3,393 results match your criteria Synapse [Journal]


Interaction of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors with dopamine receptors in synaptic plasticity of the mouse insular cortex.

Authors:
Hiroki Toyoda

Synapse 2019 Feb 14:e22094. Epub 2019 Feb 14.

Department of Oral Physiology, Osaka University Graduate School of Dentistry, Suita, Japan.

The insular cortex plays essential roles in nicotine addiction. However, much is still unknown about its cellular and synaptic mechanisms responsible for nicotine addiction. We have previously shown that in layer 5 pyramidal neurons of the mouse insular cortex, activation of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) suppresses synaptic potentiation through enhancing GABAergic synaptic transmission, although it enhances both glutamatergic and GABAergic synaptic transmission. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/syn.22094DOI Listing
February 2019
2 Reads

Combination of BMSCs-laden Acellular Nerve Xenografts Transplantation and G-CSF Administration Promotes Sciatic Nerve Regeneration.

Synapse 2019 Feb 14. Epub 2019 Feb 14.

Department of Human Anatomy and Histoembryology, College of Basic Medical Sciences, Ningxia Medical University, Yinchuan, 750004, China.

Peripheral nerve gaps often lead to interrupted innervation, manifesting as severe sensory and motor dysfunctions. The repairs of the nerve injuries have not achieved satisfactory curative effects in clinic. The transplantation of bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs)-laden acellular nerve xenografts (ANX) has been proven more effective than the acellular nerve allografting. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/syn.22093DOI Listing
February 2019
1 Read

Lack of experience-dependent intrinsic plasticity in the adolescent infralimbic medial prefrontal cortex.

Synapse 2019 Feb 5. Epub 2019 Feb 5.

Department of Psychiatry, NYU Neuroscience Institute, NYU Langone Medical Center, New York.

Fear extinction, an inhibitory learning that suppresses a previously learned fear memory, is diminished during adolescence. Earlier studies have shown that this suppressed fear extinction during adolescence involves an altered glutamatergic plasticity in infralimbic medial prefrontal cortical (IL-mPFC) pyramidal neurons. However, it is unclear whether the excitability of IL-mPFC pyramidal neurons plays a role in this development-dependent suppression of fear extinction. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/syn.22090DOI Listing
February 2019
1 Read

Antidepressant medication exposure and 5-HT autoreceptor binding in major depressive disorder.

Synapse 2019 Jan 28:e22089. Epub 2019 Jan 28.

Molecular Imaging and Neuropathology Division, New York State Psychiatric Institute, New York, New York.

Objective: We have previously reported higher brain serotonin 1A (5-HT ) autoreceptor binding in antidepressant-naïve patients with Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) compared with healthy volunteers, and a decrease in binding in MDD after selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) treatment. This SSRI effect is also present in rodents administered SSRIs chronically. We therefore sought to determine the duration of antidepressant medication effects on 5-HT receptor binding after medication discontinuation. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/syn.22089DOI Listing
January 2019

Chronic immobilization stress primes the hippocampal opioid system for oxycodone-associated learning in female but not male rats.

Synapse 2019 Jan 10:e22088. Epub 2019 Jan 10.

Harold and Margaret Milliken Hatch Laboratory of Neuroendocrinology, The Rockefeller University, New York, New York.

In adult female, but not male, Sprague Dawley rats, chronic immobilization stress (CIS) increases mossy fiber (MF) Leu-Enkephalin levels and redistributes delta- and mu-opioid receptors (DORs and MORs) in hippocampal CA3 pyramidal cells and GABAergic interneurons to promote excitation and learning processes following subsequent opioid exposure. Here, we demonstrate that CIS females, but not males, acquire conditioned place preference (CPP) to oxycodone and that CIS "primes" the hippocampal opioid system in females for oxycodone-associated learning. In CA3b, oxycodone-injected (Oxy) CIS females relative to saline-injected (Sal) CIS females exhibited an increase in the cytoplasmic and total densities of DORs in pyramidal cell dendrites so that they were similar to Sal- and Oxy-CIS males. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/syn.22088
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/syn.22088DOI Listing
January 2019
8 Reads

Current concepts in cochlear ribbon synapse formation.

Synapse 2018 Dec 28:e22087. Epub 2018 Dec 28.

Department of Biology, Georgetown University, Washington, District of Columbia.

In mammals, hair cells and spiral ganglion neurons (SGNs) in the cochlea together are sophisticated "sensorineural" structures that transduce auditory information from the outside world into the brain. Hair cells and SGNs are joined by glutamatergic ribbon-type synapses composed of a molecular machinery rivaling in complexity the mechanoelectric transduction components found at the apical side of the hair cell. The cochlear hair cell ribbon synapse has received much attention lately because of recent and important findings related to its damage (sometimes termed "synaptopathy") as a result of noise overexposure. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/syn.22087DOI Listing
December 2018
1 Read

Effects of thioTEPA chemotherapy on cognition and motor coordination.

Synapse 2018 Dec 26. Epub 2018 Dec 26.

Division of Radiation Health, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, Arkansas, United States of America.

Cancer survivorship has increased greatly as therapies have become more advanced and effective. Thus, we must now focus on improving the quality of life of patients after treatment. After chemotherapy, many patients experience chemotherapy-induced cognitive decline, indicating a need to investigate pathologies associated with this condition. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/syn.22085
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/syn.22085DOI Listing
December 2018
7 Reads

Reduced expression of synapsin II in a chronic phencyclidine preclinical rat model of schizophrenia.

Synapse 2018 Dec 24:e22084. Epub 2018 Dec 24.

Faculty of Health Sciences, Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Neuroscience, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada.

Schizophrenia is a mental disorder characterized by positive symptoms, negative symptoms, and cognitive dysfunction. Phencyclidine (PCP)-a N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist-induces symptoms indistinguishable from those of schizophrenia. A reduction of the phosphoprotein synapsin II has also been implicated in schizophrenia and has a well-known role in the maintenance of the presynaptic reserve pool and vesicle mobilization. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/syn.22084DOI Listing
December 2018
2 Reads

Consequences of diabetes mellitus on neuronal connectivity in limbic regions.

Synapse 2019 Mar 30;73(3):e22082. Epub 2018 Nov 30.

Instituto de Fisiología, Benemérita Universidad Autónoma de Puebla, Puebla, México.

Diabetes mellitus (DM) is characterized by high levels of blood glucose. In recent years, its prevalence has increased, which was 422 million in the world in 2014. In elderly patients, DM is associated with deficits in memory and learning processes. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/syn.22082DOI Listing
March 2019
1 Read

In vivo neurochemical evidence that stimulation of accumbal GABA and GABA receptors each reduce acetylcholine efflux without affecting dopamine efflux in the nucleus accumbens of freely moving rats.

Synapse 2019 Apr 5;73(4):e22081. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

Department of Pharmacology, Nihon University School of Dentistry at Matsudo, Chiba, Japan.

Cholinergic neurons in the nucleus accumbens contain GABA and GABA receptors that are thought to inhibit neural activity. We analyzed the roles of GABA and GABA receptors in regulating accumbal acetylcholine efflux of freely moving rats using in vivo microdialysis. The effects of GABA receptor ligands on the accumbal dopamine efflux were also analyzed because accumbal cholinergic and dopaminergic neurons could mutually interact. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/syn.22081DOI Listing
April 2019
6 Reads

In vivo voltammetric evidence that locus coeruleus activation predominantly releases norepinephrine in the infralimbic cortex: Effect of acute ethanol.

Synapse 2019 Apr 22;73(4):e22080. Epub 2018 Nov 22.

Department of Neurobiology and Anatomy, Wake Forest School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, North Carolina.

Using fast-scan cyclic voltammetry paired with pharmacology, the authors show that infralimbic catecholamine release following locus coeruleus stimulation is noradrenergic, but not dopaminergic, and not affected by acute ethanol. With previous work, these data suggest differential effects of ethanol on prefrontal norepinephrine and dopamine, a region important in addiction-related pathways. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/syn.22080
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/syn.22080DOI Listing
April 2019
14 Reads

Differences in synaptic integration between direct and indirect striatal projection neurons: Role of Ca 3 channels.

Synapse 2019 Apr 20;73(4):e22079. Epub 2018 Nov 20.

División de Neurociencias, Instituto de Fisiología Celular, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, México City, México.

Different corticostriatal suprathreshold responses in direct and indirect striatal projection neurons (SPNs) of rodents have been reported. Responses consist in prolonged synaptic potentials of polysynaptic and intrinsic origin, in which voltage-gated Ca ⁺ currents play a role. Recording simultaneous Ca ⁺ imaging and voltage responses at the soma, while activating the corticostriatal pathway, we show that encoding of synaptic responses into trains of action potentials (APs) is different in SPNs: firing of APs in D1-SPNs increase gradually, in parallel with Ca ⁺ entry, as a function of stimulus intensity. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/syn.22079DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Extensive exploration of a novel rat model of Parkinson's disease using partial 6-hydroxydopamine lesion of dopaminergic neurons suggests new therapeutic approaches.

Synapse 2019 Mar 12;73(3):e22077. Epub 2018 Nov 12.

UMR 1253, iBrain, Université de Tours, Inserm, Tours, France.

Parkinson's disease (PD) is characterized by the degeneration of dopaminergic (DA) neurons constituting the nigrostriatal pathway. Neuroinflammation, related to microglial activation, plays an important role in this process. Exploration of animal models of PD using neuroimaging modalities allows to better understand the pathophysiology of the disease. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/syn.22077DOI Listing
March 2019
10 Reads

Neurosteroid allopregnanolone inhibits glutamate release from rat cerebrocortical nerve terminals.

Synapse 2019 Mar 3;73(3):e22076. Epub 2018 Nov 3.

School of Medicine, Fu Jen Catholic University, New Taipei City, Taiwan.

Allopregnanolone, an active metabolite of progesterone, has been reported to exhibit neuroprotective activity in several preclinical models. Considering that the excitotoxicity caused by excessive glutamate is implicated in many brain disorders, the effect of allopregnanolone on glutamate release in rat cerebrocortical nerve terminals and possible underlying mechanism were investigated. We observed that allopregnanolone inhibited 4-aminopyridine (4-AP)-evoked glutamate release, and this inhibition was prevented by chelating the extracellular Ca ions and the vesicular transporter inhibitor. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/syn.22076
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/syn.22076DOI Listing
March 2019
10 Reads

Endogenous cannabinoids mediate the effect of BDNF at CA1 inhibitory synapses in the hippocampus.

Synapse 2018 Oct 17:e22075. Epub 2018 Oct 17.

Department of Neuroscience, University of Connecticut School of Medicine, Farmington, Connecticut.

Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), traditionally known for promoting neuronal growth and development, is also a modulator of synaptic transmission. In addition to the well-characterized effects at excitatory synapses, BDNF has been shown to acutely suppress inhibitory neurotransmission; however, the underlying mechanisms are unclear. We have previously shown that at inhibitory synapses in layer 2/3 of the somatosensory cortex, BDNF induces the mobilization of endogenous cannabinoids (eCBs) that act retrogradely to suppress GABA release. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/syn.22075
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/syn.22075DOI Listing
October 2018
10 Reads

Comparing phasic dopamine dynamics in the striatum, nucleus accumbens, amygdala, and medial prefrontal cortex.

Synapse 2018 Oct 13:e22074. Epub 2018 Oct 13.

Department of Psychology, University of Memphis, Memphis, Tennessee.

Midbrain dopaminergic neurons project to and modulate multiple highly interconnected modules of the basal ganglia, limbic system, and frontal cortex. Dopamine regulates behaviors associated with action selection in the striatum, reward in the nucleus accumbens (NAc), emotional processing in the amygdala, and executive functioning in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). The multifunctionality of dopamine likely occurs at the individual synapses, with varied levels of phasic dopamine release acting on different receptor populations. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/syn.22074
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/syn.22074DOI Listing
October 2018
2 Reads

Stimulation of the subparafascicular thalamic nucleus modulates dopamine release in the inferior colliculus of rats.

Synapse 2018 Oct 6:e22073. Epub 2018 Oct 6.

Department of Neurologic Surgery, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota.

Although dopamine is commonly studied for its role in incentive motivation, cognition, and various neuropsychiatric disorders, evidence from Parkinson's disease (PD) patients that present auditory deficits suggest that dopamine is also involved in central auditory processing. It has been recently discovered that the subparafascicular thalamic nucleus (SPF) sends dopaminergic projections to the inferior colliculus (IC), an important convergence hub for the ascending and descending auditory pathways. In the present study, our aim was to provide neurochemical evidence that activation of SPF neurons evokes dopamine release in the IC of anesthetized rats using fast-scan cyclic and paired pulse voltammetry in combination with carbon fiber microelectrodes. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/syn.22073DOI Listing
October 2018
1 Read

Maternal immune activation altered microglial immunoreactivity in the brain of postnatal day 2 rat offspring.

Synapse 2018 Sep 26:e22072. Epub 2018 Sep 26.

Department of Anatomy, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand.

Microglia, the resident immune cells of the central nervous system, play critical roles in neurodevelopment, synaptic pruning, and neuronal wiring. Early in development, microglia migrate via the tangential and radial migration pathways to their final destinations and mature gradually, a process that includes morphological changes. Recent research has implicated microglial abnormality in the etiology of schizophrenia. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/syn.22072DOI Listing
September 2018
2 Reads
2.130 Impact Factor

Imaging phosphodiesterase-10a availability in cocaine use disorder with [ C]IMA107 and PET.

Synapse 2019 Jan 27;73(1):e22070. Epub 2018 Sep 27.

Department of Radiology, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.

Phosphodiesterase-10a (PDE10a) is located exclusively in medium spiny neurons (MSN). Rodent studies show an increase in striatal MSN spine density following exposure to cocaine. These increases in MSN spine density are suggested to underlie neurobiological changes which contribute to cocaine self-administration. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/syn.22070DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6235703PMC
January 2019
6 Reads

Quantitative proteomics of forebrain subcellular fractions in fragile X mental retardation 1 knockout mice following acute treatment with 2-Methyl-6-(phenylethynyl)pyridine: Relevance to developmental study of schizophrenia.

Synapse 2019 Jan 3;73(1):e22069. Epub 2018 Oct 3.

Department of Psychiatry, Division of Neuroscience Research, University of Minnesota Medical School, Minneapolis, Minnesota.

The fragile X mental retardation 1 knockout (Fmr1 KO) mouse replicates behavioral deficits associated with autism, fragile X syndrome, and schizophrenia. Less is known whether protein expression changes are consistent with findings in subjects with schizophrenia. In the current study, we used liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) proteomics to determine the protein expression of four subcellular fractions in the forebrains of Fmr1 KO mice vs. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/syn.22069DOI Listing
January 2019
7 Reads

Monitoring of glutamate-induced excitotoxicity by mitochondrial oxygen consumption.

Synapse 2019 Jan 6;73(1):e22067. Epub 2018 Sep 6.

Cell Signaling and Metabolic Disease, National Institute of Biomedical Innovation, Health and Nutrition, Osaka, Japan.

Dysfunction of mitochondrial activity is often associated with the onset and progress of neurodegenerative diseases. Membrane depolarization induced by Na influx increases intracellular Ca levels in neurons, which upregulates mitochondrial activity. However, overlimit of Na influx and its prolonged retention ultimately cause excitotoxicity leading to neuronal cell death. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/syn.22067
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/syn.22067DOI Listing
January 2019
24 Reads

Juvenile stress causes reduced locomotor behavior and dendritic spine density in the prefrontal cortex and basolateral amygdala in Sprague-Dawley rats.

Synapse 2019 Jan 1;73(1):e22066. Epub 2018 Sep 1.

Laboratorio de Neuropsiquiatría, Instituto de Fisiología, Benemérita Universidad Autónoma de Puebla, Puebla, México.

Little has been investigated about the effects of stress on synaptic communication at prepubertal age, a stage considered as juvenile. This period of development is related to socialization through play. Our group has studied the changes of neuronal morphology in limbic structures caused by stress at prenatal and at early postnatal ages (before weaning) in the rat. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/syn.22066DOI Listing
January 2019
1 Read

Altered connectivity between striatal and extrastriatal regions in patients with schizophrenia on maintenance antipsychotics: an [ F]fallypride PET and functional MRI study.

Synapse 2018 Dec 24;72(12):e22064. Epub 2018 Aug 24.

Neuroscience Research Institute, Gachon University, Incheon, Republic of Korea.

In addition to probing regional differences in receptor availability, molecular positron emission tomography (PET) is proving useful for investigating perturbations in neurotransmitter networks using interregional correlation analyses. In a multi-modal imaging study, we examined interregional correlations of dopamine D receptor availability between striatal and extrastriatal regions using [ F]fallypride high-resolution PET in 11 patients with schizophrenia receiving low-dose maintenance atypical antipsychotics and 14 healthy control subjects, and investigated resting-state functional connectivity in the same subjects using seed-based functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) analysis. In the healthy control group, there were no significant correlations of [ F]fallypride binding potential (BP ) between striatal regions and any cortical areas, whereas the patient group showed significant and widespread inter-correlations. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/syn.22064
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/syn.22064DOI Listing
December 2018
16 Reads

Presynaptic cannabinoid CB2 receptors modulate [ H]-Glutamate release at subthalamo-nigral terminals of the rat.

Synapse 2018 Nov 10;72(11):e22061. Epub 2018 Aug 10.

Departamento de Fisiología, Biofísica y Neurociencias, Centro de Investigación y de Estudios Avanzados del Instituto Politécnico Nacional, México City, México.

Recent studies suggested the expression of CB2 receptors in neurons of the CNS, however, most of these studies have only explored one aspect of the receptors, i.e., expression of protein, messenger RNA, or functional response, and more complete studies appear to be needed to establish adequately their role in the neuronal function. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/syn.22061
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/syn.22061DOI Listing
November 2018
6 Reads

In vivo quantification of glial activation in minipigs overexpressing human α-synuclein.

Synapse 2018 Dec 12;72(12):e22060. Epub 2018 Aug 12.

Department of Nuclear Medicine and PET Center, Institute of Clinical Medicine, Aarhus University and Hospital, Aarhus, Denmark.

Parkinson's disease is characterized by a progressive loss of substantia nigra (SN) dopaminergic neurons and the formation of Lewy bodies containing accumulated alpha-synuclein (α-syn). The pathology of Parkinson's disease is associated with neuroinflammatory microglial activation, which may contribute to the ongoing neurodegeneration. This study investigates the in vivo microglial and dopaminergic response to overexpression of α-syn. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/syn.22060DOI Listing
December 2018
5 Reads

Evaluation of the antinociceptive activities of several sodium channel blockers using veratrine test in mice.

Synapse 2018 Jul 11. Epub 2018 Jul 11.

Department of Anesthesiology, Tokai University Hachioji Hospital, Tokyo, Japan.

An important role of voltage-gated sodium channels (VGSCs) in many different pain states has been established in animal models and humans wherein sodium channel blockers partially ameliorate pain. However, behavioral tests for screening analgesics that exhibit pharmacologic action by acting on VGSCs are rarely reported, and there are no studies on antinociception using veratrine as a nociceptive agent. The aim of the present study was to examine the amount of nociceptive behavior evoked by subcutaneous administration of veratrine into the hind paw and investigate whether veratrine can be used as a VGSC agonist to test the pharmacological properties of candidate analgesics via sodium channel blockade. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/syn.22056DOI Listing
July 2018
3 Reads

Cyanobacterial extract with serotonin receptor subtype 7 (5-HT R) affinity modulates depression and anxiety-like behavior in mice.

Synapse 2018 Nov 21;72(11):e22059. Epub 2018 Aug 21.

Department of Biological Sciences, Duquesne University, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.

Marine cyanobacteria represent a unique source in the field of drug discovery due to the secondary metabolites they produce and the structural similarity these compounds have to endogenous mammalian receptor ligands. A series of cyanobacteria were subjected to extraction, fractionation by column chromatography and screened for affinity against CNS targets with a focus on serotonin receptors (5-HTRs). Out of 276 fractions screened, 21% had activity at 5-HTRs and/or the 5-HT transporter (SERT). Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/syn.22059DOI Listing
November 2018
15 Reads

Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery normalizes dopamine D1, D2, and DAT levels.

Synapse 2018 Jul 10. Epub 2018 Jul 10.

Behavioral Neuropharmacology and Neuroimaging Laboratory on Addictions (BNNLA), Research Institute on Addictions, Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Jacobs School of Medicine and Biosciences, University at Buffalo, Buffalo, New York.

Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery (RYGB) is one of the most effective treatments for morbid obesity. However, increased substance abuse following RYGB has been observed clinically. This study examined the effects of RYGB on the dopamine system to elucidate these observed changes in reward-related behavior. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/syn.22058DOI Listing
July 2018
28 Reads

Active zone structure-function relationships at the neuromuscular junction.

Synapse 2018 Nov 29;72(11):e22057. Epub 2018 Aug 29.

Department of Neuroscience, Center for Neuroscience, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.

The impact of presynaptic transmitter release site organization on synaptic function has been a vibrant area of research for synaptic physiologists. Because there is a highly nonlinear relationship between presynaptic calcium influx and subsequent neurotransmitter release at synapses, the organization and density of calcium sources (voltage-gated calcium channels [VGCCs]) relative to calcium sensors located on synaptic vesicles is predicted to play a major role in shaping the dynamics of neurotransmitter release at a synapse. Here we review the history of structure-function studies within transmitter release sites at the neuromuscular junction across three model preparations in an effort to discern the relationship between VGCC organization and synaptic function, and whether that organizational structure imparts evolutionary advantages for each species. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/syn.22057DOI Listing
November 2018
1 Read

Test-retest variability of [ C]ABP688 estimates of metabotropic glutamate receptor subtype 5 availability in humans.

Synapse 2018 Sep 20;72(9):e22041. Epub 2018 Jul 20.

Department of Psychiatry, McGill University, 1033 Pine Ave W, Montreal, Quebec, H3A 1A1, Canada.

[ C]ABP688 is a positron emission tomography (PET) radioligand that binds selectively to metabotropic glutamate type 5 receptors (mGluR5). The use of this tracer has identified receptor binding changes in clinical populations, and has been informative in drug occupancy studies. However, previous studies have found significant increases in [ C]ABP688 binding in the later scan of same-day comparisons, and estimates of test-retest reliability under consistent scanning conditions are not available. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/syn.22041DOI Listing
September 2018
17 Reads

Kappa opioid receptor binding in major depression: A pilot study.

Synapse 2018 Sep 17;72(9):e22042. Epub 2018 Jul 17.

Division of Molecular Imaging and Neuropathology, New York State Psychiatric Institute, 1051 Riverside Drive #42, New York, New York.

Endogenous kappa opioids mediate pathological responses to stress in animal models. However, the relationship of the kappa opioid receptor (KOR) to life stress and to psychopathology in humans is not well described. This pilot study sought, for the first time, to quantify KOR in major depressive disorder (MDD) in vivo in humans using positron emission tomography (PET). Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/syn.22042DOI Listing
September 2018
8 Reads

Presynaptic GCaMP expression decreases vesicle release probability at the calyx of Held.

Synapse 2018 Dec 17;72(12):e22040. Epub 2018 Jul 17.

Department of Physiology and Cell Biology, University of Nevada, Reno, Nevada, 89557.

Synaptic vesicle (SV) exocytosis is intimately dependent on free local Ca near active zones. Genetically encoded calcium indicators (GECIs) have become an indispensable tool to monitor calcium dynamics during physiological responses, and they are widely used as a proxy to monitor activity in neuronal ensembles and at synaptic terminals. However, GECIs' ability to bind Ca at physiologically relevant concentration makes them strong candidates to affect calcium homeostasis and alter synaptic transmission by exogenously increasing Ca buffering. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/syn.22040DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6186185PMC
December 2018
1 Read

Long-term effects of iloperidone on cerebral dopamine receptor subtypes.

Synapse 2018 Jun 23:e22039. Epub 2018 Jun 23.

Department of Psychiatry and Neuroscience Program, Harvard Medical School and McLean Hospital, Belmont, MA, 02478, USA.

The atypical antipsychotic drug iloperidone has high affinity for a wide range of neurotransmitter receptors, including dopaminergic (DA), serotonergic, and adrenergic receptors. We examined the long-term effects of multiple doses of iloperidone on DA D , D , D , and D receptor subtypes. Sprague-Dawley adult rats (n = 8/group) received daily intraperitoneal injections of iloperiodone (0. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/syn.22039DOI Listing
June 2018
14 Reads

Failure to detect amphetamine-induced dopamine release in the cortex with [ C]FLB 457 positron emission tomography (PET): Methodological considerations.

Synapse 2018 Sep 13;72(9):e22037. Epub 2018 Jul 13.

Department of Radiology, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.

Studies in nonhuman primates and humans have demonstrated that amphetamine-induced dopamine release in the cortex can be measured with [ C]FLB 457 and PET imaging. This technique has been successfully used in recent clinical studies to show decreased dopamine transmission in the prefrontal cortex in schizophrenia and alcohol dependence. Here, we present data from a cohort of twelve healthy controls in whom an oral amphetamine challenge (0. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/syn.22037DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6230264PMC
September 2018
4 Reads

The neuropeptide-12 improves recognition memory and neuronal plasticity of the limbic system in old rats.

Synapse 2018 Aug 8;72(8):e22036. Epub 2018 Jun 8.

Laboratorio de Neuropsiquiatría, Instituto de Fisiología, Benemérita Universidad Autónoma de Puebla, 14 Sur 6301, Puebla, México.

Aging is a stage of life where cognitive and motor functions are impaired. This is because oxidative and inflammatory processes exacerbate neurodegeneration, which affects dendritic morphology and neuronal communication of limbic regions with memory loss. Recently, the use of trophic substances has been proposed to prevent neuronal deterioration. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/syn.22036DOI Listing
August 2018
14 Reads

Selective dopamine D receptor antagonism significantly attenuates stress-induced immobility in a rat model of post-traumatic stress disorder.

Synapse 2018 Aug 7;72(8):e22035. Epub 2018 Jun 7.

Neuropsychopharmacology Section, Intramural Research Program, National Institute on Drug Abuse, National Institutes of Health, Baltimore, Maryland.

Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a debilitating psychiatric syndrome that occurs in individuals exposed to extremely threatening or traumatic events. In both animals and humans, dopamine (DA) function appears to be dysregulated in brain areas involved in the conditioned fear response(s) that underlie PTSD. In this study, we determined the effect of the selective DA D receptor antagonists YQA14A (6. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/syn.22035DOI Listing
August 2018
6 Reads

Dendrites of the dorsal and ventral hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons of singly housed female rats exhibit lamina-specific growths and retractions during adolescence that are responsive to pair housing.

Synapse 2018 07 22;72(7):e22034. Epub 2018 Apr 22.

Center for Neural Science, New York University, New York, New York 10003.

Adolescence is accompanied by increased vulnerability to psychiatric illnesses, including anxiety, depression, schizophrenia, and eating disorders. The hippocampus is important for regulating emotional state through its ventral compartment and spatial cognition through its dorsal compartment. Previous animal studies have examined hippocampal development at stages before, after or at single time points during adolescence. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/syn.22034DOI Listing
July 2018
2 Reads

Effects of endogenous and exogenous D1/D5 dopamine receptor activation on LTP in ventral and dorsal CA1 hippocampal synapses.

Synapse 2018 Aug 30;72(8):e22033. Epub 2018 Mar 30.

Laboratory of Physiology, Department of Medicine, University of Patras, Rion 26504, Greece.

Hippocampus is importantly involved in dopamine-dependent behaviors and dopamine is a significant modulator of synaptic plasticity in the hippocampus. Moreover, the dopaminergic innervation appears to be disproportionally segregated along the hippocampal longitudinal (dorsoventral) axis with unknown consequences for synaptic plasticity. In this study we examined the actions of endogenously released dopamine and the effects of exogenous D1/D5 dopamine receptor agonists on theta-burst stimulation-induced long-term potentiation (LTP) of field excitatory synaptic potential (fEPSP) at Schaffer collateral-CA1 synapses in slices from dorsal (DH) and ventral hippocampus (VH). Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/syn.22033
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/syn.22033DOI Listing
August 2018
8 Reads

Head-to-head comparison of F-FP-CIT and I-FP-CIT for dopamine transporter imaging in patients with Parkinson's disease: A preliminary study.

Synapse 2018 07 9;72(7):e22032. Epub 2018 Mar 9.

Department of Nuclear Medicine, Korea Cancer Center Hospital, Korea Institutes of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul, Korea.

I-FP-CIT and F-FP-CIT are radiotracers which are widely used to diagnose Parkinson's disease (PD). However, to our knowledge, no studies to date have made head-to-head comparisons between I-FP-CIT and F-FP-CIT. Therefore, in this study, I-FP-CIT SPECT/CT was compared with F-FP-CIT PET/CT in the same cohort of subjects. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/syn.22032DOI Listing
July 2018
16 Reads

Fatty acid binding protein deletion prevents stress-induced preference for cocaine and dampens stress-induced corticosterone levels.

Synapse 2018 06 19;72(6):e22031. Epub 2018 Feb 19.

Behavioral Neuropharmacology and Neuroimaging Laboratory on Addictions, Research Institute on Addictions, University at Buffalo, Buffalo, New York.

Genetic and pharmacological manipulation of endocannabinoid (eCB) signaling has previously been shown to have an important role on the rewarding properties of drugs of abuse, including cocaine. Recently, fatty acid binding proteins (FABPs) have been proposed as intracellular transporters of the endocannabinoid anandamide (AEA) as well as other bioactive lipids to their catabolic enzyme, fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH). The role of these transporters in modulating the brains reward system has yet to be investigated. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/syn.22031
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/syn.22031DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6341999PMC
June 2018
15 Reads

Intracerebroventricular administration of growth hormone induces morphological changes in pyramidal neurons of the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex in adult rats.

Synapse 2018 07 20;72(7):e22030. Epub 2018 Feb 20.

Department of Biomedicine, Health Sciences Institute, Universidad Veracruzana, Dr. Luis Castelazo-Ayala s/n, Industrial-Animas, Xalapa, Veracruz 91190, México.

A growing body of evidence suggests that growth hormone (GH) affects synaptic plasticity at both the molecular and electrophysiological levels. However, unclear is whether plasticity that is stimulated by GH is associated with changes in neuron structure. This study investigated the effect of intracerebroventricular (ICV) administration of GH on the morphology of pyramidal neurons of the CA1 region of the dorsal hippocampus and layer III of the prefrontal cortex. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/syn.22030DOI Listing
July 2018
5 Reads

Reference tissue models in the assessment of C-DTBZ binding to the VMAT2 in rat striatum: A test-retest reproducibility study.

Synapse 2018 06 7;72(6):e22029. Epub 2018 Feb 7.

División de Investigación, Unidad Radiofarmacia-Ciclotrón, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Mexico City, México.

Dopaminergic PET imaging is a useful tool to assess the dopaminergic integrity and to follow-up longitudinal studies. The aim of this study was to evaluate the reliability and reproducibility of different reference tissue-based methods to determine the non-displaceable binding potential (BP ) as a quantitative measure of C-DTBZ binding to the VMAT2 in rat striatum using cerebellum as reference region. Eight healthy Wistar rats underwent two microPET scans at the age of 12 (test) and 20 weeks (retest). Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/syn.22029DOI Listing
June 2018
2 Reads

Quantifying the effect of light activated outer and inner retinal inhibitory pathways on glutamate release from mixed bipolar cells.

Synapse 2018 05 2;72(5):e22028. Epub 2018 Feb 2.

Department of Biomedical Sciences, Colorado State University, 1617 Campus Delivery, Fort Collins, Colorado, 80523-1617.

Inhibition mediated by horizontal and amacrine cells in the outer and inner retina, respectively, are fundamental components of visual processing. Here, our purpose was to determine how these different inhibitory processes affect glutamate release from ON bipolar cells when the retina is stimulated with full-field light of various intensities. Light-evoked membrane potential changes (ΔV ) were recorded directly from axon terminals of intact bipolar cells receiving mixed rod and cone inputs (Mbs) in slices of dark-adapted goldfish retina. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/syn.22028DOI Listing
May 2018
2 Reads

Activity-dependent plasticity of presynaptic GABA receptors at parallel fiber synapses.

Synapse 2018 05 9;72(5):e22027. Epub 2018 Mar 9.

Department of Cellular and Integrative Physiology, University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, San Antonio, Texas, 78229.

Parallel fiber synapses in the cerebellum express a wide range of presynaptic receptors. However, presynaptic receptor expression at individual parallel fiber synapses is quite heterogeneous, suggesting physiological mechanisms regulate presynaptic receptor expression. We investigated changes in presynaptic GABA receptors at parallel fiber-stellate cell synapses in acute cerebellar slices from juvenile mice. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/syn.22027DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6003616PMC
May 2018
2 Reads

Crocin improved amyloid beta induced long-term potentiation and memory deficits in the hippocampal CA1 neurons in freely moving rats.

Synapse 2018 05 2;72(5):e22026. Epub 2018 Feb 2.

Neuroscience Research Center, Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Extracellular beta-amyloid (Aβ) accumulation and deposition is the main factor, which causes synaptic loss and eventually cells death in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Memory loss and long-term potentiation (LTP) dysfunction in the hippocampus are involved in the AD. The involvement of crocin, as the main and active constituent of saffron extract in learning and memory processes, has been proposed. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/syn.22026
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/syn.22026DOI Listing
May 2018
16 Reads

Characterization of a 3xTg-AD mouse model of Alzheimer's disease with the senescence accelerated mouse prone 8 (SAMP8) background.

Synapse 2018 04 1;72(4). Epub 2018 Feb 1.

Faculté de Pharmacie, Université Laval, Quebec, Canada.

No model fully recapitulates the neuropathology of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Although the triple-transgenic mouse model of AD (3xTg-AD) expresses Aβ plaques and tau-laden neurofibrillary tangles, as well as synaptic and behavioral deficits, it does not display frank neuronal loss. Because old age is the most important risk factor in AD, senescence-related interactions might be lacking to truly establish an AD-like environment. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/syn.22025DOI Listing
April 2018
5 Reads

Juvenile Taiep rats have shorter dendritic trees in the dorsal field of the hippocampus without spatial learning disabilities.

Synapse 2018 06 28;72(6):e22024. Epub 2018 Feb 28.

Institute of Physiology, Benemérita Universidad Autónoma de Puebla, México.

Myelin mutant taiep rats show a progressive demyelination in the central nervous system due to an abnormal accumulation of microtubules in the cytoplasm and the processes on their oligodendrocytes. Demyelination is associated with electrophysiological alterations and the mutant had a progressive astrocytosis. The illness is associated with change in cytokine levels and in the expression of different nitric oxide synthase and concomitantly lipoperoxidation in several areas of the brain. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/syn.22024DOI Listing
June 2018
2 Reads

Different effects of chronic THC on the neuroadaptive response of dopamine D2/3 receptor-mediated signaling in roman high- and roman low-avoidance rats.

Synapse 2018 04 10;72(4). Epub 2018 Jan 10.

Department of Mental Health and Psychiatry, Laboratory for Translational Imaging in Psychiatric Neuroscience, University Hospitals of Geneva, Geneva, Switzerland.

The Roman high (RHA)- and low (RLA)-avoidance rat sublines have been identified as an addiction-prone and addiction-resistant phenotype based on their high vs. low locomotor responsiveness to novelty and high vs. low ability to develop neurochemical and behavioral sensitization to psychostimulants, respectively. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/syn.22023DOI Listing
April 2018
8 Reads

Juvenile social experience and differential age-related changes in the dendritic morphologies of subareas of the prefrontal cortex in rats.

Synapse 2018 04 21;72(4). Epub 2017 Dec 21.

Department of Neuroscience, University of Lethbridge, Lethbridge, Alberta, Canada.

Juvenile social interactions have been shown to influence the dendritic complexity of neurons in the prefrontal cortex (PFC). In particular, social play induces pruning of the cells in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), whereas interacting with multiple partners, whether those interactions involve play or not, increases the complexity of cells in the orbital frontal cortex (OFC). Previous studies suggest that these changes differ in their stability during adulthood. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/syn.22022DOI Listing
April 2018
10 Reads

An open-label positron emission tomography study to evaluate serotonin transporter occupancy following escalating dosing regimens of (R)-(-)-O-desmethylvenlafaxine and racemic O-desmethylvenlafaxine.

Synapse 2018 03 13;72(3). Epub 2017 Dec 13.

Department of Psychiatry, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.

SEP-227162 [R(-)-O-desmethylvenlafaxine] is an enantiomer of the venlafaxine metabolite O-desmethylvenlafaxine (ODV, Pristiq™, Wyeth). This study compared the serotonin transporter (SERT) occupancy achieved by SEP-227162 and ODV, at daily doses of 25, 50, 100, and 150 mg using [ C]DASB positron emission tomography (PET). Sixteen healthy male subjects participated in one of four dose groups (N = 4 per group) during which they were administered two doses of the study drug (SEP-227162 or ODV). Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/syn.22021
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/syn.22021DOI Listing
March 2018
12 Reads