9,271 results match your criteria Surgery of the Thymus Gland


Sonographic assessment of pediatric chest wall thickness and width of the intercostal space: correlation with anthropometric data and implications for needle decompression.

Ultrasound J 2021 May 10;13(1):25. Epub 2021 May 10.

Department of Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care Medicine, University Medical Center Mannheim, Theodor-Kutzer-Ufer 1-3, 68167, Mannheim, Germany.

Background: Emergent needle decompression in children is a rare event for emergency medicine and critical care providers. Hereby, risk of injury of intrathoracic structures is high and knowledge of age-specific values of chest wall thickness and width of the intercostal space (ICS) is crucial to avoid injuries. Investigation of the correlation of chest wall thickness and width of the intercostal space with age and body dimension like weight and height could provide guidance on depth of insertion and choice of the needle. Read More

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Tertiary hyperparathyroidism: a review.

Clin Ter 2021 May;172(3):241-246

Department of Surgical, Oncological and Oral Sciences, University of Palermo, Palermo, Italy.

Abstract: Tertiary hyperparathyroidism (HPT III) occurs when an excess of parathyroid hormone (PTH) is secreted by parathyroid glands, usually after longstanding secondary hyperparathyroidism. Some authorities reserve the term for secondary hyperparathyroidism that persists after successful renal transplantation. Long-standing chronic kidney disease (CKD) is associated with several metabolic disturbances that lead to increased secretion of PTH, including hyperphosphatemia, calcit-riol deficiency, and hypocalcaemia. Read More

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Defective dystrophic thymus determines degenerative changes in skeletal muscle.

Nat Commun 2021 04 8;12(1):2099. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Stem Cell Laboratory, Department of Pathophysiology and Transplantation, Università degli Studi di Milano, Unit of Neurology, Fondazione IRCCS Cà Granda Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico, Centro Dino Ferrari, Milan, Italy.

In Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), sarcolemma fragility and myofiber necrosis produce cellular debris that attract inflammatory cells. Macrophages and T-lymphocytes infiltrate muscles in response to damage-associated molecular pattern signalling and the release of TNF-α, TGF-β and interleukins prevent skeletal muscle improvement from the inflammation. This immunological scenario was extended by the discovery of a specific response to muscle antigens and a role for regulatory T cells (Tregs) in muscle regeneration. Read More

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Primary thymus tumors: retrospective case analysis at a reference center in Latin America, 2011-2019.

BMC Cancer 2021 Mar 16;21(1):279. Epub 2021 Mar 16.

Faculty of Health Sciences, Universidad Icesi, Calle 18 # 122-135, Cali, 7600032, Colombia.

Background: Thymic tumors are unusual neoplasms, representing 0.2 to 1.5% of tumors in humans, but correspond to 20% of mediastinal tumors and 50% of those that occur in the anterior mediastinum. Read More

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Single-cell transcriptional profiling of human thymic stroma uncovers novel cellular heterogeneity in the thymic medulla.

Nat Commun 2021 02 17;12(1):1096. Epub 2021 Feb 17.

Diabetes Center, Department of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, USA.

The thymus' key function in the immune system is to provide the necessary environment for the development of diverse and self-tolerant T lymphocytes. While recent evidence suggests that the thymic stroma is comprised of more functionally distinct subpopulations than previously appreciated, the extent of this cellular heterogeneity in the human thymus is not well understood. Here we use single-cell RNA sequencing to comprehensively profile the human thymic stroma across multiple stages of life. Read More

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February 2021

Distinct metabolic programs established in the thymus control effector functions of γδ T cell subsets in tumor microenvironments.

Nat Immunol 2021 02 18;22(2):179-192. Epub 2021 Jan 18.

Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA.

Metabolic programming controls immune cell lineages and functions, but little is known about γδ T cell metabolism. Here, we found that γδ T cell subsets making either interferon-γ (IFN-γ) or interleukin (IL)-17 have intrinsically distinct metabolic requirements. Whereas IFN-γ γδ T cells were almost exclusively dependent on glycolysis, IL-17 γδ T cells strongly engaged oxidative metabolism, with increased mitochondrial mass and activity. Read More

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February 2021

Pathology of thymoma-where are we today?

J Thorac Dis 2020 Dec;12(12):7545-7552

Department of Histopathology, Nottingham University Hospital, Nottingham, UK.

Thymoma is the commonest epithelial neoplasm arising from thymus gland. Tumour is slow growing and in the absence of metastasis, surgery is the treatment of choice. Complete resection and bland morphology are important prognostic features. Read More

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December 2020

Risk factors, causes, and rates associated with hospital readmission after pediatric neck mass surgery.

Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol 2021 Mar 1;142:110607. Epub 2021 Jan 1.

Department of Head and Neck Surgery, David Geffen School of Medicine at the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA). 200 Medical Plaza, Suite 550, Los Angeles, CA, 90095, USA.

Background: To understand rates, risk factors, and costs associated with hospital readmission in pediatric patients who underwent neck mass excision.

Methods: This was a retrospective review of the Nationwide Readmissions Database (NRD) between 2010 and 2014 of select neck mass procedures, defined as affecting the following: thyroid, salivary gland, cervical lymph nodes, branchial cleft, thymus, and head and neck vessels. We analyzed rates and causes of 30-day readmissions using univariate and multivariate logistic regression. Read More

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Whole exome sequencing and establishment of an organoid culture of the carcinoma showing thymus-like differentiation (CASTLE) of the parotid gland.

Virchows Arch 2021 Jan 7. Epub 2021 Jan 7.

Department of Investigative Pathology, Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, 2-1 Seiryo-machi, Aoba-ku, Sendai, 980-8575, Japan.

Carcinoma showing thymus-like differentiation (CASTLE) is a rare tumor, especially in the parotid gland. We encountered a CASTLE of the parotid gland and analyzed its clinicopathological features, as well as the genotype using whole exome sequencing (WES). Moreover, we successfully established an organoid culture cell line from the primary tumor tissue. Read More

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January 2021

Exceptional thyrolipoma and thymolipoma association: is there a syndrome?

Interact Cardiovasc Thorac Surg 2021 May;32(5):828-830

Division of Thoracic Surgery and Lung Transplantation, Georges Pompidou European Hospital, Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris, Paris, France.

Thyrolipoma and thymolipoma are rare neoplasms of the thyroid gland and thymus, respectively. Their simultaneous occurrence is exceptional. Up to now, only 2 cases have been reported in literature in 1966 and in 1997. Read More

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Reconstitution of a functional human thymus by postnatal stromal progenitor cells and natural whole-organ scaffolds.

Nat Commun 2020 12 11;11(1):6372. Epub 2020 Dec 11.

Epithelial Stem Cell Biology & Regenerative Medicine laboratory, The Francis Crick Institute, 1 Midland Road, London, NW1 1AT, UK.

The thymus is a primary lymphoid organ, essential for T cell maturation and selection. There has been long-standing interest in processes underpinning thymus generation and the potential to manipulate it clinically, because alterations of thymus development or function can result in severe immunodeficiency and autoimmunity. Here, we identify epithelial-mesenchymal hybrid cells, capable of long-term expansion in vitro, and able to reconstitute an anatomic phenocopy of the native thymus, when combined with thymic interstitial cells and a natural decellularised extracellular matrix (ECM) obtained by whole thymus perfusion. Read More

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December 2020

Cross talk between human regulatory T cells and antigen-presenting cells: Lessons for clinical applications.

Eur J Immunol 2021 01 23;51(1):27-38. Epub 2020 Dec 23.

BC Children's Hospital Research Institute, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada.

Regulatory T cells (Tregs) have a critical role in maintaining self-tolerance and immune homeostasis. There is much interest in using Tregs as a cell therapy to re-establish tolerance in conditions such as inflammatory bowel disease and type 1 diabetes, with many ongoing clinical studies testing the safety and efficacy of this approach. Manufacturing of Tregs for therapy typically involves ex vivo expansion to obtain sufficient cell numbers for infusion and comes with the risk of altering the activity of key biological processes. Read More

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January 2021

Minimal Access Surgery for Thymoma.

Indian J Surg Oncol 2020 Dec 5;11(4):625-632. Epub 2020 Sep 5.

DNB Thoracic Surgery, Department of Thoracic Surgery and Director, Institute of Robotic Surgery, Sir Ganga Ram Hospital, New Delhi, India.

Thymoma is a rare epithelial tumor of the thymus gland. Despite rarity, it is the most common tumor of the anterior mediastinum. Surgical resection in the form of extended thymectomy is the gold standard operation. Read More

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December 2020

Dynamic of plasma IL-22 level is an indicator of thymic output after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation.

Life Sci 2021 Jan 2;265:118849. Epub 2020 Dec 2.

Blood Diseases Institute, Xuzhou Medical University, Xuzhou 221002, China; Department of Hematology, The Affiliated Hospital of Xuzhou Medical University, Xuzhou Medical University, Xuzhou 221002, China. Electronic address:

Aims: Interleukin-22 (IL-22) promotes thymus recovery and improves T-cell recovery in preclinical allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplant models. However, the correlation between IL-22 and thymus recovery is unknown in human transplant.

Materials And Methods: In this study, plasma IL-22 levels of transplanted humans were analyzed peri-transplant. Read More

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January 2021

Brain cancer induces systemic immunosuppression through release of non-steroid soluble mediators.

Brain 2020 12;143(12):3629-3652

Mayo Clinic Department of Immunology, Rochester, MN, USA.

Immunosuppression of unknown aetiology is a hallmark feature of glioblastoma and is characterized by decreased CD4 T-cell counts and downregulation of major histocompatibility complex class II expression on peripheral blood monocytes in patients. This immunosuppression is a critical barrier to the successful development of immunotherapies for glioblastoma. We recapitulated the immunosuppression observed in glioblastoma patients in the C57BL/6 mouse and investigated the aetiology of low CD4 T-cell counts. Read More

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December 2020

Thymus algeriensis and Thymus fontanesii exert neuroprotective effect against chronic constriction injury-induced neuropathic pain in rats.

Sci Rep 2020 11 25;10(1):20559. Epub 2020 Nov 25.

Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Zagazig University, Zagazig, 44519, Egypt.

We have previously demonstrated that the Thymus algeriensis and Thymus fontanesii extracts have powerful anti-inflammatory, antipyretic, and analgesic effects against acute pain models. We profiled their chemical composition and found many phenolic acids, flavonoids, and phenolic diterpenes. In this work, we investigated their antioxidant properties on HaCaT cells exposed to UVA-induced oxidative stress and examined their effects against chronic neuropathic pain and the underlying mechanisms. Read More

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November 2020

Thymus-derived B cell clones persist in the circulation after thymectomy in myasthenia gravis.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2020 12 16;117(48):30649-30660. Epub 2020 Nov 16.

Department of Immunobiology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06511;

Myasthenia gravis (MG) is a neuromuscular, autoimmune disease caused by autoantibodies that target postsynaptic proteins, primarily the acetylcholine receptor (AChR) and inhibit signaling at the neuromuscular junction. The majority of patients under 50 y with AChR autoantibody MG have thymic lymphofollicular hyperplasia. The MG thymus is a reservoir of plasma cells that secrete disease-causing AChR autoantibodies and although thymectomy improves clinical scores, many patients fail to achieve complete stable remission without additional immunosuppressive treatments. Read More

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December 2020

Role of thymus on prognosis of myasthenia gravis in Turkish population.

North Clin Istanb 2020 10;7(5):452-459. Epub 2020 Aug 10.

Department of Neurology, Haydarpasa Numune Training and Research Hospital, Istanbul, Turkey.

Objective: Myasthenia gravis (MG) is an autoimmune disease that may cause a disorder in transmission at the neuromuscular junction. Antibodies directed against acetylcholine receptors are responsible. The thymus is the place that that production of these antibodies mainly occurs. Read More

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Comparable human reconstitution following Cesium-137 versus X-ray irradiation preconditioning in immunodeficient NOG mice.

PLoS One 2020 29;15(10):e0241375. Epub 2020 Oct 29.

Department of Infectious Diseases, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus, Denmark.

Humanized mouse models are used extensively in research involving human pathogens and diseases. However, most of these models require preconditioning. Radio-active sources have been used routinely for this purpose but safety issues have motivated researchers to transition to chemical or X-ray based preconditioning. Read More

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December 2020

Thymic Engraftment by -Derived Progenitor T Cells in Young and Aged Mice.

Front Immunol 2020 18;11:1850. Epub 2020 Aug 18.

Department of Immunology, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada.

T cells play a critical role in mediating antigen-specific and long-term immunity against viral and bacterial pathogens, and their development relies on the highly specialized thymic microenvironment. T cell immunodeficiency can be acquired in the form of inborn errors, or can result from perturbations to the thymus due to aging or irradiation/chemotherapy required for cancer treatment. Hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) from compatible donors is a cornerstone for the treatment of hematological malignancies and immunodeficiency. Read More

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Human thymic T cell repertoire is imprinted with strong convergence to shared sequences.

Mol Immunol 2020 11 19;127:112-123. Epub 2020 Sep 19.

Research Programs Unit, Translational Immunology and Medicum, Department of Bacteriology and Immunology, University of Helsinki. Haartmaninkatu 3, 00290 Helsinki, Finland. Electronic address:

A highly diverse repertoire of T cell antigen receptors (TCR) is created in the thymus by recombination of gene segments and the insertion or deletion of nucleotides at the junctions. Using next-generation TCR sequencing we define here the features of recombination and selection in the human TCRα and TCRβ locus, and show that a strikingly high proportion of the repertoire is shared by unrelated individuals. The thymic TCRα nucleotide repertoire was more diverse than TCRβ, with 4. Read More

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November 2020

Ectopic and supernumerary parathyroid glands in patients with refractory renal hyperparathyroidism.

Surgery 2021 03 9;169(3):513-518. Epub 2020 Sep 9.

MetroHealth Medical Center, Cleveland, OH; Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine, Cleveland, OH. Electronic address:

Background: The aims of this study were to determine the rate of ectopic and supernumerary parathyroid glands and the outcome of surgical therapy in patients with refractory renal hyperparathyroidism.

Materials And Methods: A retrospective review of all patients who underwent parathyroidectomy for refractory renal hyperparathyroidism was completed. Operative and pathology reports were reviewed, and the number and location of resected parathyroid glands, patient outcomes, and follow-up were determined. Read More

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Pre-transplant Thymic Function Predicts Is Associated With Patient Death After Kidney Transplantation.

Front Immunol 2020 31;11:1653. Epub 2020 Jul 31.

Inserm, UMR1098, Federation Hospitalo-Universitaire INCREASE, Besançon, France.

Accelerated thymic involution is a main feature of end-stage renal disease (ESRD)-associated immune senescence. Recent evidences suggest that ESRD-associated immune senescence is associated with adverse outcomes in dialysis patients. However, no study focused on the association between pre-transplant thymic function and patient survival after transplantation. Read More

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A case of primary hyperparathyroidism due to an intrathymic ectopic parathyroid adenoma in a 15-year-old boy.

Ann Pediatr Endocrinol Metab 2020 Sep 29;25(3):187-191. Epub 2020 Jul 29.

Department of Pediatrics, Severance Children's Hospital, Endocrine Research Institute, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.

Hypercalcemia due to primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) is uncommon in children. PHPT is typically caused by a single parathyroid adenoma. Ectopic parathyroid adenomas account for 6%-16% of all parathyroid adenomas and are rare in children but should be considered in cases that present with hypercalcemia. Read More

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September 2020

Single-cell RNA sequencing identifies shared differentiation paths of mouse thymic innate T cells.

Nat Commun 2020 08 31;11(1):4367. Epub 2020 Aug 31.

Division of Integrative Biosciences and Biotechnology, Pohang University of Science and Technology (POSTECH), Pohang, 37673, Republic of Korea.

Invariant natural killer T (iNKT), mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT), and γδ T cells are innate T cells that acquire memory phenotype in the thymus and share similar biological characteristics. However, how their effector differentiation is developmentally regulated is still unclear. Here, we identify analogous effector subsets of these three innate T cell types in the thymus that share transcriptional profiles. Read More

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Administration of Amyloid Precursor Protein Gene Deleted Mouse ESC-Derived Thymic Epithelial Progenitors Attenuates Alzheimer's Pathology.

Front Immunol 2020 11;11:1781. Epub 2020 Aug 11.

Department of Allied Health Sciences, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT, United States.

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a devastating neurodegenerative disorder and the most common cause of dementia in older adults. Although amyloid-beta (Aβ) plaque deposition and chronic neuroinflammation in the central nervous system (CNS) contribute to AD pathology, neither Aβ plaque removal nor anti-inflammatory therapy has shown much clinical success, suggesting that the combinational therapies for the disease-causative factors may be needed for amelioration. Recent data also suggest that systemic immunity in AD should be boosted, rather than suppressed, to drive an immune-dependent cascade needed for Aβ clearance and brain repair. Read More

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Evaluating Thymic Function After Human Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation in the Personalized Medicine Era.

Front Immunol 2020 31;11:1341. Epub 2020 Jul 31.

Department of Clinical Science, Intervention and Technology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.

Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is an effective treatment option for several malignant and non-malignant hematological diseases. The clinical outcome of this procedure relies to a large extent on optimal recovery of adaptive immunity. In this regard, the thymus plays a central role as the primary site for generation of functional, diverse, and immunocompetent T-lymphocytes. Read More

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Operative bleeding during thoracoscopic thymectomy: Causes and management strategies.

Multimed Man Cardiothorac Surg 2020 07 14;2020. Epub 2020 Jul 14.

Department of Anesthesia and Intensive Care, Mansoura University Hospital Mansoura University School of Medicine Mansoura, Egypt.

Bleeding during thoracoscopic thymectomy is a potentially critical complication that necessitates either immediate effective thoracoscopic control or conversion to an open approach. It can be difficult to manage and the surgeon must respond quickly in order to keep the patient safe . In this video tutorial we present various forms of intraoperative bleeding that can occur during thoracoscopic thymectomy and discuss how to manage them in patients with myasthenia gravis. Read More

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PCSK2 expression in neuroendocrine tumors points to a midgut, pulmonary, or pheochromocytoma-paraganglioma origin.

APMIS 2020 Nov 28;128(11):563-572. Epub 2020 Sep 28.

Department of Pathology, Helsinki University Hospital and HUSLAB, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.

Neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) are often diagnosed from the metastases of an unknown primary tumor. Specific immunohistochemical (IHC) markers indicating the location of a primary tumor are needed. The proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 2 (PCSK2) is found in normal neural and neuroendocrine cells, and known to express in NETs. Read More

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November 2020

The function of the thymus and its impact on modern medicine.

Science 2020 Jul;369(6503)

The Walter and Eliza Hall Institute of Medical Research, Parkville, Victoria 3052, Australia.

The lymphoid system is intimately involved in immunological processes. The small lymphocyte that circulates through blood into lymphoid tissues, then through the lymph and back to the blood through the thoracic duct, is able to initiate immune responses after appropriate stimulation by antigen. However, the lymphocytes found in the thymus are deficient in this ability despite the fact that the thymus plays a central role in lymphocyte production and in ensuring the normal development of immunological faculty. Read More

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