11,918 results match your criteria The European journal of neuroscience[Journal]


Lipid markers and related transcripts during excitotoxic neurodegeneration in kainate-treated mice.

Eur J Neurosci 2019 Feb 14. Epub 2019 Feb 14.

Inserm U1127, CNRS UMR7225, Sorbonne Université, UPMC Université Paris6, UMR S1127, Institut du Cerveau et de la Moelle Epinière, CHU Pitié-Salpêtrière, Paris, France.

Lipid homeostasis is dysregulated in some neurodegenerative diseases and after brain injuries due to excess glutamate or lack of oxygen. However the kinetics and cell specificity of dysregulation in different groups of lipids during excitotoxic neuronal death are not clear. Here we examined changes during excitotoxic neuronal death induced by injecting kainic acid (KA) into the CA1 region of mouse hippocampus. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ejn.14375DOI Listing
February 2019

Pharmaco-Electroencephalographic Reponses in the Rat Differ Between Active and Inactive Locomotor States.

Eur J Neurosci 2019 Feb 14. Epub 2019 Feb 14.

H. Lundbeck A/S, Ottiliavej 9, 2500, Valby, Denmark.

Quantitative electroencephalography from freely-moving rats is commonly used as a translational tool for predicting drug-effects in humans. We hypothesized that drug-effects may be expressed differently depending on whether the rat is in active locomotion or sitting still during recording sessions, and proposed automatic state-detection as a viable tool for estimating drug-effects free of hypo-/hyperlocomotion induced effects. We aimed at developing a fully automatic and validated method for detecting two behavioral states: active and inactive, in one-second intervals and to use the method for evaluating ketamine, DOI, d-cycloserine, d-amphetamine, and diazepam effects specifically within each state. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ejn.14373DOI Listing
February 2019

Effect of oxidative stress in rostral ventrolateral medulla on sympathetic hyperactivity after traumatic brain injury.

Eur J Neurosci 2019 Feb 14. Epub 2019 Feb 14.

Department of Neurosurgery, Changzheng Hospital, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai, China.

Sympathetic hyperactivity occurs in a subgroup of patients after traumatic brain injury (TBI). The rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM) is a key region for the activity of sympathetic nervous system. Oxidative stress in the RVLM is proved to be responsible for the increased level of sympathetic activity in animal models of hypertension and heart failure. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ejn.14374DOI Listing
February 2019

African Neuroscience on the Global Stage: Nigeria as a Model.

Eur J Neurosci 2019 Feb 13. Epub 2019 Feb 13.

School of Life Sciences, University of Sussex, Brighton, United Kingdom.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ejn.14372DOI Listing
February 2019

Commentary on "Sex differences in the effect of cannabinoid type 1 receptor deletion on locus coeruleus-norepinephrine neurons and corticotropin releasing factor-mediated responses".

Eur J Neurosci 2019 Feb 13. Epub 2019 Feb 13.

School of Psychological Sciences, University of Melbourne, Australia.

The recent study by Wyrofsky, Reyes, Yu, Kirby, and Van Bockstaele (2018) has provided important new evidence for sex-driven modulation of endogenous cannabinoid (endocannabinoid) signalling during the stress response. It was reported in this study that cannabinoid receptor type 1 (Cnr1) deletion resulted in increased locus-coeruleus norepinephrine excitability in male but not female mice. The study also reported increased norepinephrine, tyrosine hydroxylase and corticotrophin hormone levels in male but not female Cnr1 knockout mice (Wyrofsky et al. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ejn.14371DOI Listing
February 2019

Does fMRI Repetition Suppression Reveal Mirror Neuron Activity in the Human Brain? Insights from Univariate and Multivariate Analysis.

Eur J Neurosci 2019 Feb 13. Epub 2019 Feb 13.

Cognitive Neuroscience Unit, School of Psychology, Deakin University, Geelong, Australia.

Mirror neurons (MN) have been proposed as the neural substrate for a wide range of clinical, social and cognitive phenomena. Over the last decade, a commonly used tool for investigating MN activity in the human brain has been functional magnetic resonance (fMRI) repetition suppression (RS) paradigms. However, the available evidence is mixed, largely owing to inconsistent application of the methodological criteria necessary to infer MN properties. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ejn.14370DOI Listing
February 2019

The nociceptive withdrawal reflex of the trunk is organized with unique muscle receptive fields and motor strategies.

Eur J Neurosci 2019 Feb 11. Epub 2019 Feb 11.

The University of Queensland, NHMRC Centre of Clinical Research Excellence in Spinal Pain, Injury & Health, School of Health & Rehabilitation Sciences, Brisbane, Qld, Australia.

Noxious stimuli induce a nociceptive withdrawal reflex (NWR) to protect the tissue from injury. Although the NWR was once considered as a stereotyped response, previous studies report distinct responses depending on the stimulation site and context for limbs. We aimed to determine whether noxious stimuli over the trunk produced adaptable complex NWR. Read More

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http://doi.wiley.com/10.1111/ejn.14369
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ejn.14369DOI Listing
February 2019
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Hippocampal activation of 5-HT receptors and BDNF production by vagus nerve stimulation in rats under chronic restraint stress.

Eur J Neurosci 2019 Feb 8. Epub 2019 Feb 8.

Department of Oriental Medicine, Daejeon University, Daejeon, 34520, Republic of Korea.

A growing body of evidence shows that the electrical stimulation of the vagus nerve can improve mental illness including depression. Here we investigated whether the vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) is involved in regulating the responsiveness of hippocampal neurons in rats under chronic restraint stress (CRS). c-Fos protein signals were detected 2 h after VNS in 5-HT receptor-positive neurons in the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) as well as in the nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ejn.14368DOI Listing
February 2019
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Papers arising from the 12th International Basal Ganglia Society Meeting. March 26th-30th 2017, Mérida, Yucatán, México.

Eur J Neurosci 2019 Feb 8. Epub 2019 Feb 8.

MRC Brain Network Dynamics Unit, Department of Pharmacology, University of Oxford, UK.

This Special Issue of EJN is dedicated to original papers and reviews that arose from presentations given during for the 13 Meeting of the International Basal Ganglia Society (IBAGS) held in Mérida, Mexico in the spring of 2016. The meeting was organised by José Bargas and his team, with over 200 people attending. It consisted of 10 oral sessions and 2 poster sessions (with wine to encourage lively debate). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ejn.14367DOI Listing
February 2019

Ocular drift reflects volitional action preparation.

Eur J Neurosci 2019 Feb 5. Epub 2019 Feb 5.

New Zealand Brain Research Institute, Christchurch, New Zealand.

Human cognitive behavior is predictive rather than reflexive because of volitional action preparation. Recent studies have shown that the covert process of volitional action preparation can be decoded from overt fixational eye movements of fixational/microsaccades and pupil dilation. Ocular drift, the slowest fixational eye movements, is also under the active neural control, but its relationship with cognitive behavior is unknown. Read More

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https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/ejn.14365
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ejn.14365DOI Listing
February 2019
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Association of Cardiorespiratory Fitness on Interhemispheric Hippocampal and Parahippocampal Functional Connectivity.

Eur J Neurosci 2019 Feb 5. Epub 2019 Feb 5.

Exercise& Memory Laboratory, Department of Health, Exercise Science and Recreation Management, The University of Mississippi.

Interhemispheric functional connectivity is associated with cognitive functioning. Although previous work has evaluated the association of cardiorespiratory fitness on cognitive function, there has been a limited investigation of the association of cardiorespiratory fitness on the functional connectivity of memory-related brain structures. As such, the objective of this study was to examine the association between cardiorespiratory fitness and parahippocampal- and hippocampal interhemispheric functional connectivity. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ejn.14366DOI Listing
February 2019

Dissociating the Neural Substrates for Inhibition and Shifting in Domain-general Cognitive Control.

Eur J Neurosci 2019 Feb 1. Epub 2019 Feb 1.

State Key Laboratory of Cognitive Neuroscience and Learning & IDG/McGovern Institute for Brain Research, Beijing Normal University, Beijing, 100875, China.

Inhibition and shifting are two key components of domain-general cognitive control. Numerous studies have investigated the neural substrates of both components, but it is still unclear whether the relevant brain regions are specifically involved in one specific component or commonly engaged in both components. Here, we addressed this question by using functional magnetic resonance imaging and a modified saccade paradigm that was effective to disentangle inhibition and shifting in one experiment. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ejn.14364DOI Listing
February 2019

Electrophysiological markers of poor vs. superior math abilities in healthy individuals.

Eur J Neurosci 2019 Jan 31. Epub 2019 Jan 31.

Dept. of Psychology, University of Milano-Bicocca, Milan, Italy.

Inter-individual differences in the numerical ability of healthy adults have been previously demonstrated, mainly with tasks involving mental number line or size representation. However, electrophysiological correlates of superior vs. poor arithmetic ability (in the healthy population) have been scarcely investigated. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ejn.14363DOI Listing
January 2019

Semaphorin3A Induces Acute Changes in Membrane Excitability in Spiral Ganglion Neurons In Vitro.

Eur J Neurosci 2019 Jan 31. Epub 2019 Jan 31.

The Burke Neurological Institute, White Plains, NY, 10605, USA.

The development and survival of spiral ganglion neurons (SGNs) are dependent on multiple trophic factors as well as membrane electrical activity. Semaphorins (Sema) constitute a family of membrane-associated and secreted proteins that have garnered significant attention as a potential SGN "navigator" during cochlea development. Previous studies using mutant mice demonstrated that Sema3A plays a role in the SGN pathfinding. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ejn.14360DOI Listing
January 2019

Mechanisms of circadian clock interactions with aryl hydrocarbon receptor signaling.

Eur J Neurosci 2019 Jan 31. Epub 2019 Jan 31.

Department of Pharmacology, Southern Illinois University School of Medicine, Springfield, IL, 62702-9629.

Per-Arnt-Sim (PAS) domain-containing proteins are critical to homeostatic regulatory networks that mediate responsiveness to environmental change. PAS domains are multifunctional structural motifs that allow protein-protein interactions among family members, typically forming heterodimeric transcription factors to affect the transcription of target genes. Prototypical PAS domain-dependent pathways include the circadian clock network and metabolic regulation of the xenobiotic response through the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ejn.14361DOI Listing
January 2019
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Perspectives in affective disorders: clocks and sleep.

Eur J Neurosci 2019 Jan 31. Epub 2019 Jan 31.

University Vita-Salute San Raffaele, Milano, Italy.

Mood disorders are often characterised by alterations in circadian rhythms, sleep disturbances, and seasonal exacerbation. Conversely, chronobiological treatments utilise zeitgebers for circadian rhythms such as light to improve mood and stabilise sleep, and manipulations of sleep timing and duration as rapid antidepressant modalities. Although sleep deprivation ("wake therapy") can act within hours, and its mood-elevating effects be maintained by regular morning light administration /medication /earlier sleep, it has not entered the regular guidelines for treating affective disorders as a first-line treatment. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ejn.14362DOI Listing
January 2019
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Interacting influences of aging and Alzheimer's disease on circadian rhythms.

Authors:
Marilyn J Duncan

Eur J Neurosci 2019 Jan 28. Epub 2019 Jan 28.

Dept. of Neuroscience, University of Kentucky Medical School, 800 Rose Street, Lexington, KY, 40536-0298.

Aging leads to changes in circadian rhythms, including decreased amplitude or robustness, altered synchrony with the environment, and reduced coordination of rhythms within body. These circadian rhythm alterations are more pronounced in age-associated neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease (AD), in which they often precede the onset of other symptoms by many years. As well as their early onset, the findings that fragmentation of daily rest-activity rhythms in non-demented older subjects is associated earlier cognitive decline, increased risk of incident AD, and preclinical AD neuropathology, suggest that circadian rhythm disruption may contribute to the development and progression of the neuropathological changes occurring in AD. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ejn.14358DOI Listing
January 2019
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Auditory evoked potentials to changes in sound duration in urethane anesthetized mice.

Eur J Neurosci 2019 Jan 28. Epub 2019 Jan 28.

Department of Psychology, University of Jyväskylä, Jyväskylä, Finland.

Spectrotemporally complex sounds carry important information for acoustic communication. Among the important features of these sounds is the temporal duration. An event-related potential called mismatch negativity indexes auditory change detection in humans. Read More

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http://doi.wiley.com/10.1111/ejn.14359
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ejn.14359DOI Listing
January 2019
3 Reads

Principles of the animal molecular clock learned from Neurospora.

Authors:
Jennifer J Loros

Eur J Neurosci 2019 Jan 27. Epub 2019 Jan 27.

Department of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Department of Molecular and Systems Biology, Geisel School of Medicine at Dartmouth, Hanover, NH, 03755, USA.

Study of Neurospora, a model system evolutionarily related to animals and sharing a circadian system having nearly identical regulatory architecture to that of animals, has advanced our understanding of all circadian rhythms. Work on the molecular bases of the Oscillator began in Neurospora before any clock genes were cloned and provided the second example of a clock gene, frq, as well as the first direct experimental proof that the core of the Oscillator was built around a transcriptional translational negative feedback loop (TTFL). Proof that FRQ was a clock component provided the basis for understanding how light resets the clock, and this in turn provided the generally accepted understanding for how light resets all animal and fungal clocks. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ejn.14354DOI Listing
January 2019

Myocyte enhancer factor-2 and p300 interact to regulate expression of the homeostatic regulator Pumilio in Drosophila.

Eur J Neurosci 2019 Jan 28. Epub 2019 Jan 28.

Division of Neuroscience and Experimental Psychology, School of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Biology, Medicine and Health, University of Manchester, Manchester Academic Health Science Centre, Manchester, M13 9PL, UK.

Pumilio (Pum), an RNA-binding protein, is a key component of neuron firing-rate homeostasis that likely maintains stability of neural circuit activity in all animals, from flies to mammals. Whilst Pum is ubiquitously expressed, we understand little about how synaptic excitation regulates its expression in the CNS. Here, we characterized the Drosophila dpum promoter and identified multiple Myocyte enhancer factor-2 (Mef2)-binding elements. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ejn.14357DOI Listing
January 2019

Effects of intravesicular loading of a Ca chelator and depolymerization of actin fibers on neurotransmitter release in frog motor nerve terminals.

Eur J Neurosci 2019 Jan 27. Epub 2019 Jan 27.

Department of Physiology, School of Medicine, Nagoya University, Nagoya, Japan.

Ca -induced Ca release (CICR) via type-3 ryanodine receptor enhances neurotransmitter release in frog motor nerve terminals. To test a possible role of synaptic vesicle in CICR, we examined the effects of loading of EGTA, a Ca chelator, into synaptic vesicles and depolymerization of actin fibers. Intravesicular EGTA loading via endocytosis inhibited the ryanodine sensitive enhancement of transmitter release induced by tetanic stimulation and the associated rises in intracellular-free Ca ([Ca ] : Ca transients). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ejn.14353DOI Listing
January 2019
3.181 Impact Factor

Cerebrospinal fluid flow dynamics in Huntington's disease evaluated by phase contrast MRI.

Eur J Neurosci 2019 Jan 28. Epub 2019 Jan 28.

UCL Huntington's Disease Centre, University College London, London, WC1B 5EH, UK.

Multiple targeted therapeutics for Huntington's disease are now in clinical trials, including intrathecally-delivered compounds. Previous research suggests CSF dynamics may be altered in Huntington's disease, which could be of paramount relevance to intrathecal drug delivery to the brain. To test this hypothesis we conducted a prospective cross-sectional study comparing people with early stage Huntington's disease with age- and gender-matched healthy controls. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ejn.14356DOI Listing
January 2019
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Selective vulnerability of dorsal raphe-medial prefrontal cortex projection neurons to corticosterone-induced hypofunction.

Eur J Neurosci 2019 Jan 28. Epub 2019 Jan 28.

Department of Cell Biology and Neuroscience, Rowan University School of Osteopathic Medicine, Stratford, New Jersey.

Glucocorticoid hormones and serotonin (5-HT) are strongly associated with the development and treatment of depression, respectively. Glucocorticoids regulate the function of serotonergic neurons in the dorsal raphe nucleus (DR), which are the major source of 5-HT to the forebrain. DR 5-HT neurons are electrophysiologically heterogeneous, though whether this phenotypic variation aligns with specific brain functions or neuropsychiatric disease states is largely unknown. Read More

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http://doi.wiley.com/10.1111/ejn.14355
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ejn.14355DOI Listing
January 2019
4 Reads

Increasing propensity to mind-wander by transcranial direct current stimulation? A registered report.

Eur J Neurosci 2019 Jan 24. Epub 2019 Jan 24.

Department of Psychology, University of Troms∅, Troms∅, Norway.

Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) has been proposed to be able to modulate different cognitive functions. However, recent meta-analyses conclude that its efficacy is still in question. Recently, an increase in subjects' propensity to mind-wander has been reported as a consequence of anodal stimulation of the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex(Axelrod et al. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ejn.14347DOI Listing
January 2019
4 Reads

Correct expression and localization of collagen XIII are crucial for the normal formation and function of the neuromuscular system.

Eur J Neurosci 2019 Jan 22. Epub 2019 Jan 22.

Faculty of Biochemistry and Molecular Medicine, Center for Cell-Matrix Research, Biocenter Oulu, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland.

Transmembrane collagen XIII has been linked to maturation of the musculoskeletal system. Its absence in mice (Col13a1 ) results in impaired neuromuscular junction (NMJ) differentiation and function, while transgenic overexpression (Col13a1 ) leads to abnormally high bone mass. Similarly, loss-of-function mutations in COL13A1 in humans produce muscle weakness, decreased motor synapse function and mild dysmorphic skeletal features. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ejn.14346DOI Listing
January 2019
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Effects of transcranial direct current stimulation over right posterior parietal cortex on attention function in healthy young adults.

Eur J Neurosci 2019 Jan 22. Epub 2019 Jan 22.

Department of Human Physiology, University of Oregon, Eugene, Oregon.

Attention involves three distinct networks for alerting, orienting, and executive control. Interventions targeting the specific attentional networks remain lacking. Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) has been shown to modulate cortical excitability, which potentially serves as an interventional tool to treat individuals with attention impairment. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ejn.14349DOI Listing
January 2019
1 Read

Uncontrolled eating: A unifying heritable trait linked with obesity, overeating, personality, and the brain.

Eur J Neurosci 2019 Jan 22. Epub 2019 Jan 22.

Montreal Neurological Institute, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada.

Many eating-related psychological constructs have been proposed to explain obesity and over-eating. However, these constructs, including food addiction, disinhibition, hedonic hunger, emotional eating, binge eating, and the like all have similar definitions, emphasising loss of control over intake. As questionnaires measuring the constructs correlate strongly (r>0. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ejn.14352DOI Listing
January 2019
2 Reads

Caffeine and cannabinoid receptors modulate impulsive behavior in an animal model of attentional deficit and hyperactivity disorder.

Eur J Neurosci 2019 Jan 22. Epub 2019 Jan 22.

Department of Neurobiology, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niterói, Brazil.

Attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is characterized by impaired levels of hyperactivity, impulsivity, and inattention. Adenosine and endocannabinoid systems tightly interact in the modulation of dopamine signaling, involved in the neurobiology of ADHD. In this study, we evaluated the modulating effects of the cannabinoid and adenosine systems in a tolerance to delay of reward task using the most widely used animal model of ADHD. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ejn.14348DOI Listing
January 2019
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Induced pluripotent stem cell-based modeling of mutant LRRK2-associated Parkinson's Disease.

Eur J Neurosci 2019 Jan 17. Epub 2019 Jan 17.

Institute of Reconstructive Neurobiology, Life& Brain Center, University of Bonn, 53127, Bonn, Germany.

Recent advances in cell reprogramming have enabled assessment of disease-related cellular traits in patient-derived somatic cells, thus providing a versatile platform for disease modeling and drug development. Given the limited access to vital human brain cells, this technology is especially relevant for neurodegenerative disorders such as Parkinson's Disease (PD) as a tool to decipher underlying pathomechanisms. Importantly, recent progress in genome editing technologies has provided an ability to analyze isogenic induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) pairs that differ only in a single genetic change thus allowing a thorough assessment of the molecular and cellular phenotypes that result from monogenetic risk factors. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ejn.14345DOI Listing
January 2019
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Volume of motor area predicts motor impulsivity.

Eur J Neurosci 2019 Jan 12. Epub 2019 Jan 12.

Shenzhen Key Laboratory of Affective and Social Neuroscience, Center for Brain Disorders and Cognitive Sciences, Shenzhen University, Shenzhen, China.

Impulsivity is a personality trait associated with many maladaptive behaviors. Trait impulsivity is typically divided into three different dimensions, including attentional impulsiveness, motor impulsiveness, and non-planning impulsiveness. In the present study, we examined the neuroanatomical basis of the multidimensional impulsivity trait. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ejn.14339DOI Listing
January 2019
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Synchronized activation of striatal direct and indirect pathways underlies the behavior in unilateral dopamine-depleted mice.

Eur J Neurosci 2019 Jan 11. Epub 2019 Jan 11.

Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology Graduate University, Okinawa, Japan.

For more than three decades it has been known, that striatal neurons become hyperactive after the loss of dopamine input, but the involvement of dopamine (DA) D1- or D2-receptor-expressing neurons has only been demonstrated indirectly. By recording neuronal activity using fluorescent calcium indicators in D1 or D2 eGFP-expressing mice, we showed that following dopamine depletion, both types of striatal output neurons are involved in the large increase in neuronal activity generating a characteristic cell assembly of particular neurons that dominate the pattern. When we expressed channelrhodopsin in all the output neurons, light activation in freely moving animals, caused turning like that following dopamine loss. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ejn.14344DOI Listing
January 2019
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Circadian regulation of membrane physiology in neural oscillators throughout the brain.

Eur J Neurosci 2019 Jan 11. Epub 2019 Jan 11.

Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Neurobiology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama.

Twenty-four-hour rhythmicity in physiology and behavior are driven by changes in neurophysiological activity that vary across the light-dark and rest-activity cycle. Although this neural code is most prominent in neurons of the primary circadian pacemaker in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) of the hypothalamus, there are many other regions in the brain where region-specific function and behavioral rhythmicity may be encoded by changes in electrical properties of those neurons. In this review, we explore the existing evidence for molecular clocks and/or neurophysiological rhythms (i. Read More

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http://doi.wiley.com/10.1111/ejn.14343
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January 2019
9 Reads

Separate cortical and hippocampal cell populations target the rat nucleus reuniens and mammillary bodies.

Eur J Neurosci 2019 Jan 11. Epub 2019 Jan 11.

School of Psychology, Cardiff University, Wales, United Kingdom.

Nucleus reuniens receives dense projections from both the hippocampus and the frontal cortices. Reflecting these connections, this nucleus is thought to enable executive functions, including those involving spatial learning. The mammillary bodies, which also support spatial learning, again receive dense hippocampal inputs, as well as lighter projections from medial frontal areas. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ejn.14341DOI Listing
January 2019
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'Higher education' - substance use among Berlin college students.

Eur J Neurosci 2019 Jan 11. Epub 2019 Jan 11.

Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin, corporate member of Freie Universität Berlin, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, Berlin Institute of Health, Institute of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Campus Charité Mitte, Charitéplatz 1, 10117, Berlin, Germany.

Berlin is internationally known for its intense nightlife associated with high rates of psychoactive substance use. Previous studies conducted in other cities indicated college students as a group at high risk for substance (mis-)use that was associated with individual psychological and cognitive impairments as well as lower academic performance. The aim of this study was to provide detailed data about the substance use patterns of Berlin college students. Read More

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http://doi.wiley.com/10.1111/ejn.14340
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ejn.14340DOI Listing
January 2019
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The role of aquaporin-4 and transient receptor potential vaniloid isoform 4 channels in the development of cytotoxic edema and associated extracellular diffusion parameter changes.

Eur J Neurosci 2019 Jan 11. Epub 2019 Jan 11.

Department of Neuroscience, 2nd Faculty of Medicine, Charles University, Prague, Czech Republic.

The proper function of the nervous system is dependent on the balance of ions and water between the intracellular and extracellular space (ECS). It has been suggested that the interaction of aquaporin-4 (AQP4) and the transient receptor potential vaniloid isoform 4 (TRPV4) channels play a role in water balance and cell volume regulation, and indirectly, of the ECS volume. Using the real-time iontophoretic method, we studied the changes of the ECS diffusion parameters: ECS volume fraction α (α = ECS volume fraction/total tissue volume) and tortuosity λ (λ  = free/apparent diffusion coefficient) in mice with a genetic deficiency of AQP4 or TRPV4 channels, and in control animals. Read More

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http://doi.wiley.com/10.1111/ejn.14338
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ejn.14338DOI Listing
January 2019
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Encoding of kinetic and kinematic movement parameters in the sensorimotor cortex: A Brain-Computer Interface perspective.

Eur J Neurosci 2019 Jan 11. Epub 2019 Jan 11.

Brain Center Rudolf Magnus, Department of Neurology and Neurosurgery, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, The Netherlands.

For severely paralyzed people, Brain-Computer Interfaces (BCIs) can potentially replace lost motor output and provide a brain-based control signal for augmentative and alternative communication devices or neuroprosthetics. Many BCIs focus on neuronal signals acquired from the hand area of the sensorimotor cortex, employing changes in the patterns of neuronal firing or spectral power associated with one or more types of hand movement. Hand and finger movement can be described by two groups of movement features, namely kinematics (spatial and motion aspects) and kinetics (muscles and forces). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ejn.14342DOI Listing
January 2019
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Epigenetic regulation of myelination in health and disease.

Eur J Neurosci 2019 Jan 11. Epub 2019 Jan 11.

Department of Neurobiology and Collaborative Innovation Center for Brain Science, School of Basic Medicine, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi'an, China.

Myelin is lipid-rich structure that is necessary to avoid leakage of electric signals and to ensure saltatory impulse conduction along axons. Oligodendrocytes in central nervous system (CNS) and Schwann cells in peripheral nervous system (PNS) are responsible for myelin formation. Axonal demyelination after injury or diseases greatly impairs normal nervous system function. Read More

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http://doi.wiley.com/10.1111/ejn.14337
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ejn.14337DOI Listing
January 2019
2 Reads

Profiles of women in science: Prof. Catharine Winstanley of the University of British Columbia.

Authors:
Dana L Helmreich

Eur J Neurosci 2019 Jan 7. Epub 2019 Jan 7.

The EJN Diversity and Inclusion Initiative, Department of Neuroscience, The Ernest J. Del Monte Institute for Neuroscience, School of Medicine, Dentistry, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ejn.14336DOI Listing
January 2019
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Circadian rhythm of redox state regulates membrane excitability in hippocampal CA1 neurons.

Eur J Neurosci 2019 Jan 4. Epub 2019 Jan 4.

Neuroscience Program, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois.

Behaviors, such as sleeping, foraging, and learning, are controlled by different regions of the rat brain, yet they occur rhythmically over the course of day and night. They are aligned adaptively with the day-night cycle by an endogenous circadian clock in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), but local mechanisms of rhythmic control are not established. The SCN expresses a ~24-hr oscillation in reduction-oxidation that modulates its own neuronal excitability. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ejn.14334DOI Listing
January 2019
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Sleep and synaptic down-selection.

Eur J Neurosci 2019 Jan 5. Epub 2019 Jan 5.

Department of Psychiatry, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin.

The synaptic homeostasis hypothesis (SHY) proposes that sleep is an essential process needed by the brain to maintain the total amount of synaptic strength under control. SHY predicts that by the end of a waking day the synaptic connections of many neural circuits undergo a net increase in synaptic strength due to ongoing learning, which is mainly mediated by synaptic potentiation. Stronger synapses require more energy and supplies and are prone to saturation, creating the need for synaptic renormalization. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ejn.14335DOI Listing
January 2019
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Genetically engineered stem cell-derived neurons can be rendered resistant to alpha-synuclein aggregate pathology.

Eur J Neurosci 2019 Jan 5. Epub 2019 Jan 5.

Center for Neurodegenerative Science, Van Andel Research Institute, Grand Rapids, Michigan.

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http://doi.wiley.com/10.1111/ejn.14333
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ejn.14333DOI Listing
January 2019
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Establishing online mentorship for early career researchers: Lessons from the Organization for Human Brain Mapping International Mentoring Programme.

Eur J Neurosci 2018 Dec 27. Epub 2018 Dec 27.

Centre de Recherche de l'Institut Universitaire de Gériatrie de Montréal (CRIUGM), Montreal, Quebec, Canada.

Mentorship facilitates personal growth through pairing trainees with mentors who can share their expertise. In times of global integration, geographical proximity between mentors and mentees is relevant to a lesser degree. This has led to popularization of online mentoring programs. Read More

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http://doi.wiley.com/10.1111/ejn.14320
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ejn.14320DOI Listing
December 2018
5 Reads
3.181 Impact Factor

Development of the mammalian circadian clock.

Authors:
Sato Honma

Eur J Neurosci 2018 Dec 27. Epub 2018 Dec 27.

Research and Education Center for Brain Science, Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Japan.

The mammalian circadian system is composed of a central clock situated in the hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) and peripheral clocks of each tissue and organ in the body. While much has been learned about the pre- and postnatal development of the circadian system, there are still many unanswered questions about how and when cellular clocks start to tick and form the circadian system. Most SCN neurons contain a cell-autonomous circadian clock with individual specific periodicity. Read More

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http://doi.wiley.com/10.1111/ejn.14318
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ejn.14318DOI Listing
December 2018
9 Reads

Electrical stimulation of human corticospinal axons at the level of the lumbar spinal segments.

Eur J Neurosci 2018 Dec 27. Epub 2018 Dec 27.

Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Northumbria University, Newcastle upon Tyne, UK.

Electrical stimulation over the mastoids or thoracic spinous processes has been used to assess subcortical contribution to corticospinal excitability, but responses are difficult to evoke in the resting lower limbs or are limited to only a few muscle groups. This might be mitigated by delivering the stimuli lower on the spinal column, where the descending tracts contain a greater relative density of motoneurons projecting to lower limb muscles. We investigated activation of the corticospinal axons innervating tibialis anterior (TA) and rectus femoris (RF) by applying a single electrical stimulus over the first lumbar spinous process (LS). Read More

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http://doi.wiley.com/10.1111/ejn.14321
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ejn.14321DOI Listing
December 2018
12 Reads

Selectivity for mid-level properties of faces and places in the fusiform face area and parahippocampal place area.

Eur J Neurosci 2018 Dec 27. Epub 2018 Dec 27.

Department of Psychology, University of York, York, UK.

Regions in the ventral visual pathway, such as the fusiform face area (FFA) and parahippocampal place area (PPA) are selective for images from specific object categories. Yet images from different object categories differ in their image properties. To investigate how these image properties are represented in the FFA and PPA, we compared neural responses to locally-SCRAMBLED images (in which mid-level, spatial properties are preserved) and globally-SCRAMBLED images (in which mid-level, spatial properties are not preserved). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ejn.14327DOI Listing
December 2018
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Weighting of neural prediction error by rhythmic complexity: A predictive coding account using mismatch negativity.

Eur J Neurosci 2018 Dec 27. Epub 2018 Dec 27.

Department of Clinical Medicine, Center for Music in the Brain, Aarhus University & The Royal Academy of Music, Aarhus C, Denmark.

The human brain's ability to extract and encode temporal regularities and to predict the timing of upcoming events is critical for music and speech perception. This work addresses how these mechanisms deal with different levels of temporal complexity, here the number of distinct durations in rhythmic patterns. We use electroencephalography (EEG) to relate the mismatch negativity (MMN), a proxy of neural prediction error, to a measure of information content of rhythmic sequences, the Shannon entropy. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ejn.14329DOI Listing
December 2018
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A Sam68-dependent alternative splicing program shapes postsynaptic protein complexes.

Eur J Neurosci 2018 Dec 27. Epub 2018 Dec 27.

Biozentrum of the University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland.

Alternative splicing is one of the key mechanisms to increase the diversity of cellular transcriptomes, thereby expanding the coding capacity of the genome. This diversity is of particular importance in the nervous system with its elaborated cellular networks. Sam68, a member of the Signal Transduction Associated RNA-binding (STAR) family of RNA-binding proteins, is expressed in the developing and mature nervous system but its neuronal functions are poorly understood. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ejn.14332DOI Listing
December 2018
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Impairments in gait kinematics and postural control may not correlate with dopamine transporter depletion in individuals with mild to moderate Parkinson's disease.

Eur J Neurosci 2018 Dec 27. Epub 2018 Dec 27.

Federal University of Health Sciences of Porto Alegre, Post-Graduation Program in Rehabilitation Sciences, Porto Alegre, Brazil.

Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder caused by the loss of dopamine, an important neurotransmitter involved in regulating movement. Nuclear medicine imaging methods such as single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) combined with radiotracers can obtain the density of this neurotransmitter. This reduced density leads to classic PD symptoms, such as bradykinesia, tremor and stiffness, consequently affecting walking and postural control. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ejn.14328DOI Listing
December 2018
3 Reads

Bi-directional modulation of food habit expression by the endocannabinoid system.

Eur J Neurosci 2018 Dec 27. Epub 2018 Dec 27.

Department of Psychiatry, Division of Molecular Psychiatry, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut.

The compulsive, habitual behaviors that have been observed in individuals diagnosed with substance use disorders may be due to disruptions in the neural circuits that mediate goal-directed actions. The endocannabinoid system has been shown to play a critical role in habit learning, but the role of this neuromodulatory system in habit expression is unclear. Here, we investigated the role of the endocannabinoid system in established habitual actions using contingency degradation in male C57BL/6 mice. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ejn.14330DOI Listing
December 2018
3 Reads