16,792 results match your criteria The American journal of tropical medicine and hygiene[Journal]


-Repeat Light Microscopy when Molecular Testing is Not Available.

Am J Trop Med Hyg 2019 Feb;100(2):233-234

Department of Infectious Disease, Naval Medical Center Portsmouth, Portsmouth, Virginia.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4269/ajtmh.18-0592DOI Listing
February 2019

Rhinophyma-Like Cutaneous Leishmaniasis due to Treated Successfully with Liposomal Amphotericin B.

Am J Trop Med Hyg 2019 Feb;100(2):231-232

Institute of Clinical Microbiology, Immunology and Hygiene, Universitätsklinikum Erlangen and Friedrich-Alexander-Universität (FAU) Erlangen-Nürnberg, Erlangen, Germany.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4269/ajtmh.18-0578DOI Listing
February 2019

Significance of Autophagy in Dengue Virus Infection: A Brief Review.

Am J Trop Med Hyg 2019 Feb 11. Epub 2019 Feb 11.

Center of Excellence in Pharmacology and Molecular Biology of Malaria and Cholangiocarcinoma, Chulabhorn International College of Medicine, Thammasat University, Rangsit Center, Klong Luang, Thailand.

Dengue virus (DENV) causes asymptomatic to severe life-threatening infections and affects millions of people worldwide. Autophagy, a cellular degradative pathway, has both proviral and antiviral functions. Dengue virus triggers the autophagy pathway for the successful replication of its genome. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4269/ajtmh.18-0761DOI Listing
February 2019

A Personal Account Regarding the Origin and Evolution of Controversies in the Management of Neurocysticercosis.

Am J Trop Med Hyg 2019 Feb 11. Epub 2019 Feb 11.

School of Medicine, Universidad Espíritu Santo-Ecuador, Guayaquil, Ecuador.

A panel of experts from the Infectious Disease Society of America and The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene recently published guidelines for management of neurocysticercosis, showing that clinical manifestations as well as the stage of involution and the anatomical location of parasites must be taken into account before the start of a rational therapy. Soon thereafter, isolated opinions attempted to discredit these guidelines, arguing insufficient or inadequate evidence and suggesting that they should not be followed worldwide. In view of these conflicting reports, it is appropriate to review the origin and evolution of the controversy on the medical treatment of neurocysticercosis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4269/ajtmh.18-0921DOI Listing
February 2019

Brain and Spinal Cord Lesions in Leprosy: A Magnetic Resonance Imaging-Based Study.

Am J Trop Med Hyg 2019 Feb 11. Epub 2019 Feb 11.

Department of Neurology, National Institute of Mental Health and Neurosciences, Bangalore, India.

Neurotropism and infiltration by of peripheral nerves causing neuropathy are well established, but reports of central nervous system (CNS) damage are exceptional. We report CNS magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) abnormalities of the brain and spinal cord as well as lesions in nerve roots and plexus in leprosy patients. Eight patients aged between 17 and 41 years underwent detailed clinical, histopathological, and MRI evaluation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4269/ajtmh.17-0945DOI Listing
February 2019
1 Read

High Morbidity Due to Murine Typhus Upsurge in Urban Neighborhoods in Central Israel.

Am J Trop Med Hyg 2019 Feb 11. Epub 2019 Feb 11.

Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel.

The incidence of murine typhus in Israel has decreased substantially since 1950 to a low of 0.04/100,000 population in 2010. We present the experience of a single university medical center in central Israel. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4269/ajtmh.18-0076DOI Listing
February 2019

Differences in the Clinical and Laboratory Features of Imported Onchocerciasis in Endemic Individuals and Temporary Residents.

Am J Trop Med Hyg 2019 Feb 11. Epub 2019 Feb 11.

Laboratory of Parasitic Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland.

Many parasitic infections have different presenting features in endemic individuals (ENDs) and immunologically naive temporary residents (TRs). Temporary residents with loiasis often display acute symptoms and hypereosinophilia, in contrast to a parasite-induced subclinical state in chronically infected ENDs. Few studies have examined differences in ENDs and TRs infected with the related filarial parasite . Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4269/ajtmh.18-0757DOI Listing
February 2019
1 Read

Association between Insulin-Like Growth Factor-I Levels and the Disease Progression and Anemia in Visceral Leishmaniasis.

Am J Trop Med Hyg 2019 Feb 11. Epub 2019 Feb 11.

Departamento de Medicina Preventiva, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil.

We analyzed the association between insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) and the pathogenesis of anemia during active visceral leishmaniasis (VL). Serum levels of IGF-I, IGF-binding protein 3 (IGFBP3), and cytokines were measured in samples from individuals with active VL and cured VL, asymptomatic -infected, and noninfected individuals. Then, we extended our analysis to VL dogs to evaluate hematimetric parameters, bone marrow alterations, and cytokine and IGF-I expression. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4269/ajtmh.17-0982DOI Listing
February 2019

Mass Drug Administration of Azithromycin to Reduce Child Mortality: Only for High-Mortality Settings?

Am J Trop Med Hyg 2019 Feb 7. Epub 2019 Feb 7.

Department of Medicine (Infectious Disease), University of Washington, Seattle, Washington.

Mass Drug Administration of Azithromycin to Reduce Child Mortality: Only for High-Mortality Settings? Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4269/ajtmh.19-0071DOI Listing
February 2019

Genetic Markers of Benzimidazole Resistance among Human Hookworms () in Kintampo North Municipality, Ghana.

Am J Trop Med Hyg 2019 Feb;100(2):351-356

Yale Partnerships for Global Health, Department of Pediatrics, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut.

Hookworm infection causes anemia, malnutrition, and growth delay, especially in children living in sub-Saharan Africa. The World Health Organization recommends periodic mass drug administration (MDA) of anthelminthics to school-age children (SAC) as a means of reducing morbidity. Recently, questions have been raised about the effectiveness of MDA as a global control strategy for hookworms and other soil-transmitted helminths (STHs). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4269/ajtmh.18-0727DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6367626PMC
February 2019

Effect Modification by Baseline Mortality in the MORDOR Azithromycin Trial.

Am J Trop Med Hyg 2019 Feb 7. Epub 2019 Feb 7.

Department of Ophthalmology, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, California.

We examined whether baseline mortality risk, as a function of child age and site, modified the azithromycin mortality-reduction effect in the (MORDOR) clinical trial. We used the Cox proportional hazards model with an interaction term. Three models were examined representing three sources for the baseline-risk covariate: two using sources external to MORDOR and the third leveraging data within MORDOR. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4269/ajtmh.18-1004DOI Listing
February 2019

Efficacy of Mass Azithromycin Distribution for Reducing Childhood Mortality Across Geographic Regions.

Am J Trop Med Hyg 2019 Feb 7. Epub 2019 Feb 7.

Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, California.

Mass azithromycin distribution has been shown to reduce all-cause mortality in preschool children in sub-Saharan Africa. However, substantial heterogeneity in the apparent effect has been noted across geographic settings, suggesting a greater relative benefit in higher mortality settings. Here, we evaluated the relationship between the underlying mortality rate and the efficacy of azithromycin for the prevention of child mortality using data from multiple sites in Ethiopia, Malawi, Niger, and Tanzania. Read More

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http://www.ajtmh.org/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.18-1003
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4269/ajtmh.18-1003DOI Listing
February 2019
6 Reads

Scrub Typhus and Abnormal Electrocardiography.

Am J Trop Med Hyg 2019 Feb;100(2):399-404

Department of Internal Medicine, School of Medicine, Chosun University, Gwangju, Republic of Korea.

This study compared the frequency of abnormal electrocardiogram (ECG) types between scrub typhus patient group and age- and gender-matched health checkup group and their associations with disease severity in scrub typhus patient. Demographic characteristics and ECG and laboratory findings of patients with scrub typhus admitted to Chosun University Hospital, and normal subjects visiting the hospital for health checkup from January 2008 to December 2012 were retrospectively studied. Electrocardiogram abnormalities at admission were observed in 72 of 165 (43. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4269/ajtmh.17-0565DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6367634PMC
February 2019

Malaria Severity in Mangaluru City in the Southwestern Coastal Region of India.

Am J Trop Med Hyg 2019 Feb;100(2):275-279

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Pennsylvania State University College of Medicine, Milton S. Hershey Medical Center, Hershey, Pennsylvania.

Dakshina Kannada district in the Southwestern region of Karnataka state, India, including Mangaluru city is endemic to malaria. About 80% of malaria infections in Mangaluru and its surrounding areas are caused by and the remainder is due to . Malaria-associated clinical complications significantly occur in this region. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4269/ajtmh.18-0005DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6367599PMC
February 2019
2 Reads

The Association between Calcified Neurocysticercosis and Cognitive Performance: A Case-Control Study Nested to a Population-Based Cohort.

Am J Trop Med Hyg 2019 Feb;100(2):323-326

Department of Neurology, Houston Methodist Hospital, Houston, Texas.

Mechanisms implicated in the association between neurocysticercosis (NCC) and cognitive impairment remain unknown. Atahualpa residents aged ≥ 40 years with calcified NCC were identified as case patients and paired 1:1 to age- and gender-matched controls. The selection process generated 79 pairs. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4269/ajtmh.18-0611DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6367638PMC
February 2019

Multiple Approaches to Address Potential Risk Factors of Chagas Disease Transmission in Northeastern Brazil.

Am J Trop Med Hyg 2019 Feb;100(2):296-302

Laboratório de Ecoepidemiologia da Doença de Chagas, Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, IOC/Fiocruz, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

Chagas disease is one of the most significant systemic parasitosis in Latin America, caused by , which is mainly transmitted by hematophagous insects, the triatomines. This research was carried out in both domestic and wild environments throughout a Northeastern rural locality. Triatomines were captured in both peridomicile and wild environments, obtaining 508 specimens of triatomines, of which 99. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4269/ajtmh.18-0480DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6367631PMC
February 2019

Toward Mass Drug Administration Stopping Criteria for Control Programs.

Authors:
W Evan Secor

Am J Trop Med Hyg 2019 Feb 4. Epub 2019 Feb 4.

Division of Parasitic Diseases and Malaria, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia.

Toward Mass Drug Administration Stopping Criteria for Control Programs. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4269/ajtmh.19-0011DOI Listing
February 2019

The Search for histidine-rich protein 2/3 Deletions in Zambia and Implications for histidine rich-protein 2-Based Rapid Diagnostic Tests.

Am J Trop Med Hyg 2019 Feb 4. Epub 2019 Feb 4.

W. Harry Feinstone Department of Molecular Microbiology and Immunology, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, Maryland.

We attempted to identify histidine-rich protein 2/3 () deletions among rapid diagnostic test (RDT)-negative but PCR- or microscopy-positive -infected individuals in areas of low transmission (Choma District, 2009-2011) and high transmission (Nchelenge District, 2015-2017) in Zambia. Through community-based surveys, 5,167 participants were screened at 1,147 households by PfHRP2-based RDTs. Slides were made and dried blood spots were obtained for molecular analysis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4269/ajtmh.18-0859DOI Listing
February 2019

Absence of Serological Evidence of Exposure to among Children Suggests Yaws Is No Longer Endemic in Kiribati.

Am J Trop Med Hyg 2019 Feb 4. Epub 2019 Feb 4.

Clinical Research Department, London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, London, United Kingdom.

Yaws is a neglected tropical disease targeted for eradication by 2020. Kiribati, a Pacific Island nation, was previously endemic for yaws but lacks recent data from which its current endemicity status could be determined. This study tested antibody responses to to determine if transmission of yaws is taking place among children in Kiribati. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4269/ajtmh.18-0799DOI Listing
February 2019

Integration of Human African Trypanosomiasis Control Activities into Primary Health Services in the Democratic Republic of the Congo: A Qualitative Study of Stakeholder Perceptions.

Am J Trop Med Hyg 2019 Feb 4. Epub 2019 Feb 4.

National Program for the Control of Human African Trypanosomiasis, Kinshasa, DRC.

Human African trypanosomiasis is close to elimination in several countries in sub-Saharan Africa. The diagnosis and treatment is currently rapidly being integrated into first-line health services. We aimed to document the perspective of stakeholders on this integration process. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4269/ajtmh.18-0382DOI Listing
February 2019
1 Read

Erratum.

Authors:

Am J Trop Med Hyg 2019 Jan 29. Epub 2019 Jan 29.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4269/ajtmh.14-0031errDOI Listing
January 2019

Risk Factors for Undernutrition and Diarrhea Prevalence in an Urban Slum in Indonesia: Focus on Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene.

Am J Trop Med Hyg 2019 Jan 28. Epub 2019 Jan 28.

Graduate School of Health Sciences, Hokkaido University, Sappora, Japan.

Unsafe drinking water and poor sanitation and hygiene lead to deterioration of the child health condition in low- and middle-income countries. This study aimed to evaluate the nutritional and health status of children living in an urban slum and to clarify the factors contributing to undernutrition and diarrhea prevalence by focusing on water, sanitation, and hygiene from three viewpoints: household environments, child personal hygiene practices, and knowledge and awareness. The study was conducted at a preschool and two elementary schools in the densely populated area of Bandung, Indonesia. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4269/ajtmh.18-0063DOI Listing
January 2019

Exposure to Livestock Feces and Water Quality, Sanitation, and Hygiene (WASH) Conditions among Caregivers and Young Children: Formative Research in Rural Burkina Faso.

Am J Trop Med Hyg 2019 Jan 28. Epub 2019 Jan 28.

International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI), Washington, District of Columbia.

Livestock farming is common in low-income settings as a source of income and animal-sourced food. However, there is growing evidence of the harmful health effects of proximity of animals to infants and young children, especially through exposure to zoonotic pathogens. Poultry ownership is almost universal in rural Burkina Faso. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4269/ajtmh.18-0333DOI Listing
January 2019

Long-Term Cultivation of in a Novel Cell Culture Device.

Am J Trop Med Hyg 2019 Jan 28. Epub 2019 Jan 28.

Centre François Baclesse, Normandie Université, UNICAEN, UR ABTE EA 4651, Caen, France.

The standard cultivation procedure for requires gas exchange and a microaerophilic atmosphere. A novel system using a commercially available cell culture device (Petaka G3; Celartia Ltd., Powell, OH) was assessed for long-term cultivation of a reference laboratory clone in normal air. Read More

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http://www.ajtmh.org/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.18-0527
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4269/ajtmh.18-0527DOI Listing
January 2019
7 Reads

The Cholera Phone: Diarrheal Disease Surveillance by Mobile Phone in Bangladesh.

Am J Trop Med Hyg 2019 Jan 28. Epub 2019 Jan 28.

Department of Public Health University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen Center for Disaster Research, Section of Global Health, Copenhagen, Denmark.

Existing methodologies to record diarrheal disease incidence in households have limitations due to a high-episode recall error outside a 48-hour window. Our objective was to use mobile phones for reporting diarrheal episodes in households to provide real-time incidence data with minimum resource consumption and low recall error. From June 2014 to June 2015, we enrolled 417 low-income households in Dhaka, Bangladesh, and asked them to report diarrheal episodes to a call center. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4269/ajtmh.18-0546DOI Listing
January 2019

Laboratory Parameters after Treatment for and : The Experience of a Single Referral Center for Tropical Diseases in a Non-Endemic Area.

Am J Trop Med Hyg 2019 Jan 28. Epub 2019 Jan 28.

Infectious Diseases and Tropical Medicine Section, Diagnostic and Public Health Department, University of Verona, Verona, Italy.

Infections due to and are common yet elusive neglected filariases. Parasitological cure after treatment is very difficult to assess, as adult parasites are not accessible. Therefore, outside transmission areas, patients require a long follow-up period to ascertain the therapeutic outcome, which is impractical for non-sedentary populations such as migrants. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4269/ajtmh.18-0693DOI Listing
January 2019

Antibiotic Prescription Patterns among Children Younger than 5 Years in Nouna District, Burkina Faso.

Am J Trop Med Hyg 2019 Jan 28. Epub 2019 Jan 28.

Department of Ophthalmology, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, California.

Understanding antibiotic use may help predict emergence of antimicrobial resistance. We evaluated antibiotic prescription trends in rural Burkina Faso, where little is known about antibiotic consumption. Antibiotic prescription data for 20 communities were extracted through record review in six primary health-care facilities serving the communities. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4269/ajtmh.18-0791DOI Listing
January 2019

Low Zika Virus Seroprevalence in Vientiane, Laos, 2003-2015.

Am J Trop Med Hyg 2019 Jan 28. Epub 2019 Jan 28.

Lao-Oxford-Mahosot Hospital-Wellcome Trust Research Unit (LOMWRU), Microbiology Laboratory, Mahosot Hospital, Vientiane, Lao PDR.

Zika virus (ZIKV) has been presumed to be endemic in Southeast Asia (SEA), with a low rate of human infections. Although the first ZIKV evidence was obtained in the 1950s through serosurveys, the first laboratory-confirmed case was only detected in 2010 in Cambodia. The epidemiology of ZIKV in SEA remains uncertain because of the scarcity of available data. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4269/ajtmh.18-0439DOI Listing
January 2019
2 Reads

Potential for Seasonal Lassa Fever Case Exportation from Nigeria.

Am J Trop Med Hyg 2019 Jan 28. Epub 2019 Jan 28.

Divisions of General Internal Medicine and Infectious Diseases, University Health Network, Toronto, Canada.

The largest epidemic of Lassa fever in recent history occurred in Nigeria in 2018. We assessed the potential for cases of Lassa fever originating in Nigeria to arrive at international destinations via air travel using a probabilistic model. We estimated no exported cases in 62% of 1,000 model simulations. Read More

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http://www.ajtmh.org/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.18-0753
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4269/ajtmh.18-0753DOI Listing
January 2019
5 Reads

Cystic Echinococcosis of the Bone: A European Multicenter Study.

Am J Trop Med Hyg 2019 Jan 28. Epub 2019 Jan 28.

Unit of Infectious and Tropical Diseases, IRCCS San Matteo Hospital Foundation, Pavia, Italy.

Cystic echinococcosis (CE) is a zoonosis caused by the larval stage of the tapeworm . In humans, the infection induces the formation of parasitic cysts mostly in the liver and lungs, but virtually any organ can be affected. Cystic echinococcosis of the bone is one of the rarest forms of the disease, yet it is also extremely debilitating for patients and hard to manage for clinicians. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4269/ajtmh.18-0758DOI Listing
January 2019
1 Read

The Controlled Human Malaria Infection Experience at the University of Maryland.

Am J Trop Med Hyg 2019 Jan 21. Epub 2019 Jan 21.

Center for Vaccine Development and Global Health, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland.

Controlled human malaria infection (CHMI) is a powerful tool to evaluate the efficacy of malaria vaccines and pharmacologics. Investigators at the University of Maryland, Baltimore, Center for Vaccine Development (UMB-CVD) pioneered the technique in the 1970s and continue to advance the frontiers of CHMI research. We reviewed the records of 338 malaria-naive volunteers who underwent CHMI at UMB-CVD with from 1971 until 2017. Read More

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http://www.ajtmh.org/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.18-0476
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4269/ajtmh.18-0476DOI Listing
January 2019
10 Reads

Evaluation of the QuantiFERON-Tuberculosis Gold Plus Assay in Children with Tuberculosis Disease or Following Household Exposure to Tuberculosis.

Am J Trop Med Hyg 2019 Jan 21. Epub 2019 Jan 21.

Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas.

Interferon-gamma release assays are increasingly used in children to establish evidence of tuberculosis (TB) infection and to assist in the diagnosis of TB disease. The QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-Tube assay is being phased out in favor of a next-generation test, the QuantiFERON-TB Gold Plus (QFT-Plus) assay. The QFT-Plus assay is designed with two antigen tubes to differentially stimulate CD4 and CD8 T cells. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4269/ajtmh.18-0674DOI Listing
January 2019
4 Reads

Evaluation of a Commercial Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay Kit and In-House Cysteine Proteinases-Based Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assays for Diagnosis of Human Fascioliasis.

Am J Trop Med Hyg 2019 Jan 21. Epub 2019 Jan 21.

Department of Parasitology, Faculty of Medicine, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen, Thailand.

Fascioliasis, caused by and infection, is a major food-borne trematodiasis in many places of the world, with the central region of Vietnam being reported as a highly endemic area. Stool examination for eggs is not a sensitive method, and immunodiagnostic methods are preferable. We investigated various enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) to evaluate their efficacy for fascioliasis diagnosis. Read More

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http://www.ajtmh.org/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.18-0833
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4269/ajtmh.18-0833DOI Listing
January 2019
6 Reads

Modeling the Economic Impact of Substandard and Falsified Antimalarials in the Democratic Republic of the Congo.

Am J Trop Med Hyg 2019 Jan 21. Epub 2019 Jan 21.

Division of Practice Advancement and Clinical Education, UNC Eshelman School of Pharmacy, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina.

Substandard and falsified medicines pose significant risks to global health, including increased deaths, prolonged treatments, and growing drug resistance. Antimalarials are one of the most common medications to be of poor quality in low- and middle-income countries. We assessed the health and economic impact of substandard and falsified antimalarials for children less than 5 years of age in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, which has one of the world's highest malaria mortality. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4269/ajtmh.18-0334DOI Listing
January 2019
2 Reads

Imported Malaria at a Referral Hospital in Tokyo from 2005 to 2016: Clinical Experience and Challenges in a Non-Endemic Setting.

Am J Trop Med Hyg 2019 Jan 21. Epub 2019 Jan 21.

Disease Control and Prevention Center, National Center for Global Health and Medicine, Shinjuku, Japan.

In this study, we reviewed imported malaria cases observed at the National Center for Global Health and Medicine, Tokyo, between 2005 and 2016, to comprehend their demographic and clinical characteristics. Data on 169 cases were used to analyze demographic information; data on 146 cases were used for the analysis of clinical information. The median patients' age was 34 years, and 79. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4269/ajtmh.18-0722DOI Listing
January 2019
1 Read

Seroprevalence of Dengue Virus and Rickettsial Infections in Cambodian Children.

Am J Trop Med Hyg 2019 Jan 21. Epub 2019 Jan 21.

Nuffield Department of Medicine, Centre for Tropical Medicine and Global Health, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom.

Scrub typhus (ST, ), murine typhus (MT, ), and dengue virus (DENV) are important causes of childhood morbidity in Cambodia. This prospective, cross-sectional, seroprevalence study determined the proportion of Cambodian children infected by these pathogens and the ages at which initial infection is likely to occur. A total of 993 patient serum samples were tested for MT- and ST-specific IgG, and 837 samples tested for DENV-specific IgG. Read More

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http://www.ajtmh.org/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.18-0865
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4269/ajtmh.18-0865DOI Listing
January 2019
5 Reads
2.699 Impact Factor

First Report of New Delhi Metallo-β-Lactamase Carbapenemase-Producing in Peru.

Am J Trop Med Hyg 2019 Jan 21. Epub 2019 Jan 21.

U. S. Naval Medical Research Unit No 6, Lima, Peru.

Here we report the first incidence of New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase (NDM-1)-producing in Peru, identified via a strain-based nosocomial surveillance project carried out in Lima and Iquitos. The gene was detected by multiplex PCR and confirmed by loci sequencing. is a nearly ubiquitous and promiscuous nosocomial pathogen, and the acquisition of by may facilitate an increase in the prevalence of this important resistance marker in other nosocomial pathogens. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4269/ajtmh.18-0802DOI Listing
January 2019
1 Read

The Role of the Middle East in ZIKA Virus Circulation: Implications of a Cross-Sectional Study in Jordan.

Am J Trop Med Hyg 2019 Jan 21. Epub 2019 Jan 21.

Department of Biopharmaceutics and Clinical Pharmacy, School of Pharmacy, The University of Jordan, Amman, Jordan.

ZIKA virus (ZIKAV) outbreak in Latin America was associated with international concerns of ZIKAV circulation. The lack of vaccine and FDA-approved drugs against this virus rendered prevention as the single most effective method to control its spread. Hence, this study aimed to assess Jordanian population knowledge, attitude, and practices toward ZIKAV and its prevention. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4269/ajtmh.18-0715DOI Listing
January 2019
2 Reads
2.699 Impact Factor

Effect of Neighborhood Sanitation Coverage on Fecal Contamination of the Household Environment in Rural Bangladesh.

Am J Trop Med Hyg 2019 Jan 21. Epub 2019 Jan 21.

London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, United Kingdom.

Enteric pathogens can be transmitted within the household and the surrounding neighborhood. The objective of this study was to understand the effect of neighborhood-level sanitation coverage on contamination of the household environment with levels of fecal indicator bacteria in rural Bangladesh. We conducted spot-check observations of sanitation facilities in neighboring households (NHs) within a 20-m radius of target households with children aged 6-24 months. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4269/ajtmh.16-0996DOI Listing
January 2019
1 Read

Increased Carotid Intima-Media Thickness in Children with a History of Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever.

Am J Trop Med Hyg 2019 Jan 21. Epub 2019 Jan 21.

Julius Global Health/Julius Center for Health Sciences and Primary Care, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, The Netherlands.

We assessed carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) and arterial stiffness in 28 children and adolescents with previous dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) (mean interval between DHF and cardiovascular assessment, 8.4 years), and 34 controls in a low-resource setting. Participants with previous DHF had an adjusted increased cIMT of 42. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4269/ajtmh.18-0672DOI Listing
January 2019
1 Read

A Novel Assay for Simultaneous Assessment of Mammalian Host Blood, Mosquito Species, and spp. in the Medically Important Mosquitoes of Madagascar.

Am J Trop Med Hyg 2019 Jan 21. Epub 2019 Jan 21.

The Center for Global Health and Diseases, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio.

mosquitoes vary in habitat preference, feeding pattern, and susceptibility to various measures of vector control. Consequently, it is important that we identify reservoirs of disease, identify vectors, and characterize feeding patterns to effectively implement targeted control measures. Using 467 anopheline mosquito abdomen squashes captured in Madagascar, we designed a novel ligase detection reaction and fluorescent microsphere assay, dubbed Bloodmeal Detection Assay for Regional Transmission (BLOODART), to query the bloodmeal content, identify five mosquito species, and detect infection. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4269/ajtmh.18-0782DOI Listing
January 2019
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Tolerance May Be More Appropriate Than Immunity When Describing Chronic Malaria Infections.

Authors:
G Dennis Shanks

Am J Trop Med Hyg 2019 Jan 21. Epub 2019 Jan 21.

School of Public Health, University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia.

Adults who have not grown up in a malaria-endemic area may experience severe malaria soon after entering a malarious area. Such mortality is usually limited to a short period of time (months), after which they are thought to be "immune." Such anti-disease immunity may be more accurately considered as tolerance. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4269/ajtmh.18-0906DOI Listing
January 2019
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The Critical Role of Compliance in Delivering Health Gains from Environmental Health Interventions.

Am J Trop Med Hyg 2019 Jan 21. Epub 2019 Jan 21.

Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia.

Gains in reducing childhood disease burden rely heavily on effective means of preventing environmental exposures. For many environmental health interventions, such as point-of-use water treatment, sanitation, or cookstoves, exposures are strongly influenced by user behaviors and the degree to which participants adhere to the prescribed preventive measures. In this commentary, we articulate the need for increased attention on user behaviors-critically, the careful measurement and inclusion of compliance-to strengthen exposure assessment and health impact trials in environmental health intervention research. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4269/ajtmh.18-0624DOI Listing
January 2019
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Determinants of Latrine Use Behavior: The Psychosocial Proxies of Individual-Level Defecation Practices in Rural Coastal Ecuador.

Am J Trop Med Hyg 2019 Jan 21. Epub 2019 Jan 21.

Department of Epidemiology, University of Michigan School of Public Health, Ann Arbor, Michigan.

There is increasing appreciation that latrine access does not imply use-many individuals who own latrines do not consistently use them. Little is known, however, about the determinants of latrine use, particularly among those with variable defecation behaviors. Using the integrated behavior model of water, sanitation, and hygiene framework, we sought to characterize determinants of latrine use in rural Ecuador. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4269/ajtmh.18-0144DOI Listing
January 2019
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Self-Reported Side Effects following Mass Administration of Azithromycin to Eliminate Trachoma in Amhara, Ethiopia: Results from a Region-Wide Population-Based Survey.

Am J Trop Med Hyg 2019 Jan 21. Epub 2019 Jan 21.

The Carter Center Atlanta.

A region-wide population-based post-mass drug administration (MDA) coverage survey was conducted 3 weeks following the 2016 trachoma MDA in Amhara, Ethiopia. The prevalence of self-reported side effects was assessed among those who self-reported receiving azithromycin. A total of 16,773 individuals from 5,129 households reported taking azithromycin during the 2016 MDA in Amhara. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4269/ajtmh.18-0781DOI Listing
January 2019
2 Reads

Research into the Causes of Venom-Induced Mortality and Morbidity Identifies New Therapeutic Strategies.

Am J Trop Med Hyg 2019 Jan 21. Epub 2019 Jan 21.

DOS in Biochemistry, University of Mysore, Mysuru, India.

Snakebite primarily affects rural subsistent farming populations in underdeveloped and developing nations. The annual number of deaths (100,000) and physical disabilities (400,000) of snakebite victims is a societal tragedy that poses a significant added socioeconomic burden to the society. Antivenom therapy is the treatment of choice for snakebite but, as testified by the continuing high rates of mortality and morbidity, too many rural tropical snakebite victims fail to access effective treatment. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4269/ajtmh.17-0877DOI Listing
January 2019
5 Reads

Case Report: Acute Generalized Exanthematous Pustulosis Caused by Praziquantel.

Am J Trop Med Hyg 2019 Jan 21. Epub 2019 Jan 21.

Department of General Internal Medicine, Kobe City Medical Center General Hospital, Kobe, Japan.

Praziquantel is widely used for treating parasitic infections globally, especially in countries with endemic schistosomiasis. However, severe hypersensitivity to praziquantel has rarely been reported. We report the case of a 30-year-old Japanese man who developed acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis (AGEP), which is a rare and severe cutaneous reaction usually triggered by drugs, after taking praziquantel. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4269/ajtmh.18-0832DOI Listing
January 2019
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Malaria-Associated Mortality in Australian and British Prisoners of War on the Thai-Burma Railway 1943-1944.

Authors:
G Dennis Shanks

Am J Trop Med Hyg 2019 Jan 21. Epub 2019 Jan 21.

Australian Defence Force Malaria and Infectious Disease Institute, Enoggera, Australia.

During the building of the Thai-Burma railway in 1943 Australian and British prisoners of war died at high rates from tropical infections and nutritional deficiencies. Mortality records from "F" Force ( = 7,000) showed nearly half (44%) of the soldiers perished in a single year, yet only 4% of these deaths were primarily attributed to malaria, with another 7% where malaria was listed as a major contributing cause. Case fatality rates were < 1%, with nearly all soldiers chronically infected with > . Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4269/ajtmh.18-0887DOI Listing
January 2019
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Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices regarding Severe Fever with Thrombocytopenia Syndrome in Endemic Areas of Anhui Province, Eastern China.

Am J Trop Med Hyg 2019 Jan 21. Epub 2019 Jan 21.

Anhui Provincial Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Hefei, China.

This study aimed to assess baseline knowledge, attitudes, and practices about severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) and identify the target population for health education programs in endemic areas of Anhui, China. This cross-sectional study was conducted from May to June 2017. Of 752 participants, 383 (50. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4269/ajtmh.18-0123DOI Listing
January 2019
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Use of Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification in a Resource-Saving Strategy for Primary Malaria Screening in a Non-Endemic Setting.

Am J Trop Med Hyg 2019 Jan 21. Epub 2019 Jan 21.

Department of Clinical Microbiology, Odense University Hospital, Odense, Denmark.

Malaria is traditionally diagnosed by blood smear microscopy, which requires continuous resource-demanding training. In areas with only a few cases of malaria, a simple and rapid test that can reliably exclude malaria could significantly reduce the need for microscopy and training. We evaluated whether loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) for screening malaria parasites could reduce the workload in the diagnosis of malaria. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4269/ajtmh.18-0496DOI Listing
January 2019
2 Reads