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    1 OF 51

    Bilateral cervical ribs in a mixed breed dog.
    J Vet Med Sci 2017 May 18. Epub 2017 May 18.
    Veterinary Teaching Hospital, School of Biosciences and Veterinary Medicine, University of Camerino.
    A 4-year-old intact female, mixed breed dog was presented with a complaint of dyspnea. Clinical examination revealed symptoms related to disease of the upper airways. Radiographic findings were consistent with tracheal collapse associated with anomalies involving the seventh cervical vertebra and the first ribs bilaterally. Read More

    MRI of thoracic outlet syndrome in children.
    Pediatr Radiol 2017 May 10. Epub 2017 May 10.
    Division of Plastic Surgery, Department of Pediatric Surgery, The Hospital for Sick Children and University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada.
    Thoracic outlet syndrome is caused by compression of the neurovascular bundle as it passes from the upper thorax to the axilla. The neurovascular bundle can be compressed by bony structures such as the first rib, cervical ribs or bone tubercles, or from soft-tissue abnormalities like a fibrous band, muscle hypertrophy or space-occupying lesion. Thoracic outlet syndrome commonly affects young adults but can be seen in the pediatric age group, especially in older children. Read More

    Post-operative Pain Management Following Thoracic Outlet Decompression.
    Ann Vasc Surg 2017 May 4. Epub 2017 May 4.
    University of South Florida, College of Medicine, Division of Vascular and Cardiothoracic Surgery.
    Background: Thoracic outlet decompression (TOD) is associated with significant post operative pain often leading to hospital length of stay out of proportion to the risk profile of the operation. We seek to describe the improvement in hospital length of stay and patient pain control with an improved multi-agent pain management regimen.

    Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the hospital length of stay, medication regimen/usage, operative details, and operative indications for all patients undergoing TOD from January 2012 through June 2015. Read More

    The Arm is Not the Leg: Pathophysiology, Diagnosis, and Management of Upper Extremity Deep Vein Thrombosis.
    R I Med J (2013) 2017 May 1;100(5):33-36. Epub 2017 May 1.
    Department of Medicine, Division of Cardiology, Warren Alpert Medical School of Brown University, Providence, RI.
    Upper extremity deep venous thrombosis (UEDVT) involves thrombosis of the deep veins of the arm as they enter the thorax. They are increasing in frequency, largely due to the rising use of central venous catheters and implantable cardiac devices, and represent more than 10% of all DVT cases, Upper extremity deep venous thrombosis has been historically misunderstood when compared to lower extremity deep vein thrombosis (LEDVT). Their associated disease states may carry devastating complications, with mortality rates often higher than that of LEDVT. Read More

    All-Endoscopic Brachial Plexus Complete Neurolysis for Idiopathic Neurogenic Thoracic Outlet Syndrome: A Prospective Case Series.
    Arthroscopy 2017 Apr 17. Epub 2017 Apr 17.
    Alps Surgery Institute, Clinique Générale d'Annecy, Annecy, France.
    Purpose: To describe an all-endoscopic technique for infra- and supraclavicular brachial plexus (BP) neurolysis and to assess its functional outcomes for patients suffering from nonspecific neurogenic thoracic outlet syndrome (NTOS).

    Methods: Between January 2010 and January 2013, 36 patients presenting an idiopathic nonspecific NTOS benefited from an endoscopic decompression in our institution. The inclusion criteria were a typical clinical NTOS and failure of a 6-month well-conducted nonsurgical treatment. Read More

    Use of blood pool agents with steady-state MRI to assess the vascular system.
    J Magn Reson Imaging 2017 Jun 19;45(6):1559-1572. Epub 2017 Apr 19.
    Department of Radiology, Vancouver General Hospital, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada.
    Over the past two decades there have been significant advances in the use of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to assess the vascular system. New imaging sequences and improvements in magnet design have enabled the creation of higher spatial resolution images. MRI is now a viable alternative imaging modality when compared to both invasive angiography and computed tomographic angiography. Read More

    [Thoracic Outlet Syndrome].
    Zentralbl Chir 2017 Feb 16;142(1):104-112. Epub 2017 Mar 16.
    Klinik für Thorax-, Gefäß- und endovaskuläre Chirurgie, Klinikum Chemnitz gGmbH, Deutschland.
    Introduction Thoracic outlet syndrome (TOS) is one of the most extensively discussed diagnoses. There is neither a clear and homogenous clinical presentation nor an accepted definition. The term describes a complex of symptoms and complaints caused by the compression of nerves and vascular structures at one of the three defined constrictions of the upper thoracic aperture. Read More

    Soft Tissue Neoplasms Causing Apparent Venous Thoracic Outlet Syndrome.
    Ann Vasc Surg 2017 Mar 1. Epub 2017 Mar 1.
    Division of Vascular Surgery, Mayo Clinic Rochester, Rochester, MN.
    Venous thoracic outlet syndrome (vTOS) usually results from compression of the subclavian vein classically as a result of narrowing of the costoclavicular space. We report 2 rare cases of soft tissue neoplasms resulting in apparent vTOS. The first case is a 46-year-old female with a 2-year history of intermittent unilateral shoulder pain, who was initially diagnosed with intervertebral disk herniation. Read More

    A modified, less invasive posterior subscapular approach to the brachial plexus: case report and technical note.
    Neurosurg Focus 2017 Mar;42(3):E7
    Department of Neurosurgery, Louisiana State University, New Orleans, Louisiana.
    The traditional posterior subscapular approach offers excellent exposure of the lower brachial plexus and has been successfully used in patients with recurrent thoracic outlet syndrome after an anterior operation, brachial plexus tumors involving the proximal roots, and postirradiation brachial plexopathy, among others. However, this approach also carries some morbidity, mostly related to the extensive muscle dissection of the trapezius, rhomboids, and levator scapulae. In this article, the authors present the surgical technique and video illustration of a modified, less invasive posterior subscapular approach, using a small, self-retaining retractor and only a partial trapezius and rhomboid minor muscle dissection. Read More

    Clinical presentation and management of arterial thoracic outlet syndrome.
    J Vasc Surg 2017 May 8;65(5):1429-1439. Epub 2017 Feb 8.
    Center for Thoracic Outlet Syndrome and the Section of Vascular Surgery, Department of Surgery, Washington University in St. Louis School of Medicine, St. Louis, Mo. Electronic address:
    Objective: Arterial thoracic outlet syndrome (TOS) is a rare condition characterized by subclavian artery pathology associated with a bony abnormality. This study assessed contemporary clinical management of arterial TOS at a high-volume referral center.

    Methods: A prospectively maintained database was used to conduct a retrospective review of patients undergoing primary or reoperative treatment for arterial TOS during an 8-year period (2008 to 2016). Read More

    Residual Symptom Analysis After the Subtotal Anterior and Middle Scalenectomy for Disputed Thoracic Outlet Syndrome: Comparison Between Surgical and Untreated Patients.
    Ann Plast Surg 2017 May;78(5):533-536
    From the Department of Hand Surgery, The First Hospital of Ji Lin University, Chang Chun, 130021, China.
    Objective: There are significant differences in the results on disputed thoracic outlet syndrome (TOS) surgery, which reflect that not all patients with disputed TOS are amenable to surgery. It is necessary to find out appropriate indicators for screening of patients who are suitable for surgery. Pain and paresthesia are 2 prominent symptoms of disputed TOS. Read More

    Evaluation of Complications after Surgical Treatment of Thoracic Outlet Syndrome.
    Korean J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 2017 Feb 5;50(1):36-40. Epub 2017 Feb 5.
    Department of General Surgery, Emam Hosein Hospital, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences.
    Background: Surgical treatment of thoracic outlet syndrome (TOS) is necessary when non-surgical treatments fail. Complications of surgical procedures vary from short-term post-surgical pain to permanent disability. The outcome of TOS surgery is affected by the visibility during the operation. Read More

    Osteopathic treatment in a patient with left-ventricular assist device with left brachialgia: a case report.
    Int Med Case Rep J 2017 13;10:19-23. Epub 2017 Jan 13.
    Center for Life Nano Science, CLNS@Sapienza, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, Rome, Italy.
    This study deals with an osteopathic approach used for a patient with left-ventricular assist device (L-VAD) affected by left brachialgia. Clinical examination revealed the presence of thoracic outlet syndrome and pectoralis minor syndrome, with compression of the left proximal ulnar nerve, related to the surgical sternotomy performed. The osteopathic techniques used can be classified as indirect and direct, addressed to the pectoralis minor and the first left rib, respectively. Read More

    An unusual case of neurogenic thoracic outlet syndrome.
    Int J Surg Case Rep 2017 17;31:139-141. Epub 2017 Jan 17.
    Dept. of General Surgery, Mahatma Gandhi Medical College and Research Institute, Sri Balaji Vidyapeeth University, Pondicherry, India. Electronic address:
    Introduction: Neurogenic thoracic outlet syndrome (nTOS) is the most common manifestation of thoracic outlet syndrome (TOS), accounting for more than 95% of cases. It is usually caused by cervical ribs, anomalies in the scalene muscle anatomy or post-traumatic inflammatory changes causing compression of the brachial plexus.

    Case Presentation: We present an unusual case of nTOS caused by a cystic lymphangioma at the thoracic outlet, with only one case reported previously in the literature. Read More

    Imaging of venous compression syndromes.
    Cardiovasc Diagn Ther 2016 Dec;6(6):519-532
    Division of Cardiovascular Imaging, Department of Radiology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02114, USA.
    Venous compression syndromes are a unique group of disorders characterized by anatomical extrinsic venous compression, typically in young and otherwise healthy individuals. While uncommon, they may cause serious complications including pain, swelling, deep venous thrombosis (DVT), pulmonary embolism, and post-thrombotic syndrome. The major disease entities are May-Thurner syndrome (MTS), variant iliac vein compression syndrome (IVCS), venous thoracic outlet syndrome (VTOS)/Paget-Schroetter syndrome, nutcracker syndrome (NCS), and popliteal venous compression (PVC). Read More

    Sonographic tracking of trunk nerves: essential for ultrasound-guided pain management and research.
    J Pain Res 2017 4;10:79-88. Epub 2017 Jan 4.
    Department of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine, Hacettepe University Medical School, Ankara, Turkey.
    Delineation of architecture of peripheral nerves can be successfully achieved by high-resolution ultrasound (US), which is essential for US-guided pain management. There are numerous musculoskeletal pain syndromes involving the trunk nerves necessitating US for evaluation and guided interventions. The most common peripheral nerve disorders at the trunk region include thoracic outlet syndrome (brachial plexus), scapular winging (long thoracic nerve), interscapular pain (dorsal scapular nerve), and lumbar facet joint syndrome (medial branches of spinal nerves). Read More

    Dorsal Scapular Artery Variations and Relationship to the Brachial Plexus, and a Related Thoracic Outlet Syndrome Case.
    J Brachial Plex Peripher Nerve Inj 2016 10;11(1):e21-e28. Epub 2016 May 10.
    Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Temple University School of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States.
    Rationale Knowledge of the relationship of the dorsal scapular artery (DSA) with the brachial plexus is limited. Objective We report a case of a variant DSA path, and revisit DSA origins and under-investigated relationship with the plexus in cadavers. Methods The DSA was examined in a male patient and 106 cadavers. Read More

    Bilateral brachiocephalic vein compression: an unusual and rare presentation of multinodular goitre.
    BMJ Case Rep 2016 Oct 8;2016. Epub 2016 Oct 8.
    Department of Radiology, Eastbourne District General Hospital, Eastbourne, UK.
    An interesting and rare case where a longstanding multinodular goitre causes sudden onset symptoms of superior vena cava obstruction. The symptoms were caused by bilateral brachiocephalic vein compression against the first rib. The patient's symptoms included upper limb and facial swelling, whereas her lower limbs were not oedematous (figure 1). Read More

    Aneurysmal Bone Cyst Arising from the First Rib: A Rare Cause of Thoracic Outlet Syndrome.
    Thorac Cardiovasc Surg Rep 2016 Dec 16;5(1):74-76. Epub 2015 Dec 16.
    Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, New York Presbyterian Hospital, New York, New York, United States.
    Aneurysmal bone cyst is a rare benign cystic bone lesion with an incidence of only 0.14 per 100,000 individuals and most commonly affects the metaphyses of long bones, spine, and pelvis. We present a very rare case of a 17-year-old boy with a rapidly expanding aneurysmal bone cyst arising from the first rib, resulting in neurogenic thoracic outlet syndrome secondary to its compression of the brachial plexus. Read More

    The thoracic outlet syndromes: Part 2. The arterial, venous, neurovascular, and disputed thoracic outlet syndromes.
    Muscle Nerve 2016 Dec 22. Epub 2016 Dec 22.
    Department of Internal Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA.
    The thoracic outlet syndromes (TOSs) are a group of etiologically and clinically distinct disorders with 1 feature in common: compression of 1 or more neurovascular elements as they traverse the thoracic outlet. The medical literature reflects 5 TOSs: arterial; venous; traumatic neurovascular; true neurogenic; and disputed. Of these, the first 4 demonstrate all of the features expected of a syndrome, whereas disputed TOS does not, causing many experts to doubt its existence altogether. Read More

    The thoracic outlet syndromes: Part 1. Overview of the thoracic outlet syndromes and review of true neurogenic thoracic outlet syndrome.
    Muscle Nerve 2016 Dec 22. Epub 2016 Dec 22.
    Department of Internal Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA.
    The thoracic outlet syndromes (TOSs) are a group of etiologically and clinically distinct disorders with 1 feature in common: compression of 1 or more neurovascular elements as they traverse the thoracic outlet. The medical literature reflects 5 TOSs: arterial; venous; traumatic neurovascular; true neurogenic; and disputed. Of these, the first 4 demonstrate all of the features expected of a syndrome, whereas disputed TOS does not, causing many experts to doubt its existence altogether. Read More

    Botulinum Toxin Injections in Musculoskeletal Disorders.
    Semin Musculoskelet Radiol 2016 Nov 21;20(5):441-452. Epub 2016 Dec 21.
    Division of Musculoskeletal Imaging and Intervention, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts.
    Botulinum toxin (BTX) is used for multiple clinical indications due to its ability to induce temporary chemodenervation and muscle paralysis. This property has supported its application in treating a variety of musculoskeletal conditions, especially those involving muscular hyperactivity and contractures such as cerebral palsy and dystonia. However, off-label use of BTX injection in other musculoskeletal disorders is gaining increased acceptance, such as in neurogenic thoracic outlet syndrome, epicondylitis, and shoulder pain after stroke. Read More

    Modified Interscalene Approach for Resection of Symptomatic Cervical Rib: Anatomic Review and Clinical Study.
    World Neurosurg 2017 Feb 28;98:124-131. Epub 2016 Oct 28.
    Department of Anaesthesia and Intensive Care, Ain Shams University, Abbasseya, Cairo, Egypt.
    Background: Cervical ribs have been reported to be present in about 0.5% of the general population, 10% of patients with cervical rib who are symptomatic usually have neurogenic symptoms, but some have arterial symptoms. In 1861, Coote was the first to excise a cervical rib through a supraclavicular approach and relieved the symptoms of thoracic outlet syndrome. Read More

    Thoracic outlet syndrome: wide literature for few cases. Status of the art.
    Neurol Sci 2017 Mar 16;38(3):383-388. Epub 2016 Dec 16.
    Department of Geriatrics, Neurosciences and Othopaedics, Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Largo F. Vito 1, 00168, Rome, Italy.
    Despite its low prevalence and incidence, considerable debate exists in the literature on thoracic outlet syndrome (TOS). From literature analysis on nerve entrapments, we realized that TOS is the second most commonly published entrapment syndrome in the literature (after carpal tunnel syndrome) and that it is even more reported than ulnar neuropathy at elbow, which, instead, is very frequent. Despite the large amount of articles, there is still controversy regarding its classification, clinical picture, diagnostic objective findings, diagnostic modalities, therapeutical strategies and outcomes. Read More

    A Fourteen-Year Experience with Vascular Anomalies Encountered during Transaxillary Rib Resection for Thoracic Outlet Syndrome.
    Ann Vasc Surg 2017 Apr 12;40:105-111. Epub 2016 Dec 12.
    Section of Vascular Surgery and Endovascular Therapy, Department of Surgery, University of Colorado Denver, Aurora, CO; Department of Radiology, Presbyterian/St. Luke's Medical Center, Denver, CO. Electronic address:
    Background: Transaxillary approach to first rib resection and scalenectomy (TAFRRS) is a well-established technique for treatment of thoracic outlet syndrome (TOS). Although anatomic features encountered during TAFRRS are in general constant, vascular anomalies may be encountered but have not been described to date. Herein we describe vascular abnormalities encountered during TAFRRS. Read More

    Venous Thoracic Outlet Syndrome: The Role of Early Rib Resection.
    Mil Med 2016 Nov;181(11):e1706-e1710
    Division of Vascular Surgery, Department of Surgery, Naval Medical Center San Diego, 34800 Bob Wilson Drive, San Diego, CA 92134.
    The upper extremity is an uncommon site for deep vein thrombosis and, although most of these thrombotic events are secondary to catheters or indwelling devices, venous thoracic outlet syndrome is an important cause of primary thrombosis. Young, active, otherwise healthy individuals that engage in repetitive upper extremity exercises, such as those required by a military vocation, may be at an increased risk. We present the case of a Naval Officer diagnosed with venous thoracic outlet syndrome whereby a multimodal approach with early surgical decompression was used. Read More

    [Thoracic outlet syndrome: A case of scalene muscle hypertrophy in long-term follow-up of diagnosis of cervical discopathy].
    Agri 2016 Jul;28(3):158-161
    Department of Algology, Ankara University Faculty of Medicine, Ankara, Turkey.
    Described in this article is diagnosis and treatment of mixed type of thoracic outlet syndrome (TOS) resulting from scalene muscle hypertrophy. Many diseases should be considered in the differential diagnosis to definitively diagnose this syndrome, and it is necessary to ask about activities of daily life, in addition to adding provocative tests to physical examination and examining electrophysiological and imaging results. Once diagnosed, even if complaints decrease with conservative treatment, surgery may be required. Read More

    Outcome of Surgical Treatment for Thoracic Outlet Syndrome: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.
    Ann Vasc Surg 2017 Apr 22;40:303-326. Epub 2016 Sep 22.
    Department of Vascular Surgery, St Antonius Hospital, Nieuwegein, The Netherlands. Electronic address:
    Background: Many publications report outcomes of surgical treatment for thoracic outlet syndrome (TOS); however, high-quality reviews and meta-analyses are lacking. This systematic review and meta-analysis summarizes and compares the outcomes and major complications of the surgical procedures for the 3 types of TOS: arterial, venous, and neurogenic.

    Methods: MEDLINE, EMBASE, and CINAHL databases, and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews were searched for papers published between January 1980 and February 2015, using the keywords thoracic outlet syndrome, and treatment and surgical. Read More

    An Unusual Cause of Thoracic Outlet Syndrome.
    Heart Lung Circ 2016 Dec 26;25(12):e162-e164. Epub 2016 Jul 26.
    Thoracic Surgery Unit, Department of Cardiologic, Thoracic and Vascular Sciences, University of Padua, Padova, Italy.
    Thoracic outlet syndrome (TOS) is a condition arising from compression of the subclavian vessels and/or brachial plexus. Many factors or diseases may cause compression of the neurovascular bundle at the thoracic outlet. We describe the case of a 41-year-old woman with TOS who presented with vascular venous symptoms. Read More

    Magnetic resonance imaging of traumatic and non-traumatic brachial plexopathies.
    Singapore Med J 2016 Oct;57(10):552-560
    Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Khoo Teck Puat Hospital, Alexandra Health System, Singapore.
    Adult-onset brachial plexopathy can be classified into traumatic and non-traumatic aetiologies. Traumatic brachial plexopathies can affect the pre- or postganglionic segments of the plexus. Non-traumatic brachial plexopathies may be due to neoplasia, radiotherapy, thoracic outlet syndrome and idiopathic neuralgic amyotrophy. Read More

    Thoracic Outlet Syndrome in a Volleyball Player Due to Nonunion of the First Rib Fracture.
    Vasc Endovascular Surg 2016 Nov 23;50(8):563-565. Epub 2016 Oct 23.
    1 Division of Vascular Diseases and Surgery, Department of Surgery, Ohio State University College of Medicine, Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center, Columbus, OH, USA.
    Fracture of the first rib with ensuing callus formation is a rare cause of thoracic outlet syndrome. We report a case of a 17-year-old female volleyball player who presented with months of chronic arm pain. Radiographic imaging demonstrated nonunion fracture of the first rib. Read More

    Diagnosis of Paget-Schroetter Syndrome/Primary Effort Thrombosis in a Recreational Weight Lifter.
    Phys Ther 2016 Sep 1. Epub 2016 Sep 1.
    S. Jackson, PT, PhD, Department of Rehabilitation Services, Orange Park Medical Center, Orange Park, Florida.
    Background And Purpose: Paget-Schroetter syndrome (PSS) is a rare condition of vein thrombosis that can be manifested in athletes and laborers who overuse their upper extremities. If diagnosed early, PSS can be managed and the symptoms can be fully reversed. Venous duplex ultrasound (US), the modality most commonly used to diagnose deep vein thrombosis (DVT), has high sensitivity and specificity for detecting DVT. Read More

    Arterial thoracic outlet syndrome: rare and triggering.
    Minerva Cardioangiol 2016 Dec;64(6):635-641
    Cambridge Vascular Unit, Addenbrooke's Hospital, Cambridge, UK -
    Arterial thoracic outlet syndrome (TOS) is the least common type of TOS. Patient's symptoms, clinical examination and duplex ultrasonography usually suffice in deciding patient's management. Our proposed treatment strategies are based on the Scher classification. Read More

    Thoracic outlet syndromes. The so-called "neurogenic types".
    Hand Surg Rehabil 2016 Jun 11;35(3):155-164. Epub 2016 May 11.
    Hand Surgery Unit, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Hôpital Trousseau, University Hospital of Tours, avenue de la République, 37170 Chambray-lès-Tours, France. Electronic address:
    Neurogenic thoracic outlet syndrome (TOS) is one of the most controversial pain syndromes of the upper limbs. The controversies revolve around both the diagnosis and treatment of the non-specific or subjective subtypes. Their diagnosis rests on a combination of history, suggestive symptoms and clinical examination. Read More

    Thoracic outlet syndrome affecting high-performance musicians playing bowed string instruments.
    Vascular 2017 Jun 30;25(3):329-332. Epub 2016 Sep 30.
    1 Division of Vascular Surgery and Endovascular Therapy, Michael E. DeBakey Department of Surgery, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX, USA.
    Thoracic outlet syndrome, a condition due to neurovascular compression in the upper shoulder region, can be caused by chronic repetitive activity of the upper extremities. Studies have linked upper extremity musculoskeletal disorders to high-performance musicians who play bowed string instruments such as the violin or viola. We report herein a case series of five elite musicians, including three violinists and two violaists, who developed neurogenic thoracic outlet syndrome following years of intense practice. Read More

    Arq Bras Cir Dig 2016;29Suppl 1(Suppl 1):128-133
    Center for Innovative Surgery (ZIC), Department of General, Visceral and Transplant Surgery, Campus Virchow Klinikum and Department of General, Visceral, Vascular and Thoracic Surgery, Campus Mitte, Charité-Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Berlin, Germany;
    Background:: Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) is a standard therapy in bariatric surgery. Sleeve gastrectomy and gastric banding, although with good results in the literature, are showing higher rates of treatment failure to reduce obesity-associated morbidity and body weight. Other problems after bariatric may occur, as band erosion, gastroesophageal reflux disease and might be refractory to medication. Read More

    Thoracic Outlet Syndrome: A Significant Family Genetic Phenotypic Presentation.
    Prague Med Rep 2016;117(2-3):117-123
    Department of Cardiovascular Surgery, Second Faculty of Medicine, Charles University and University Hospital Motol, Prague, Czech Republic.
    We report on a very rare case of diagnosis and successful surgical treatment of three young family members with a four-fold presentation of thoracic outlet syndrome. In the relevant family case, we are considering and discussing the population incidence, a possible HOX genes disorder, and a significant phenotypic presentation. Read More

    Arterial thoracic outlet syndrome: rare and triggering.
    Minerva Cardioangiol 2016 Dec;64(6):637-43
    Cambridge Vascular Unit, Addenbrooke's Hospital, Cambridge, UK -
    Arterial thoracic outlet syndrome (TOS) is the least common type of TOS. Patient's symptoms, clinical examination and duplex ultrasonography usually suffice in deciding patient's management. Our proposed treatment strategies are based on the Scher classification. Read More

    Totally Endoscopic (VATS) First Rib Resection for Thoracic Outlet Syndrome.
    Ann Thorac Surg 2017 Jan 19;103(1):241-245. Epub 2016 Sep 19.
    Department of Thoracic Surgery, St. James's University Hospital, Leeds Teaching Hospitals, United Kingdom. Electronic address:
    Background: Thoracic outlet syndrome (TOS) causes neurologic symptoms in 95% of cases and vascular symptoms in 5% of cases. Surgical resection is curative. Endoscopic-assisted transaxillary first rib resection has been previously reported. Read More

    Diagnosis and treatment of effort-induced thrombosis of the axillary subclavian vein due to venous thoracic outlet syndrome.
    J Vasc Surg Venous Lymphat Disord 2016 Oct;4(4):485-500
    Center for Thoracic Outlet Syndrome, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, Mo; Department of Surgery (Section of Vascular Surgery), Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, Mo; Department of Radiology, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, Mo. Electronic address:
    Venous thoracic outlet syndrome (VTOS) is uncommon but most frequently occurs in young, active, healthy patients. This condition typically presents as subclavian vein (SCV) effort thrombosis, also known as Paget-Schroetter syndrome. The pathophysiology underlying VTOS is chronic repetitive compression injury of the SCV in the costoclavicular space, resulting in progressive venous scarring, focal stenosis, and eventual thrombosis. Read More

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