52 results match your criteria Swimmer's Shoulder

Effectiveness of Therapeutic Exercise in Musculoskeletal Risk Factors Related to Swimmer's Shoulder.

Eur J Investig Health Psychol Educ 2022 Jun 2;12(6):601-615. Epub 2022 Jun 2.

School of Health Sciences, Polytechnic of Leiria, 2411-901 Leiria, Portugal.

Background: Therapeutic exercise seems to minimize musculoskeletal risk factors related to swimmer's shoulder. However, there is an absence of a qualitative evaluation of these programs and a great variability regarding the characteristics of exercises. The objective of this review was to identify, evaluate, and compare exercise programs used to minimize musculoskeletal risk factors related to swimmer's shoulder. Read More

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An adaptive integral terminal sliding mode controller to track the human upper limb during front crawl swimming.

Eur J Sport Sci 2022 May 3:1-11. Epub 2022 May 3.

School of Mechanical Engineering, Shiraz University, Shiraz, Iran.

Injuries are inevitable during swimming. The main goal of athletes especially competitive ones and coaches is to do the most mechanically effective movement patterns. In this case, biomechanical assessments could be beneficial in the management and prevention of injuries and pain in swimmers' vulnerable joints. Read More

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Case Study: Comparison of Swimsuits and Wetsuits Through Biomechanics and Energetics in Elite Female Open Water Swimmers.

Int J Sports Physiol Perform 2022 01 3;17(1):130-136. Epub 2021 Aug 3.

Aim: The authors investigated how the Arena Powerskin R-EVO Closed Back swimsuit and Arena Carbon Triwetsuit (full-sleeve wetsuit), both approved by the Fédération Internationale de Natation (FINA) regulations, affect biomechanics and energetics of 3 elite female open water (OW) swimmers at maximal and 4 submaximal swimming intensities.

Methods: Three elite female OW swimmers (OW1 = 24 y, 1.64 m, 60 kg; OW2 = 23 y, 1. Read More

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January 2022

Training Intensity and Shoulder Musculoskeletal Physical Quality Responses in Competitive Swimmers.

J Athl Train 2021 Jan;56(1):54-63

Centre for Health Sciences, School of Health and Society, University of Salford, Manchester, United Kingdom.

Context: Shoulder pain is the main cause of missed or modified training in competitive swimmers. Shoulder musculoskeletal maladaptations occur to some extent as a consequence of training loads during swimming that may increase the risk of shoulder injury. Further evidence is needed to understand the training intensities at which these maladaptations occur. Read More

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January 2021

Passive Drag in Young Swimmers: Effects of Body Composition, Morphology and Gliding Position.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2020 03 18;17(6). Epub 2020 Mar 18.

Department of Biomedical Sciences for Health, Università degli Studi di Milano, 20129 Milan, Italy.

The passive drag (Dp) during swimming is affected by the swimmer's morphology, body density and body position. We evaluated the relative contribution of morphology, body composition, and body position adjustments in the prediction of a swimmer's Dp. This observational study examined a sample of 60 competitive swimmers (31 male and 29 female) with a mean (±SD) age of 15. Read More

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The Swimmer's Shoulder: Multi-directional Instability.

Curr Rev Musculoskelet Med 2018 Jun;11(2):167-171

Sports Medicine and Shoulder Service, Hospital for Special Surgery, 535 E 70th Street, New York, NY, 10021, USA.

Purpose Of Review: Swimmer's shoulder is the term used to describe the problem of shoulder pain in swimmers. Originally described as supraspinatus tendon impingement under the coracoacromial arch, it is now understood that several different pathologies can cause shoulder pain in competitive swimmers, including subacromial impingement syndrome, overuse and subsequent muscle fatigue, scapular dyskinesis, and laxity and instability.

Recent Findings: Swimmers may develop increased shoulder laxity over time due to repetitive use. Read More

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Int J Sports Phys Ther 2017 Oct;12(5):798-811

University of Rome "Tor Vergata", Rome, Italy.

Background: The term "swimmer's shoulder" was first introduced in 1974 by Kennedy and Hawkins to describe a common condition among competitive swimmers characterized by pain and dysfunction of the shoulder complex. Currently, the term does not define a specific clinical diagnosis and its etiology is considered to be multifactorial. In the literature shoulder pain prevalence varies according to the adopted definitions (from 3% to 91%); however, in the Italian environment there is no prevalence study regarding swimmer shoulder. Read More

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October 2017

Effect of Swim Training on the Physical Characteristics of Competitive Adolescent Swimmers.

Am J Sports Med 2016 Nov 18;44(11):2813-2819. Epub 2016 Oct 18.

Tampa Bay Rays, St Petersburg, Florida, USA.

Background: Subacromial space distance and forward head and shoulder posture are common characteristics resulting from swim training. These alterations can cause abnormal scapular kinematics and positioning, potentially increasing compression of structures in the subacromial space and increasing the risk for the development of swimmer's shoulder.

Purpose: To evaluate the effect of the swim training season on subacromial space distance and forward head and forward shoulder posture as well as to determine the relationship between these variables. Read More

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November 2016

Swimmer's Shoulder: Painful Shoulder in the Competitive Swimmer.

J Am Acad Orthop Surg 2016 Aug;24(8):527-36

From the Department of Orthopedics, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA (Dr. Matzkin), and Tufts University School of Medicine, Boston, MA (Ms. Suslavich and Mr. Wes).

Swimmer's shoulder is a broad term often used to diagnose shoulder injury in swimmers. However, research has elucidated several specific shoulder injuries that often are incurred by the competitive swimmer. Hyperlaxity, scapular dyskinesis, subacromial impingement, labral damage, os acromiale, suprascapular nerve entrapment, and glenohumeral rotational imbalances all may be included within a differential diagnosis for shoulder pain in the competitive swimmer. Read More

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Luxatio erecta humeri in the swimmer's shoulder: A combination of ligamentous laxity and motion dyskinesis.

J Emerg Trauma Shock 2016 Jan-Mar;9(1):39-40

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, St. Luke's University Health Network, Bethlehem, PA 18015, USA E-mail:

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Comparison of Upper Extremity Physical Characteristics Between Adolescent Competitive Swimmers and Nonoverhead Athletes.

J Athl Train 2016 Jan 21;51(1):65-9. Epub 2016 Jan 21.

Department of Exercise and Sport Science, and.

Context: Alterations to upper extremity physical characteristics of competitive swimmers (posture, range of motion [ROM], and subacromial-space distance) are commonly attributed to cumulative training load during a swimmer's competitive career. However, this accepted clinical belief has not been established in the literature. It is important to understand whether alterations in posture and associated physical characteristics occur as a result of sport training or factors other than swimming participation to better understand injury risk and possible interventions. Read More

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January 2016


Int J Sports Phys Ther 2015 Dec;10(7):1026-34

Master's and Doctoral Program in Physiotherapy, Universidade Cidade de São Paulo (UNICID), São Paulo, Brazil.

Background: Professional swimmers are often affected by a high number of injuries due to their large amount of training. The occurrence of musculoskeletal pain during an important tournament has not been investigated.

Objective: The objective of the study was to assess the prevalence of musculoskeletal pain and its characteristics in professional swimmers. Read More

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December 2015

Medical Care of the Aquatics Athlete.

Andrew W Nichols

Curr Sports Med Rep 2015 Sep-Oct;14(5):389-96

Department of Family Medicine and Community Health, Office of Student Affairs, John A. Burns School of Medicine, University of Hawaii at Mānoa, Honolulu, HI.

Competitive swimmers are affected by several musculoskeletal and medical complaints that are unique to the sport. 'Swimmer's shoulder,' the most common overuse injury, is usually caused by some combination of impingement, rotator cuff tendinopathy, scapular dyskinesis, and instability. The condition may be treated with training modifications, stroke error correction, and strengthening exercises targeting the rotator cuff, scapular stabilizers, and core. Read More

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Feasibility of Contralateral Oblique Fluoroscopy-guided Cervical Interlaminar Steroid Injections.

Pain Pract 2016 09 27;16(7):814-9. Epub 2015 Aug 27.

Department of Neurosurgery, Spine Health Wooridul Hospital, Seoul, South Korea.

Background: Cervical epidural steroid injection (CESI), given in conjunction with local anesthetics, is a common remedy for cervical radicular pain and is generally performed under c-arm fluoroscopic guidance, computed tomography (CT), or ultrasound. Interlaminar procedures, such as CESI, typically rely on anteroposterior and lateral (APL) views during needle placement. However, lateral views may be obscured by body habitus in certain individuals. Read More

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September 2016

Shoulder functional performance status of National Collegiate Athletic Association swimmers: baseline Kerlan-Jobe Orthopedic Clinic scores.

Am J Sports Med 2015 Jun 19;43(6):1513-7. Epub 2015 Mar 19.

Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Scripps Clinic, La Jolla, California, USA.

Background: Shoulder trouble, described in the literature as "swimmer's shoulder," has been associated with competitive swimmers. The Kerlan-Jobe Orthopedic Clinic (KJOC) Shoulder and Elbow Score is a validated survey used to define functional and performance measures of the upper extremity in overhead athletes. To date, no study has investigated the baseline functional scores for swimmers actively competing in the sport. Read More

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Sports medicine in children: common overuse injuries.

Lorna B Fountain

FP Essent 2014 Feb;417:22-5

Bayfront Family Medicine Residency Program, 700 6th Street South, St. Petersburg, FL 33701.

With millions of children participating in high-intensity sports activities at a young age, overuse injuries are seen commonly by family physicians. Little Leaguer's shoulder, swimmer's shoulder, Little Leaguer's elbow, snapping hip, and shin splints are 5 overuse injuries frequently sustained by pediatric athletes. Physicians managing these injuries require a basic understanding of the underlying sport-related strain on the body. Read More

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February 2014

Suprascapular neuropathy as a cause of swimmer's shoulder: results after arthroscopic treatment in 4 patients.

Am J Sports Med 2013 Apr 28;41(4):887-93. Epub 2013 Feb 28.

Arriaza and Associates Medical Institute, La Coruña, Spain.

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Individual profiles of spatio-temporal coordination in high intensity swimming.

Hum Mov Sci 2012 Oct 24;31(5):1200-12. Epub 2012 Aug 24.

CIFI2D, Faculty of Sport, University of Porto, Porto, Portugal.

The aim of the present study was to examine the inter-subject variability in inter-arm coordination during front crawl swimming at high intensity. Ten male competitive swimmers swam 200m front crawl at race pace. Two above water and four underwater cameras videotaped the test and APAS was used to assess the 3D anatomical points position and to calculate, afterwards, the angular position, velocity and the continuous relative phase, which was used to analyze upper limbs coupling during two arm stroke cycles for each 50 m lap of the 200 m front crawl event. Read More

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October 2012

Swimmer's shoulder in young athlete: rehabilitation with emphasis on manual therapy and stabilization of shoulder complex.

Man Ther 2011 Oct 19;16(5):510-5. Epub 2011 Jan 19.

Centro de Traumatologia do Esporte, Departamento de Ortopedia e Traumatologia, Universidade Federal de São Paulo, Escola Paulista de Medicina, Rua Embaú, n 73, Vila Clementino, Cep 04039-060, São Paulo, Brazil.

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October 2011

Biomechanical Considerations in the Competitive Swimmer's Shoulder.

Sports Health 2010 Nov;2(6):519-25

Lifestrength Physical Therapy, Inc, Towson, Maryland.

Context: Competitive swimming has become an increasingly popular sport in the United States. In 2007, more than 250 000 competitive swimmers were registered with USA Swimming, the national governing body. The average competitive swimmer swims approximately 60 000 to 80 000 m per week. Read More

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November 2010

The practical management of swimmer's painful shoulder: etiology, diagnosis, and treatment.

Klaus Bak

Clin J Sport Med 2010 Sep;20(5):386-90

Parken's Private Hospital, Copenhagen, Denmark.

Shoulder pain is the most common musculoskeletal complaint in competitive swimmers. Problems with the shoulders of swimmers resemble that of the disabled thrower's shoulder, but the clinical findings and associated dysfunctions are not quite the same. Therefore, swimmers with shoulder pain should be evaluated and treated as a separate clinical entity, aimed toward underlying pathology and dysfunction. Read More

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September 2010

Analysis of swimmers' velocity during the underwater gliding motion following grab start.

J Biomech 2009 Jun 24;42(9):1367-70. Epub 2009 Apr 24.

Département Recherche Fédération Française de Natation, Pôle Natation INSEP, 11 Avenue du Tremblay, Paris, France.

The purpose of this study was to determine the swimmers' loss of speed during the underwater gliding motion of a grab start. This study also set out to determine the kinematical variables influencing this loss of speed. Eight French national-level swimmers participated in this study. Read More

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Shoulder pain in elite swimmers.

H Pollard D Croker

Australas Chiropr Osteopathy 1999 Nov;8(3):91-5

Much research has investigated shoulder pain which inhibits the performance of elite swimmers. An ever increasing understanding of the epidemiology and aetiology of what has been termed 'swimmer's shoulder' has enabled better treatment, rehabilitation and prevention programs to be implemented. This paper reviews the current research relevant to 'swimmer's shoulder' and the methods of treatment being employed to treat the problem. Read More

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November 1999

Prevention and Treatment of Swimmer's Shoulder.

Brian J Tovin

N Am J Sports Phys Ther 2006 Nov;1(4):166-75

The Sports Rehabilitation Center, Atlanta, Georgia.

Swimmer's shoulder is a musculoskeletal condition that results in symptoms in the area of the anterior lateral aspect of the shoulder, sometimes confined to the subacromial region. The onset of symptoms may be associated with impaired posture, glenohumeral joint mobility, neuromuscular control, or muscle performance. Additionally, training errors such as overuse, misuse, or abuse may also contribute to this condition. Read More

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November 2006

Swimmers' painful shoulder arthroscopic findings and return rate to sports.

Scand J Med Sci Sports 2007 Aug 28;17(4):373-7. Epub 2006 Jun 28.

Division of Sports Orthopaedics, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Amager Hospital, Copenhagen, Denmark.

Shoulder pain is the most common musculo-skeletal complaint in competitive swimmers. It remains one of the shoulder pain syndromes in overhead athletes where no golden standard of treatment exists. Eighteen competitive swimmers who all had undergone shoulder arthroscopy for therapy-resistant shoulder pain were retrospectively evaluated with respect to operative findings and ability to return to their sport after the operation. Read More

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Estimating propulsive forces--sink or swim?

J Biomech 2005 Oct;38(10):1984-90

School of Sport, Exercise and Health Sciences, University College Chichester, UK.

The purpose of this study was to investigate the validity of hydrodynamic force estimation in swimming as calculated by the quasi-static approach. To achieve this a full-scale mechanical arm was developed, built and tested. The mechanical arm, covered with a prosthetic shell and driven at the shoulder was used to simulate a single plane underwater rotation at four elbow configurations. Read More

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October 2005

Swimmer's CT: improved imaging of the lower neck and thoracic inlet.

AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2004 May;25(5):859-62

Department of Radiology, Tripler Army Medical Center, Honolulu, HI 96859, USA.

CT findings of the base of the neck are often degraded by beam-hardening artifact from the shoulder girdle. This artifact can be reduced by placing the patient in a "swimmer's" position, a supine position in which the patient has one arm fully abducted and the other arm lowered. We selectively employed swimmer's CT in patients between January 1999 and December 2002 when standard (arms-down) CT failed to depict suspected disease. Read More

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Competitive swimming illness and injury: common conditions limiting participation.

James N Johnson

Curr Sports Med Rep 2003 Oct;2(5):267-71

Southern Sports Medicine, 2021 Church Street, Suite 200, Nashville, TN 37203, USA.

Illness and injury can significantly limit a swimmer's participation in training and competition. Catastrophic injuries to the neck and risk of drowning are life threatening. Infectious illness can cause significant time out of the water and an even longer convalescence. Read More

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October 2003

Upper extremity overuse injuries in swimming. A discussion of swimmer's shoulder.

Clin Sports Med 2001 Jul;20(3):423-38

Division of Orthopaedic Surgery, John A. Burns School of Medicine, Honolulu, Hawaii.

Treatment of shoulder pain includes the following: 1. Avoid all painful activities. 2. Read More

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