60,776 results match your criteria Thymic Lesion Imaging


The tolerant immune system: Biological significance and clinical implications of T cell tolerance.

Endocr Metab Immune Disord Drug Targets 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Department of Basic Medical Sciences, Neuroscience and Sensory Organs, School of Medicine, University of Bari, Bari. Italy.

Background: T cell tolerance both at thymic and peripheral levels is a mechanism of protection finalized to eradicate autoreactive T cell clones and/or to maintain immune homeostasis, especially, postnatally. Central tolerance occurs in the thymic medulla via a mechanism of negative selection which leads to the eradication of autoreactive T cell clones. Mechanisms of action: Such a tolerogenic event relies on Fas-mediated apoptosis of autoreactive T cell clones operated by thymic dendritic cells (DCs), on the one hand. Read More

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December 2018
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Thymic epithelial neoplasms with sebaceous differentiation: a clinicopathological and Immunohistochemical study of 8 cases.

Hum Pathol 2018 Dec 8. Epub 2018 Dec 8.

Department of Pathology, The university of Texas, M D Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX. Electronic address:

Eight cases of primary thymic epithelial neoplasms corresponding to seven thymomas and one thymic carcinoma with sebaceous differentiation are presented. The patients are five men and three women between the ages of 45 and 63years (average: 54years) who presented with non-specific symptomatology related to their mediastinal mass. All patients underwent complete surgical resection of the mediastinal mass. Read More

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December 2018

IL-37 alleviates house dust mite-induced chronic allergic asthma by targeting TSLP through the NF-κB & ERK1/2 signaling pathways.

Immunol Cell Biol 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Department of Pulmonary Diseases, The Third Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-Sen University, Institute of Respiratory Diseases of Sun Yat, Sen University, Guangzhou, China.

Interleukin (IL)-37 has been described as a negative regulator of immune responses and is critical for asthma pathogenesis, but the mechanisms behind the protective role of IL-37 against allergic asthma are less well understood. We show here that IL-37 administered intranasally (i.n. Read More

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December 2018

Hassall's corpuscles with cellular-senescence features maintain IFNα production through neutrophils and pDC activation in the thymus.

Int Immunol 2018 Dec 10. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Department of Immunology and Cell Biology, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan.

Hassall's corpuscles (HCs) are composed of cornifying, terminally differentiated medullary thymic epithelial cells (mTECs) that are developed under the control of Aire. Here, we demonstrated that HC-mTECs show features of cellular senescence and produce inflammatory cytokines and chemokines including CXCL5, thereby recruiting and activating neutrophils to produce IL-23 in the thymic medulla. We further indicated that thymic plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) expressing IL-23 receptors constitutively produced Ifna, which plays a role in single positive (SP) cell maturation, in an Il23a-dependent manner. Read More

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December 2018

Late thymic deficiency after HLA-haploidentical hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for severe combined immunodeficiency.

J Allergy Clin Immunol 2018 Dec 7. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

Department of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine. Electronic address:

In the absence of myelosuppressive conditioning, severe combined immunodeficiency patients transplanted with hematopoietic stem cell grafts from HLA-haploidentical donors were at risk of late loss of naïve CD4+ T cells and restricted T-cell receptor repertoire. Read More

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December 2018

Predictors for reactive thymic hyperplasia and its prognostic value in children and adolescents with lymphoma.

Eur J Radiol 2018 Dec 5;109:108-113. Epub 2018 Oct 5.

State Key Laboratory of Oncology in South China, Collaborative Innovation Center for Cancer Medicine, Guangzhou, China; Department of Nuclear Medicine, Sun Yat-Sen University Cancer Center, Guangzhou, China. Electronic address:

Background: Reactive thymic hyperplasia (RTH) is seen in children and adolescents receiving chemotherapy for various malignancies. However, it is not clear why this occurs only in some patients. The aim of this study was to identify the predictors for RTH in children and adolescents receiving chemotherapy for lymphoma and to determine the effect of RTH on prognosis. Read More

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December 2018
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Systemic treatments for thymoma and thymic carcinoma: A systematic review.

Lung Cancer 2018 Dec 18;126:25-31. Epub 2018 Oct 18.

Institut du Thorax Curie Montsouris, Institut Curie, Paris, France.

Thymic tumours are rare diseases that for most of the cases are cured with surgery and eventually adjuvant radiotherapy. However, about 30% of patients present with advanced stage or relapsing tumours, which require administration of chemotherapy. While cisplatin-adriamycin-cyclophosphamide combination is regularly prescribed, other drugs have been assessed in the literature. Read More

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December 2018

Elevated expression of IL-17RB and ST2 on myeloid dendritic cells is associated with a Th2-skewed eosinophilic inflammation in nasal polyps.

Clin Transl Allergy 2018 29;8:50. Epub 2018 Nov 29.

1Otorhinolaryngology Hospital, The First Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University, 58 Zhongshan Road II, Guangzhou, 510080 Guangdong China.

Background: Interleukin(IL)-25, IL-33, and thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) underlie the crosstalk between epithelial cells and dendritic cells (DCs) during the development of Th2 responses. This study aimed to measure the expressions of IL-17RB, ST2 and TSLPR, receptor of IL-25, IL-33, and TSLP respectively, on myeloid DCs in nasal polyps (NP) and evaluate their association with local Th2 inflammation and disease severity in patients with NP.

Methods: Samples were collected from 30 NP patients and 16 control subjects recruited prospectively. Read More

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November 2018

A common transcriptomic program acquired in the thymus defines tissue residency of MAIT and NKT subsets.

J Exp Med 2018 Dec 5. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale U932, PSL University, Institut Curie, Paris, France

Mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells are abundant T cells with unique specificity for microbial metabolites. MAIT conservation along evolution indicates important functions, but their low frequency in mice has hampered their detailed characterization. Here, we performed the first transcriptomic analysis of murine MAIT cells. Read More

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December 2018

Group 2 innate lymphoid cells and eosinophilic chronic rhinosinusitis.

Curr Opin Allergy Clin Immunol 2018 Nov 29. Epub 2018 Nov 29.

Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Shiga University of Medical Science, Otsu, Japan.

Purpose Of Review: Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) is a heterogeneous disease and is recently classified into two phenotypes, eosinophilic CRS (ECRS) and non-ECRS. ECRS is characterized by Th2-biased eosinophilic inflammation, and non-ECRS is characterized by Th1-biased neutrophilic inflammation. Group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) rapidly produce large amounts of Th2 cytokines and exert critical roles in Th2-type immune responses. Read More

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November 2018

Immunomodulators in chronic rhinosinusitis.

World J Otorhinolaryngol Head Neck Surg 2018 Sep 10;4(3):186-192. Epub 2018 Nov 10.

Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, PA, USA.

Objective: To provide new insight into how chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) is conceptualized and treated with a focus on immunomodulator therapy.

Data Sources: Pubmed, Medline, and Embase.

Methods: A current review of the evidence is provided for immunomodulators investigated for treatment of CRS with nasal polyps (CRSwNP). Read More

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September 2018
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The clinical benefits of immune checkpoint inhibitor for thymic carcinomas ∼experience of single public hospital in Japan∼.

Respir Med Case Rep 2019 13;26:39-41. Epub 2018 Nov 13.

Division of Respiratory Medicine, Center for Respiratory Diseases, National Hospital Organization Kyoto Medical Center, Kyoto, Japan.

Thymic carcinomas is rare and highly aggressive carcinoma. Most patients with them are diagnosed as being at surgically unresectable stages due to it. There are several reports which showed the effect of chemotherapy, however, it is controversial. Read More

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November 2018
2 Reads

Volumetric analysis of the thymic epithelial tumors: correlation of tumor volume with the WHO classification and Masaoka staging.

J Thorac Dis 2018 Oct;10(10):5822-5832

Department of Radiology, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Suita, Osaka, Japan.

Background: The purpose of our study was to investigate the correlation between tumor volume (TV) and each subtype of thymic epithelial tumors (TETs) based on the World Health Organization (WHO) classification and Masaoka staging.

Methods: Sixty-one consecutive patients (45 thymomas and 16 thymic carcinomas) were studied. All were classified according to Masaoka staging: 31 non-invasive TETs (stage I) and 30 invasive TETs (8 stage II, 11 stage III, 3 stage IVa, and 8 stage IVb). Read More

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October 2018

Regeneration after radiation- and immune-mediated tissue injury is not enhanced by type III interferon signaling.

Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2018 Nov 29. Epub 2018 Nov 29.

Klinik und Poliklinik fu¨r Innere Medizin 3, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Technische Universität München, Munich, Germany. Electronic address:

Purpose: Type I interferon (IFN-I) and IL-22 modulate regeneration of the thymus and intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) after cytotoxic stress like irradiation. Radiation-induced damage to thymic tissues and IECs is a crucial aspect during the pathogenesis of inadequate immune reconstitution and acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) with myeloablative total body irradiation (TBI), respectively. IL-22 and IFN-I reduce severity of acute GVHD after allo-HSCT with myeloablative TBI. Read More

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November 2018
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Enhancement of mouse contact hypersensitivity appears with a short chain triacylglycerol but not with a long chain one.

Toxicology 2018 Nov 29;412:48-54. Epub 2018 Nov 29.

Laboratory of Microbiology and Immunology, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Shizuoka, 52-1 Yada, Suruga-ku, Shizuoka City, Shizuoka, 422-8526, Japan. Electronic address:

The prevalence of skin allergies could be partly due to the increased exposure to chemicals from consumer products. Chemicals that can enhance hypersensitivity caused by other chemicals are the focus of this study. We have demonstrated that phthalate esters with short chain alcohols enhance fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-induced contact hypersensitivity (CHS) in a mouse model. Read More

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November 2018

Activation of aryl hydrocarbon receptor negatively regulates thymic stromal lymphopoietin gene expression via PKCδ-p300- NF-κB pathway in keratinocytes under inflammatory conditions.

J Invest Dermatol 2018 Nov 29. Epub 2018 Nov 29.

Department of Life Science, Sogang University, Seoul 04107, Korea. Electronic address:

Epithelial-derived TSLP (thymic stromal lymphopoietin) plays an important role in pathogenesis in several types of dermatitis. Recently, the anti-inflammatory effects of AhR (aryl hydrocarbon receptor) have been reported in inflamed skin. In this study, keratinocytes were stimulated with TNFα or flagellin in combination with AhR ligands or antagonist. Read More

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November 2018

Human Intestinal Allografts Contain Functional Hematopoietic Stem and Progenitor Cells that Are Maintained by a Circulating Pool.

Cell Stem Cell 2018 Nov 21. Epub 2018 Nov 21.

Columbia Center for Translational Immunology, Department of Medicine, Columbia University, New York, NY 10032, USA; Department of Microbiology & Immunology, Columbia University, New York, NY 10032, USA; Department of Surgery, Columbia University, New York, NY 10032, USA. Electronic address:

Human intestinal transplantation often results in long-term mixed chimerism of donor and recipient blood in transplant patients. We followed the phenotypes of chimeric peripheral blood cells in 21 patients receiving intestinal allografts over 5 years. Donor lymphocyte phenotypes suggested a contribution of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) from the graft. Read More

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November 2018

Carcinoid tumors of the thymus and Cushing's syndrome: Clinicopathologic features and current best evidence regarding the cell of origin of these unusual neoplasms.

Ann Diagn Pathol 2018 Nov 22;38:71-79. Epub 2018 Nov 22.

Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA, United States of America.

It is uncertain whether thymic neuroendocrine tumors (NET) associated with Cushing's syndrome (CS) produce corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) and adrenocorticotropin hormone (ACTH) and whether the thymus contains ACTH and/or CRH cells that could originate NET. The clinicopathologic features of 5 typical (TC) and 6 atypical carcinoids (ATC), 10 additional non-neoplastic thymi, 6 adrenal glands with bilateral nodular hyperplasia and 8 adrenal cortical adenomas were reviewed. Representative slides were immunostained for ACTH and CRH. Read More

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November 2018
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99mTc-MIBI Uptake in a Benign Thymic Cyst.

Clin Nucl Med 2018 Dec 3. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Department of Pathology, Westchester Medical Center, Valhalla, NY.

A 34-year-old man with end-stage renal failure status post rejection of a deceased donor kidney transplant presented with bone pain in the setting of elevated serum parathyroid hormone and calcium levels. A Tc-MIBI SPECT/CT was performed before planned subtotal parathyroidectomy. SPECT/CT imaging revealed a 1. Read More

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December 2018
5 Reads

Innate lymphoid cells in asthma: pathophysiological insights from murine models to human asthma phenotypes.

Curr Opin Allergy Clin Immunol 2018 Dec 3. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Laboratory of Clinical Immunology, KU Leuven, Leuven, Belgium.

Purpose Of Review: The current review describes the role of different types of innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) in the pathogenesis of asthma inflammatory phenotypes by linking findings from murine asthma models with human studies. Novel treatment options are needed for patients with steroid-insensitive asthma. Strategies targeting ILCs, or their upstream or downstream molecules are emerging and discussed in this review. Read More

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December 2018

Prostaglandin E2 in NSAID-exacerbated respiratory disease: protection against cysteinyl leukotrienes and group 2 innate lymphoid cells.

Curr Opin Allergy Clin Immunol 2018 Dec 3. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Division of Allergy, Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Medicine, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, Tennessee, USA.

Purpose Of Review: The purpose of this review is to describe the recent advances that have been made in understanding the protective role of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) in aspirin-exacerbated respiratory disease (AERD), known in Europe as NSAID-exacerbated respiratory disease (N-ERD).

Recent Findings: Decreased PGE2 signaling through the EP2 receptor in patients with AERD leads to an increase in leukotriene synthesis and signaling. Leukotriene signaling not only directly activates group 2 innate lymphoid cells and mast cells, but it also increases production of IL-33 and thymic stromal lymphopoietin. Read More

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December 2018

The reparative effects of human adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells in the chemotherapy damaged thymus.

Stem Cells Dev 2018 Dec 4. Epub 2018 Dec 4.

The Second Hospital of Hebei Medical University, Hematology, Shijiazhuang, Hebei, China ;

Hematological patients who accept chemotherapy always develop secondary tumor or even die of severe infections. As an important central lymphoid organ, the thymus is frequently damaged during chemotherapy. Previous studies showed that the mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) can promote the proliferation and repair of epithelial cells in thymus. Read More

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December 2018

Pinealectomy alters IFN-γ and IL-10 levels in primary thymocyte culture of rats.

Cell Mol Biol (Noisy-le-grand) 2018 Nov 30;64(14):25-30. Epub 2018 Nov 30.

Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, Firat University, Elazig, Turkey.

Melatonin, produced mainly by the pineal gland, has an immunomodulatory role. However, the effects of the pineal gland and/or melatonin on thymus cytokine levels such as interferon-gamma (IFN-γ), interleukin (IL)-4, and IL-10 are not well known. Twenty-one male Wistar rats (220-250 gr) were randomly divided into three groups (n=7): intact control, sham, and pinealectomy. Read More

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November 2018

The European Society of Thoracic Surgeons (ESTS) thymic database.

J Thorac Dis 2018 Oct;10(Suppl 29):S3516-S3520

KData Clinical, Rome, Italy.

The European Society of Thoracic Surgeons (ESTS) thymic database is a satellite database of the ESTS registry collecting patients with thymic tumors (thymomas, thymic carcinomas and neuroendocrine thymic tumors) among the ESTS Institutions. The database is free of charge for any ESTS member, easily accessible to any ESTS institution, web-based, prospective, periodically maintained and updated. It may serve as an institutional database for the storage of data about patients with thymic tumors at no cost for each participating institution. Read More

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October 2018
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A new classification of parathyroid glands to evaluate in situ preservation or autotransplantation during thyroid surgery.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2018 Nov;97(48):e13231

Department of Thyroid Surgery,West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan Province, China.

The indication for autotransplantation of parathyroid glands is still controversial. A new classification of parathyroid glands based on the positional relationship among parathyroid glands, thyroid gland and thymus was created to decide in situ preservation or autotransplantation during thyroid surgery.A retrospective study included patients with papillary thyroid cancer who underwent total thyroidectomy with bilateral central lymph node dissection between November 2014 and November 2016. Read More

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November 2018

Programmed Death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) Expression in Thymic Epithelial Tumors.

Appl Immunohistochem Mol Morphol 2018 Nov 28. Epub 2018 Nov 28.

Department of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Debrecen, Debrecen, Hungary.

Thymic epithelial tumors (TETs) are uncommon neoplasms of the mediastinum. The gold standard treatment is complete surgical resection which can be followed by radio/chemotherapy in selected cases. Targeted tyrosine kinase inhibition can be considered in only a limited number of aggressive or metastatic tumors as EGFR, BRAF, or c-kit mutations are rare. Read More

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November 2018
5 Reads

Targeted deletion of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor in dendritic cells prevents thymic atrophy in response to dioxin.

Arch Toxicol 2018 Nov 29. Epub 2018 Nov 29.

Department of Biomedical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Montana, 32 Campus Drive, Skaggs Building Room 284, Missoula, MT, 59812, USA.

In nearly every species examined, administration of the persistent environmental pollutant, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (dioxin, TCDD) causes profound immune suppression and thymic atrophy in an aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) dependent manner. Moreover, TCDD alters the development and differentiation of thymocytes, resulting in decreases in the relative proportion and absolute number of double positive (DP, CD4CD8) thymocytes, as well as a relative enrichment in the relative proportion and absolute number of double negative (DN, CD4CD8) and single-positive (SP) CD4CD8 and CD4CD8 thymocytes. Previous studies suggested that the target for TCDD-induced thymic atrophy resides within the hemopoietic compartment and implicated apoptosis, proliferation arrest of thymic progenitors, and emigration of DN thymocytes to the periphery as potential contributors to TCDD-induced thymic atrophy. Read More

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November 2018
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The Role of Autophagy in iNKT Cell Development.

Front Immunol 2018 14;9:2653. Epub 2018 Nov 14.

Department of Pathology, Microbiology and Immunology, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN, United States.

CD1d-restricted invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells are innate-like T cells that express an invariant T cell receptor (TCR) α-chain and recognize self and foreign glycolipid antigens. They can rapidly respond to agonist activation and stimulate an extensive array of immune responses. Thymic development and function of iNKT cells are regulated by many different cellular processes, including autophagy, a self-degradation mechanism. Read More

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November 2018

Preventive Effects of Fermented Brown Rice and Rice Bran on Spontaneous Lymphomagenesis in AKR/NSlc Female Mice

Asian Pac J Cancer Prev 2018 Nov 29;19(11):3217-3223. Epub 2018 Nov 29.

Department of Experimental Pathology and Tumor Biology, Nagoya City University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, 1 Kawasumi, Mizuho-cho, Nagoya, Japan. Email:

Fermented brown rice and rice bran with Aspergillus oryzae (FBRA) is known to possess potentials to prevent chemical carcinogenesis in multiple organs of rodents. In the present study, possible chemopreventive effect of FBRA against spontaneous occurrence of lymphomas was examined using female AKR/NSlc mice. Four-week-old female AKR/ NSlc mice were divided into three groups, and fed diets containing FBRA for 26 weeks at a dose level 0% (Group 1), 5% (Group 2) or 10% (Group 3). Read More

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November 2018
2 Reads

Role of Endogenous Glucocorticoids in Cancer in the Elderly.

Int J Mol Sci 2018 Nov 27;19(12). Epub 2018 Nov 27.

Department of Medicine, Section of Pharmacology, University of Perugia, 06129 Perugia, Italy.

Although not a disease itself, aging represents a risk factor for many aging-related illnesses, including cancer. Numerous causes underlie the increased incidence of malignancies in the elderly, for example, genomic instability and epigenetic alterations that occur at cellular level, which also involve the immune cells. The progressive decline of the immune system functions that occurs in aging defines immunosenescence, and includes both innate and adaptive immunity; the latter undergoes major alterations. Read More

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November 2018
5 Reads

Notch1 Inhibits Rosiglitazone-Induced Adipogenic Differentiation in Primary Thymic Stromal Cells.

Front Pharmacol 2018 12;9:1284. Epub 2018 Nov 12.

Research Center, Shengjing Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang, China.

Adipocyte deposition is believed to be a primary characteristic of age-related thymic involution. Herein, we cultured primary thymic stromal cells (TSCs), used rosiglitazone, a potent peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) agonist, to induce adipogenic differentiation, and investigated the differentially expressed genes during adipogenic differentiation by using RNA-sequencing analysis. Furthermore, the effects of Notch1 on rosiglitazone-induced adipogenic differentiation of TSCs as well as the underlying mechanisms were also investigated. Read More

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November 2018
2 Reads

Successful Use of Pembrolizumab to Treat Refractory Thymic Carcinoma with High PD-L1 Expression.

Case Rep Oncol 2018 Sep-Dec;11(3):688-692. Epub 2018 Oct 31.

Department of Respiratory Medicine, Toho University Graduate School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan.

Thymic carcinoma is a relatively rare and aggressive thymic epithelial tumor. Herein, we report successful treatment of thymic carcinoma with pembrolizumab. A 68-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital for evaluation of chest pain. Read More

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October 2018
2 Reads

Restoring self-tolerance in autoimmune diseases by enhancing regulatory T-cells.

Cell Immunol 2018 Sep 29. Epub 2018 Sep 29.

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Illinois - College of Medicine, Chicago, IL, USA. Electronic address:

Self-tolerance, the state of unresponsiveness to self-tissues/antigens, is maintained through central and peripheral tolerance mechanisms, and a breach of these mechanisms leads to autoimmune diseases. Foxp3 + T-regulatory cells (Tregs) play an essential role in suppressing autoimmune response directed against self-antigens and thereby regulate self-tolerance. Natural Tregs are differentiated in the thymus on the basis of their higher TCR-affinity to self-antigens and migrate to the periphery where they maintain peripheral tolerance. Read More

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September 2018
5 Reads

Juzentaihoto hot water extract alleviates muscle atrophy and improves motor function in streptozotocin-induced diabetic oxidative stress mice.

J Nat Med 2018 Nov 26. Epub 2018 Nov 26.

Department of Pharmacy, Kochi Medical School Hospital, 185-1 Kohasu, Oko-cho, Nankoku, Kochi, Japan.

A decrease in skeletal muscle mass and motor function occurs in diabetic patients. In type 1 diabetic patients, in particular, fast-type fiber-dominated muscle atrophy occurs due to increased oxidative stress and inflammation. Juzentaihoto is a herbal medicine that has been found to be effective in reducing oxidative stress. Read More

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November 2018
10 Reads

Ectopic cervical well differentiated thymic carcinoma: report of a diagnostically challenging rare case.

Pathology 2018 Nov 23. Epub 2018 Nov 23.

Department of Pathology, National University Hospital, Singapore. Electronic address:

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November 2018
1 Read

Thymus machinery for T-cell selection.

Int Immunol 2018 Nov 23. Epub 2018 Nov 23.

Experimental Immunology Branch, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA.

An immunocompetent and self-tolerant pool of naive T cells is formed in the thymus through the process of repertoire selection. T cells that are potentially capable of responding to foreign antigens are positively selected in the thymic cortex and are further selected in the thymic medulla to help prevent self-reactivity. The affinity between T-cell antigen-receptors (TCRs) expressed by newly generated T cells and self-peptide-MHC complexes displayed in the thymic microenvironments plays a key role in determining the fate of developing T cells during thymic selection. Read More

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November 2018
5 Reads

Detection of IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α in Sprague-Dawely rats' atrophic thymus induced by lipopolysaccharide.

Pol J Vet Sci 2018 Sep;21(3):589-597

College of Animal Science and Technology, Jiangxi Agricultural University, No. 1101 Zhimin Avenue, Economic and Technological Development District, Nanchang 330045, Jiangxi, P. R. China.

Objective: This study aimed to investigate developmental changes of the thymus and intra- thymic IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α expression in weaned Sprague-Dawley rats induced by lipopolysac- charide.

Methods: Forty healthy weaned rats aged 26 days and weighing 83±4 g were randomly and equally divided into two groups. The lipopolysaccharide group was treated daily with a single injection of lipopolysaccharide for 10 consecutive days, and the saline group was treated with an equal volume of sterilized saline. Read More

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September 2018
5 Reads

Thymic inflammatory pseudotumor with multilocular thymic cyst caused by immunoglobulin G4-related disease.

Thorac Cancer 2018 Nov 23. Epub 2018 Nov 23.

Department of Oncology, Immunology and Surgery, Nagoya City University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Nagoya, Japan.

A 44-year-old man was referred to our hospital after an anterior mediastinal tumor was noted on computed tomography during follow-up observation after left testicular seminoma resection. Chest computed tomography revealed an enhanced mass measuring 33 x 16 x 15 mm at the anterior mediastinum. Chest magnetic resonance imaging revealed high signal intensity on T2-weighted imaging, and F  fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography showed a maximum standardized uptake of 12. Read More

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November 2018
5 Reads

Kinetics of cytokine mRNA and protein expression by plastic adherent cells in the thymus after split-dose irradiation.

Cytokine 2018 Nov 19. Epub 2018 Nov 19.

Division of Molecular Medicine, Department of Biomolecular Science, Faculty of Science, Toho University, Chiba, Japan. Electronic address:

Whole body irradiation causes significant apoptosis in various tissues such as the thymus. If apoptotic cells outnumber the phagocytic capacity of macrophages, apoptosis becomes secondary necrosis, inducing inflammatory cytokine expression in macrophages. Radiation also induces thymic lymphomas in C57BL/6 mice after four consecutive irradiations with 1. Read More

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November 2018

Anti-thymic stromal lymphopoietin antibody suppresses airway remodeling in asthma through reduction of MMP and CTGF.

Pediatr Res 2018 Nov 21. Epub 2018 Nov 21.

Graduate Institute of Clinical Medicine, College of Medicine, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan.

Background: Thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) mediates immune reaction in patients with asthma. Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP), connective tissue growth factor (CTGF), and transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) are inflammatory mediators whose responses to the anti-TSLP antibody are unknown. This study examined the effect of an anti-TSLP antibody on MMP, CTGF, TGF-β, and airway structural changes in airway remodeling in asthma. Read More

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November 2018
4 Reads

Metastatic thymic carcinoid responds to chemoradiation and octreotide: A case report.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2018 Nov;97(47):e13286

Department of Oncology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, China.

Rationale: Thymic carcinoids are a rare type of malignant neuroendocrine tumors which have a poor prognosis due to their distant metastasis, invasive behaviour, and postoperative recurrence. Surgical resection is still the fundamental mode for treating thymic carcinoids. Here, we report the rapid shrinkage of an atypical thymic carcinoid with multiple metastases following chemoradiation plus octreotide as a first-line therapy PATIENT CONCERNS:: A 39-year-old Chinese man presented with chest tightness, dyspnea with a history of lumbago and untreated malignant thymoma. Read More

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November 2018
5 Reads

Intra-thymic bronchogenic cyst an extremely rare tumor of anterior mediastinum in adults.

J Cardiothorac Surg 2018 Nov 20;13(1):120. Epub 2018 Nov 20.

Department of Pathology and Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, Jordan University of Science and Technology, Irbid, Jordan.

Background: Intra-thymic bronchogenic cysts are a rare entity but should be considered in the differential of all non-invasive thymic masses.

Case Presentation: We describe a 50-year-old patient who was found to have an incidental thymic mass on computer tomography of the chest. Non-invasive thymoma was suspected and a thoracoscopic thymectomy was performed. Read More

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November 2018
2 Reads
1.018 Impact Factor

Assessment of the prognostic role of neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio following complete resection of thymoma.

J Cardiothorac Surg 2018 Nov 19;13(1):119. Epub 2018 Nov 19.

Department of Thoracic Surgery, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milan, Italy.

Background: The introduction of the new TNM staging system for thymic epithelial malignancies produced a significant increase in the proportion of patients with stage I disease. The identification of new prognostic factors could help to select patients for adjuvant therapies based on their risk of recurrence. Neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) has recently gained popularity as reliable prognostic biomarker in many different solid tumors. Read More

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November 2018
2 Reads

The role of thymic tolerance in CNS autoimmune disease.

Nat Rev Neurol 2018 Dec;14(12):723-734

Paediatric Immunology, Department of Biomedicine, University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland.

The contributions of the peripheral adaptive and innate immune systems to CNS autoimmunity have been extensively studied. However, the role of thymic selection in these conditions is much less well understood. The thymus is the primary lymphoid organ for the generation of T cells; thymic mechanisms ensure that cells with an overt autoreactive specificity are eliminated before they emigrate to the periphery and control the generation of thymic regulatory T cells. Read More

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December 2018
5 Reads

Sumoylation of RORγt regulates T17 differentiation and thymocyte development.

Nat Commun 2018 11 19;9(1):4870. Epub 2018 Nov 19.

Division of Molecular Immunology, Beckman Research Institute of City of Hope, Duarte, 91010, CA, USA.

RORγt controls the differentiation of T17 cells, which are mediators of autoimmune conditions such as experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). RORγt also regulates thymocyte development and lymph node genesis. Here we show that the function of RORγt is regulated by its sumoylation. Read More

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November 2018
2 Reads

L-Type Amino Acid Transporter 1 Immunoreactivity as a Possible Diagnostic and Prognostic Marker of Thymic Carcinoma.

Tohoku J Exp Med 2018 11;246(3):167-174

Department of General Thoracic Surgery, Dokkyo Medical University.

L-type amino acid transporter 1 (LAT1) functions to transport large neutral amino acids, such as leucine, isoleucine, valine, phenylalanine, tyrosine, tryptophan, methionine, and histidine. These amino acids are essential for cell growth and proliferation. Many studies have demonstrated LAT1 expression in various types of cancer, and its high expression level was associated with poor prognosis. Read More

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November 2018
3 Reads

Resected thymic large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma: report of a case.

Surg Case Rep 2018 Nov 16;4(1):133. Epub 2018 Nov 16.

Department of Surgery, Nippon Telegraph and Telephone East Corporation Sapporo Medical Center, South 1, West 15, Chuo-ku, Sapporo, Hokkaido, 060-0061, Japan.

Background: Thymic large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (LCNEC) is extremely rare. The detailed clinical features of thymic LNCECs remain unknown.

Case Presentation: A 90-year-old man with a history of diabetes mellitus, chronic renal failure, and an abdominal aortic aneurysm underwent computed tomography for follow-up, which showed an anterior mediastinal tumor, measuring 31 mm × 28 mm in diameter. Read More

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November 2018
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Single-Cell Analysis Identifies Thymic Maturation Delay in Growth-Restricted Neonatal Mice.

Front Immunol 2018 1;9:2523. Epub 2018 Nov 1.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, United Kingdom.

Fetal growth restriction (FGR) causes a wide variety of defects in the neonate which can lead to increased risk of heart disease, diabetes, anxiety and other disorders later in life. However, the effect of FGR on the immune system, is poorly understood. We used a well-characterized mouse model of FGR in which placental Igf-2 production is lost due to deletion of the placental specific P promotor. Read More

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November 2018
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Th2 cell differentiation from naive CD4 T cells is enhanced by autocrine CC chemokines in atopic diseases.

Clin Exp Allergy 2018 Nov 15. Epub 2018 Nov 15.

Department of Rheumatology, School of Medicine, Dokkyo Medical University, Mibu, Japan.

Background: Chemokines are involved not only in regulating leukocyte recruitment, but also in other activities. However, functions other than cell recruitment remain poorly understood. We have already shown that the production of CC chemokine ligand (CCL)17 and CCL22 by antigen-stimulated naïve CD4 T cells was higher in asthmatic patients than in healthy controls. Read More

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November 2018