Semin Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 2016 28;28(1):151-7. Epub 2015 Oct 28.
Division of Vascular Surgery, Li Ka Shing Knowledge Institute of St. Michael׳s Hospital, Toronto, Ontario, Canada; Department of Surgery, University of Toronto, Ontario, Canada; King Saud University-Li Ka Shing Collaborative Research Program, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia; Department of Surgery, King Saud University, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Electronic address:
Two distinct terms are used to describe vascular thoracic outlet syndrome (TOS) depending on which structure is predominantly affected: venous TOS (due to subclavian vein compression) and arterial TOS (due to subclavian artery compression). Although the venous and arterial subtypes of TOS affect only 3% and <1% of all TOS patients respectively, the diagnostic and management approaches to venous and arterial TOS have undergone considerable evolution due to the recent emergence of minimally invasive endovascular techniques such as catheter-directed arterial and venous thrombolysis, and balloon angioplasty. In this review, we discuss the anatomical factors, etiology, pathogenesis and clinical presentation of vascular TOS patients. Read More