initiation and progression of Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT) and Graves' disease (GD) remain unclear. Selenium deficiency, along with genetic predisposition and environmental factors, may have a role in thyroid autoimmunity. Read More

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Thyroid paraganglioma in a patient with a history of carotid and vagal paraganglioma: metastatic or primary tumor?

J Surg Case Rep 2021 Apr 22;2021(4):rjab102. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

Department of Anesthesiology, Robert Packer Hospital, Sayre, PA 18840, USA.

Paragangliomas (PGs) are extremely rare multicentric neoplasms. Hereditary or familial PGs are associated with germline mutations in succinate dehydrogenase genes, seen in one-third of cases. Primary PGs of the thyroid are uncommon neuroendocrine neoplasms that account for 0. Read More

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Incidence of thyroid carcinomas in an extended retrospective study of 526 autopsies.

Exp Ther Med 2021 Jun 14;21(6):607. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Department of Pathology, 'Carol Davila' University of Medicine and Pharmacy, 020021 Bucharest, Romania.

Thyroid cancer accounts for 1% of all malignancies, and is becoming increasingly common worldwide. The literature reports a prevalence of ~50% of thyroid nodules detected during autopsies in subjects with unknown thyroid pathology. An extended retrospective study of 526 autopsy cases was performed to identify the prevalence of thyroid carcinoma, among various types of thyroid nodules identified incidentally. Read More

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Anomalous anatomic trajectory of the superior thyroid artery encountered during thyroidectomy. A rare case report.

J Surg Case Rep 2021 Apr 24;2021(4):rjab030. Epub 2021 Apr 24.

University Department of Surgery, General and Oncologic Hospital of Kifissia "Agii Anargiri", Athens, Greece.

Superior thyroid artery (STA), which is one of the primary arteries supplying to the thyroid gland, constitutes a severe consideration of both surgeons and interventional radiologists. Knowledge of the origin, the trajectory, the branching patterns and the anatomic aberrations of STA are of paramount clinical significance, due to its proximity to the external branch of the superior laryngeal nerve and the potentiality of accidental hemorrhage. The present manuscript reports for the first time the anomalous trajectory of the left STA, coursing superficially, through the left sternothyroid muscle and underlines the clinical significance of such aberrations. Read More

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Diseases of the Eyelids and Orbit.

Med Clin North Am 2021 May 2;105(3):551-562. Epub 2021 Apr 2.

Department of Ophthalmology, University of Washington School of Medicine, Box 359608, 325 9th Avenue, Seattle, WA 98104, USA.

The eyelids and orbit encompass intricate bony and soft tissue structures that work harmoniously in concert to protect, support, and nourish the eye in order to facilitate and maintain its function. Insult to periorbital and orbital anatomy can compromise orbital and ocular homeostasis. This article provides a foundational overview of eyelid and orbital anatomy, as well as common and key disorders that may confront internists and medical subspecialists. Read More

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Molecular Chaperones and Thyroid Cancer.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Apr 18;22(8). Epub 2021 Apr 18.

Department of Biomedicine, Neuroscience and Advanced Diagnostics (BIND), Institute of Human Anatomy and Histology, University of Palermo, 90127 Palermo, Italy.

Thyroid cancers are the most common of the endocrine system malignancies and progress must be made in the areas of differential diagnosis and treatment to improve patient management. Advances in the understanding of carcinogenic mechanisms have occurred in various fronts, including studies of the chaperone system (CS). Components of the CS are found to be quantitatively increased or decreased, and some correlations have been established between the quantitative changes and tumor type, prognosis, and response to treatment. Read More

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Case 13-2021: A Newborn Girl with a Neck Mass.

N Engl J Med 2021 Apr;384(17):1647-1655

From the Departments of Pediatrics (D.K., K.A.S.), Radiology (R.S.), and Pathology (P.M.S.), Massachusetts General Hospital, and the Departments of Pediatrics (D.K., K.A.S.), Radiology (R.S.), and Pathology (P.M.S.), Harvard Medical School - both in Boston.

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The Prominent Eye-What to Watch Out For.

Facial Plast Surg Clin North Am 2021 May 24;29(2):311-321. Epub 2021 Apr 24.

State Key Laboratory of Ophthalmology, Zhongshan Ophthalmic Center, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, China. Electronic address:

Globe prominence (proptosis) may be caused by a variety of congenital or acquired conditions and poses unique challenges to aesthetic and reconstructive surgery. Once the underlying cause of proptosis is determined, a treatment plan consisting of surgical and medical procedures can be formed. Thyroid eye disease is the most common cause of proptosis and helps guide treatment options for proptosis. Read More

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Impact of chronic variable stress on neuroendocrine hypothalamus and pituitary in male and female C57BL/6J mice.

J Neuroendocrinol 2021 Apr 24:e12972. Epub 2021 Apr 24.

Centre for Neuroendocrinology, Departments of Anatomy and Physiology, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand.

Chronic stress exerts multiple negative effects on the physiology and health of an individual. In the present study, we examined hypothalamic, pituitary and endocrine responses to 14 days of chronic variable stress (CVS) in male and female C57BL/6J mice. In both sexes, CVS induced a significant decrease in body weight and enhanced the acute corticosterone stress response, which was accompanied by a reduction in thymus weight only in females. Read More

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Anatomical study of the inferior mesenteric vein using three-dimensional computed tomography angiography in laparoscopy-assisted surgery for left-sided colorectal cancer.

Surg Today 2021 Apr 23. Epub 2021 Apr 23.

Department of Digestive Surgery, Breast and Thyroid Surgery, Graduate School of Medicine, Kagoshima University, Sakuragaoka 8-35-1, Kagoshima, 890-8520, Japan.

Purpose: To investigate the drainage patterns of the inferior mesenteric vein (IMV) and measure the distance from the root of the inferior mesenteric artery (IMA) to the IMV using preoperative three-dimensional computed tomography (3D-CT) angiography in patients undergoing surgery for left-sided colorectal cancer.

Methods: In this retrospective study, we analyzed data collected prospectively on 167 consecutive patients who underwent laparoscopic left-sided colorectal cancer surgery between July, 2014 and August, 2019. The drainage pattern of the IMV and the distance from the root of the IMA to the IMV were evaluated using 3D-CT angiography. Read More

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Vocal-cord Only vs. Complete Laryngeal radiation (VOCAL): a randomized multicentric Bayesian phase II trial.

BMC Cancer 2021 Apr 22;21(1):446. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

Radiation Oncology Department, Western University, London, Ontario, Canada.

Background: Radiotherapy, along with laser surgery, is considered a standard treatment option for patients with early glottic squamous cell cancer (SCC). Historically, patients have received complete larynx radiotherapy (CL-RT) due to fear of swallowing and respiratory laryngeal motion and this remains the standard approach in many academic institutions. Local control (LC) rates with CL-RT have been excellent, however this treatment can carry significant toxicities include adverse voice and swallowing outcomes, along with increased long-term risk of cerebrovascular morbidity. Read More

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Downregulation of hsa_circ_0074854 Suppresses the Migration and Invasion in Hepatocellular Carcinoma via Interacting with HuR and via Suppressing Exosomes-Mediated Macrophage M2 Polarization.

Int J Nanomedicine 2021 12;16:2803-2818. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Department of Pediatric Surgery, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, 430022, Hubei, People's Republic of China.

Background: Circular RNAs (circRNAs) have been identified as key factors in the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, the role and potential molecular mechanism of circRNAs in HCC remain largely unclear. In addition, exosomes are known as important messengers of the cross-talk between tumor cells and immune cells, while the role of extracellular circRNAs in the cell-to-cell communication of tumor cells and immune cells remains not unclear. Read More

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Clinical significance of immunohistochemistry to detect BRAF V600E mutant protein in thyroid tissues.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2021 Apr;100(16):e25566

Department of Pathology, The Second Hospital of Dalian Medical University.

Abstract: This study investigated the feasibility of using immunohistochemistry (IHC) instead of PCR to detect BRAF V600E mutant protein in papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC), and to determine the value of using preoperative BRAF V600E mutant protein by IHC to assist in the diagnosis of thyroid nodule patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT).The expression of BRAFV600E mutant protein was measured in 23 cases of HT+PTC, 31 cases of PTC, and 28 cases of HT by IHC, followed by PCR in the same samples for validation. SPSS 19. Read More

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Multimodal ultrasound imaging of primary thyroid schwannoma: A case report.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2021 Apr;100(16):e25517

Department of Ultrasound, West China Hospital of Sichuan University, Chengdu, China.

Rationale: Primary schwannoma of the thyroid gland is very rare, and its preoperative diagnosis is difficult.

Patient Concerns: We report the case of a thyroid nodule in an 18-year-old woman, who presented with a mass in her left neck with stiffness and normal thyroid function. However, the patient complained of numbness in her left upper extremity, and ultrasound (US) features were suspicious of malignancy. Read More

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Differential expression of Vitamin D binding protein in thyroid cancer health disparities.

Oncotarget 2021 Mar 30;12(7):596-607. Epub 2021 Mar 30.

Division of Biochemistry, Loma Linda, CA 92350, USA.

Thyroid cancer incidence, recurrence, and death rates are higher among Filipino Americans than European Americans. We propose that vitamin D binding protein (DBP) with multifunctionality with ethnic variability plays a key role within different ethnicities. In this study, we determined the correlation between differential DBP expression in tumor tissues and cancer staging in Filipino Americans versus European Americans. Read More

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Thymic adenocarcinoma accompanied by type A thymoma and pulmonary minimally invasive adenocarcinoma and harboring distinct gene alterations: A case report.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2021 Apr;100(15):e25254

Department of Pathology, the First Hospital and College of Basic Medical Sciences, China Medical University, Shenyang.

Rationale: Thymic adenocarcinoma is an extremely rare thymic carcinoma. The exact genetic alteration associated with thymic adenocarcinoma is unclear. Here, we report a case of thymic adenocarcinoma accompanied by type A thymoma and pulmonary minimally invasive adenocarcinoma (MIA). Read More

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Narrative review of management of thyroid surgery complications.

Gland Surg 2021 Mar;10(3):1135-1146

Department of Endocrine Surgery, Nippon Medical School Graduate School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan.

Currently, thyroid surgery is the most common and safe operation worldwide. However, thyroidectomy is still not free from the risks of complications and death due to the anatomical structure and physiological function particularity of the thyroid gland. Postoperative complications affect the life quality and life safety of patients after surgery. Read More

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Anatomical and developmental aspects of iatrogenic injury to the right recurrent laryngeal nerve in surgical resections of substernal goiter.

Anat Rec (Hoboken) 2021 Apr 9. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Hospital Universitario Gaffree e Guinle, Universidade Federal do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

Thyroid surgery is the primary treatment for substernal goiters, and iatrogenic injury to the recurrent laryngeal nerve (RNL) is always a risk. The literature suggests that iatrogenic lesions of the RNL post resection of substernal goiter are not equally distributed, being more frequent on the right recurrent laryngeal nerve (R-RLN) in comparison to the left recurrent laryngeal nerve (L-RLN). The relative paucity of basic anatomical and clinical reportages on R-RLN iatrogenic injuries and on the developmental factors that may help explain its higher incidence justifies this study's undertaking. Read More

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Novel Histologic Classification of Small Tumor Cell Nests for Lung Adenocarcinoma With Prognostic and Etiological Significance: Small Solid Nests and Pure Micropapillary Nests.

Am J Surg Pathol 2021 05;45(5):604-615

Division of Pathology, The Cancer Institute, The Cancer Institute Hospital, Japanese Foundation for Cancer Research.

Small tumor cell nests such as micropapillary nests are histologic poor prognostic markers for adenocarcinomas of various organs, including the lung. However, for the lung, the association of micropapillary patterns with smoking is controversial, which may be because of a vague definition of micropapillary patterns. This study clarifies the implications of small tumor cell nests by introducing a new dichotomic classification based on the glandular polarity of tumor cells: pure micropapillary nests (pMPs), preserving glandular polarity, and small solid nests (SSNs), lacking polarity. Read More

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The appropriate number of preoperative core needle biopsy specimens for analysis in breast cancer.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2021 Apr;100(14):e25400

Department of Breast Surgery, General Surgery, Qilu Hospital of Shandong University.

Abstract: Ultrasound (US)-guided core needle biopsy (CNB) has been recognized as a crucial diagnostic tool for breast cancer. However, there is a lack of guidance for hospitals that are not equipped with adjunctive US. The aim of this study was to assess the sensitivity, specificity, and experience of freehanded CNB in the outpatient department, and to determine the minimum number of tissue strips required to obtain concordance for estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER2), and tumor grade with the excised specimen. Read More

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Extensive analysis of the molecular biomarkers excision repair cross complementing 1, ribonucleotide reductase M1, β-tubulin III, thymidylate synthetase, and topoisomerase IIα in breast cancer: Association with clinicopathological characteristics.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2021 Apr;100(14):e25344

Department of Thyroid and Breast Surgery, the General Hospital of Western Theater Command of People's Liberation Army, Chengdu.

Abstract: Excision repair cross complementing 1 (ERCC1), ribonucleotide reductase M1 (RRM1), β-tubulin III (TUBB3), thymidylate synthetase (TYMS), and topoisomerase IIα (TOP2A) genes have been shown to be associated with the pathogenesis and prognosis of various types of carcinomas; however, their roles in breast cancer have not been fully validated. In this study, we evaluated the correlations among these biomarkers and the associations between their expression intensity and the clinicopathological characteristics to investigate whether the above genes are underlying biomarkers for patients with breast cancer.Ninety-seven tissue specimens collected from breast cancer patients. Read More

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Association between programmed cell death ligand 1 expression and thyroid cancer: A meta-analysis.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2021 Apr;100(14):e25315

Department of Nuclear Medicine.

Background: Programmed cell death ligand 1 (PD-L1), which is highly expressed in a variety of malignant tumors, is closely related to clinicopathological features and prognosis. However, there are few studies on the potential effects of PD-L1 on thyroid carcinoma, the incidence of which has shown an upward trend worldwide. This study aimed to explore the association between PD-L1 expression and clinicopathological features and prognosis of thyroid cancer. Read More

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MicroRNA-496 inhibits triple negative breast cancer cell proliferation by targeting Del-1.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2021 Apr;100(14):e25270

Department of Oncology/Hematology, School of Medicine, Kyungpook National University, Kyungpook National University Chilgok Hospital.

Abstract: Del-1 has been linked to the pathogenesis of various cancers, including breast cancer. However, the regulation of Del-1 expression remains unclear. We previously reported the interaction between microRNA-137 (miR-137) and the Del-1 gene. Read More

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Could Glyphosate and Glyphosate-Based Herbicides Be Associated With Increased Thyroid Diseases Worldwide?

Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) 2021 19;12:627167. Epub 2021 Mar 19.

Department of Medicine, State University of Central-West, Guarapuava, Brazil.

The increased incidence of thyroid diseases raises a series of questions about what the main predisposing factors are nowadays. If dietary restriction of iodine was once a major global health concern, today, the processes of industrialization of food and high exposure to a wide variety of environmental chemicals may be affecting, directly or indirectly, thyroid function. The homeostasis of hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis is finely regulated through the negative feedback mechanism exerted by thyroid hormones. Read More

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Vandetanib versus Cabozantinib in Medullary Thyroid Carcinoma: A Focus on Anti-Angiogenic Effects in Zebrafish Model.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Mar 16;22(6). Epub 2021 Mar 16.

Laboratory of Geriatric and Oncologic Neuroendocrinology Research, Istituto Auxologico Italiano, IRCCS, 20095 Cusano Milanino, MI, Italy.

Medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) is a tumor deriving from the thyroid C cells. Vandetanib (VAN) and cabozantinib (CAB) are two tyrosine kinase inhibitors targeting REarranged during Transfection (RET) and other kinase receptors and are approved for the treatment of advanced MTC. We aim to compare the in vitro and in vivo anti-tumor activity of VAN and CAB in MTC. Read More

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Autoimmune Diseases in Patients with Premature Ovarian Insufficiency-Our Current State of Knowledge.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Mar 5;22(5). Epub 2021 Mar 5.

Department of Gynecological Endocrinology, Poznan University of Medical Sciences, 60-535 Poznan, Poland.

Premature ovarian insufficiency (POI), previously known as premature ovarian failure or premature menopause, is defined as loss of ovarian function before the age of 40 years. The risk of POI before the age of 40 is 1%. Clinical symptoms develop as a result of estrogen deficiency and may include amenorrhea, oligomenorrhea, vasomotor instability (hot flushes, night sweats), sleep disturbances, vulvovaginal atrophy, altered urinary frequency, dyspareunia, low libido, and lack of energy. Read More

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Targeting Intercellular Communication in the Bone Microenvironment to Prevent Disseminated Tumor Cell Escape from Dormancy and Bone Metastatic Tumor Growth.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Mar 13;22(6). Epub 2021 Mar 13.

Cancer Therapeutics Program, Ottawa Hospital Research Institute, Ottawa, ON K1H 8L6, Canada.

Metastasis to the bone is a common feature of many cancers including those of the breast, prostate, lung, thyroid and kidney. Once tumors metastasize to the bone, they are essentially incurable. Bone metastasis is a complex process involving not only intravasation of tumor cells from the primary tumor into circulation, but extravasation from circulation into the bone where they meet an environment that is generally suppressive of their growth. Read More

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