28,993 results match your criteria Tetanus


Self-reported vaccination status and attitudes towards mandatory vaccinations for health care workers among medical students.

Vaccine 2020 Jul 9. Epub 2020 Jul 9.

Villach District Hospital, Nikolaigasse 43, A-9500 Villach, Austria. Electronic address:

Health care workers (HCWs) are exposed to a high risk of infectious diseases at work, and of transmitting these to their patients and colleagues. Medical students constitute an important, yet neglected, group within HCW because of their contact with patients in the course of compulsory or voluntary practical training courses at health care institutions. The aim of this study was to determine the current vaccination status of medical students at the Medical University of Vienna and assess their attitudes towards occupationally indicated mandatory vaccinations for doctors and other HCW. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vaccine.2020.06.046DOI Listing

Randomized clinical trial of DTaP5-HB-IPV-Hib vaccine administered concomitantly with meningococcal serogroup C conjugate vaccines during the primary infant series.

Vaccine 2020 Jul 9. Epub 2020 Jul 9.

Bristol Children's Vaccine Centre, University of Bristol & University Hospitals Bristol NHS Foundation Trust, Bristol, UK. Electronic address:

Background: Concomitant administration of vaccines simplifies delivery. DTaP5-HB-IPV-Hib is a fully liquid, combination vaccine against 6 diseases. This study evaluated the compatibility of DTaP5-HB-IPV-Hib with 2 different meningococcus group C conjugate (MCC) vaccines in infants. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vaccine.2020.06.015DOI Listing

Mitochondrial division inhibitor 1 (mdivi-1) increases oxidative capacity and contractile stress generated by engineered skeletal muscle.

FASEB J 2020 Jul 11. Epub 2020 Jul 11.

Laboratory for Living Systems Engineering, Department of Biomedical Engineering, USC Viterbi School of Engineering, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, USA.

In skeletal muscle fibers, mitochondria are densely packed adjacent to myofibrils because adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is needed to fuel sarcomere shortening. However, despite this close physical and biochemical relationship, the effects of mitochondrial dynamics on skeletal muscle contractility are poorly understood. In this study, we analyzed the effects of Mitochondrial Division Inhibitor 1 (mdivi-1), an inhibitor of mitochondrial fission, on the structure and function of both mitochondria and myofibrils in skeletal muscle tissues engineered on micromolded gelatin hydrogels. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1096/fj.201901039RRDOI Listing

The Use of 20% Subcutaneous Immunoglobulin Replacement Therapy in Patients With B Cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma With Humoral Immune Dysfunction After Treatment With Rituximab.

Clin Lymphoma Myeloma Leuk 2020 May 8. Epub 2020 May 8.

Division of Allergy, Immunology, and Rheumatology, Rochester Regional Health, Rochester, NY; Department of Medicine, University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry, Rochester, NY.

Background: Rituximab is an anti-CD20 chimeric antibody used to treat autoimmune conditions and B cell neoplasms. We characterized immunoglobulin (Ig) levels and vaccine responses in rituximab-treated B cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) patients. Patients with impaired vaccine responses were offered therapy with 20% subcutaneous (subq) Ig. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clml.2020.04.006DOI Listing

Vaccinology: time to change the paradigm?

Lancet Infect Dis 2020 Jul 6. Epub 2020 Jul 6.

Bandim Health Project, Indepth Network, Bissau, Guinea-Bissau; Bandim Health Project, Open Patient data Explorative Network, Institute of Clinical Research, Odense University Hospital, Odense, Denmark.

The existing vaccine paradigm assumes that vaccines only protect against the target infection, that effective vaccines reduce mortality corresponding to the target infection's share of total mortality, and that the effects of vaccines are similar for males and females. However, epidemiological vaccine research has generated observations that contradict these assumptions and suggest that vaccines have important non-specific effects on overall health in populations. These include the observations that several live vaccines reduce the incidence of all-cause mortality in vaccinated compared with unvaccinated populations far more than can be explained by protection against the target infections, and that several non-live vaccines are associated with increased all-cause mortality in females. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1473-3099(19)30742-XDOI Listing

Expansion of effector and memory T cells is associated with increased survival in recurrent glioblastomas treated with dendritic cell immunotherapy.

Neurooncol Adv 2019 May-Dec;1(1):vdz022. Epub 2019 Aug 20.

Laboratory of Brain Tumor Immunotherapy, Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Neurologico Carlo Besta, Milan, Italy.

Background: The efficacy of dendritic cell (DC) immunotherapy as a single therapeutic modality for the treatment of glioblastoma (GBM) patients remains limited. In this study, we evaluated in patients with GBM recurrence the immune-mediated effects of DC loaded with autologous tumor lysate combined with temozolomide (TMZ) or tetanus toxoid (TT).

Methods: In the phase I-II clinical study DENDR2, 12 patients were treated with 5 DC vaccinations combined with dose-dense TMZ. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/noajnl/vdz022DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7212883PMC

Cash-based maternal health interventions can improve childhood vaccination-Evidence from India.

Health Econ 2020 Jul 7. Epub 2020 Jul 7.

Department of Economics, The Graduate Center, City University of New York, New York, New York, USA.

Childhood vaccination has lagged in countries like India, despite its demonstrated positive effects on health outcomes like infant mortality. At the same time, many conditional cash transfer programs have been effective in improving health outcomes. We estimate the effect of the world's largest maternal health program, Janani Suraksha Yojana (JSY, maternal protection scheme), on childhood vaccination in India. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/hec.4129DOI Listing

Substance P-expressing neurons in the superficial dorsal horn of the mouse spinal cord: insights into their functions and their roles in synaptic circuits.

Neuroscience 2020 Jul 4. Epub 2020 Jul 4.

Institute of Neuroscience and Psychology, College of Medical, Veterinary and Life Sciences, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, G12 8QQ, UK.

The tachykinin peptide substance P (SP) is expressed by many interneurons and some projection neurons in the superficial dorsal horn of the spinal cord. We have recently shown that SP-expressing excitatory interneurons in lamina II correspond largely to a morphological class known as radial cells. However, little is known about their function, or their synaptic connectivity. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroscience.2020.06.038DOI Listing

Dysfunction of parvalbumin neurons in the cerebellar nuclei produces an action tremor.

J Clin Invest 2020 Jul 7. Epub 2020 Jul 7.

Department of Molecular and Cellular Physiology, Stanford University, Stanford, United States of America.

Essential tremor is a common brain disorder affecting millions of people, yet the neuronal mechanisms underlying this prevalent disease remain elusive. Here, we show that conditional deletion of synaptotagmin-2, the fastest Ca2+-sensor for synaptic neurotransmitter release, from parvalbumin neurons in mice causes an action tremor syndrome resembling the core symptom of essential tremor patients. Combining brain region-specific and cell type-specific genetic manipulation methods, we found that deletion of synaptotagmin-2 from excitatory parvalbumin-positive neurons in cerebellar nuclei was sufficient to generate an action tremor. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1172/JCI135802DOI Listing

Electronic immunization information systems: a case report of lessons learned from implementation in Pakistan.

Mhealth 2020 5;6:31. Epub 2020 Jul 5.

Jhpiego, Baltimore, MD, USA.

Pakistan ranks third globally in the number of unvaccinated and under-vaccinated children, and Sindh province has one of the lowest vaccination rates in the country. Electronic census-based immunization information systems have the potential to bolster traditional immunization service delivery mechanisms, but literature has largely not focused on implementation at scale in Pakistan. This is a case report of technical support provided to the Sindh Department of Health/Expanded Program on Immunization (DOH/EPI) from 2015 to 2017 to strengthen routine immunization (RI). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/mhealth.2020.01.07DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7327288PMC

Synaptic plasticity induced by differential manipulation of tonic and phasic motoneurons in Drosophila.

J Neurosci 2020 Jul 6. Epub 2020 Jul 6.

The Picower Institute for Learning and Memory, Department of Biology and Department of Brain and Cognitive Sciences, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139

Structural and functional plasticity induced by neuronal competition is a common feature of developing nervous systems. However, the rules governing how postsynaptic cells differentiate between presynaptic inputs are unclear. In this study we characterized synaptic interactions following manipulations of tonic Ib or phasic Is glutamatergic motoneurons that co-innervate postsynaptic muscles of male or female larvae. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1523/JNEUROSCI.0925-20.2020DOI Listing

TETANUS VACCINE DURING PREGNANCY: DATA OF A TERTIARY HOSPITAL IN TURKEY.

Turk J Med Sci 2020 Jul 6. Epub 2020 Jul 6.

Background/aim: To evaluate the prevalence of tetanus vaccination in pregnant women, and to determine the factors affecting the vaccination and barriers to the vaccination.

Materials And Methods: We conducted an observational-descriptive study with 494 patients who gave birth in Etlik Zubeyde Hanım Women's Health Training and Research Hospital, Ankara, Turkey. Participants were divided into two groups; vaccinated and not-vaccinated. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3906/sag-2001-77DOI Listing

A previously treated severe haemophilia A patient developed high-titre inhibitor after vaccinations.

Int J Immunopathol Pharmacol 2020 Jan-Dec;34:2058738420934618

Hemophilia Work Group, Hematology Oncology Center, Beijing Children's Hospital, Capital Medical University, National Center for Children's Health, Beijing, China.

The factor VIII (FVIII)-neutralizing antibody (inhibitor) seen in 25%-30% of patients with severe haemophilia A (SHA). Vaccination is a non-genetic risk factor of inhibitor development as 'danger signal' which may provide a pro-inflammatory microenvironment to increase FVIII immunogenicity. We reported a previously treated SHA patient postponed the first vaccination to 15-month age received diphtheria-pertussis-tetanus intramuscularly. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/2058738420934618DOI Listing

Comparative Analysis of T-Cell Responses to Aquaporin-4 and Myelin Oligodendrocyte Glycoprotein in Inflammatory Demyelinating Central Nervous System Diseases.

Front Immunol 2020 17;11:1188. Epub 2020 Jun 17.

Clinical Department of Neurology, Medical University of Innsbruck, Innsbruck, Austria.

Autoantibodies against aquaporin-4 (AQP4-Ab) and myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG-Ab) are associated with rare central nervous system inflammatory demyelinating diseases like neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders (NMOSD). Previous studies have shown that not only antibodies, but also autoreactive T-cell responses against AQP4 are present in NMOSD. However, no study has yet analyzed the presence of MOG reactive T-cells in patients with MOG antibodies. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2020.01188DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7311656PMC

Seroprevalence of Measles, Rubella, Tetanus, and Diphtheria Antibodies among Children in Haiti, 2017.

Am J Trop Med Hyg 2020 Jul 6. Epub 2020 Jul 6.

Global Immunization Division, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia.

In Haiti, measles, rubella, and maternal and neonatal tetanus have been eliminated, but a diphtheria outbreak is ongoing as of 2019. We conducted a national representative, household-based, two-stage cluster survey among children aged 5-7 years in 2017 to assess progress toward maintenance of control and elimination of selected vaccine-preventable diseases (VPDs). We stratified Haiti into west region (west department, including the capital city) and non-west region (all other departments). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4269/ajtmh.20-0112DOI Listing

The Practice Guideline for Vaccinating Korean Patients with Autoimmune Inflammatory Rheumatic Disease.

Infect Chemother 2020 Jun;52(2):252-280

Department of Rheumatology, Chonnam National University Medical School & Hospital, Gwangju, Korea.

To develop a clinical practice guideline for vaccination in patients with autoimmune inflammatory rheumatic disease (AIIRD), the Korean College of Rheumatology and the Korean Society of Infectious Diseases developed a clinical practice guideline according to the clinical practice guideline development manual. Since vaccination is unlikely to cause AIIRD or worsen disease activities, required vaccinations are recommended. Once patients are diagnosed with AIIRD, treatment strategies should be established and, at the same time, monitor their vaccination history. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3947/ic.2020.52.2.252DOI Listing

Clínical Audit of Primary Treatment of Open Fractures: Antibiotic Treatment and Tetanus Prophylaxis.

Rev Bras Ortop (Sao Paulo) 2020 Jun 23;55(3):284-292. Epub 2020 Mar 23.

Fundação Hospitalar de Minas Gerais, Hospital João XXIII, Belo Horizonte, MG, Brasil.

 To evaluate whether the conducts involving antimicrobial treatment and prophylaxis against tetanus have been performed according to the Clinical Protocol of the Institution.  Descriptive and retrospective study conducted in patients of both genders, > 18 years old admitted to a public hospital specialized in emergency and trauma, to treat primary open fracture. The data of interest were surveyed in medical records, drug prescriptions, report of patients admitted in the Surgical Block and tetanus prophylaxis requests. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/s-0039-3402470DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7316547PMC

Tetanus insensitive VAMP2 differentially restores synaptic and dense core vesicle fusion in tetanus neurotoxin treated neurons.

Sci Rep 2020 Jul 2;10(1):10913. Epub 2020 Jul 2.

Department of Functional Genomics, Center for Neurogenomics and Cognitive Research, Vrije Universiteit (VU) Amsterdam and University Medical Center Amsterdam, de Boelelaan 1087, 1018 HV, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

The SNARE proteins involved in the secretion of neuromodulators from dense core vesicles (DCVs) in mammalian neurons are still poorly characterized. Here we use tetanus neurotoxin (TeNT) light chain, which cleaves VAMP1, 2 and 3, to study DCV fusion in hippocampal neurons and compare the effects on DCV fusion to those on synaptic vesicle (SV) fusion. Both DCV and SV fusion were abolished upon TeNT expression. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-67988-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7331729PMC

Suboptimal uptake of meningococcal vaccines among older adolescents: Barriers, solutions, and future research directions.

Hum Vaccin Immunother 2020 Jul 2:1-5. Epub 2020 Jul 2.

Yale School of Medicine, Department of Pediatrics , New Haven, CT, USA.

Over the past 15 y, several vaccines have been added to the recommended immunization schedule for adolescents in the United States. In addition to annual influenza vaccination, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices recommends tetanus, diphtheria, and pertussis (Tdap), meningococcal conjugate (MenACWY), and human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine for routine administration at ages 11-12 y, and a second dose of MenACWY at age 16. A vaccine against meningococcal disease caused by serogroup B (MenB) is also available and recommended for shared clinical decision-making. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/21645515.2020.1754052DOI Listing

Vaccination coverage of recommended vaccines and determinants of vaccination in at-risk groups.

Hum Vaccin Immunother 2020 Jul 2:1-8. Epub 2020 Jul 2.

Leuven University Vaccinology Center , Department of Public Health and Primary Care, KU Leuven, Leuven, Belgium.

Upon exposure to vaccine-preventable diseases, certain individuals are at increased risk for complications due to preexisting diseases, age or immunosuppressive treatment. Vaccination against influenza, pneumococcal disease and hepatitis B (for some groups) is advised in addition to standard vaccination against diphtheria, tetanus and pertussis. We estimated the vaccination coverage and determinants of recommended vaccinations in patients with diabetes mellitus type 1 (n = 173) and type 2 (n = 177), chronic kidney disease (CKD) (n = 138), heart failure (n = 200), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) (n = 187), HIV (n = 201) or solid organ transplantation (SOT) (n = 201) in a monocentric study. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/21645515.2020.1763739DOI Listing

Determining Which of Several Simultaneously Administered Vaccines Increase Risk of an Adverse Event.

Drug Saf 2020 Jul 1. Epub 2020 Jul 1.

Division of Pharmacoepidemiology and Pharmacoeconomics, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital and Harvard Medical School, 1620 Tremont Street, Suite 3030, Boston, MA, 02120, USA.

Introduction: Childhood immunization schedules often involve multiple vaccinations per visit. When increased risk of an adverse event is observed after simultaneous (same-day) vaccinations, it can be difficult to ascertain which triggered the adverse event. This methods paper discusses a systematic process to determine which of the simultaneously administered vaccine(s) are most likely to have caused an observed increase in risk of an adverse event. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40264-020-00967-8DOI Listing

Identifying vaccination rates of adult patients in ambulatory care clinics.

SAGE Open Med 2020 20;8:2050312120935461. Epub 2020 Jun 20.

Walreens, Purcellville, USA.

Background: While pharmacists have provided vaccinations to patients in the community pharmacy setting, pharmacist involvement within the medical office setting is not well documented in the literature. The American Society of Health-System Pharmacists reports that ambulatory care pharmacists are screening for and administering vaccinations at a declining rate, despite standards of practice. Vaccination rates for adults 19-64 years of age remain low, based on Healthy People 2020 goals, putting them at risk for vaccine-preventable diseases. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/2050312120935461DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7307275PMC

Assessing the efficiency of Iran health system in making progress towards universal health coverage: a comparative panel data analysis.

Cost Eff Resour Alloc 2020 29;18:20. Epub 2020 Jun 29.

Knowledge Utilization Research Center, Community-Based Participatory-Research Center,and School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Background: Building upon decades of continuous reforms, Iran has been implementing various initiatives to reach universal health coverage (UHC). Improving efficiency is a crucial intermediate policy objective for UHC. Therefore, this article aimed to measure the efficiency and productivity changes of the Iranian health system in making progress towards UHC during 2010-2015 in comparison with 36 selected other upper-middle-income countries. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12962-020-00215-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7324989PMC

Closing the Gap Toward Zero Tetanus Infection for Voluntary Medical Male Circumcision: Seven Case Reports and a Review of the Literature.

Surg Infect (Larchmt) 2020 Jun 30. Epub 2020 Jun 30.

Infectious Disease Institution, Makerere College of Health Sciences, Kampala, Uganda.

Voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) is important for HIV prevention, providing up to 60% protection. Although VMMC is usually a safe procedure, it is not free of associated serious adverse events. In the Uganda VMMC program, which is available to males 10 years of age and older, 11 individuals were reported with tetanus infection out of almost 3. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/sur.2020.103DOI Listing

Ultrasound Measurement of Skeletal Muscle Contractile Parameters Using Flexible and Wearable Single-Element Ultrasonic Sensor.

Sensors (Basel) 2020 Jun 27;20(13). Epub 2020 Jun 27.

Department of Systems and Computer Engineering, Carleton University, Ottawa, ON K1S 5B6, Canada.

Skeletal muscle is considered as a near-constant volume system, and the contractions of the muscle are related to the changes in tissue thickness. Assessment of the skeletal muscle contractile parameters such as maximum contraction thickness ( T h ), contraction time ( T c ), contraction velocity ( V c ), sustain time ( T s ), and half-relaxation ( T r ) provides valuable information for various medical applications. This paper presents a single-element wearable ultrasonic sensor (WUS) and a method to measure the skeletal muscle contractile parameters in A-mode ultrasonic data acquisition. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/s20133616DOI Listing

Comparison of carrier proteins to conjugate malaria transmission blocking vaccine antigens, Pfs25 and Pfs230.

Vaccine 2020 Jun 26. Epub 2020 Jun 26.

Laboratory of Malaria Immunology and Vaccinology, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA. Electronic address:

Malaria transmission blocking vaccines (TBV) target the sexual stage of the parasite and have been pursued as a stand-alone vaccine or for combination with pre-erythrocytic or blood stage vaccines. Our efforts to develop TBV focus primarily on two antigens, Pfs25 and Pfs230. Chemical conjugation of these poorly immunogenic antigens to carrier proteins enhances their immunogenicity, and conjugates of these antigens to Exoprotein A (EPA) are currently under evaluation in clinical trials. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vaccine.2020.06.018DOI Listing

Novel approaches to measuring knowledge among frontline health workers in India: Are phone surveys a reliable option?

PLoS One 2020 29;15(6):e0234241. Epub 2020 Jun 29.

Department of International Health, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, Maryland, United States of America.

Background: In 2017, India was home to nearly 20% of maternal and child deaths occurring globally. Accredited social health activists (ASHAs) act as the frontline for health services delivery in India, providing a range of reproductive, maternal, newborn, child health, and nutrition (RMNCH&N) services. Empirical evidence on ASHAs' knowledge is limited, yet is a critical determinant of the quality of health services provided. Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0234241PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7323989PMC

Ten-Year Antibody Persistence and Booster Response to MenACWY-TT Vaccine After Primary Vaccination at 1-10 Years of Age.

Hum Vaccin Immunother 2020 Jun;16(6):1280-1291

Pfizer Vaccine Clinical Research and Development, Pfizer Inc , Collegeville, PA, USA.

This phase 3B, open-label, extension study (NCT01962207) evaluated long-term persistence of antibodies induced by the quadrivalent meningococcal vaccine conjugated to tetanus toxoid (MenACWY-TT) compared with the meningococcal serogroup C vaccine conjugated to CRM (MenC-CRM) and the quadrivalent meningococcal polysaccharide vaccine (MenACWY-PS) 6 to 10 y after primary vaccination in toddlers (aged 1-<2 y; MenACWY-TT and MenC-CRM) and children (aged 2-<11 y; MenACWY-TT and MenACWY-PS). Antibody responses against meningococcal serogroups A, C, W, and Y were assessed by serum bactericidal antibody assays using rabbit (rSBA) or human (hSBA) complement. A MenACWY-TT booster dose at Year 10 was given to all eligible subjects regardless of the primary vaccine received. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/21645515.2020.1746110DOI Listing

Producing Standardized Country-Level Immunization Delivery Unit Cost Estimates.

Pharmacoeconomics 2020 Jun 28. Epub 2020 Jun 28.

Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Center for Health Decision Science, 718 Huntington Avenue 2nd Floor, Boston, MA, 02115, USA.

Background: To plan for the financial sustainability of immunization programs and make informed decisions to improve immunization coverage and equity, decision-makers need to know how much these programs cost beyond the cost of the vaccine. Non-vaccine delivery cost estimates can significantly influence the cost-effectiveness estimates used to allocate resources at the country level. However, many low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) do not have immunization delivery unit cost estimates available, or have estimates that are uncertain, unreliable, or old. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40273-020-00930-6DOI Listing

A Case of Gitelman Syndrome Diagnosed with Anorexia Nervosa in a Psychiatry Clinic.

Turk Psikiyatri Derg 2020 ;31(1):69-73

Anorexia nervosa is a disorder that is characterized by excessive preoccupation with body weight and shape, and conscious attempts to stay in low weight due to fear of weight gain. Vomiting, one of the METHODS used by anorexia nervosa patients to stay in low weight, is one of the most important causes of hypokalemia. Diuretics and diarrhea are other common causes of hypokalemia. Read More

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January 2020

Vaccine implementation factors affecting maternal tetanus immunization in low- and middle-income countries: Results of the Maternal Immunization and Antenatal Care Situational Analysis (MIACSA) project.

Vaccine 2020 Jul 22;38(33):5268-5277. Epub 2020 Jun 22.

Department of Immunization, Vaccines and Biologicals (IVB), World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland.

Objectives: To examine the characteristics of existing maternal tetanus immunization programmes for pregnant women in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) and to identify and understand the challenges, barriers and facilitators associated with maternal vaccine service delivery that may impact the introduction and implementation of new maternal vaccines in the future.

Design: A mixed methods, cross sectional study with four data collection phases including a desk review, online survey, telephone and face-to-face interviews and in country visits.

Setting: LMICs. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vaccine.2020.05.084DOI Listing

Limited Impact of Human Cytomegalovirus Infection in African Infants on Vaccine-Specific Responses Following Diphtheria-Tetanus-Pertussis and Measles Vaccination.

Front Immunol 2020 5;11:1083. Epub 2020 Jun 5.

Infant Immunology Group, Vaccines and Immunity Theme, MRC Unit, Fajara, Gambia.

Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection has a profound effect on the human immune system, causing massive clonal expansion of CD8, and to a lesser extend CD4 T cells. The few human trials that have explored the effect of HCMV infection on responses to vaccination are conflicting, with some studies suggesting no effect whilst others suggest decreased or increased immune responses. Recent studies indicate substantial differences in overall immune system reactivity to vaccines based on age and sex, particularly cellular immunity. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2020.01083DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7291605PMC

Preventive care for patients with end-stage kidney disease: crossroads between nephrology and primary care.

Semin Dial 2020 Jul 24;33(4):330-337. Epub 2020 Jun 24.

Division of General Internal Medicine, Hypertension, and Renal Transplantation, University of Florida College of Medicine, Gainesville, Florida.

Patients with end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) undergoing maintenance hemodialysis (HD) might expect their nephrologists to coordinate all their healthcare needs. We performed a survey among adult patients with ESKD undergoing HD in two outpatient dialysis centers at the University of Florida to identify differences in characteristics between patients with and without primary care providers (PCP) and to explore the association of PCP utilization with adherence to preventive health measures. Of the 132 participants, 89. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/sdi.12889DOI Listing

Effect of lead exposure and nutritional iron-deficiency on immune response: A vaccine challenge study in rats.

J Immunotoxicol 2020 Dec;17(1):144-152

Food and Drug Toxicology Research Center, ICMR-National Institute of Nutrition, Hyderabad, India.

The prevalence of iron (Fe) deficiency and subclinical lead (Pb) toxicity is high in developing countries like India, and information on their potential additive effects on immune responses is scant. The current study assessed immune parameters in dual Pb-exposed\Fe-deficient weanling SD rats. Rats were fed a control (CD) or Fe-deficient (ID) diet for 4 weeks and then evaluated for hemoglobin (Hb) and serum Fe status. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/1547691X.2020.1773973DOI Listing
December 2020

Control of vaccine preventable diseases in Australian infants: reviewing a decade of experience with DTPa-HBV-IPV/Hib vaccine.

Hum Vaccin Immunother 2020 Jun 23:1-15. Epub 2020 Jun 23.

Vaccine and Immunisation Research Group (Virgo), University of Melbourne, School of Population and Global Health and Murdoch Children's Research Institute , Melbourne, Australia.

The combined vaccine against diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, hepatitis B, poliomyelitis, and b (DTPa-HBV-IPV/Hib, Infanrix Hexa, GSK) has been used for childhood immunization in Australia according to a two-, four-, six-month schedule since 2009. We reviewed data available in the Australian National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System, annual vaccination coverage reports, the Database of Adverse Event Notifications, and peer-reviewed literature to assess vaccine coverage rates, incidence of all six vaccine preventable diseases, and the safety profile of DTPa-HBV-IPV/Hib vaccine in Australian infants over a period of ten years of exclusive use. Between 2009 and 2018 vaccine coverage for infants aged 12 months increased from 91. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/21645515.2020.1764826DOI Listing

Penta is associated with an increased female-male mortality ratio: cohort study from Bangladesh.

Hum Vaccin Immunother 2020 Jun 23:1-8. Epub 2020 Jun 23.

Former Deputy Executive Director, icddr,b , Dhaka, Bangladesh.

Diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (DTP) vaccine may be associated with excess female deaths. There are few studies of possible nonspecific effects of the DTP-containing vaccine Penta (DTP-hepatitis B- influenzae type . We therefore investigated whether Penta vaccinations were associated with excess female deaths in rural Bangladesh. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/21645515.2020.1763084DOI Listing

Interdisciplinary aspects of possible negative effects of dogs on humans in Bosnia and Herzegovina.

Med Glas (Zenica) 2020 Aug 1;17(2). Epub 2020 Aug 1.

Department of Forensic Medicine, School of Medicine, University of Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina.

The coexistence of humans and dogs, in addition to all positive effects, can result in negative effects on human health. A particular risk is posed by a population of stray dogs, that is, dogs without owners and veterinary supervision. A contact with dogs in addition to bites, carries the risk of viral, bacterial and parasitic zoonoses, and can also cause psychological trauma. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.17392/1187-20DOI Listing

Vaccination coverage rates of military personnel worldwide: a systematic review of the literature.

Int Arch Occup Environ Health 2020 Jun 19. Epub 2020 Jun 19.

Occupational Medicine, Otto-Von-Guericke University Magdeburg, Magdeburg, Germany.

Objectives: Due to the professionally specific risk of infection in the armed forces, recommendations for vaccination are usually adapted for soldiers and are subject to special regulations. Little data is available on scientifically measured vaccination coverage of soldiers.

Methods: A systematic literature research was carried out in the PubMed database using the search terms "army" or "military" or "Bundeswehr" and "vaccination" or "vaccine". Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00420-020-01559-wDOI Listing

The Survivor: A Clinical Case of Tetanus in a Non-Immunized, Parenteral Drug User, Former Female Convict with HIV and HCV.

Vaccines (Basel) 2020 Jun 17;8(2). Epub 2020 Jun 17.

Department of Community Nursing, Preventive Medicine and Public Health and History of Science, University of Alicante, San Vicente del Raspeig, 03690 Alicante, Spain.

Tetanus is a serious and potentially fatal systemic disease, caused by the bacterium . It is estimated that 1 million cases occur worldwide annually. Immunization programs have drastically decreased tetanus in developed countries, and the sporadic cases have been linked to injecting drug users (IDUs), immunosuppressed individuals, or those older than 65 without complete vaccination. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/vaccines8020308DOI Listing

A phase 2b/3b MenACWY-TT study of long-term antibody persistence after primary vaccination and immunogenicity and safety of a booster dose in individuals aged 11 through 55 years.

BMC Infect Dis 2020 Jun 18;20(1):426. Epub 2020 Jun 18.

Pfizer Vaccine Clinical Research and Development, Collegeville, PA, USA.

Background: A previous phase 2 study demonstrated the immunogenicity of a single dose of meningococcal A, C, W, Y-tetanus toxoid conjugate (MenACWY-TT) or polysaccharide (MenACWY-PS) vaccine for up to 5 years in individuals aged 11-55 years. This follow-up study evaluated long-term antibody persistence up to 10 years and the immunogenicity and safety of a single MenACWY-TT booster dose given 10 years after primary vaccination.

Methods: Blood draws were conducted annually in Years 7-10. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12879-020-05104-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7301505PMC

Combination Vaccination With Tetanus Toxoid and Enhanced Tumor-Cell Based Vaccine Against Cervical Cancer in a Mouse Model.

Front Immunol 2020 27;11:927. Epub 2020 May 27.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Taoyuan, Taiwan.

Cervical cancer is the fourth most common cancer in women with an estimated 570,000 new cases in 2018 which constitute about 6. 6% of all cancers in women according to WHO report 2018. Approximately 90% of the 270,000 deaths from cervical cancer in 2015 occurred in low- and middle-income countries. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2020.00927DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7269150PMC

Demography, preventative healthcare and reason for relinquishment of donkeys to an equine charity in the UK (2013-2015).

Equine Vet J 2020 Jun 15. Epub 2020 Jun 15.

Animal Pathology Department, Zaragoza University, Zaragoza, Spain.

Background: In the UK, there are thousands of donkeys being cared for by charities; however, little is known about the reasons for relinquishment or their previous health status, with even less information available in published literature. Such information could help to identify factors contributing to poor equine welfare and guide the development of appropriate educational resources.

Objectives: To describe the characteristics of the relinquished donkeys and to better understand the current preventative healthcare status of donkeys relinquished into The Donkey Sanctuary. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/evj.13310DOI Listing

Two lucky survivors of thoracic impalement in childhood: case report and literature review.

BMC Surg 2020 Jun 15;20(1):134. Epub 2020 Jun 15.

Division of pediatric surgery, Department of surgery, Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

Background: Penetrating thoracic injuries are uncommon in childhood. Massive penetrating injury due to impalement is even more rare and has scarcely been reported. It has a dramatic clinical presentation and is often fatal, depending on the organs injured. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12893-020-00790-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7296619PMC

Quantitative modeling of the effect of antigen dosage on B-cell affinity distributions in maturating germinal centers.

Elife 2020 Jun 15;9. Epub 2020 Jun 15.

Laboratoire de Physique de l'École Normale Supérieure, PSL Research and CNRS, Paris, France.

Affinity maturation is a complex dynamical process allowing the immune system to generate antibodies capable of recognizing antigens. We introduce a model for the evolution of the distribution of affinities across the antibody population in germinal centers. The model is amenable to detailed mathematical analysis, and gives insight on the mechanisms through which antigen availability controls the rate of maturation and the expansion of the antibody population. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.55678DOI Listing

Foreign Bodies in the Skin: Evaluation and Management.

Am Fam Physician 2020 Jun;101(12):740-747

Fort Belvoir Community Hospital, Fort Belvoir, VA, USA.

Foreign bodies may be introduced into the skin through lacerations and soft tissue wounds. Long-term complications of retained foreign bodies include chronic pain and neurovascular impairment. Wound exploration and initial imaging with radiography or ultrasonography should be considered before foreign body removal. Read More

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Impact of state weights on national vaccination coverage estimates from household surveys in Nigeria.

Vaccine 2020 Jul 10;38(32):5060-5070. Epub 2020 Jun 10.

Institute for Disease Modeling, 3150 139th Ave SE, Bellevue, WA 98005, USA.

National vaccination coverage estimates from household surveys are widely used in monitoring and planning of immunization programs. In Nigeria, survey-reported national coverage estimates have shown large fluctuations in the past few years. In this paper, we examine the impact of state-level survey weighting on Nigeria's national vaccination coverage estimation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vaccine.2020.05.026DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7327524PMC

Antenatal care service delivery and factors affecting effective tetanus vaccine coverage in low- and middle-income countries: Results of the Maternal Immunisation and Antenatal Care Situational analysis (MIACSA) project.

Vaccine 2020 Jul 8;38(33):5278-5285. Epub 2020 Jun 8.

Karolinska Institutet, Department of Medicine, Clinical Epidemiology Division, Stockholm, Sweden.

Objectives: To map the integration of existing maternal tetanus immunization programmes within antenatal care (ANC) services for pregnant women in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) and to identify and understand the challenges, barriers and facilitators associated with high performance maternal vaccine service delivery.

Design: A mixed methods, cross sectional study with four data collection phases including a desk review, online survey, telephone and face-to-face interviews and in country visits was undertaken between 2016 and 2018. Associations of different service delivery process components with protection at birth (PAB) and with country groups were established. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vaccine.2020.05.025DOI Listing

Impact of a Catch-Up Strategy of DT-IPV Vaccination during Hospitalization on Vaccination Coverage among People Over 65 Years of Age in France: The HOSPIVAC Study (Vaccination during Hospitalization).

Vaccines (Basel) 2020 Jun 9;8(2). Epub 2020 Jun 9.

Department of Infectious Diseases, Le Mans Hospital, 72000 Le Mans, France.

In France, diphtheria tetanus and inactivated polio vaccine (DT-IPV) coverage and immunization are insufficient in the elderly and decrease with age. The principal objective of this study was to assess the impact of a strategy of catch-up DT-IPV vaccination during hospitalization in people over the age of 65 years in central France (the Sarthe region). We performed a prospective, single-center, cluster-randomized study (four hospital wards). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/vaccines8020292DOI Listing

In Vivo Imaging of Anterograde and Retrograde Axonal Transport in Rodent Peripheral Nerves.

Methods Mol Biol 2020 ;2143:271-292

Department of Neuromuscular Diseases, UCL Queen Square Institute of Neurology, University College London, London, UK.

Axonal transport, which is the process mediating the active shuttling of a variety cargoes from one end of an axon to the other, is essential for the development, function, and survival of neurons. Impairments in this dynamic process are linked to diverse nervous system diseases and advanced ageing. It is thus essential that we quantitatively study the kinetics of axonal transport to gain an improved understanding of neuropathology as well as the molecular and cellular mechanisms regulating cargo trafficking. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-1-0716-0585-1_20DOI Listing
January 2020