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    Effects of Live-Trapping and Isoflurane Anesthesia on Free-Ranging American Martens (Martes americana).
    J Wildl Dis 2017 Feb 23. Epub 2017 Feb 23.
    2   Department of Forestry, Wildlife and Fisheries, University of Tennessee, 274 Ellington Plant Sciences Building, Knoxville, Tennessee 37996, USA.
    Seventy-two free-ranging American martens ( Martes americana ) in Michigan were immobilized using isoflurane from 2011 to 2015. In total, 129 anesthetic procedures were performed with no mortalities. Hypothermia and hyperthermia were the most common anesthetic complications, and the mean rectal temperatures were significantly higher during summer than in winter. Read More

    Mild Hypothermia Attenuates the Anesthetic Isoflurane-Induced Cytotoxicity.
    Front Cell Neurosci 2017 8;11:15. Epub 2017 Feb 8.
    Shanghai Tenth People's Hospital, Tongji University School of MedicineShanghai, China; Geriatric Anesthesia Research Unit, Department of Anesthesia, Critical Care and Pain Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical SchoolCharlestown, MA, USA.
    The commonly used inhalation anesthetic isoflurane has been reported to induce DNA damage and cytotoxicity. However, the methods to attenuate these effects remain largely to be determined. Mild hypothermia has neuroprotective effects. Read More

    Optimal control of inspired perfluorocarbon temperature for induction of hypothermia by total liquid ventilation in juvenile lamb model.
    Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc 2016 Aug;2016:2704-2707
    Mild hypothermia is well known for its therapeutic value in cardio- and neuroprotection. Many recent experimental studies have shown that the swiftness of the cooling offered by total liquid ventilation (TLV) holds great promise in achieving maximal therapeutic effect. TLV is an emerging ventilation technique in which the lungs are filled with breathable liquids, namely perfluorocarbons (PFCs). Read More

    Dihydrocapsaicin-induced hypothermia after asphyxiai cardiac arrest in rats.
    Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc 2016 Aug;2016:1858-1861
    Cardiac arrest (CA) is one of the leading causes of mortality and morbidity in the world. Fast, reversible and controllable pharmaceutical-induced hypothermia (PIH) is strongly desired to treat ischemia-reperfusion brain injury. Dihydrocapsaicin (DHC), an agonist of transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 cation channel (TRPV1), is an emerging candidate for PIH. Read More

    Multimodel quantitative analysis of somatosensory evoked potentials after cardiac arrest with graded hypothermia.
    Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc 2016 Aug;2016:1846-1849
    Cardiac arrest (CA) is one of the most prominent causes of morbidity and mortality in adults. Therapeutic hypothermia (TH) is a recommended treatment to improve survival and functional outcome following CA, however, it is unclear what degree of TH is most beneficial. It has been suggested that TH of 33°C provides no survival or outcome benefits over TH of 36°C. Read More

    Identifying stereotypic evolving micro-scale seizures (SEMS) in the hypoxic-ischemic EEG of the pre-term fetal sheep with a wavelet type-II fuzzy classifier.
    Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc 2016 Aug;2016:973-976
    Perinatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) around the time of birth due to lack of oxygen can lead to debilitating neurological conditions such as epilepsy and cerebral palsy. Experimental data have shown that brain injury evolves over time, but during the first 6-8 hours after HIE the brain has recovered oxidative metabolism in a latent phase, and brain injury is reversible. Treatments such as therapeutic cerebral hypothermia (brain cooling) are effective when started during the latent phase, and continued for several days. Read More

    Neuroprotective Effects of Acetyl-L-Carnitine on Neonatal Hypoxia Ischemia-Induced Brain Injury in Rats.
    Dev Neurosci 2017 Feb 23;38(5):384-396. Epub 2017 Feb 23.
    Perinatal hypoxia ischemia (HI) is a significant cause of brain injury in surviving infants. Although hypothermia improves outcomes in some infants, additional therapies are needed since about 40% of infants still have a poor outcome. Acetyl-L-carnitine (ALCAR), an acetylated derivative of L-carnitine, protected against early changes in brain metabolites and mitochondrial function after HI on postnatal day (PND) 7 in a rat pup model of near-term HI injury. Read More

    Letter by Kohlhauer et al Regarding Article, "Induction of Therapeutic Hypothermia During Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest Using a Rapid Infusion of Cold Saline: The RINSE Trial (Rapid Infusion of Cold Normal Saline)".
    Circulation 2017 Feb;135(8):e94-e95
    From Inserm, Créteil, France (M.K., N.M., R.T.); Université Paris -Est, UPEC, Créteil, France (M.K., N.M., R.T.); Ecole Nationale Vétérinaire d'Alfort, Maisons-Alfort, France (M.K., N.M., R.T.).

    Letter by Ma et al Regarding Article, "Induction of Therapeutic Hypothermia During Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest Using a Rapid Infusion of Cold Saline: The RINSE Trial (Rapid Infusion of Cold Normal Saline)".
    Circulation 2017 Feb;135(8):e92-e93
    From Shanghai Institute of Cardiovascular Diseases and Institute of Panvascular Medicine, Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai, China (L.-L.M., J.-B.G., A.-J.S.); and Department of Critical Care Medicine, Zhejiang Provincial People's Hospital, Hangzhou, China (L.-L.M.). School of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China (J.-B.G.).

    Survey of the diagnostic and therapeutic approach to new-onset refractory status epilepticus.
    Seizure 2017 Feb 9;46:24-30. Epub 2017 Feb 9.
    University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, Ohio, United States. Electronic address:
    Purpose: We conducted a survey of providers to assess for practice patterns in diagnosing and treating new-onset refractory status epilepticus (NORSE). NORSE is the occurrence of prolonged seizures that are not responsive to initial therapies in otherwise healthy individuals without obvious cause on initial presentation. This entity is thought to have multiple etiologies, including autoimmune. Read More

    The influence of targeted temperature management on the pharmacokinetics of drugs administered during and after cardiac arrest: a systematic review.
    Acta Clin Belg 2017 Feb 21:1-7. Epub 2017 Feb 21.
    a Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences , Ghent University , Ghent , Belgium.
    Objective: Pharmacokinetic parameters of drugs are widely investigated under normothermic conditions and normal hemodynamic parameters. The European Resuscitation Council recommends the use of targeted temperature management (TTM) with a target temperature of 34 °C in cardiac arrest (CA) patients. The aim of this literature review is to investigate the influence of CA combined with TTM on the pharmacokinetics of drugs. Read More

    Targeted temperature management after intraoperative cardiac arrest: a multicenter retrospective study.
    Intensive Care Med 2017 Feb 20. Epub 2017 Feb 20.
    Medical-Surgical Intensive Care Unit, Intensive Care Department, Centre Hospitalier de Versailles-Site André Mignot, 177 rue de Versailles, 78150, Le Chesnay Cedex, France.
    Purpose: Few outcome data are available about temperature management after intraoperative cardiac arrest (IOCA). We describe targeted temperature management (TTM) (32-34 °C) modalities, adverse events, and association with 1-year functional outcome in patients with IOCA.

    Methods: Patients admitted to 11 ICUs after IOCA in 2008-2013 were studied retrospectively. Read More

    Oxygen or cooling, to make a decision after acute ischemia stroke.
    Med Gas Res 2016 Oct-Dec;6(4):206-211. Epub 2016 Dec 30.
    Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Translational Research and Therapy for Neuro-Psycho-Diseases and Institute of Neuroscience, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University, Suzhou, Jiangsu Province, China.
    The presence of a salvageable penumbra, a region of ischemic brain tissue with sufficient energy for short-term survival, has been widely agreed as the premise for thrombolytic therapy with tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), which remains the only United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved treatment for acute ischemia stroke. However, the use of tPA has been profoundly constrained due to its narrow therapeutic time window and the increased risk of potentially deadly hemorrhagic transformation (HT). Blood brain barrier (BBB) damage within the thrombolytic time window is an indicator for tPA-induced HT and both normobaric hyperoxia (NBO) and hypothermia have been shown to protect the BBB from ischemia/reperfusion injury. Read More

    Value of electroencephalographic monitoring in newborns with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy treated with hypothermia.
    J Pediatr Neurosci 2016 Oct-Dec;11(4):309-315
    Department of Radiology, Benha University, Banha, Egypt.
    Background: The values of electroencephalography (EEG) in neonatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) during therapeutic hypothermia (TH) are still uncertain.

    Aims: The aim of this study is to detect EEG background, the prevalence of seizures during cooling, and to determine different EEG patterns that can predict brain injury in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).

    Patients And Methods: Thirty-nine newborns with HIE were subjected to TH. Read More

    Early kit mortality and growth in farmed mink are affected by litter size rather than nest climate.
    Animal 2017 Feb 20:1-9. Epub 2017 Feb 20.
    Department of Animal Science,Aarhus University,Blichers Allé 20,8830 Tjele,Denmark.
    We investigated the effects of nest box climate on early mink kit mortality and growth. We hypothesised that litters in warm nest boxes experience less hypothermia-induced mortality and higher growth rates during the 1st week of life. This study included data from 749, 1-year-old breeding dams with access to nesting materials. Read More

    Use of imaging studies for determination of brain death in South Australian intensive care units.
    Crit Care Resusc 2017 Mar;19(1):57-63
    Intensive and Critical Care Unit, Flinders Medical Centre, Adelaide, SA, Australia.
    Objectives: To describe the use of imaging studies (four-vessel angiography or radionuclide scan) for brain death determination in South Australian intensive care units, and to determine the rates of adherence with The ANZICS statement on death and organ donation of the Australian and New Zealand Intensive Care Society (ANZICS).

    Design, Patients And Setting: Retrospective case-note review of 190 South Australian adult patients (≥ 18 years) who were brain dead and were organ donors (actual and intended), from 1 January 2008 to 31 December 2014.

    Main Outcome Measures: We compared brain death determination by clinical examination and by imaging, and identified, using logistic regression, the independent predictors of brain death determination by imaging (and for imaging without a documented indication). Read More

    The combined effects of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) and selected substituted methcathinones on measures of neurotoxicity.
    Neurotoxicol Teratol 2017 Feb 14. Epub 2017 Feb 14.
    Research Service, VA Portland Health Care System, Portland, OR, USA; Department of Behavioral Neuroscience, Oregon Health & Science University, Portland, OR, USA; The Methamphetamine Abuse Research Center, Oregon Health & Science University, Portland, OR, USA; Department of Psychiatry, Oregon Health & Science University, Portland, OR, USA. Electronic address:
    The rise in popularity of substituted methcathinones (aka "bath salts") has increased the focus on their neurotoxic effects. Two commonly abused methcathinones, 3,4-methylenedioxymethcathinone (methylone, MDMC) and 3,4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV), are often concomitantly ingested with the illicit drug 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA). To examine potential neurotoxic effects of these drug combinations, C57BL/6J mice were administered 4 i. Read More

    Clinical characteristics predicting abnormal brain magnetic resonance image findings in hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy infants.
    Minerva Pediatr 2017 Feb 17. Epub 2017 Feb 17.
    Division of Neonatology, Department of Pediatrics, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, Republic of Korea -
    Background: The aim of this study was to elucidate the specific clinical characteristics associated with abnormal brain magnetic resonance image(MRI) findings in hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy(HIE) infants in order to discern how to predict poorer outcomes more accurately.

    Methods: A retrospective data analysis of HIE infants admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit of a tertiary hospital was performed. Baseline perinatal information and physical and neurological findings were compared in HIE infants according to the presence of abnormal brain MRI findings. Read More

    Complete Recovery from Cardiac Arrest Caused by Risperidone-induced Hypothermia.
    Innov Clin Neurosci 2016 Nov-Dec;13(11-12):28-31. Epub 2016 Dec 1.
    Department of Psychiatric Internal Medicine, Sunlight Brain Research Center, 4-13-18 Jiyugaoka, Hofu City, Yamaguchi, 747-0066, Japan.
    Hypothermia is a rare adverse effect of risperidone and is associated with ventricular arrhythmias, which may lead to intensive care unit admission and sometimes death. We describe a patient with schizophrenia who was taking risperidone and who, after falling into a hypothermic state, suffered cardiac arrest. Observations of the case and a brief literature review are provided. Read More

    Potential role of the gut microbiota in synthetic torpor and therapeutic hypothermia.
    World J Gastroenterol 2017 Jan;23(3):406-413
    Claudia Sisa, Roberto Amici, Matteo Cerri, Department of Biomedical and Neuromotor Sciences, University of Bologna, 40126 Bologna, Italy.
    Therapeutic hypothermia is today used in several clinical settings, among them the gut related diseases that are influenced by ischemia/reperfusion injury. This perspective paved the way to the study of hibernation physiology, in natural hibernators, highlighting an unexpected importance of the gut microbial ecosystem in hibernation and torpor. In natural hibernators, intestinal microbes adaptively reorganize their structural configuration during torpor, and maintain a mutualistic configuration regardless of long periods of fasting and cold temperatures. Read More

    A Comparison of the Thompson Encephalopathy Score and Amplitude-Integrated Electroencephalography in Infants with Perinatal Asphyxia and Therapeutic Hypothermia.
    Neonatology 2017 Feb 17;112(1):24-29. Epub 2017 Feb 17.
    Department of Neonatology, Wilhelmina Children's Hospital, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, The Netherlands.
    Background: In previous studies clinical signs or amplitude-integrated electroencephalography (aEEG)-based signs of encephalopathy were used to select infants with perinatal asphyxia for treatment with hypothermia.

    Aim: The objective of this study was to compare Thompson encephalopathy scores and aEEG, and relate both to outcome.

    Subjects And Methods: Thompson scores, aEEG, and outcome were compared in 122 infants with perinatal asphyxia and therapeutic hypothermia. Read More

    Hypothermia Inhibits Endothelium-Independent Vascular Contractility via Rho-kinase Inhibition.
    Biomol Ther (Seoul) 2017 Feb 17. Epub 2017 Feb 17.
    Department of Pharmacology, College of Pharmacy, The Catholic University of Korea, Bucheon 14662, Republic of Korea.
    The present study was undertaken to investigate the influence of hypothermia on endothelium-independent vascular smooth muscle contractility and to determine the mechanism underlying the relaxation. Denuded aortic rings from male rats were used and isometric contractions were recorded and combined with molecular experiments. Hypothermia significantly inhibited fluoride-, thromboxane A₂-, phenylephrine-, and phorbol ester-induced vascular contractions regardless of endothelial nitric oxide synthesis, suggesting that another pathway had a direct effect on vascular smooth muscle. Read More

    Early EEG power predicts MRI injury in infants with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy.
    J Perinatol 2017 Feb 16. Epub 2017 Feb 16.
    Division of Newborn Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO, USA.
    Objective: Early identification of infants with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy who have adverse outcomes despite neuroprotection with therapeutic hypothermia (TH) is urgently needed. Recent studies have found limited value of amplitude integrated EEG (aEEG) for predicting short-term outcomes in this population. Other quantitative electroencephalography (EEG) variables reflecting EEG amplitude, such as EEG power, could provide early stratification of a high-risk cohort in this population. Read More

    Therapeutic hypothermia attenuates brain edema in a pig model of cardiac arrest: Possible role of the angiopoietin-Tie-2 system.
    Am J Emerg Med 2017 Feb 6. Epub 2017 Feb 6.
    Beijing Key Laboratory of Cardiopulmonary-Cerebral Resuscitation, Department of Emergency Medicine, Beijing Chaoyang Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China.
    Objective: This study aimed to clarify whether therapeutic hypothermia protects against cerebral edema following cardiac arrest (CA) and cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) in a porcine model via regulating the angiopoietin-Tie-2 ligand-receptor system.

    Methods: Male pigs were randomized into the therapeutic hypothermia group, the normothermia group or the sham control group. CA was induced in pigs by untreated ventricular fibrillation for 8min. Read More

    Effect of Temperature on Heart Rate Variability in Neonatal ICU Patients With Hypoxic-Ischemic Encephalopathy.
    Pediatr Crit Care Med 2017 Feb 14. Epub 2017 Feb 14.
    1Division of Neonatology, Children's National Health System, Washington, DC. 2Division of Fetal and Transitional Medicine, Children's National Health System, Washington, DC. 3Pediatric Residency Program, Children's National Health System, Washington, DC. 4Division of Biostatistics and Study Methodology, Children's National Health System, Washington, DC. 5The George Washington University School of Medicine, Washington DC.
    Objective: To determine whether measures of heart rate variability are related to changes in temperature during rewarming after therapeutic hypothermia for hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy.

    Design: Prospective observational study.

    Setting: Level 4 neonatal ICU in a free-standing academic children's hospital. Read More

    Therapeutic Hypothermia Provides Variable Protection against Behavioral Deficits after Neonatal Hypoxia-Ischemia: A Potential Role for Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor.
    Dev Neurosci 2017 Feb 15. Epub 2017 Feb 15.
    Division of Neonatal-Perinatal Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA.
    Background: Despite treatment with therapeutic hypothermia (TH), infants who survive hypoxic ischemic (HI) encephalopathy (HIE) have persistent neurological abnormalities at school age. Protection by TH against HI brain injury is variable in both humans and animal models. Our current preclinical model of hypoxia-ischemia (HI) and TH displays this variability of outcomes in neuropathological and neuroimaging end points with some sexual dimorphism. Read More

    Cannabidiol reduces ethanol consumption, motivation and relapse in mice.
    Addict Biol 2017 Feb 13. Epub 2017 Feb 13.
    Instituto de Neurociencias, Universidad Miguel Hernández-CSIC, Spain.
    This study evaluated the effects of cannabidiol (CBD) on ethanol reinforcement, motivation and relapse in C57BL/6 J mice. The effects of CBD (60 mg/kg, i.p. Read More

    Characterization of Death in Neonatal Encephalopathy in the Hypothermia Era.
    J Child Neurol 2017 Mar 20;32(4):360-365. Epub 2016 Dec 20.
    6 Department of Pediatrics, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, USA.
    This study aimed to characterize the circumstances of death in encephalopathic neonates treated with therapeutic hypothermia. Patients who died after or during treatment with therapeutic hypothermia between 2007-2014 were identified. Patient circumstance of death was characterized using an established paradigm. Read More

    Therapeutic hypothermia protocols.
    Handb Clin Neurol 2017 ;141:619-632
    Department of Neurology, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA. Electronic address:
    The application of targeted temperature management has become common practice in the neurocritical care setting. It is important to recognize the pathophysiologic mechanisms by which temperature control impacts acute neurologic injury, as well as the clinical limitations to its application. Nonetheless, when utilizing temperature modulation, an organized approach is required in order to avoid complications and minimize side-effects. Read More

    Neurology of cardiopulmonary resuscitation.
    Handb Clin Neurol 2017 ;141:593-617
    Neurosciences Critical Care Division, Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care Medicine and Departments of Neurology and Neurosurgery, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA. Electronic address:
    This chapter aims to provide an up-to-date review of the science and clinical practice pertaining to neurologic injury after successful cardiopulmonary resuscitation. The past two decades have seen a major shift in the science and practice of cardiopulmonary resuscitation, with a major emphasis on postresuscitation neurologic care. This chapter provides a nuanced and thoughtful historic and bench-to-bedside overview of the neurologic aspects of cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Read More

    Management of No-Reflow Phenomenon in the Catheterization Laboratory.
    JACC Cardiovasc Interv 2017 Feb;10(3):215-223
    Huntington Medical Research Institute, Pasadena, California; Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Department of Medicine, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California.
    At the conclusion of a primary percutaneous coronary intervention for ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction, and after the cardiologist makes certain that there is no residual stenosis following stenting, assessment of coronary flow becomes the top priority. The presence of no-reflow is a serious prognostic sign. No-reflow can result in poor healing of the infarct and adverse left ventricular remodeling, increasing the risk for major adverse cardiac events, including congestive heart failure and death. Read More

    Cerebrospinal Fluid NLRP3 is Increased After Severe Traumatic Brain Injury in Infants and Children.
    Neurocrit Care 2017 Feb 8. Epub 2017 Feb 8.
    Department of Critical Care Medicine, Children's Hospital of Pittsburgh of UPMC, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, 4401 Penn Avenue, Pittsburgh, PA, 15224, USA.
    Background: Inflammasome-mediated neuroinflammation may cause secondary injury following traumatic brain injury (TBI) in children. The pattern recognition receptors NACHT domain-, Leucine-rich repeat-, and PYD-containing Protein 1 (NLRP1) and NLRP3 are essential components of their respective inflammasome complexes. We sought to investigate whether NLRP1 and/or NLRP3 abundance is altered in children with severe TBI. Read More

    Clinical Vagus Nerve Stimulation Paradigms Induce Pronounced Brain and Body Hypothermia in Rats.
    Int J Neural Syst 2016 Dec 22:1750016. Epub 2016 Dec 22.
    1 Laboratory for Clinical and Experimental Neurophysiology, Neurobiology and Neuropsychology, Department of Internal Medicine, Ghent University, De Pintelaan 185, Ghent, 9000, Belgium.
    Vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) is a widely used neuromodulation technique that is currently used or being investigated as therapy for a wide array of human diseases such as epilepsy, depression, Alzheimer's disease, tinnitus, inflammatory diseases, pain, heart failure and many others. Here, we report a pronounced decrease in brain and core temperature during VNS in freely moving rats. Two hours of rapid cycle VNS (7s on/18s off) decreased brain temperature by around [Formula: see text]C, while standard cycle VNS (30[Formula: see text]s on/300[Formula: see text]s off) was associated with a decrease of around [Formula: see text]C. Read More

    Hypothermia induced by inhibition of fatty acid metabolism in anesthetized rats: contributions of the forebrain and vagal afferents.
    Can J Physiol Pharmacol 2017 Jan 29. Epub 2017 Jan 29.
    National Institute of Health and Nutrition, Shinjuku, Japan ;
    2-Mercaptoacetate (MA) is an antimetabolic drug that inhibits the utilization of fatty acids as an energy source. The intravenous injection of MA (1.2 mmol kg-1) elicited an increase in tail skin temperature and a decrease in body core temperature in urethane-chloralose-anesthetized, neuromuscularly blocked, artificially ventilated rats, though administration of the same amount of NaCl did not. Read More

    Electroencephalographic characteristics of status epilepticus after cardiac arrest.
    Clin Neurophysiol 2017 Jan 21. Epub 2017 Jan 21.
    Lund University, Skane University Hospital, Department of Clinical Sciences Lund, Neurology, Lund, Sweden.
    Objective: To describe the electrophysiological characteristics and pathophysiological significance of electrographic status epilepticus (ESE) after cardiac arrest and specifically compare patients with unequivocal ESE to patients with rhythmic or periodic borderline patterns defined as possible ESE.

    Methods: Retrospective cohort study of consecutive patients treated with targeted temperature management and monitored with simplified continuous EEG. Patients with ESE were identified and electrographically characterised until 72h after ESE start using the standardised terminology of the American Clinical Neurophysiology Society. Read More

    Hypothermia for severe traumatic brain injury in adults: Recent lessons from randomized controlled trials.
    Surg Neurol Int 2016 28;7:103. Epub 2016 Nov 28.
    Department of Surgery, Division of Neurosurgery, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.
    Background: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a worldwide health concern associated with significant morbidity and mortality. In the United States, severe TBI is managed according to recommendations set forth in 2007 by the Brain Trauma Foundation (BTF), which were based on relatively low quality clinical trials. These guidelines prescribed the use of hypothermia for the management of TBI. Read More

    Therapeutic hypothermia at an urban public hospital: Development, implementation, experience and outcomes.
    Heart Lung 2017 Jan - Feb;46(1):40-45. Epub 2016 Oct 27.
    John H. Stroger Hospital of Cook County, USA.
    Background: Therapeutic hypothermia (TH) improves the outcome of comatose patients suffering an out-of-hospital sudden cardiac arrest (SCA) with shockable rhythm and return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC). Evidence supporting its use in other circumstances is weak and the adoption of TH remains limited.

    Objective: Describe the development and implementation of a TH program at an urban public hospital and report outcomes of out-of-hospital and in-hospital SCA and important quality measures. Read More

    Sedative and Motor Incoordination Effects of Ethanol in Mice Lacking CD14, TLR2, TLR4, or MyD88.
    Alcohol Clin Exp Res 2017 Feb 3. Epub 2017 Feb 3.
    Waggoner Center for Alcohol and Addiction Research, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas.
    Background: In our companion article, we examined the role of MyD88-dependent signaling in ethanol (EtOH) consumption in mice lacking key components of this inflammatory pathway and observed differential effects on drinking. Here, we studied the role of these same signaling components in the acute sedative, intoxicating, and physiological effects of EtOH. Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) has been reported to strongly reduce the duration of EtOH-induced sedation, although most studies do not support its direct involvement in EtOH consumption. Read More

    Changing target temperature from 33°C to 36°C in the ICU management of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest: A before and after study.
    Resuscitation 2017 Jan 31;113:39-43. Epub 2017 Jan 31.
    Department of Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine, Monash University, Australia; The Alfred Hospital, Australia; Ambulance Victoria, Australia.
    Introduction: In December 2013, our institution changed the target temperature management (TTM) for the first 24h in ventricular fibrillation out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (VF-OHCA) patients from 33°C to 36°C. This study aimed to examine the impact this change had on measured temperatures and patient outcomes.

    Methods: We conducted a retrospective cohort study of consecutive VF-OHCA patients admitted to a tertiary referral hospital in Melbourne (Australia) between January 2013 and August 2015. Read More

    Therapeutic Hypothermia May Improve Neurological Outcomes in Extracorporeal Life Support for Adult Cardiac Arrest.
    Heart Lung Circ 2017 Jan 17. Epub 2017 Jan 17.
    Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, National Heart Centre, Singapore; Mechanical Circulatory Support, Heart and Lung Transplant Unit, National Heart Centre, Singapore.
    Background: Limited data exists on patients receiving therapeutic hypothermia during extracorporeal life support (ECLS). We investigated outcomes and prognostic factors in these patients.

    Methods: A retrospective review was conducted for 225 consecutive adult patients treated with ECLS between July 2003 and January 2016. Read More

    Temperature variability during targeted temperature management is not associated with neurological outcomes following cardiac arrest.
    Am J Emerg Med 2017 Jan 27. Epub 2017 Jan 27.
    Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, 2220 Pierce Avenue, 383 Preston Research Building, Nashville, TN 37232-6300, United States. Electronic address:
    Introduction: Recent studies on comatose survivors of cardiac arrest undergoing targeted temperature management (TTM) have shown similar outcomes at multiple target temperatures. However, details regarding core temperature variability during TTM and its prognostic implications remain largely unknown. We sought to assess the association between core temperature variability and neurological outcomes in patients undergoing TTM following cardiac arrest. Read More

    Intracranial pressure management in patients with traumatic brain injury: an update.
    Curr Opin Crit Care 2017 Feb 2. Epub 2017 Feb 2.
    aNeuroscience Intensive Care Unit, Department of Anesthesia and Critical Care, Fondazione IRCCS Ca' Granda - Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico bDepartment of Pathophysiology and Transplants, University of Milan, Milan, Italy.
    Purpose Of Review: Intracranial pressure (ICP) monitoring and treatment is central in the management of traumatic brain injury. Despite 4 decades of clinical use, several aspects remain controversial, including the indications for ICP and treatment options.

    Recent Findings: Two major trials tested surgical decompression and mild hypothermia as treatments for high ICP. Read More

    Delivery of nicotine aerosol to mice via a modified electronic cigarette device.
    Drug Alcohol Depend 2017 Mar 18;172:80-87. Epub 2017 Jan 18.
    RTI International, 3040 Cornwallis Road, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709, United States. Electronic address:
    Background: Although both men and women use e-cigarettes, most preclinical nicotine research has focused on its effects in male rodents following injection. The goals of the present study were to develop an effective e-cigarette nicotine delivery system, to compare results to those obtained after subcutaneous (s.c. Read More

    A review of the utility of a hypothermia protocol in cardiac arrests due to non-shockable rhythms.
    Cardiol J 2017 Feb 2. Epub 2017 Feb 2.
    Johns Hopkins Hospital.
    Background: Therapeutic hypothermia and targeted temperature management are considered standard of care in the management of patients following out-of-hospital cardiac arrests due to shockable rhythms to improve neurological outcomes. In those presenting out-of-hospital cardiac arrests associated with non-shockable rhythms, the benefit of hypothermia is less clear. In this review we try to clarify the utility of implementing a hypothermia protocol after cardiac arrests due to non-shockable rhythms. Read More

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