9,059 results match your criteria Surgery of the Thymus Gland


Chest wall thickness and depth to vital structures in paediatric patients - implications for prehospital needle decompression of tension pneumothorax.

Scand J Trauma Resusc Emerg Med 2019 Apr 16;27(1):45. Epub 2019 Apr 16.

Institute of Clinical Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, University Medical Center Mannheim, Theodor-Kutzer-Ufer 1-3, 68167, Mannheim, Germany.

Background: Recommendations regarding decompression of tension pneumothorax in small children are scarce and mainly transferred from the adult literature without existing evidence for the paediatric population. This CT-based study evaluates chest wall thickness, width of the intercostal space (ICS) and risk of injury to vital structures by needle decompression in children.

Methods: Chest wall thickness, width of the intercostal space and depth to vital structures were measured and evaluated at 2nd ICS midclavicular (MCL) line and 4th ICS anterior axillary line (AAL) on both sides of the thorax using computed tomography (CT) in 139 children in three different age groups (0, 5, 10 years). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13049-019-0623-5DOI Listing

Effect of Chitosan Nanoparticle-Loaded on Hydrogen Peroxide-Induced Bone Marrow Stromal Cell Damage.

Stem Cells Int 2019 26;2019:5142518. Epub 2019 Feb 26.

Tissue Engineering Group (TEG), National Orthopaedic Centre of Excellence in Research and Learning (NOCERAL), Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, Lembah Pantai, 50603 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

We have determined the protective effects of (TS) extract and nanoparticle-loaded TS on hydrogen peroxide-induced cell death of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) . Gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy confirmed the spectrum of active components in the extract. Out of the three different extracts, the hexane extract showed significant free radical scavenging activity. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2019/5142518DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6431441PMC
February 2019

Surgical Approaches to Myasthenia Gravis: Perspective of Anatomy and Radicality in Surgery.

Thorac Surg Clin 2019 May 7;29(2):159-164. Epub 2019 Mar 7.

Department of the Thoracic Surgery, Pulmonary Hospital, Ul. Gładkie 1, Zakopane 34 500, Poland. Electronic address:

The effectiveness of thymectomy for nonthymomatous myasthenia gravis is analyzed with regard to extensiveness of removal of the adipose tissue of the mediastinum and the lower neck region with various techniques of thymectomy. The approach necessary to achieve maximal radicality must include access to both pleural cavity and the lower neck area up to the thyroid gland. Surgical techniques include extended transsternal approach, which might be combined with separate transcervical incision, bilateral videothoracoscopic (VATS) approach combined with transcervical incision, and extended subxiphoid approach, either uniportal or combined with bilateral VATS. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.thorsurg.2018.12.004DOI Listing
May 2019
2 Reads

History of Thymectomy for Myasthenia Gravis.

Authors:
Joel D Cooper

Thorac Surg Clin 2019 May;29(2):151-158

Department of Surgery, Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, 3400 Spruce Street, 6 White, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA. Electronic address:

In the early 1900s, chance observations of improved symptoms in several myasthenic patients undergoing thyroidectomy for goiters with concomitant resection of the adjacent thymus gland, first suggested a possible association between the thymus and myasthenia gravis. With the remarkable progress made in the understanding and treatment of myasthenia and in the anesthetic, surgical, and postoperative management of patients undergoing thoracic procedures, the initial high morbidity and mortality associated with thymectomy have been all but eliminated, and thymectomy is frequently incorporated into the long-term management strategy of this disease. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S15474127183016
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.thorsurg.2018.12.011DOI Listing
May 2019
8 Reads

Infantile Horner syndrome due to ectopic cervical thymus gland.

Can J Ophthalmol 2019 Feb 21;54(1):e10-e12. Epub 2018 May 21.

Department of Ophthalmology, McGill University, Montreal, Que.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcjo.2018.03.019DOI Listing
February 2019
1 Read

The role of thymus preservation in parathyroid gland function and surgical completeness after bilateral central lymph node dissection for papillary thyroid cancer: A randomized controlled study.

Int J Surg 2019 Feb 26;65:1-6. Epub 2019 Feb 26.

Department of General Surgery of Changzheng Hospital Affiliated to Second Military Medical University, 200003, Shanghai, China. Electronic address:

Background: The clinical value of thymus preservation during thyroid carcinoma surgery remains unclear. The aim of this study is to explore the role of bilateral thymus preservation in parathyroid glands (PGs) function and surgical completeness in total thyroidectomy (TT) with bilateral central lymph node dissection (CLND).

Materials And Methods: Fifty-four consecutive patients who underwent TT and bilateral CLND were assigned to the thymus preservation (TP) group (n = 27) and the bilateral thymectomy (BT) group (n = 27). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijsu.2019.02.013DOI Listing
February 2019
2 Reads

Antiarthritic Activity of Diallyl Disulfide against Freund's Adjuvant-Induced Arthritic Rat Model.

J Environ Pathol Toxicol Oncol 2018 ;37(4):291-303

Department of Orthopedics Surgery, Xinghua Affiliated Hospital of Yangzhou University, Jiangsu Province, 225700, China.

Diallyl disulfide (DADS) is an organosulfur compound derived mainly from garlic and genus Allium plants, which possess diverse biological properties. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the antiarthritic activity of DADS in rats with arthritis induced using complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA). DADS (20 mg/kg and 50 mg/kg) was administered and tested against CFA-induced arthritic rats by assessing various parameters: body weight, paw volume, arthritic score, organ indices (spleen and thymus), hematological and biochemical parameters, and proinflammatory cytokines. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1615/JEnvironPatholToxicolOncol.2018027078DOI Listing

Ectopic Parathyroid Adenoma: Surgical Correction and its Complication Management.

Mymensingh Med J 2019 Jan;28(1):245-249

Dr Mohammad Samir Azam Sunny, Medical Officer, Department of Cardiac Surgery, Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University (BSMMU), Dhaka, Bangladesh; E-mail:

Ectopic parathyroid are most frequently found in the anterior mediastinum, in association with the thymus or the thyroid gland. Ectopic parathyroid glands are a major cause of persistent and recurrent Hyperparathyroidism. We report a case of 65-year-old female was referred from Surgical Endocrine department to the department of Cardiac Surgery on 20 September, 2017 in Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University with parathyroid crisis due to an ectopic mediastinal parathyroid adenoma with her serum calcium and PTH markedly increased in short time. Read More

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January 2019
1 Read

Comparative study of computed tomography of normal and lymphoid follicular hyperplasia thymus in myasthenia gravis patients.

Exp Ther Med 2019 Jan 9;17(1):512-518. Epub 2018 Nov 9.

Department of Radiology, Affiliated General Hospital of Tianjin Medical University, Tianjin 300051, P.R. China.

The aim of the present study was to evaluate the thymuses of non-thymomatous myasthenia gravis (MG) patients by computed tomography (CT) for differentiating lymphoid follicular hyperplasia (LFH) thymus from normal/involuted thymus in order to assist surgeons in determining whether a non-thymomatous MG patient requires an operation. In the present retrospective review over 10 years, 80 patients who received CT scan and thymectomy at the Affiliated General Hospital of Tianjin Medial University (Tianjin, China) were included. According to the pathological records, 54 of the cases initially detected on CT were confirmed as LFH thymus. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3892/etm.2018.6948DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6307392PMC
January 2019
1 Read

Premature aging and cancer development in transgenic mice lacking functional CYLD.

Aging (Albany NY) 2019 Jan;11(1):127-159

Molecular Oncology Unit, Centro de Investigaciones Energéticas, Medioambientales y Tecnológicas (CIEMAT)/CIBERONC, Madrid 28040, Spain.

CYLD is a deubiquitinating enzyme known for its role as a tumor suppressor whose mutation leads to skin appendages tumors and other cancers. In this manuscript we report that the tumor suppressor CYLD, similarly to other renowned tumor suppressor genes, protects from premature aging and cancer. We have generated transgenic mice expressing the mutant CYLD protein, lacking its deubiquitinase function, under the control of the keratin 5 promoter, the K5-CYLD mice. Read More

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http://www.aging-us.com/article/101732/text
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http://dx.doi.org/10.18632/aging.101732DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6339805PMC
January 2019
14 Reads
6.432 Impact Factor

Assessment of pre and post-thymectomy myasthenia gravis.

Neurol Res 2019 Mar 21;41(3):275-281. Epub 2018 Dec 21.

a Department of Neuromicrobiology , National Institute of Mental Health and Neurosciences , Bangalore , India.

Objective: To evaluate transcervical and transsternal thymectomy benefits in large myasthenia gravis (MG) cohort.

Method: We retrospectively evaluated MG patients (n = 184) who had undergone thymectomy between 2004 and 2015 at National Institute of Mental Health and Neurosciences, Bangalore (India). Myasthenia gravis foundation of America guidelines were followed to assess clinical outcome. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01616412.2018.1557433DOI Listing
March 2019
1 Read

Pinealectomy alters IFN-γ and IL-10 levels in primary thymocyte culture of rats.

Cell Mol Biol (Noisy-le-grand) 2018 Nov 30;64(14):25-30. Epub 2018 Nov 30.

Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, Firat University, Elazig, Turkey.

Melatonin, produced mainly by the pineal gland, has an immunomodulatory role. However, the effects of the pineal gland and/or melatonin on thymus cytokine levels such as interferon-gamma (IFN-γ), interleukin (IL)-4, and IL-10 are not well known. Twenty-one male Wistar rats (220-250 gr) were randomly divided into three groups (n=7): intact control, sham, and pinealectomy. Read More

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November 2018
2 Reads

A new classification of parathyroid glands to evaluate in situ preservation or autotransplantation during thyroid surgery.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2018 Nov;97(48):e13231

Department of Thyroid Surgery,West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan Province, China.

The indication for autotransplantation of parathyroid glands is still controversial. A new classification of parathyroid glands based on the positional relationship among parathyroid glands, thyroid gland and thymus was created to decide in situ preservation or autotransplantation during thyroid surgery.A retrospective study included patients with papillary thyroid cancer who underwent total thyroidectomy with bilateral central lymph node dissection between November 2014 and November 2016. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MD.0000000000013231DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6283141PMC
November 2018
2 Reads

Characterization of the thymus in Lrp4 myasthenia gravis: Four cases.

Autoimmun Rev 2019 Jan 8;18(1):50-55. Epub 2018 Nov 8.

Department of Psychiatry and Neuropsychology, School for Mental Health and Neuroscience, Maastricht University, Universiteitssingel 50, 6229 ER Maastricht, the Netherlands. Electronic address:

Myasthenia gravis (MG) is an autoimmune disease of the neuromuscular junction. Most patients have pathogenic autoantibodies against the acetylcholine receptor (AChR). In the last years a novel subpopulation of MG patients has been described that harbors antibodies against low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 4 (Lrp4), another postsynaptic neuromuscular antigen. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S15689972183026
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.autrev.2018.07.011DOI Listing
January 2019
31 Reads
7.933 Impact Factor

Diagnosis of intrathyroidal ectopic thymus in thyroid fine needle aspiration samples.

J Clin Pathol 2019 Feb 1;72(2):145-151. Epub 2018 Nov 1.

Department of Radiology, Children's Mercy Hospital, Kansas City, Missouri, USA.

Aims: Intrathyroidal ectopic thymus (ITET) is a rare cause of paediatric thyroid nodules. Although ultrasonography of ITET demonstrates a characteristic appearance similar to that of normal thymus, accurate differentiation from other thyroid nodule etiologies by ultrasonography is difficult, and so that fine needle aspiration (FNA) is usually performed for further analysis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the utility of flow cytometry (FCM) in confirming the diagnosis of ITET in thyroid FNA samples. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/jclinpath-2018-205424DOI Listing
February 2019
3 Reads

Persistent radiologic thoracic hypotransparency: A case report and review of the literature.

Arch Pediatr 2018 Nov 22;25(8):489-492. Epub 2018 Oct 22.

Pediatrics Department, Hospital Prof. Doutor Fernando Fonseca E.P.E., IC 19, 2720-276 Amadora, Portugal.

A thymolipoma is a slow-growing, anterior mediastinal tumor, rare in childhood. The authors present a report of a 4-year-old girl with persistent right thoracic hypotransparency on the chest radiograph. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging revealed an anterior, well-limited, mediastinal mass of heterogeneous density, with lipomatous and soft tissue density areas. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0929693X183020
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.arcped.2018.09.010DOI Listing
November 2018
12 Reads

Phantom Nodules Detected by Ultrasound Examination of the Neck: The Possibility of Ectopic Cervical Thymic Tissue in Adults.

Ultrasound Int Open 2018 Oct 19;4(4):E119-E123. Epub 2018 Oct 19.

Kuma Hospital, Department of Surgery, Kobe, Japan.

Purpose: The aim of this study was to investigate the ultrasound characteristics and clinical significance of slightly hyperechoic lesions, referred to as phantom nodules, in the perithyroidal area in patients.

Materials And Methods: A total of 128 patients who underwent thyroidectomy with central neck lymph node dissection at Kuma Hospital in Hyogo, Japan were included in the study. We detected 16 phantom nodules during preoperative ultrasound examinations, defined as slightly hyperechoic masses located in the perithyroidal areas, in 13 of these 128 patients (10. Read More

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http://www.thieme-connect.de/DOI/DOI?10.1055/a-0747-6453
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/a-0747-6453DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6195431PMC
October 2018
15 Reads

Microdeletion 22q11.2 syndrome: Does thymus incidental surgical resection affect its immunological profile?

Allergol Immunopathol (Madr) 2019 Mar - Apr;47(2):141-151. Epub 2018 Oct 3.

Departamento de Genética, Hospital Infantil de México Federico Gómez, Ciudad de México, Mexico.

Background: The del22q11 syndrome patients present immunological abnormalities associated to thymus alterations. Up to 75% of them present cardiopathies and thymus is frequently removed during surgery. The thymectomy per se has a deleterious effect concerning lymphocyte subpopulations, and T cell function. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S03010546183011
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aller.2018.06.004DOI Listing
October 2018
7 Reads

Optimal timing of thymectomy in nonthymomatous myasthenia gravis patients in China: A prospective study.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2018 Sep;97(38):e12499

Department of Spleen-Stomach, The First Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou University of Chinese Medicine, Guangzhou, China.

Introduction: While thymectomy is a recommended therapy for patients with Myasthenia Gravis (MG), there is insufficient evidence of its benefits over other therapies in patients in China, specifically, or of the most optimal timing for the procedure. Thus, there remains a clinical need for the investigation of these questions. Therefore, it is important to compare the clinical efficacy of thymectomy plus oral prednisone, an immunosuppressant protocol with prednisone, or immunosuppressants alone. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MD.0000000000012499DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6160139PMC
September 2018
1 Read

[A Case of Carcinoma Showing Thymus-Like Differentiation (CASTLE) of the Thyroid].

J UOEH 2018;40(3):259-266

Department of Surgery 1, School of Medicine, University of Occupational and Environmental Health, Japan.

The case presented herein was a 70-year-old woman who had no compliant, but had a mass in the lower part of the right lobe of the thyroid detected by ultrasound (US). The US image of the tumor, measuring 13 mm in diameter, showed a low and heterogeneous internal echo level with calcification and an irregular margin. The tumor appeared to extend to the adjacent sternothyroid muscle, and cervical lymph node swelling was detected in a computer tomography (CT) image, but no metastatic lesion was found by positron emission tomography (PET)-CT. Read More

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https://www.jstage.jst.go.jp/article/juoeh/40/3/40_259/_arti
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7888/juoeh.40.259DOI Listing
March 2019
16 Reads

Implications for thymus growth in childhood: histogenesis of cortex and medulla.

Anat Sci Int 2019 Jan 28;94(1):111-118. Epub 2018 Aug 28.

Department of Histology and Embryology, Baskent University Faculty of Medicine, Ankara, Turkey.

The increase in autoimmune diseases in recent years has drawn attention back to the thymus, with new approaches to improve and/or restore immune function being investigated. As the primary lymphoid organ responsible for functional T cell development, studies on the pre-/post-natal development of this organ and T lymphocytes in human and other species are of special interest. During our screening studies we observed structures that had not been described or mentioned previously, and named them "epitheliostromal sheaths". Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12565-018-0456-8DOI Listing
January 2019
25 Reads

Multislice computed tomography performance in differential diagnosis of high-density thymic cyst and thymoma in lesions less than 3 cm.

Thorac Cancer 2018 10 21;9(10):1300-1304. Epub 2018 Aug 21.

Department of Radiology, Ningbo No.2 Hospital, Ningbo, China.

Background: This study was conducted to evaluate the performance of multislice computed tomography (MSCT) to diagnose high-density thymic cysts and thymomas in lesions measuring < 3 cm.

Methods: The records of 42 patients admitted to Ningbo No. 2 Hospital with an anterior mediastinal mass (diameter < 3 cm) suspected of carcinoma originating from the thymus were retrospectively analyzed. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1759-7714.12840DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6166092PMC
October 2018
9 Reads

Role of Regulatory T Cells in Tumor-Bearing Mice Treated with Allo-Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation Plus Thymus Transplantation.

Authors:
Naoki Hosaka

J Immunol Res 2018 2;2018:7271097. Epub 2018 Jul 2.

Department of Pathology, Fuchu Hospital, 1-10-7, Hiko-cho, Izumi, Osaka 594-0076, Japan.

We recently developed a new allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation method (allo-HSCT) combined with thymus transplantation (TT) from the same donor (allo-HSCT + TT). This method induces elevated T cell function with mild graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) in comparison to conventional HSCT alone and HSCT + donor lymphocyte infusion (DLI). This new method is effective against several intractable diseases, including malignant tumors, for which conventional treatments are ineffective. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2018/7271097DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6051097PMC
November 2018

Rebound thymic hyperplasia after liver transplantation for a child with biliary atresia; a case report.

Pediatr Transplant 2018 Jul 24:e13251. Epub 2018 Jul 24.

Department of Surgery, Liver Transplantation Center, Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital and Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Kaohsiung, Taiwan.

The thymus gland possesses the ability to regrow in children leading to a newly developed anterior mediastinal mass. This condition may represent a rebound phenomenon during recovery from a stressful event such as post-chemotherapy and hence was described as RTH. RTH after LT has not been well documented. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/petr.13251DOI Listing
July 2018
6 Reads

Fast and reliable dissection of porcine parathyroid glands - A protocol for molecular and histological analyses.

Ann Anat 2018 Sep 21;219:76-81. Epub 2018 Jun 21.

Leibniz Institute for Farm Animal Biology (FBN), Institute of Genome Biology, Wilhelm-Stahl-Allee 2, 18196 Dummerstorf, Germany; Faculty of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, University Rostock, 18059 Rostock, Germany.

As calcium and phosphorus are of vital importance for life, physiological activity of the parathyroid glands (PTGs) is crucial to maintain mineral homeostasis and bone mineralization. However, PTG-specific molecular routes in response to environmental factors and intrinsic hormonal responses are not yet fully understood. Since nutrient requirements, pathophysiology and functional genomics of pigs are similar to those of humans, pigs might be a suitable model to study the holistic gene expression and physiological aspects of the parathyroid gland, which could be used in both animal sciences and biomedical research. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aanat.2018.05.007DOI Listing
September 2018
4 Reads

Incidentally detected mass in the right atrial-right ventricular groove.

Asian Cardiovasc Thorac Ann 2018 Jul 20;26(6):494. Epub 2018 Jun 20.

Department of Cardiovascular and Thoracic Surgery, Sree Chitra Tirunal Institute for Medical Sciences and Technology, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala, India.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0218492318783307DOI Listing

Developmental Origin Governs CD8 T Cell Fate Decisions during Infection.

Cell 2018 06 14;174(1):117-130.e14. Epub 2018 Jun 14.

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853, USA. Electronic address:

Heterogeneity is a hallmark feature of the adaptive immune system in vertebrates. Following infection, naive T cells differentiate into various subsets of effector and memory T cells, which help to eliminate pathogens and maintain long-term immunity. The current model suggests there is a single lineage of naive T cells that give rise to different populations of effector and memory T cells depending on the type and amounts of stimulation they encounter during infection. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S00928674183064
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cell.2018.05.029DOI Listing
June 2018
18 Reads
32.242 Impact Factor

Spindle epithelial tumor with thymus-like differentiation of the thyroid in a 70-year-old man.

Ann Surg Treat Res 2018 Jun 29;94(6):337-341. Epub 2018 May 29.

Department of Radiology, Kangbuk Samsung Medical Center, Seoul, Korea.

Spindle epithelial tumor with thymus-like differentiation (SETTLE) is a very rare tumor of the thyroid gland mostly occurring in young patients. The imaging findings of SETTLE tumors are yet to be defined. However, they are usually described as well-defined heterogeneously enhanced masses on CT scan. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4174/astr.2018.94.6.337DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5976575PMC
June 2018
4 Reads

Calorie restriction induces reversible lymphopenia and lymphoid organ atrophy due to cell redistribution.

Geroscience 2018 06 26;40(3):279-291. Epub 2018 May 26.

Department of Immunobiology, College of Medicine, The University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ, USA.

Calorie restriction (CR) without malnutrition increases life span and health span in multiple model organisms. In non-human and human primates, CR causes changes that protect against several age-related pathologies, reduces inflammation, and preserves or improves cell-mediated immunity. However, CR has also been shown to exhibit adverse effects on certain organs and systems, including the immune system, and to impact genetically different organisms of the same species differentially. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11357-018-0022-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6060198PMC
June 2018
5 Reads

Contemporary Strategies and Barriers to Transplantation Tolerance.

Transplantation 2018 08;102(8):1213-1222

Duke Transplant Center, Department of Surgery, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC.

The purpose of this review is to discuss immunologic tolerance as it applies to solid organ transplantation and to identify barriers that hinder the achievement of this long-term goal. First, the definition of tolerance and an introduction of mechanisms by which tolerance exists or can be achieved will be discussed. Next, a review of contemporary attempts at achieving transplant tolerance will be described. Read More

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http://Insights.ovid.com/crossref?an=00007890-201808000-0001
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/TP.0000000000002242DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6059978PMC
August 2018
5 Reads

[Re-operation treatment in uremic patients complicated with persistent secondary hyperparathyroidism after parathyroidectomy with autotransplantation].

Lin Chung Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke Za Zhi 2018 Jan;32(2):142-147

Department of Otorhinolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery,the Civil Aviation General Hospital Beijing,100025,China.

To analyze the clinical profile and therapeutic effect of re-operation treatment in uremic patients complicated with persistent secondary hyperparathyroidism(SHPT)after parathyroidectomy with autotransplantation.Twelve persistent SHPT patients who were treated with reoperation of paramyroidectomy(PTX)were enrolled in this study during the period from Jan 2014 to Jul 2017 in our hospital.We evaluated the location of the remaining parathyroid glands by ultrasonography,dual-phase 99 Tcm-sestamibi scintigraphy,CT and MR imaging of the neck before the operation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.13201/j.issn.1001-1781.2018.02.016DOI Listing
January 2018
19 Reads

Transfer of Cell-Surface Antigens by Scavenger Receptor CD36 Promotes Thymic Regulatory T Cell Receptor Repertoire Development and Allo-tolerance.

Immunity 2018 05 8;48(5):923-936.e4. Epub 2018 May 8.

Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Rheumatology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO 63110, USA. Electronic address:

The development of T cell tolerance in the thymus requires the presentation of host proteins by multiple antigen-presenting cell (APC) types. However, the importance of transferring host antigens from transcription factor AIRE-dependent medullary thymic epithelial cells (mTECs) to bone marrow (BM) APCs is unknown. We report that antigen was primarily transferred from mTECs to CD8α dendritic cells (DCs) and showed that CD36, a scavenger receptor selectively expressed on CD8α DCs, mediated the transfer of cell-surface, but not cytoplasmic, antigens. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.immuni.2018.04.007DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5986080PMC
May 2018
14 Reads

Thymic pathology and cardiac myxomas: Coincidence or a closer relationship?

Monaldi Arch Chest Dis 2018 Apr 30;88(1):905. Epub 2018 Apr 30.

401 Hellenic Army Hospital, Joint Corps Armed Forces Cardiac Surgery Department.

Myxomas are the most common benign cardiac tumors and are located more frequently in the left atrium. In the literature there are cases describing the coexistence of thymic tumors and cardiac myxomas. In the case reported herein, during the resection of a cardiac myxoma, an enlarged thymus gland was encountered and resected. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4081/monaldi.2018.905DOI Listing
April 2018
6 Reads

PD-L1 immuno-expression assay in thymomas: Study of 84 cases and review of literature.

Ann Diagn Pathol 2018 Jun 4;34:135-141. Epub 2018 Apr 4.

Department of Pathology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi 110029, India. Electronic address:

Background And Aims: Programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1), an immune check point inhibitor, is known to be expressed in several malignancies and is being considered as a prognostic factor and a potential immunotherapeutic target. The aim of this study was to characterize PD-L1 expression in thymomas and to determine correlation with clinicopathological features and previously published studies in the literature.

Methods: Tissue microarrays were prepared from selected blocks of thymomas and immunohistochemistry (IHC) for PD-L1 was performed. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.anndiagpath.2018.03.012DOI Listing
June 2018
9 Reads
1.110 Impact Factor

Ectopic Cushing syndrome: Report of 9 cases.

Endocrinol Diabetes Nutr 2018 May 11;65(5):255-264. Epub 2018 Apr 11.

Servicio de Endocrinología y Nutrición, Hospital Universitario Puerta de Hierro, Majadahonda, Madrid, España.

Introduction: Ectopic Cushing's syndrome (ECS) is a rare condition caused by ACTH secretion by extrapituitary tumors. Its low frequency makes it difficult to acquire experience in its management. The aim of this study was to describe patients with ECS seen at the endocrinology department of a tertiary hospital over 15 years. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.endinu.2018.02.001DOI Listing
May 2018
6 Reads

Rebound thymic hyperplasia after adrenalectomy in a patient with Cushing syndrome caused by adrenocortical adenoma: A case report.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2018 Apr;97(15):e0367

Department of Pediatrics, Chonbuk National University Medical School.

Rationale: The development of rebound thymic hyperplasia (RTH) has been reported in patients who have recovered from stressful conditions such as surgery and steroid therapy. We report a case of RTH following the resolution of hypercortisolism after adrenalectomy for the treatment of adrenocortical adenoma in a patient with Cushing syndrome.

Patient Concerns: A 5-month-old female infant with a history of overeating, hirsutism, and excessive weight gain for the previous 2 months was referred to the hospital. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MD.0000000000010367DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5908590PMC
April 2018
6 Reads

Alternative therapies for chronic rhinosinusitis: A review.

Ear Nose Throat J 2018 Mar;97(3):E25-E33

Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Princess Alexandra Hospital, 199 Ipswich Rd., Woolloongabba, QLD 4102, Australia.

The use of alternative medicine in chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) continues to increase in popularity, for the most part without meeting the burden of being based on sound clinical evidence. New and emerging treatments, both natural and developed, are numerous, and it remains a challenge for otolaryngologists as well as general practitioners to keep up to date with these therapies and their efficacy. In this systematic review, we discuss a number of alternative therapies for CRS, their proposed physiologic mechanisms, and evidence supporting their use. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/014556131809700305DOI Listing
March 2018
48 Reads

Intrathyroidal thymic tissue in children: Avoiding unnecessary surgery.

J Pediatr Surg 2018 May 8;53(5):1010-1013. Epub 2018 Feb 8.

Division of Pediatric General and Thoracic Surgery, The Montreal Children's Hospital, McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, Quebec, Canada. Electronic address:

Background/purpose: Intrathyroidal thymic tissue may be misinterpreted as a thyroid lesion in children, leading to invasive tests or resection. We sought to describe the characteristic imaging features of these lesions and to evaluate the safety of non-operative management.

Methods: A retrospective review of all patients less than 18years old with intrathyroidal thymic tissue from 2000 to 2016 was performed. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpedsurg.2018.02.011DOI Listing
May 2018
2 Reads

Evaluation of the chemopreventive effects of Ankaferd Bloodstopper in 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene-induced oral epithelial dysplasia.

Clin Oral Investig 2018 Dec 2;22(9):3091-3096. Epub 2018 Mar 2.

Department of Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Gazi University, 06330, Ankara, Turkey.

Objectives: Ankaferd BloodStopper® (ABS) is an herbal extract which has been used historically as a hemostatic agent in traditional Turkish medicine. ABS comprises of standardized mixture of herbs Thymus vulgaris, Glycyrrhiza glabra, Vitis vinifera, Alpinia officinarum, and Urtica dioica. In addition to its hemostatic effects, the herb ABS contains some other biological effects including antioxidant and antitumoral properties. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00784-018-2399-9DOI Listing
December 2018
6 Reads

Intrathyroid cystic thyroglossal duct remnant and ectopic thymus: a fortuitous or development-related association?

Surg Today 2018 08 19;48(8):815-818. Epub 2018 Feb 19.

Department of Pathology, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, PA, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00595-018-1638-7DOI Listing

PD-1 and PD-L1 expression in thymic epithelial tumours and non-neoplastic thymus.

J Clin Pathol 2018 Jul 8;71(7):637-641. Epub 2018 Feb 8.

Department of Medical Oncology, Faculty of Medicine, Cukurova University, Adana, Turkey.

Aims: We explored the relationships between programmed death-1 (PD-1) and programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) expression and the pathological and clinical features of thymic epithelial tumours and thymic hyperplasia.

Methods: We evaluated PD-1 and PDL-1 expressions within epithelial and microenvironmental components in thymic epithelial tumours (n=44) and thymic hyperplasias (n=8), immunohistochemically. We compared the results with demographic, clinical and histopathological features of the cases. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/jclinpath-2017-204788DOI Listing
July 2018
4 Reads

Association between histological alterations in the thymus and sudden infant death syndrome.

J Forensic Leg Med 2018 Apr 8;55:8-13. Epub 2018 Feb 8.

Institute of Histology and Embryology, Faculty of Medicine, Comenius University, Bratislava, Slovakia.

Introduction: Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) involves the death of an infant during the first year of life and it is among the leading causes of infant mortality worldwide. One hypothesis regarding the pathogenesis of SIDS is that it results from a combination of three independent factors: endogenous vulnerability, a critical time window during postnatal development, and exogenous stressors. This hypothesis is known as the "triple-risk model". Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jflm.2018.02.007DOI Listing
April 2018
7 Reads
0.990 Impact Factor

Modeling Human Antitumor Responses Using Umbilical Cord Blood-Engrafted Mice.

Front Immunol 2018 26;9:54. Epub 2018 Jan 26.

Department of Medical Microbiology and Immunology, University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, Madison, WI, United States.

Mice engrafted with human immune cells offer powerful model systems to investigate molecular and cellular processes of tumorigenesis, as well as to test therapeutic approaches to treat the resulting cancer. The use of umbilical cord blood mononuclear cells as a source of human immune cells for engraftment is technically straightforward, and provides T lymphocytes and autologous antigen-presenting cells (including B cells, monocytes, and DCs) that bear cognate antigen presenting molecules. By using a human-specific oncogenic virus, such as Epstein-Barr virus, neoplastic transformation of the human B cells can be induced in a manner that models progressive stages of tumorigenesis from nascent neoplasia to the establishment of vascularized tumor masses with an immunosuppressive environment. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2018.00054DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5790779PMC
February 2019

Gender-related Histological Changes in the Thymus Gland After Pinealectomy and Short-term Melatonin Treatment in Rats.

Med Arch 2017 Dec;71(6):385-390

Department of Histology and Embryology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Sarajevo, Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina.

Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of pinealectomy and melatonin treatment on the rat thymus gland characteristics, taking into consideration possible gender differences.

Materials And Methods: Thirty adult Wistar rats of both sexes were divided into three groups. Group C and group PX served as control groups and included sham-pinealectomized and pinealectomized animals that were treated with 10% ethanol solution (0,1ml/daily, subcutaneous). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.5455/medarh.2017.71.385-390DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5764609PMC
December 2017
14 Reads

An unusual neck tumor.

Eur Ann Otorhinolaryngol Head Neck Dis 2018 Apr 1;135(2):145-146. Epub 2018 Feb 1.

Department of Otolaryngology and Head & Neck Surgery, Centre Hospitalier de l'Université de Montréal, Montréal, Canada. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.anorl.2018.01.005DOI Listing

Thymic PTH Increases After Thyroparathyroidectomy in C57BL/KaLwRij Mice.

Endocrinology 2018 04;159(4):1561-1569

Myeloma Institute, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, Arkansas.

We previously reported a substantial correlation between serum parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels and the myeloma response to proteasome inhibition that suggests a crucial role for the PTH receptor 1 system in the control of myeloma tumor growth. While investigating the role of PTH in the antimyeloma effect, we observed the recovery of serum PTH levels after thyroparathyroidectomy (TPTX). Although the presence of thymus-derived PTH has been reported previously, the existence or role of thymic PTH in the serum remains controversial. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1210/en.2017-03083DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5839736PMC
April 2018
2 Reads

Challenging the current model of early-onset myasthenia gravis pathogenesis in the light of the MGTX trial and histological heterogeneity of thymectomy specimens.

Ann N Y Acad Sci 2018 02 28;1413(1):82-91. Epub 2018 Jan 28.

Institute of Pathology, University Medical Centre Mannheim, University of Heidelberg, Mannheim, Germany.

The MGTX trial provided evidence that, in general, thymectomy is beneficial in adult patients up to 60 years of age with anti-acetylcholine receptor-positive, nonthymomatous myasthenia gravis (MG). This finding supports the long-held view that the pathogenesis of this type of MG (early-onset MG (EOMG)) starts inside the thymus, results in the long-term intrathymic recruitment of autoantibody-producing B cells and plasma cells, and eventually spreads to the peripheral immune system. However, observed clinical responses to treatment in the MGTX trial were diverse. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/nyas.13563DOI Listing
February 2018
2 Reads

The mysterious thymus gland and its surgery.

Authors:
Harold Ellis

J Perioper Pract 2018 Jan-Feb;28(1-2):33-34

Emeritus Professor of Surgery, University of London, Department of Anatomy, Guy's Hospital, London.

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http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/10.1177/1750458917742058
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1750458917742058DOI Listing
August 2018
1 Read

Immune rebound associates with a favorable clinical response to autologous HSCT in systemic sclerosis patients.

Blood Adv 2018 01;2(2):126-141

Basic and Applied Immunology Program, Ribeirão Preto Medical School.

To evaluate the immunological mechanisms associated with clinical outcomes after autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (AHSCT), focusing on regulatory T- (Treg) and B- (Breg) cell immune reconstitution, 31 systemic sclerosis (SSc) patients underwent simultaneous clinical and immunological evaluations over 36-month posttransplantation follow-up. Patients were retrospectively grouped into responders (n = 25) and nonresponders (n = 6), according to clinical response after AHSCT. Thymic function and B-cell neogenesis were respectively assessed by quantification of DNA excision circles generated during T- and B-cell receptor rearrangements. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/bloodadvances.2017011072DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5787873PMC
January 2018
18 Reads

Escape from thymic deletion and anti-leukemic effects of T cells specific for hematopoietic cell-restricted antigen.

Nat Commun 2018 01 15;9(1):225. Epub 2018 Jan 15.

Department of Biomedical Sciences, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul, 03080, Korea.

Whether hematopoietic cell-restricted distribution of antigens affects the degree of thymic negative selection has not been investigated in detail. Here, we show that T cells specific for hematopoietic cell-restricted antigens (HRA) are not completely deleted in the thymus, using the mouse minor histocompatibility antigen H60, the expression of which is restricted to hematopoietic cells. As a result, low avidity T cells escape from thymic deletion. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-017-02665-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5768767PMC
January 2018
22 Reads