36,831 results match your criteria Swallowing Disorders
Arch Oral Biol 2018 Nov 28;98:238-242. Epub 2018 Nov 28.
Kawasaki University of Medical Welfare, 288 Matsushima, Kurashiki, Okayama 701-0193, Japan. Electronic address:
Objective: The aim of the present study was to investigate whether anterior tongue muscle strengthening exercises can affect the strength of posterior tongue muscles.
Design: Eleven healthy subjects (20.6 ± 1. Read More
Head Neck 2018 Dec 3. Epub 2018 Dec 3.
University of Toronto, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Otolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery, 200 Elizabeth Street, 8th Floor 8NU 881, Toronto, Ontario, Canada M5G 2C4.
Background: Surgeons have developed various reconstructive techniques to minimize the rate of pharyngocutaneous fistula and optimize functional outcome after salvage laryngectomy or laryngopharyngectomy.
Methods: Multicenter retrospective review at 33 institutions of 486 patients with a history of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the larynx or hypopharynx previously treated with primary chemoradiotherapy (CRT) who required salvage surgery. Outcomes evaluated were overall fistula rate, fistula requiring reoperation, and 12-month speech and swallowing function. Read More
Eur Spine J 2018 Nov 30. Epub 2018 Nov 30.
Department of Orthopedics, Beijing Chao-Yang Hospital, Capital Medical University, GongTiNanLu 8#, Chao-Yang District, Beijing, 100020, China.
Purpose: To conduct a high-level systematic review of the literature to evaluate intravenous and local steroid use in the management of dysphagia after anterior cervical spine surgery.
Methods: We searched the database PubMed, EMBASE, Clinical key, the Cochrane library and Wiley Online Library without time restriction using the terms 'dysphagia' or 'odynophagia' or 'swallowing disorder,' 'steroid,' 'anterior cervical spine surgery.' Randomized controlled trails (RCTs) were selected, and effects of intravenous and local steroids were investigated from these studies. Read More
Indian J Plast Surg 2018 May-Aug;51(2):190-195
Department of Head and Neck Oncology, Amrita Hospital, Kochi, Kerala, India.
Background: Pharyngeal reconstruction is a challenging aspect of reconstruction after resections for head-and-neck cancer. The goals of reconstruction are to restore the continuity of the pharyngeal passage to enable oral alimentation and rehabilitation of speech wherever possible. This study was performed to determine the outcomes following pharyngeal reconstruction in total laryngectomy (TL) using different reconstructive options and to determine the predictors of pharyngocutaneous fistula (PCF) and swallowing dysfunction. Read More
Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 2018 Nov 28. Epub 2018 Nov 28.
Division of Gastroenterology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA.
Brain Res Bull 2018 Nov 28;144:132-139. Epub 2018 Nov 28.
Guangdong Provincial Hospital of Chinese Medicine, Yide Road, Yuexiu District, Guangdong, Guangzhou, 510006, People's Republic of China. Electronic address:
Ventrolateral medulla(VLM) was one of the essential part of central pattern generator(CPG) in swallowing and electro-acupuncture(EA) was an important intervention in swallowing disorder. But the effect and mechanism of EA at acupoints on swallowing were unknown. The present aim to detect the effect of EA at Lianquan (CV23) on swallowing and swallowing-related(SR) interneuron in VLM. Read More
Geriatr Gerontol Int 2018 Dec 5. Epub 2018 Dec 5.
Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, Kumamoto Rehabilitation Hospital, Kumamoto, Japan.
Aim: To examine the effects of oral management provided by dental hygienists (DH) on patient outcomes in post-acute rehabilitation.
Methods: We carried out a retrospective cohort study with 1056 patients newly admitted to a post-rehabilitation hospital in Japan. DH care was defined as two or more consecutive instances of oral management provided by a ward DH during hospitalization. Read More
Codas 2018 Nov 29;30(6):e20180027. Epub 2018 Nov 29.
Departamento de Fonoaudiologia, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina - UFSC - Florianópolis (SC), Brasil.
Purpose: To verify the perception of patients with neurodegenerative diseases regarding swallowing changes and to know the perceptions of swallowing sensations that can promote the early identification of dysphagia.
Methods: It is a cross-sectional study with 44 patients with neurodegenerative diseases. All of them answered a questionnaire to know the sensation perceived during swallowing and its intensity. Read More
Dysphagia 2018 Dec 4. Epub 2018 Dec 4.
Radiation Oncology Department, Princess Alexandra Hospital, Metro South Hospital & Health Service, Brisbane, QLD, 4102, Australia.
Research advocates for the use of intensive, prophylactic swallowing therapy to help reduce the severity of dysphagia in patients receiving (chemo)radiotherapy ([C]RT) for head/neck cancer (HNC). Unfortunately, the intensity of this therapy, coupled with growing patient numbers and limited clinical resources, provides challenges to many international cancer facilities. Telepractice has been proposed as a potential method to provide patients with greater support in home-practice, whilst minimising burden to the health service. Read More
Am J Speech Lang Pathol 2018 Dec 4:1-10. Epub 2018 Dec 4.
Department of Surgery, University of Wisconsin-Madison.
Purpose: Pharyngeal high-resolution manometry is an emerging practice for diagnosis of swallowing disorders in the upper aerodigestive tract. Advancement of a catheter through the upper esophageal sphincter may introduce safety considerations. There are no published studies of catheter placement complications, side effects, or tolerability. Read More
Eur J Oral Implantol 2018 ;11(4):469-473
Purpose: To present a rare clinical case of migration of a displaced implant fragment from the maxillary sinus to the stomach.
Materials And Methods: A 66-year-old man was referred from a local dental clinic to remove a displaced implant apical fragment in the left maxillary sinus. After 15 days from the displacement, no foreign body was seen in the maxillary sinus or in any other craniofacial cavity. Read More
Prog Transplant 2018 Dec 4:1526924818817035. Epub 2018 Dec 4.
1 Division of Cardiac Surgery, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, CA, USA.
Introduction:: Postoperative dysphagia leads to aspiration pneumonia, prolonged hospital stay, and is associated with increased mortality. We have demonstrated the validity of a bedside targeted swallow evaluation following cardiac surgery. Since dysphagia following liver transplantation is not well examined, we evaluated the efficacy of this swallow screen method in postoperative liver transplant patients. Read More
Rev Prat 2016 Dec;66(10):1121-1126
Service de médecine interne gériatrique.
Swallowing disorders in the elderly. Swallowing disorders are a common problem in the elderly with severe consequences in multiple cases. At the current time these disorders are poorly understood and under-diagnosed. Read More
Chin Med J (Engl) 2018 Dec;131(23):2868-2870
Department of Neurology, The Affiliated Hospital of Guizhou Medical University, Guiyang, Guizhou 550004, China.
Cureus 2018 Sep 26;10(9):e3365. Epub 2018 Sep 26.
Neurosurgery, Seattle Science Foundation, Seattle, USA.
The hyoid contributes to many biomechanical processes including swallowing. Additionally, the hyoid bone has been studied for over a century in an effort to catalog and categorize many observed biometric differences. This has led to the hyoid being a major structure involved in forensic pathology. Read More
Medicine (Baltimore) 2018 Nov;97(48):e13448
Istituto di Ricovero e Cura a Carattere Scientifico Centro Neurolesi "Bonino-Pulejo".
Rationale: Myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1) is an autosomal dominant disease caused by a cytosine, guanine, thymine (CTG) trinucleotide repeat expansion in the non-coding region of dystrophia myotonica protein kinase gene, causing a multisystem involvement. To date, few studies have been performed to evaluate skin features in DM1 patients, but none reported on the possible association between the disease and tongue hemangiomas.
Patients Concerns: We report a case of a 63-year-old woman affected by DM1 and presenting, at the intraoral examination, several swelling and buish lesions occurring on buccal and palatal mucosa, and in the anterior two-thirds and margins of the tongue. Read More
J Nutr Health Aging 2018 ;22(10):1246-1252
Viviënne A.L. Huppertz, MSc. Maastricht University: Department of Pulmonology, P.O. Box 616, 6200 MD Maastricht, The Netherlands, Email:
Objectives: Nursing home residents often suffer from multi-morbidities and geriatric syndromes leading to lower quality of life or mortality. Oropharyngeal dysphagia (OD) and malnutrition are profound conditions in this complex profile of multi-morbidities and are associated with deprived mental -and physical health status, e.g. Read More
Acta Otorhinolaryngol Ital 2018 Oct;38(5):417-423
Department of Otorhinolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery, Klinikum Stuttgart, Germany.
Idiopathic progressive subglottic stenosis is a rare cause of tracheal narrowing. Partial cricotracheal resection and anastomosis can cure idiopathic stenosis, even if some patients may require multiple interventions and experience voice and swallowing deterioration. We investigated risk factors for retreatment and assessed the impact of crico-tracheal resection on functional parameters. Read More
Am J Otolaryngol 2018 Nov 5. Epub 2018 Nov 5.
Department of Neurology, Tianjin Union Medical Center, Tianjin 300121, China.
Background: Myasthenia gravis (MG) is an autoimmune disease. Dysarthria, dysphagia, and difficulty swallowing as exclusive initial and primary complaints in MG (laryngeal MG) are rare and seldom reported.
Methods: Here we review and analyze the largest series of laryngeal MG patients. Read More
Lond Med Phys J 1833 Sep;15(87):179-182
Lond Med Phys J 1827 Oct;3(16):319-322
Lond Med Phys J 1818 Jul;40(233):25-26
Member of the Royal College of Surgeons, London.
Med Phys J 1811 Jun;25(148):475-477
Med Phys J 1803 Apr;9(50):293-296
JGH Open 2017 Sep 18;1(1):11-14. Epub 2017 Sep 18.
Department of Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Liver Transplant Lady Cilento Children's Hospital Brisbane Queensland Australia.
Background And Aim: Capsule endoscopy (CE) offers a method of directly visualizing areas of the small bowel not accessible by conventional endoscopy. Some children are unable to swallow the capsule requiring endoscopic placement under general anesthesia. The aim of the present study was to identify any differences between children requiring endoscopic placement and those able to swallow the capsule. Read More
Physiol Behav 2018 Nov 26;199:273-281. Epub 2018 Nov 26.
Department of Surgery, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI, USA; Department of Communication Sciences and Disorders, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI, USA.
Down syndrome (DS) in humans is associated with differences of the central nervous system and oromotor development. DS also increases risks for pediatric feeding challenges, which sometimes involve the use of altered food consistencies. Therefore, experimental food consistency paradigms are of interest to oromotor investigations in mouse models of Down syndrome (DS). Read More
Dis Esophagus 2018 Nov 28. Epub 2018 Nov 28.
Medical Research Council Cancer Unit, Hutchison-MRC Research Center, University of Cambridge,Cambridge,United Kingdom.
Progression from Barrett's esophagus (BE) to esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) is uncommon but the consequences are serious. Predictors of progression are essential to optimize resource utilization. This study assessed the utility of a promising panel of biomarkers applicable to routine paraffin embedded biopsies (FFPE) to predict progression of BE to EAC in a large population-based, nested case-control study. Read More
Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care 2019 Jan;22(1):25-29
Department of Neurology, University Hospital Münster, Münster, Germany.
Purpose Of Review: The review summarizes current knowledge and recent findings about how to practically apply medication in patients with dysphagia and how swallowing function may be positively or negatively affected by drugs.
Recent Findings: Oropharyngeal dysphagia is a major health problem in older persons and was recently classified as a geriatric syndrome. Although the knowledge about an effective diagnostic approach increased during the last years, comparatively little is known about how to effectively manage and treat dysphagia and hardly anything is implemented in clinical routine. Read More
Dysphagia 2018 Nov 28. Epub 2018 Nov 28.
Department of Communication Sciences and Disorders, James Madison University, 235 MLK Jr. Way, MSC 4304, Harrisonburg, VA, 22087, USA.
Previously, vibratory stimulation increased spontaneous swallowing rates in healthy volunteers indicating that sensory stimulation excited the neural control of swallowing. Here, we studied patients with severe chronic dysphagia following brain injury or radiation for head and neck cancer to determine if sensory stimulation could excite an impaired swallowing system. We examined (1) if laryngeal vibratory stimulation increased spontaneous swallowing rates over sham (no stimulation); (2) the optimal rate of vibration, device contact pressure, and vibratory mode for increasing swallowing rates; and (3) if vibration altered participants' urge to swallow, neck comfort, and swallow initiation latency. Read More
Clin Oral Investig 2018 Nov 28. Epub 2018 Nov 28.
Department of Ophthalmology, Otorhinolaryngology and Head and Neck Surgery School of Medicine of Ribeirão Preto, University of São Paulo - USP, Avenida Bandeirantes, 3900, Ribeirão Preto, SP, 14049-900, Brazil.
Objectives: To investigate whether chronic temporomandibular disorder (TMD) patients showed any changes in swallowing compared to a control group. Moreover, it was examined whether swallowing variables and a valid clinic measure of orofacial myofunctional status were associated.
Material And Methods: Twenty-three patients with chronic TMD, diagnosed with disc displacement with reduction (DDR) and pain, according to the Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders (DC/TMD), and 27 healthy volunteers (control group) were compared. Read More
Nervenarzt 2018 Nov 28. Epub 2018 Nov 28.
Institut für Neuroradiologie, Goethe-Universität, Schleusenweg 2-16, 60528, Frankfurt am Main, Deutschland.
Background: Hypertrophic olivary degeneration (HOD) occurs as a result of a lesion in the anatomical functional loop of the Guillain-Mollaret triangle. Frequent causes are intracerebral hemorrhage and brain infarction. After a latent period of weeks to months after the index event a hyperintensity can initially be observed in magnetic resonance imaging T2/FLAIR-weighting and finally an enlargement of the affected olive. Read More
Laryngoscope 2018 Nov 28. Epub 2018 Nov 28.
Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, University of California, San Francisco, California, U.S.A.
Objectives: To evaluate differences in vocal motor control and central auditory processing between treated unilateral vocal fold paralysis (UVFP) and healthy control cohorts.
Study Design: Cross-sectional.
Methods: Ten UVFP study patients treated by type I thyroplasty with stable voices were compared to 12 control subjects for vocal motor control using a pitch perturbation response task and central auditory processing performance using a battery of complex sound intelligibility assays that included adverse temporal and noise conditions. Read More
Oral Radiol 2018 Aug 20. Epub 2018 Aug 20.
Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Yokohama City University Graduate School of Medicine, 3-9 Fukuura, Kanazawa-ku, Yokohama, Kanagawa, 236-0004, Japan.
Objective: This study aimed to evaluate swallowing function in advanced tongue cancer patients before and after bilateral neck dissection following superselective intra-arterial chemoradiotherapy (CRT).
Methods: A videofluoroscopic swallowing study (VFSS) was used to evaluate swallowing function in 10 patients with advanced tongue cancer before and after bilateral neck dissection.
Results: Laryngeal penetration increased in the postoperative VFSS. Read More
Front Mol Neurosci 2018 13;11:416. Epub 2018 Nov 13.
Department of Normal Physiology, Kazan State Medical University, Kazan, Russia.
Mammalian brainstem hypoglossal motoneurones (HMs) receive powerful synaptic glycinergic inputs and are involved in a variety of motor functions, including respiration, chewing, sucking, swallowing, and phonation. During the early postnatal development, subunit composition of chloride-permeable glycine receptors (GlyRs) changes leading to a decrease of "fetal" alpha2 and elevation of "adult" alpha1 GlyR subunits. It has been recently demonstrated that niflumic acid (NFA), a member of the fenamate class of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, is an efficient subunits-specific blocker of GlyRs. Read More
Eur Ann Otorhinolaryngol Head Neck Dis 2018 Oct 25. Epub 2018 Oct 25.
Service d'ORL et de CCF, CHU Bichat, 75877 Paris, France.
Objective: Circumferential pharyngolaryngectomy is performed for advanced pharyngeal tumor or in a context of postradiation recurrence. Several free or pedicle flaps have been described for pharyngeal defect reconstruction, with choice at the surgeon's discretion. The aim of this study was to evaluate long-term swallowing function according to the type of flap used for reconstruction. Read More
Expert Opin Pharmacother 2018 Nov 27:1-9. Epub 2018 Nov 27.
b Department of Pathophysiology , Medical University of Lublin , Lublin , Poland.
Introduction: As a matter of course, elderly people are more sensitive to both the pharmacological and toxicological effects of pharmacotherapy. A senior's treatment, therefore, requires more attention compared to younger adults. Extended release (ER) formulations of anti-epileptic drugs (AEDs) have been developed to improve safety, efficacy and long-term adherence. Read More
Dent Traumatol 2018 Nov 27. Epub 2018 Nov 27.
Department of Prosthodontics, School of Dentistry, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain.
Background/aim: Approximately 50% of water polo players have suffered orofacial injuries. However, fewer than 8% of players wear a mouthguard. A more comfortable mouthguard design is therefore needed to increase compliance. Read More
J Craniofac Surg 2018 Nov 22. Epub 2018 Nov 22.
Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.
Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical usefulness of TORS and transoral robotic retropharyngeal lymph node (RPLN) dissection in tonsillar cancer patients with suspicious RPLN metastasis.
Methods: From April 2008 to March 2014, 71 patients with tonsillar cancer underwent transoral robotic surgery and standard neck dissection at the Yonsei Head and Neck Cancer Center.
Results: Three patients underwent transoral robotic ropharyngectomy with transoral robotic RPLN dissection because of suspicious RPLN metastasis. Read More
Alzheimers Dement (Amst) 2018 3;10:750-754. Epub 2018 Nov 3.
Department of Brain and Behavioral Sciences, University of Pavia, Pavia, Italy.
Introduction: Patients affected by the behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD) frequently experience, at a delayed onset, abnormal eating behavior involving increased food intake. Although delusional food-related symptoms have attracted much attention, the behavioral and neural features of food aversion manifestations in bvFTD remain poorly documented.
Methods: We describe the rare case of a patient with bvFTD presenting with lack of interoception for swallowing and digestion, coupled with a dramatic food aversion at onset. Read More
Head Neck 2018 Nov 26. Epub 2018 Nov 26.
Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, Maastricht University Medical Center, Maastricht, The Netherlands.
Background: This systematic review qualitatively summarizes the current literature on diagnosis and treatment of oropharyngeal dysphagia (OD) after total laryngectomy (TLE).
Methods: Electronic databases PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane Library were used. Two independent reviewers carried out the literature search and assessed the methodological quality of the included studies using a critical appraisal tool. Read More
Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 2018 Nov 23. Epub 2018 Nov 23.
Institute of Social and Preventive Medicine, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland.
Background & Aims: Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is assessed endoscopically (endoscopic activity), based on grades of edema, rings, exudates, furrows, and strictures (EREFS). We examined variations in endoscopic assessments of severity, developed and validated 3 EREFS-based scoring systems, and assessed responsiveness of these systems using data from a randomized placebo-controlled trial of patients with EoE.
Methods: For the development set, 5 gastroenterologists reviewed EREFS findings from 266 adults with EoE and provided endoscopist global assessment scores (EndoGA, scale of 0 to 10); variation (ΔEndoGA) was assessed using linear regression. Read More
Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol 2018 Nov 26. Epub 2018 Nov 26.
Bombay Hospital and Medical Research Center, Mumbai, India.
Background: Mucosal bridges (MBs) are rare laryngeal lesions that may cause dysphonia of varying degrees. We propose the existence of a third variant of MB besides thin and thick MBs, and have termed this as an incomplete mucosal bridge (IMB). The concept of an IMB has not been previously discussed in literature. Read More
Neurogastroenterol Motil 2018 Nov 25:e13512. Epub 2018 Nov 25.
Division of Gastroenterology & Hepatology, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, Illinois.
Background: Esophageal dysphagia is a common symptom in gastroenterology practice. Current rapid assessment tools are limited to oropharyngeal dysphagia and do not translate well to esophageal conditions. We aim to create a novel tool, the dysphagia stress test (DST), to evaluate swallowing in patients with esophageal disease characterized by dysphagia. Read More
J Oral Rehabil 2018 Nov 25. Epub 2018 Nov 25.
Univ. Lille, Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, CHU Lille, INSERM U 1008, Controlled Drug Delivery Systems and Biomaterials, F-59000, Lille, France.
Background: Temporomandibular disorders (TMDs) are frequent and disabling, and hence, preventing them is an important health issue. Combining orthodontic and surgical treatments for malocclusions has been shown to affect temporomandibular joint (TMJ) health. However, publications regarding the risk factors that predict negative TMJ outcomes after orthognathic surgery are scarce. Read More
Gastroenterol Hepatol 2018 Nov 20. Epub 2018 Nov 20.
Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de enfermedades hepáticas y digestivas (CIBERehd), Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Barcelona, Spain.
Objective: The purpose of this systematic review was to examine the effect of antipsychotic medication on dysphagia based on clinical case reports.
Patients And Methods: Literature searches were performed using the electronic databases PubMed and Embase. In PubMed, we used the MeSH terms "antipsychotic agents" OR "tranquilizing agents" combined with "deglutition disorders" OR "deglutition". Read More
J Craniomaxillofac Surg 2018 May 18. Epub 2018 May 18.
Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery (Head of Department Friedrich Wilhelm Neukam, Prof., MD, DMD, PhD, Dr. h. c), Friedrich-Alexander-University Erlangen-Nuremberg, Glueckstrasse 11, 91054 Erlangen, Germany. Electronic address:
Background: Various causes for bone defects of the lower jaw have been described. As a result, patients often suffer from compromised aesthetics and a loss of, or reduction in, important physiological functions, such as swallowing, breathing, and speaking. A change in the shape of the lower jaw can impair the natural occlusion and leads to an atypical or modified position of the temporomandibular joint. Read More
Med Clin North Am 2019 Jan 1;103(1):29-42. Epub 2018 Nov 1.
Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Department of Medicine, Center for Esophageal Diseases and Swallowing, Center for Gastrointestinal Biology and Disease, University of North Carolina School of Medicine, CB #7080, Room 4140, Bioinformatics Building, 130 Mason Farm Road, Chapel Hill, NC 27599-7080, USA. Electronic address:
Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is a chronic disorder characterized by symptoms of esophageal dysfunction and esophageal inflammation with intraepithelial eosinophils. EoE represents an important cause of upper gastrointestinal morbidity. Primary care providers are pivotal for timely and accurate recognition of symptoms of eosinophilic esophagitis, for facilitating diagnoses through specialist referrals, and for understanding management strategies. Read More
Dysphagia 2018 Nov 21. Epub 2018 Nov 21.
Department of Neurology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea.
This study investigated the impact of leukoaraiosis (LA) involving the contralateral corticobulbar tract (CBT) on dysphagia in patients with unilateral corona radiata (CR) infarction with CBT involvement. Patients admitted to the Department of Neurology (September 2011-August 2014) were evaluated; those with a first episode of acute unilateral CR infarction involving the CBT and with LA were included. The 'Case' group comprised patients with LA involving the contralateral CBT; the 'Control' group comprised patients with LA not involving the contralateral CBT. Read More
J Phys Ther Sci 2018 Nov 6;30(11):1357-1358. Epub 2018 Nov 6.
Department of Emergency Medical Services, Kyungdong University: 815 Gyeonhwon-ro, Munmak-eup, Wonju-si, Gangwon-do, Republic of Korea.
[Purpose] This study investigated the characteristics of oropharyngeal swallowing function in patients with presbyphagia. [Participants and Methods] Data for 25 patients with presbyphagia were retrospectively analyzed. The oropharyngeal swallowing function was evaluated using VDS based on videofluoroscopic swallowing study. Read More