117,683 results match your criteria Synapse [Journal]


Altered sleep architecture, rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, and neural oscillation in a mouse model of human chromosome 16p11.2 microdeletion.

Sleep 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Children's Hospital Los Angeles, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA.

Sleep abnormalities are common among children with neurodevelopmental disorders. The human chr16p11.2 microdeletion is associated with a range of neurological and neurobehavioral abnormalities. Read More

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December 2018
2 Reads

Importin α5 Regulates Anxiety through MeCP2 and Sphingosine Kinase 1.

Cell Rep 2018 Dec;25(11):3169-3179.e7

Department of Biomolecular Sciences, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot 76100, Israel. Electronic address:

Importins mediate transport from synapse to soma and from cytoplasm to nucleus, suggesting that perturbation of importin-dependent pathways should have significant neuronal consequences. A behavioral screen on five importin α knockout lines revealed that reduced expression of importin α5 (KPNA1) in hippocampal neurons specifically decreases anxiety in mice. Re-expression of importin α5 in ventral hippocampus of knockout animals increased anxiety behaviors to wild-type levels. Read More

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December 2018

Galectin-8 Favors the Presentation of Surface-Tethered Antigens by Stabilizing the B Cell Immune Synapse.

Cell Rep 2018 Dec;25(11):3110-3122.e6

Departamento de Biologia Celular y Molecular, Facultad de Ciencias Biologicas, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Region Metropolitana, Santiago 8331150, Chile. Electronic address:

Complete activation of B cells relies on their capacity to extract tethered antigens from immune synapses by either exerting mechanical forces or promoting their proteolytic degradation through lysosome secretion. Whether antigen extraction can also be tuned by local cues originating from the lymphoid microenvironment has not been investigated. We here show that the expression of Galectin-8-a glycan-binding protein found in the extracellular milieu, which regulates interactions between cells and matrix proteins-is increased within lymph nodes under inflammatory conditions where it enhances B cell arrest phases upon antigen recognition in vivo and promotes synapse formation during BCR recognition of immobilized antigens. Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

An enriched environment promotes synaptic plasticity and cognitive recovery after permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion in mice.

Neural Regen Res 2019 Mar;14(3):462-469

Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, Huashan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai, China.

Cerebral ischemia activates an endogenous repair program that induces plastic changes in neurons. In this study, we investigated the effects of environmental enrichment on spatial learning and memory as well as on synaptic remodeling in a mouse model of chronic cerebral ischemia, produced by subjecting adult male C57BL/6 mice to permanent left middle cerebral artery occlusion. Three days postoperatively, mice were randomly assigned to the environmental enrichment and standard housing groups. Read More

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The Plasminogen Activation System Promotes Neurorepair in the Ischemic Brain.

Authors:
Manuel Yepes

Curr Drug Targets 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Division of Neuropharmacology and Neurologic Diseases, Yerkes National Primate Research Center; Atlanta, GA. United States.

The plasminogen activation (PA) system was originally thought to exclusively promote the degradation of fibrin by catalyzing the conversion of plasminogen into plasmin via two serine proteinases: tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA) and urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA). However, experimental evidence accumulated over the last 30 years indicates that tPA and uPA are also found in the central nervous system (CNS), where they have a plethora of functions that not always require plasmin generation or fibrin degradation. For example, plasminogen-dependent and -independent effects of tPA and uPA play a central role in the pathophysiological events that underlie one of the leading causes of mortality and disability in the world: cerebral ischemia. Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

Long-Term Effects of Early Life Seizures on Endogenous Local Network Activity of the Mouse Neocortex.

Front Synaptic Neurosci 2018 27;10:43. Epub 2018 Nov 27.

Biomedical Research Foundation of the Academy of Athens, Athens, Greece.

Understanding the long term impact of early life seizures (ELS) is of vital importance both for researchers and clinicians. Most experimental studies of how seizures affect the developing brain have drawn their conclusions based on changes detected at the cellular or behavioral level, rather than on intermediate levels of analysis, such as the physiology of neuronal networks. Neurons work as part of networks and network dynamics integrate the function of molecules, cells and synapses in the emergent properties of brain circuits that reflect the balance of excitation and inhibition in the brain. Read More

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November 2018

Histone demethylase LSD1 is required for germinal center formation and BCL6-driven lymphomagenesis.

Nat Immunol 2019 Jan 10;20(1):86-96. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Department of Medicine, Division of Hematology & Medical Oncology, Weill Cornell Medicine, New York, NY, USA.

Germinal center (GC) B cells feature repression of many gene enhancers to establish their characteristic transcriptome. Here we show that conditional deletion of Lsd1 in GCs significantly impaired GC formation, associated with failure to repress immune synapse genes linked to GC exit, which are also direct targets of the transcriptional repressor BCL6. We found that BCL6 directly binds LSD1 and recruits it primarily to intergenic and intronic enhancers. Read More

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January 2019

Perturbed expression pattern of the immediate early gene Arc in the dentate gyrus of GluA1 C-terminal palmitoylation-deficient mice.

Neuropsychopharmacol Rep 2018 Dec 7. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

Section of Cellular Biochemistry, Department of Biochemistry and Cellular Biology, National Institute of Neuroscience, National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry (NCNP), Kodaira, Japan.

Background: AMPA receptors predominantly mediate fast excitatory synaptic transmission in the mammalian brain. Post-translational protein S-palmitoylation of AMPA receptor GluA subunits at their C-termini reversibly controls the receptors trafficking to and from excitatory glutamatergic synapses. Excitatory inputs to neurons induce the expression of immediate early genes (IEGs), including Arc, with particular spatial patterns. Read More

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December 2018
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Intranasal erythropoietin ameliorates neurological function impairments and neural pathology in mice with chronic alcoholism by regulating autophagy‑related Nrf2 degradation.

Mol Med Rep 2018 Nov 29. Epub 2018 Nov 29.

Department of Neurology, The Fifth Affiliated Hospital of Qiqihar Medical University (Daqing Longnan Hospital), Daqing, Heilongjiang 163453, P.R. China.

The neurological disorders and neural pathology brought about by chronic alcoholism are difficult to be reversed. Increasing evidence highlights the protective roles of erythropoietin (EPO) in neurodegenerative diseases and injuries of the central nervous system. In the present study, we investigated the therapeutic effects of EPO on the neurological function deficits and neural pathology caused by chronic alcoholism and the regulatory mechanisms. Read More

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November 2018

Early Excitatory Activity-Dependent Maturation of Somatostatin Interneurons in Cortical Layer 2/3 of Mice.

Cereb Cortex 2018 Dec 7. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

State Key Laboratory of Brain and Cognitive Science, CAS Center for Excellence in Brain Science and Intelligence Technology (Shanghai), Institute of Biophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.

GABAergic interneurons perform distinct functions during cortical development in the mouse brain. Among the diverse GABAergic neurons present in the brain, early-born somatostatin (SST)-expressing inhibitory interneurons, which are innervated by other interneurons and local pyramidal cells (PCs), act in a neural computational role in circuitry regulation. The synapses between the SST+ interneurons and other cells form gradually during development. Read More

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December 2018

Xolotl: An Intuitive and Approachable Neuron and Network Simulator for Research and Teaching.

Front Neuroinform 2018 26;12:87. Epub 2018 Nov 26.

Volen National Center for Complex Systems and Biology Department, Brandeis University, Waltham, MA, United States.

Conductance-based models of neurons are used extensively in computational neuroscience. Working with these models can be challenging due to their high dimensionality and large number of parameters. Here, we present a neuron and network simulator built on a novel automatic type system that binds object-oriented code written in C++ to objects in MATLAB. Read More

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November 2018

Neuro-Immune Hemostasis: Homeostasis and Diseases in the Central Nervous System.

Front Cell Neurosci 2018 26;12:459. Epub 2018 Nov 26.

Laboratory of Morphology of Neuronal Network, Department of Public Medicine, University of Campania-Luigi Vanvitelli, Naples, Italy.

Coagulation and the immune system interact in several physiological and pathological conditions, including tissue repair, host defense, and homeostatic maintenance. This network plays a key role in diseases of the central nervous system (CNS) by involving several cells (CNS resident cells, platelets, endothelium, and leukocytes) and molecular pathways (protease activity, complement factors, platelet granule content). Endothelial damage prompts platelet activation and the coagulation cascade as the first physiological step to support the rescue of damaged tissues, a flawed rescuing system ultimately producing neuroinflammation. Read More

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November 2018
2 Reads

Two Forms of Electrical Transmission Between Neurons.

Front Mol Neurosci 2018 21;11:427. Epub 2018 Nov 21.

Dominick P. Purpura Department of Neuroscience, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, New York, NY, United States.

Electrical signaling is a cardinal feature of the nervous system and endows it with the capability of quickly reacting to changes in the environment. Although synaptic communication between nerve cells is perceived to be mainly chemically mediated, electrical synaptic interactions also occur. Two different strategies are responsible for electrical communication between neurons. Read More

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November 2018

Contribution of Neurons and Glial Cells to Complement-Mediated Synapse Removal during Development, Aging and in Alzheimer's Disease.

Mediators Inflamm 2018 11;2018:2530414. Epub 2018 Nov 11.

Achucarro Basque Center for Neuroscience, CIBERNED and Departamento de Neurociencias de la Universidad del País Vasco UPV/EHU, E-48940 Leioa, Spain.

Synapse loss is an early manifestation of pathology in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and is currently the best correlate to cognitive decline. Microglial cells are involved in synapse pruning during development via the complement pathway. Moreover, recent evidence points towards a key role played by glial cells in synapse loss during AD. Read More

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November 2018

[Epileptogenesis mediated by glial cells].

Nihon Yakurigaku Zasshi 2018 ;152(6):268-274

Department of Pediatrics, Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Medicine, University of Yamanashi.

Epilepsy is one of the most common diseases of the central nervous system. Many epilepsies are controllable because of the existence of different antiepileptic drugs with multiple mechanisms of action. However, about 30% of epilepsy is so-called refractory epilepsy in which existing drugs do not show enough therapeutic effects. Read More

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January 2018

Contactins in the central nervous system: role in health and disease.

Neural Regen Res 2019 Feb;14(2):206-216

Amsterdam UMC, VU University Medical Center, Department of Clinical Chemistry, Amsterdam Neuroscience, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Contactins are a group of cell adhesion molecules that are mainly expressed in the brain and play pivotal roles in the organization of axonal domains, axonal guidance, neuritogenesis, neuronal development, synapse formation and plasticity, axo-glia interactions and neural regeneration. Contactins comprise a family of six members. Their absence leads to malformed axons and impaired nerve conduction. Read More

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February 2019

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis as a synaptopathy.

Neural Regen Res 2019 Feb;14(2):189-192

Department of Physiology and Biomedical Engineering, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA; School of Biomedical Sciences, The University of Queensland, St. Lucia, Australia.

The synapse is an incredibly specialized structure that allows for the coordinated communication of information from one neuron to another. When assembled into circuits, steady streams of excitatory and inhibitory synaptic activity shape neural outputs. At the organismal level, ensembles of neural networks underlie behavior, emotion and memory. Read More

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February 2019

Drivers Specific for Type Ib and Type Is Motor Neurons in .

G3 (Bethesda) 2018 Dec 10. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

University of Cambridge

The larval neuromuscular system is extensively used by researchers to study neuronal cell biology, and glutamatergic motor neurons have become a major model system. There are two main Types of glutamatergic motor neurons, Ib and Is, with different structural and physiological properties at synaptic level at the neuromuscular junction. To generate genetic tools to identify and manipulate motor neurons of each Type, we screened for driver lines for this purpose. Read More

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December 2018

Puncta of neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) mediate NMDA-receptor signalling in the auditory midbrain.

J Neurosci 2018 Dec 7. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

Institute of Neuroscience, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne, NE2 4HH, UK.

Nitric oxide (NO), is a neurotransmitter synthesised in the brain by neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS). Using immunohistochemistry and confocal imaging in the inferior colliculus (IC, auditory midbrain) of the guinea pig (), we show that nNOS occurs in two distinct cellular distributions. We confirm that in the cortices of the IC, a subset of neurons show cytoplasmic labelling for nNOS, while in the central nucleus (ICc) such neurons are not present. Read More

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December 2018

Neuronal identity: the neuron types of a simple chordate sibling, the tadpole larva of Ciona intestinalis.

Curr Opin Neurobiol 2018 Dec 6;56:47-60. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Department of Psychology and Neuroscience, Life Sciences Centre, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, B3H 4R2, Canada. Electronic address:

Neurons of the sparsely populated nervous system of the tadpole larva in the tunicate Ciona intestinalis, a chordate sibling, are known from sporadic previous studies but especially two recent reports that document the connectome of both the central and peripheral nervous systems at EM level. About 330 CNS cells comprise mostly ciliated ependymal cells, with ∼180 neurons that constitute about 50 morphologically distinguishable types. The neurons reveal various chordate characters amid many features that are idiosyncratic. Read More

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December 2018

Calcium extrusion mechanisms in dendrites of mouse hippocampal CA1 inhibitory interneurons.

Cell Calcium 2018 Dec 4;77:49-57. Epub 2018 Dec 4.

Department of Biochemistry, Microbiology and Bio-Informatics, Faculty of Science and Engineering, Laval University, Québec, PQ, Canada; Neuroscience Axis, CHU de Québec Research Center, Laval University, Québec, PQ, Canada. Electronic address:

Local circuit GABAergic inhibitory interneurons control the integration and transfer of information in many brain regions. Several different forms of plasticity reported at interneuron excitatory synapses are triggered by cell- and synapse-specific postsynaptic calcium (Ca) mechanisms. To support this function, the spatiotemporal dynamics of dendritic Ca elevations must be tightly regulated. Read More

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December 2018

Computing neurite outgrowth and arborization in superior cervical ganglion neurons.

Brain Res Bull 2018 Dec 6. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Department of Molecular Biosciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis, CA 95616, United States; Medical Investigations of Neurodevelopmental Disorders (MIND) Institute, University of California Davis, CA 95817, United States. Electronic address:

Dendrites are the primary site of synaptic activity in neurons and changes in synapses are often the first pathological stage in neurodegenerative diseases. Molecular studies of these changes rely on morphological analysis of the imaging of somas and dendritic arbors of cultured or primary neurons. As research on preventing or reversing synaptic degeneration develops, demands increase for user-friendly 2D neurite analyzers without undermining accuracy and reproducibility. Read More

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December 2018

Human Tau isoform-specpan-neuronals in a Drosophila Central Nervous System circuit.

Neurobiol Dis 2018 Dec 7. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

Division of Neuroscience, Biomedical Sciences Research Centre "Alexander Fleming", 34 Fleming str, Vari 16672, Greece. Electronic address:

Accumulation of normal or mutant human Tau isoforms in Central Nervous System (CNS) neurons of vertebrate and invertebrate models underlies pathologies ranging from behavioral deficits to neurodegeneration that broadly recapitulate human Tauopathies. Although some functional differences have begun to emerge, it is still largely unclear whether normal and mutant Tau isoforms induce differential effects on the synaptic physiology of CNS neurons. We use the oligosynaptic Giant Fiber System in the adult Drosophila CNS to address this question and reveal that 3R and 4R isoforms affect distinct synaptic parameters. Read More

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December 2018

Drosophila Choline transporter non-canonically regulates pupal eclosion and NMJ integrity through a neuronal subset of mushroom body.

Dev Biol 2018 Dec 7. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

Center for Cellular and Molecular Biology, Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR-CCMB), Uppal Road, Hyderabad, India.

Insect mushroom bodies (MB) have an ensemble of synaptic connections well-studied for their role in experience-dependent learning and several higher cognitive functions. MB requires neurotransmission for an efficient flow of information across synapses with different flexibility to meet the demand of the dynamically changing environment of an insect. Neurotransmitter transporters coordinate appropriate changes for an efficient neurotransmission at the synapse. Read More

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December 2018

Measuring the greater curvature length of virtual stent graft can provide accurate prediction of stent graft position for thoracic endovascular aortic repair.

J Vasc Surg 2018 Oct 24. Epub 2018 Oct 24.

Department of Radiology, Nara Medical University, Kashihara, Japan.

Objective: The objective of this study was to assess the accuracy of predicting stent graft position for thoracic endovascular aortic repair by measuring three lengths of the virtual stent graft: smaller curvature (SC), center lumen line (CL), and greater curvature (GC).

Methods: From January 2012 to December 2016, patients treated at our institution were analyzed retrospectively. Patients who were treated with more than two devices, patients treated for aortic dissection, and cases without complete preoperative or postoperative computed tomography (CT) data were excluded. Read More

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October 2018

[IL-33 takes on another duty: synapse pruning].

Authors:
Elise Dalmas

Med Sci (Paris) 2018 Nov 10;34(11):913-915. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Inserm, centre de recherche des Cordeliers - UMRS 1138, Sorbonne universités, UPMC Paris 6, université Paris Descartes, Sorbonne Paris Cité - 75006 Paris, France.

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November 2018

Case report: Tenesmus and the role of superior hypogastric plexus blocks.

Palliat Med 2018 Dec 7:269216318817691. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

3 Department of Anesthesiology, Mount Sinai Hospital, Canada.

Background:: Tenesmus is the unpleasant sensation of incomplete emptying of the rectum and it may be a distressing symptom for patients who suffer from rectal masses. Unlike nociceptive pain or visceral pain, little is understood about the pathway for this pain phenotype. There are also few studies examining the palliative treatment of this symptom. Read More

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December 2018

Ultrathin conformable organic artificial synapse for wearable intelligent device applications.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2018 Dec 10. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Ultrathin Conformable artificial synapse platforms that can be used as on-body or wearable chips suggest a path to build next-generation, wearable, intelligent electronic systems that can mimic the synaptic operations of the human brain. So far, an artificial synapse architecture with ultimate mechanical flexibility in a free-standing form while maintaining its functionalities with high stability and accuracy on any conformable substrate has not been demonstrated yet. Here, we demonstrate the first ultrathin artificial synapse (~ 500 nm total thickness) that features free-standing ferroelectric organic neuromorphic transistors (FONTs), which can stand alone without a substrate or an encapsulation layer. Read More

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December 2018

Social context-dependent singing alters molecular markers of dopaminergic and glutamatergic signaling in finch basal ganglia Area X.

Behav Brain Res 2018 Dec 3;360:103-112. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Program in Neuroscience, University of Arizona, Gould-Simpson Building, Tucson, AZ, 85721, United States; Department of Neuroscience, University of Arizona, Gould-Simpson Building, Tucson, AZ, 85721, United States; Department of Speech, Language, and Hearing Sciences, University of Arizona, Speech, Language, and Hearing Sciences Building, Tucson, AZ, 85721, United States. Electronic address:

Dopamine (DA) is an important neuromodulator of motor control across species. In zebra finches, DA levels vary in song nucleus Area X depending upon social context. DA levels are high and song output is less variable when a male finch sings to a female (female directed, FD) compared to when he is singing by himself (undirected, UD). Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

A Path(way) to Keeping Your Synapses on an Even Keel.

Neuron 2018 Dec;100(5):1013-1014

Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Weill Cornell Medicine, New York City, NY, USA.

In this issue of Neuron, Harris et al. (2018) show that a signal transduction pathway normally exploited by the innate immune system in recognizing foreign agents plays a critical role in controlling a synapse's ability to maintain stability in the efficacy of synaptic transmission over both rapid and prolonged timescales. Read More

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December 2018
2 Reads

Astrocytes "Chordinate" Synapse Maturation and Plasticity.

Neuron 2018 Dec;100(5):1010-1012

Department of Cell Biology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710, USA; Department of Neurobiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710, USA; Duke Institute for Brain Sciences (DIBS), Durham, NC 27710, USA. Electronic address:

A key step in excitatory synapse maturation is the switch in AMPA receptor subunit composition to GluA2-containing calcium-impermeable receptors. Now, Blanco-Suarez et al. (2018) demonstrate that astrocyte-secreted chordin-like 1 drives this process, enabling synapse maturation and limiting plasticity. Read More

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December 2018
3 Reads

Evidence for functional interactions between the placenta and brain in pregnant mice.

FASEB J 2018 Dec 6:fj201802037R. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Division of Animal Sciences, University of Missouri, Columbia, Missouri, USA.

The placenta plays a pivotal role in the development of the fetal brain and also influences maternal brain function, but our understanding of communication between the placenta and brain remains limited. Using a gene expression and network analysis approach, we provide evidence that the placenta transcriptome is tightly interconnected with the maternal brain and fetal brain in d 15 pregnant C57BL/6J mice. Activation of serotonergic synapse signaling and inhibition of neurotrophin signaling were identified as potential mediators of crosstalk between the placenta and maternal brain and fetal brain, respectively. Read More

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December 2018
2 Reads
5.043 Impact Factor

Auxiliary subunits keep AMPA receptors compact during activation and desensitization.

Elife 2018 Dec 6;7. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Institute of Biology, Cellular Biophysics, Humboldt Universität zu Berlin, Berlin, Germany.

Signal transduction at vertebrate excitatory synapses involves the rapid activation of AMPA (a-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionate) receptors, glutamate-gated ion channels whose four subunits assemble as a dimer-of-dimers. Technical advances in cryo-electron microscopy brought a slew of full-length structures of AMPA receptors, on their own and in combination with auxiliary subunits. These structures indicate that dimers might undergo substantial lateral motions during gating, opening up the extracellular layer along the central 2-fold symmetry axis. Read More

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December 2018
2 Reads

HIV gp120-induced neuroinflammation potentiates NMDA receptors to overcome basal suppression of inhibitory synapses by p38 MAPK.

J Neurochem 2018 Dec 6. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Department of Pharmacology, University of Minnesota Medical School, Minneapolis, MN, 55455, USA.

HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND) affects about half of HIV-infected patients. HIV impairs neuronal function through indirect mechanisms mainly mediated by inflammatory cytokines and neurotoxic viral proteins, such as the envelope protein gp120. HIV gp120 elicits a neuroinflammatory response that potentiates NMDA receptor function and induces the loss of excitatory synapses. Read More

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December 2018

Two ancient neuropeptides, PACAP and AVP, modulate motivated behavior at synapses in the extrahypothalamic brain: a study in contrast.

Cell Tissue Res 2018 Dec 5. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

Section on Molecular Neuroscience, Laboratory of Cellular and Molecular Regulation, NIMH-IRP, Building 49, Room 5A-32, 9000 Rockville Pike, Bethesda, MD, USA.

We examine evolutionary aspects of two primordial neuropeptides, arginine vasopressin (AVP) and pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP); the distribution of AVP and PACAP and their receptors in mammals; AVP and PACAP release patterns relevant to their roles in neuroendocrine control in brain and periphery; and finally the intricate interlocking of homeostatic and allostatic regulation created by extrahypothalamic AVP and PACAP projections to brain circuit nodes important in controlling appetitive, avoidance and aggressive motor responses. A cardinal feature of peptide neurotransmission important in regulatory control of organismic responses and emphasized in this review, is that neuropeptides are released from large dense-core vesicles docked not only within axonal varicosities and dendrites but also at presynaptic nerve terminal sites, along with small clear synaptic vesicles, at active zones. Peptide transmitter nerve terminals, from hypothalamic and other projections, are distributed widely to multiple brain areas important in integrative control of behavior. Read More

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December 2018

Astrocyte HIF-2α supports learning in a passive avoidance paradigm under hypoxic stress.

Hypoxia (Auckl) 2018 8;6:35-56. Epub 2018 Nov 8.

Department of Anesthesiology and Pain Management, University of Texas Southwestern, Dallas, TX, USA,

Background: The brain is extensively vascularized, useŝ20% of the body's oxygen, and is highly sensitive to changes in oxygen. While synaptic plasticity and memory are impaired in healthy individuals by exposure to mild hypoxia, aged individuals appear to be even more sensitive. Aging is associated with progressive failure in pulmonary and cardiovascular systems, exposing the aged to both chronic and superimposed acute hypoxia. Read More

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November 2018
1 Read

Assessing the Effects of Opioids on Pathological Memory by a Computational Model.

Basic Clin Neurosci 2018 Jul-Aug;9(4):275-288. Epub 2018 Jul 1.

Neuroscience Research Center, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Introduction: Opioids hijack learning and memory formation mechanisms of brain and induce a pathological memory in the hippocampus. This effect is mainly mediated by modifications in glutamatergic system. Speaking more precisely, Opioids presence in a synapse inhibits blockage of N-Methyl-D-Aspartate Receptor (NMDAR) by Mg, enhances conductance of NMDAR and thus, induces false Long-Term Potentiation (LTP). Read More

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July 2018
1 Read

Visualization of Exo- and Endocytosis of AMPA Receptors During Hippocampal Synaptic Plasticity Around Postsynaptic-Like Membrane Formed on Glass Surface.

Authors:
Tomoo Hirano

Front Cell Neurosci 2018 21;12:442. Epub 2018 Nov 21.

Department of Biophysics, Graduate School of Science, Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan.

Regulation of exo- and endocytosis of α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA)-type glutamate receptor (AMPAR) plays a critical role in the expression of synaptic plasticity such as long-term potentiation (LTP) and long-term depression (LTD) at excitatory central synapses. Enhanced AMPAR exocytosis or endocytosis has been suggested to contribute to LTP or LTD, respectively. However, several unsettled fundamental questions have remained about AMPAR exo- and endocytosis in the basal condition and during synaptic plasticity: (1) Does the size of each exo- or endocytosis event, and/or do the frequencies of these events change during LTP or LTD? If they change, what are the time courses of the respective changes? (2) Where does the exo- or endocytosis preferentially occur in each condition: inside or in the vicinity of postsynaptic membrane, or in the extrasynaptic membrane? (3) Do different types of AMPAR, such as GluA1 homo-tetramer, GluA1/2 hetero-tetramer and GluA2/3 hetero-tetramer, show distinct exo- and endocytosis changes? To address these questions, we developed new methods to observe individual events of AMPAR exo- or endocytosis with a high signal to noise (SN) ratio in a culture preparation using total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy (TIRFM). Read More

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November 2018
2 Reads

White Matter Plasticity Keeps the Brain in Tune: Axons Conduct While Glia Wrap.

Front Cell Neurosci 2018 16;12:428. Epub 2018 Nov 16.

Department of Neurology and Neurosurgery, Montreal Neurological Institute, McGill University, Montreal, QC, Canada.

Precise timing of neuronal inputs is crucial for brain circuit function and development, where it contributes critically to experience-dependent plasticity. Myelination therefore provides an important adaptation mechanism for vertebrate circuits. Despite its importance to circuit activity, the interplay between neuronal activity and myelination has yet to be fully elucidated. Read More

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November 2018
1 Read

Circulating small non-coding RNAs associated with age, sex, smoking, body mass and physical activity.

Sci Rep 2018 Dec 5;8(1):17650. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

Department of Research, Cancer Registry of Norway, Oslo, Norway.

Small non-coding RNAs (sncRNA) are regulators of cell functions and circulating sncRNAs from the majority of RNA classes are potential non-invasive biomarkers. Understanding how common traits influence ncRNA expression is essential for assessing their biomarker potential. In this study, we identify associations between sncRNA expression and common traits (sex, age, self-reported smoking, body mass, self-reported physical activity). Read More

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December 2018

Alzheimer's Disease Risk Factor Pyk2 Mediates Amyloid-β Induced Synaptic Dysfunction and Loss.

J Neurosci 2018 Dec 5. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

Cellular Neuroscience, Neurodegeneration & Repair, Departments of Neurology and of Neuroscience, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT USA 06536.

Dozens of genes have been implicated in Late Onset Alzheimer's Disease (AD) risk, but none have a defined mechanism of action in neurons. Here, we show that the risk factor Pyk2 (PTK2B) localizes specifically to neurons in adult brain. Absence of Pyk2 has no major effect on synapse formation nor the basal parameters of synaptic transmission in the hippocampal Schaffer collateral pathway. Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

Regulation of SH3PX1 by dNedd4-long at the Neuromuscular Junction.

J Biol Chem 2018 Dec 5. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

Hospital for Sick Children, Canada.

Drosophila Nedd4 (dNedd4) is a HECT E3 ubiquitin ligase present in two major isoforms: short (dNedd4S) and long (dNedd4Lo), with the latter containing two unique regions (N-terminus and Middle). While dNedd4S promotes neuromuscular synaptogenesis (NMS), dNedd4Lo inhibits it and impairs larval locomotion. To explain how dNedd4Lo inhibits NMS, mass spectrometry was performed to find its binding partners and identified SH3PX1, which binds dNedd4Lo unique Middle region. Read More

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December 2018

Molecular cross-talk in a unique parasitoid manipulation strategy.

Insect Biochem Mol Biol 2018 Nov 30. Epub 2018 Nov 30.

Department of Life Sciences, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, P.O. Box 653, Beer Sheva, 84105, Israel; Zlotowski Center for Neuroscience, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, P.O. Box 653, Beer Sheva, 84105, Israel. Electronic address:

Envenomation of cockroach cerebral ganglia by the parasitoid Jewel wasp, Ampulex compressa, induces specific, long-lasting behavioural changes. We hypothesized that this prolonged action results from venom-induced changes in brain neurochemistry. Here, we address this issue by first identifying molecular targets of the venom, i. Read More

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November 2018

Correction to: Psoralidin Stimulates Expression of Immediate-Early Genes and Synapse Development in Primary Cortical Neurons.

Neurochem Res 2018 Dec 1. Epub 2018 Dec 1.

College of Pharmacy, Chosun University, 309 Pilmun-daero, Dong-gu, Gwangju, 61452, South Korea.

The original version of this article unfortunately contained a mistake. The funding information was incorrect in the Acknowledgement section of this article. The corrected text is given below. Read More

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December 2018

Neuroepigenetic mechanisms underlying fear extinction: emerging concepts.

Psychopharmacology (Berl) 2018 Nov 30. Epub 2018 Nov 30.

Cognitive Neuroepigenetics Laboratory, Queensland Brain Institute, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD, 4072, Australia.

An understanding of how memory is acquired and how it can be modified in fear-related anxiety disorders, with the enhancement of failing memories on one side and a reduction or elimination of traumatic memories on the other, is a key unmet challenge in the fields of neuroscience and neuropsychiatry. The latter process depends on an important form of learning called fear extinction, where a previously acquired fear-related memory is decoupled from its ability to control behaviour through repeated non-reinforced exposure to the original fear-inducing cue. Although simple in description, fear extinction relies on a complex pattern of brain region and cell-type specific processes, some of which are unique to this form of learning and, for better or worse, contribute to the inherent instability of fear extinction memory. Read More

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November 2018

Dysfunction of Cerebrovascular Endothelial Cells: Prelude to Vascular Dementia.

Front Aging Neurosci 2018 16;10:376. Epub 2018 Nov 16.

Department of Geriatrics, Xiyuan Hospital of China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences, Beijing, China.

Vascular dementia (VaD) is the second most common type of dementia after Alzheimer's disease (AD), characterized by progressive cognitive impairment, memory loss, and thinking or speech problems. VaD is usually caused by cerebrovascular disease, during which, cerebrovascular endothelial cells (CECs) are vulnerable. CEC dysfunction occurs before the onset of VaD and can eventually lead to dysregulation of cerebral blood flow and blood-brain barrier damage, followed by the activation of glia and inflammatory environment in the brain. Read More

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November 2018

Striatal dopamine deficits predict reductions in striatal functional connectivity in major depression: a concurrent C-raclopride positron emission tomography and functional magnetic resonance imaging investigation.

Transl Psychiatry 2018 Nov 30;8(1):264. Epub 2018 Nov 30.

Department of Psychology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, USA.

Major depressive disorder (MDD) is characterized by the altered integration of reward histories and reduced responding of the striatum. We have posited that this reduced striatal activation in MDD is due to tonically decreased stimulation of striatal dopamine synapses which results in decremented propagation of information along the cortico-striatal-pallido-thalamic (CSPT) spiral. In the present investigation, we tested predictions of this formulation by conducting concurrent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and C-raclopride positron emission tomography (PET) in depressed and control (CTL) participants. Read More

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November 2018
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Ankyrin-G regulates forebrain connectivity and network synchronization via interaction with GABARAP.

Mol Psychiatry 2018 Nov 30. Epub 2018 Nov 30.

Department of Pharmacology, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, MI, 48109, USA.

GABAergic circuits are critical for the synchronization and higher order function of brain networks. Defects in this circuitry are linked to neuropsychiatric diseases, including bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, and autism. Work in cultured neurons has shown that ankyrin-G plays a key role in the regulation of GABAergic synapses on the axon initial segment and somatodendritic domain of pyramidal neurons, where it interacts directly with the GABA receptor-associated protein (GABARAP) to stabilize cell surface GABA receptors. Read More

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November 2018
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