8,125 results match your criteria Supernumerary Digit
EMBO J 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.
Lunenfeld Tanenbaum Research Institute, Sinai Health System, Toronto, ON, Canada.
Folia Morphol (Warsz) 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.
Institute of Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine, University of Ljubljana, Ljubljana, Slovenia, Slovenia.
A cross-over type asymmetric anomaly of the anterior belly of the right digastric muscle was observed during a cadaveric dissection of the submental region. Three irregularly-shaped supernumerary muscle bundles were found between the anterior bellies of the digastric muscles. Although the anomalies of the digastric muscles are often observed, this complicated pattern has not been previously reported. Read More
Retina 2018 Nov 28. Epub 2018 Nov 28.
Department of Ophthalmology, Chang-Gung Memorial Hospital, Linkou, Taoyuan, Taiwan.
Objective: This study aims to examine retinal vascular findings for affected eyes and contralateral eyes as well in typical cases of unilateral persistent fetal vasculature.
Methods: We retrospectively reviewed all patients evaluated at Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Linkou, for unilateral persistent fetal vasculature between January 2008 and July 2017. All patients underwent fluorescein angiography (FA) examination under general anesthesia. Read More
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2018 Dec 10. Epub 2018 Dec 10.
Cardiovascular Research Institute, University of California, San Francisco, CA 94158;
Pairing homologous chromosomes is required for recombination. However, in nonmeiotic stages it can lead to detrimental consequences, such as allelic misregulation and genome instability, and is rare in human somatic cells. How mitotic recombination is prevented-and how genetic stability is maintained across daughter cells-is a fundamental, unanswered question. Read More
RNA Biol 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.
a State Key Laboratory of Brain and Cognitive Science, Institute of Biophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences , Beijing 100101 , China.
It is obvious that the majority of cellular transcripts are long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs). Although studies suggested that lncRNAs participate in many biological processes through diverse mechanisms, however, little is known about their effects on epidermal mechanoreceptors. Here, we identified one novel Drosophila lncRNA, Scutellar Macrochaetes Regulatory Gene (SMRG), which regulates scutellar macrochaetes that act as mechanoreceptors by antagonizing the proneural gene scute (sc), through the repressor Enhancer-of-split mβ (E(spl)mβ). Read More
J Investig Clin Dent 2018 Dec 2:e12377. Epub 2018 Dec 2.
Department of Maxillofacial Surgery, Faculty of Dentistry, Gaziosmanpasa University, Tokat, Turkey.
Aim: A mesiodens is the most frequent type of supernumerary tooth. They can be related to several complications, such as ectopic eruption and midline diastema. The aim of the present study was to assess the radiographic properties of mesiodens by analyzing the associated age, sex distribution, number of mesiodens per patient, shape, direction of eruption, and their association with complications. Read More
J Belg Soc Radiol 2018 Nov 23;102(1):73. Epub 2018 Nov 23.
Antwerp University Hospital, BE.
Zhonghua Yi Xue Yi Chuan Xue Za Zhi 2018 Dec;35(6):852-855
Department of Gynaecology and Obstetrics, the Affiliated Hospital of Nantong University, Nantong, Jiangsu 226001, China.
Objective: To explore the genetic cause for a child featuring growth and mental retardation.
Methods: Following conventional karyotyping analysis of the trio family, next generation sequencing (NGS) was carried out to explore the origin of the supernumerary marker chromosome. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) was used to confirm the result. Read More
Congenit Anom (Kyoto) 2018 Nov 29. Epub 2018 Nov 29.
Faculty of Medicine, Saitama Medical University.
Thoracolumbar supernumerary ribs (TSRs) are classified as less severe skeletal anomalies in rat developmental toxicity studies, although their incidence is relatively high in rodent studies. To investigate the characteristics of the critical window for chemically-induced TSR, in this study, rats were administered 5-fluorocytocine (5-FC) or sodium salicylate (SAL) at one of three time periods on gestational day (GD) 9, early morning (0700), midday (1200 to 1300), or late afternoon (1600 or 1900). The incidence of TSR and other anomalies were assessed in GD20 fetuses. Read More
Disasters 2018 Nov 29. Epub 2018 Nov 29.
Graduate Student, School of Geography, Environment and Earth Sciences, Victoria University of Wellington, New Zealand.
Sand and dust storms (SDS) are wind erosion events typically associated with dryland regions, although they can occur in most environments and their impacts are frequently experienced outside drylands because desert dust haze often is transported great distances. SDS represent hazards to society in numerous ways, yet they do not feature prominently in the disasters literature. This paper considers SDS in a hazard context by examining their ramifications in economic, physical, and social terms, with a focus on agriculture, health, transport, utilities, households, and the commercial and manufacturing sector. Read More
Restor Dent Endod 2018 Nov 26;43(4):e44. Epub 2018 Oct 26.
Department of Conservative Dentistry & Endodontics, Rangoonwala Dental College and Research Center, Pune, MH, India.
Fusion and gemination are developmental anomalies of teeth that may require endodontic treatment. Fusion may cause various clinical problems related to esthetics, tooth spacing, and other periodontal complications. Additional diagnostic tools are required for the diagnosis and the treatment planning of fused tooth. Read More
Orv Hetil 2018 Nov;159(47):1994-2000
II. Gyermekgyógyászati Klinika, Genetikai Részleg, Semmelweis Egyetem, Általános Orvostudományi Kar Budapest, Pf. 2., 1428.
Whole or partial trisomy of the short arm of chromosome 9 (9p) is considered to be one of the more frequent chromosome abnormalities compatible with life. The duplication may affect various organs, however the most common symptoms are certain specific facial dysmorphisms and abnormalities of the fingers, toes and nails. A one month old boy presented with failure to thrive, jaundice, ventricular septal defect (VSD) and dysmorphic face. Read More
Obstet Gynecol Sci 2018 Nov 11;61(6):702-706. Epub 2018 Oct 11.
Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Eulji University Hospital, Eulji University School of Medicine, Daejeon, Korea.
A supernumerary ovary is a rare gynecological anomaly, and is usually excised due to its malignant transformation potential. We report a case of a supernumerary ovary and endometriosis situated on the anterior rectosigmoid colon. When laparoscopy was conducted, a firm, 5-cm mass was discovered on the anterior rectosigmoid colon along with normal ovaries. Read More
Am J Otolaryngol 2019 Jan - Feb;40(1):67-69. Epub 2018 Oct 22.
Division of Head and Neck Surgery, Department of Ophthalmology, Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, Ribeirao Preto Medical School, University of Sao Paulo, Brazil. Electronic address:
Purpose: Parathyroidectomy can be subtotal or total with an autograft for the treatment of renal hyperparathyroidism. In both cases, it may be extended with bilateral thymectomy and total or partial thyroidectomy. Thymectomy may be recommended in combination with parathyroidectomy in order to prevent mediastinal recurrence. Read More
Int J Surg Case Rep 2018 Nov 13;53:345-347. Epub 2018 Nov 13.
Urology Department, Ibn El Jazzar Teaching Hospital, Kairouan, Tunisia.
Introduction: Polyorchidism, defined as the presence of more than two testicles, is a rare congenital abnormality of the male genital tract. There is no consensus regarding the management of supranumerary testis (SNT) due to its rareness. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of leiomyoma in SNT. Read More
Cytogenet Genome Res 2018 Nov 23. Epub 2018 Nov 23.
We report a case of familial small supernumerary marker chromosome 15 in a phenotypically normal female with 4 recurrent spontaneous abortions and a healthy child. The initial karyotype showed a small, bisatellited, apparently metacentric marker chromosome, 47,XX,+idic(15)(q11.1), maternally inherited. Read More
Int J Mol Sci 2018 Nov 20;19(11). Epub 2018 Nov 20.
Dipartimento di Scienze della Vita e dell'Ambiente, Università Politecnica delle Marche, 60131 Ancona, Italy.
Repetitive DNA is an intriguing portion of the genome still not completely discovered and shows a high variability in terms of sequence, genomic organization, and evolutionary mode. On the basis of the genomic organization, it includes satellite DNAs, which are organized as long arrays of head-to-tail linked repeats, and transposable elements, which are dispersed throughout the genome. These repeated elements represent a considerable fraction of vertebrate genomes contributing significantly in species evolution. Read More
Cell Rep 2018 Nov;25(8):2070-2082.e6
Département de Neurosciences, Université de Montréal, PO Box 6128, Station Centre-ville, Montréal, QC H3C 3J7, Canada; Groupe de Recherche sur le Système Nerveux Central, Université de Montréal, PO Box 6128, Station Centre-ville, Montréal, QC H3C 3J7, Canada. Electronic address:
The precise wiring of synaptic connections requires the elimination of supernumerary inputs competing for innervation of the same target cell. This competition is activity-dependent, strengthening some inputs whereas others are eliminated. Although glial cells are required for the elimination and clearance of terminals, their involvement in activity-dependent synaptic competition remains ill-defined. Read More
Asian J Neurosurg 2018 Oct-Dec;13(4):1239-1243
Department of Paediatrics, SMS Medical College, Jaipur, Rajasthan, India.
A 3-month-old-male infant presented with enlargement of head since birth. Clinical and radiological evaluation revealed congenital hydrocephalus, corpus callosum agenesis, prosencephalic cyst, and cranial vault deficiency with supernumerary nostril on the left side. Right ventriculoperitoneal shunt (Chhabra shunt) surgery was performed. Read More
Dev Cell 2018 Nov;47(4):409-424.e9
Barts Cancer Institute, Queen Mary University of London, Charterhouse Square, London EC1M 6BQ, UK. Electronic address:
Centrosomal abnormalities, in particular centrosome amplification, are recurrent features of human tumors. Enforced centrosome amplification in vivo plays a role in tumor initiation and progression. However, centrosome amplification occurs only in a subset of cancer cells, and thus, partly due to this heterogeneity, the contribution of centrosome amplification to tumors is unknown. Read More
Arch Argent Pediatr 2018 12;116(6):437-444
Unidad de Odontología, Ospedale Pediatrico Bambino Gesù, IRCCS, Roma, Italia.
Supernumerary teeth represent a common human dental anomaly, defined as presence of extra teeth-more than the normal number foreseen in primary or permanent dentition. The prevalence has been reported between 0.2 to 3%, and is more frequent in males than females. Read More
J Foot Ankle Surg 2018 Nov 15. Epub 2018 Nov 15.
Chief, Foot and Ankle Surgery, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Second Hospital of Jilin University, Changchun, China. Electronic address:
Polydactyly is a common congenital deformity of the foot that can be categorized as preaxial, central, or postaxial. Current treatments involve resecting the supernumerary toe(s) and repairing the normal toe(s) and soft tissue. Here, we present the first published report describing a very rare case of polydactyly of the foot, in which the supernumerary toe originated from a deformed calcaneus, which formed an abnormal bony bump. Read More
Hum Mol Genet 2018 Nov 16. Epub 2018 Nov 16.
Department of Cell Biology.
Cleidocranial dysplasia (CCD, #119600), which is characterized by hypoplastic clavicles, open fontanelles, supernumerary teeth, and a short stature, is caused by heterozygous mutations in RUNX2. However, it currently remains unclear why suture closure is severely impaired in CCD patients. The closure of posterior frontal (PF) and sagittal (SAG) sutures was completely interrupted in Runx2+/- mice, and the proliferation of suture mesenchymal cells and their condensation were less than those in wild-type mice. Read More
J Biol Chem 2018 Nov 13. Epub 2018 Nov 13.
Kyoto University, Japan.
NADH-quinone oxidoreductase (respiratory complex I) couples NADH-to-quinone electron transfer to the translocation of protons across the membrane. Even though the architectures of the quinone-access channel in the enzyme have been modeled by X-ray crystallography and cryo-EM, conflicting findings raise the question whether the models fully reflect physiologically relevant states present throughout the catalytic cycle. To gain further insights into the structural features of the binding pocket for quinone/inhibitor, we performed chemical biology experiments using bovine heart sub-mitochondrial particles. Read More
BMJ Case Rep 2018 Nov 12;2018. Epub 2018 Nov 12.
Division of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, Department of Diagnostic Sciences, Rutgers School of Dental Medicine, Newark, New Jersey, USA.
Cleidocranial dysplasia (CCD) is a rare congenital autosomal dominant condition, causing hypoplasia of the clavicle, abnormal formation of teeth, skeletal and craniofacial bones. CCD is caused by the mutation of RUNX2/CBFA1 present in the short arm of chromosome 6 at position 21.1, a transcription factor essential for the formation of teeth, cartilage and bone. Read More
Spec Care Dentist 2018 Nov 12. Epub 2018 Nov 12.
Postgraduate Program, Dental College, Pontifical Catholic University of Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil.
Gardner syndrome is a hereditary disease in which patients develop gastrointestinal polyps, osteomas, desmoid tumors, epidermoid cysts, fibromas, lipomas, and retinal lesions. Dental abnormalities such as supernumerary or impacted teeth, odontomas and dentigerous cysts are also reported. The most serious concern in this syndrome is the extremely high risk of gastrointestinal polyps undergoing malignant transformation. Read More
Eur Radiol 2018 Nov 9. Epub 2018 Nov 9.
Department of Radiology, Military Teaching Hospital Clermont-Tonnerre, Rue du colonel Fonferrier, 29240, Brest Cedex 9, France.
Objective: To evaluate the value of psoas muscle proximal insertion for correct numbering of the lumbar vertebrae in MRI, in particular in case of lumbosacral transitional vertebra (LSTV).
Methods: Two radiologists assessed 477 MRI scans of the lumbar spine with a sagittal localizer sequence on the whole spine for numbering vertebrae caudally from C2. Proximal insertion of the psoas was determined as the most proximal vertebra with psoas over half of its body on coronal T2 STIR sequence. Read More
Hum Mutat 2018 Nov 9. Epub 2018 Nov 9.
Department of Molecular Medicine, University of Pavia, Pavia, Italy.
We studied by a whole genomic approach and trios genotyping, 12 de novo, nonrecurrent small supernumerary marker chromosomes (sSMC), detected as mosaics during pre- or postnatal diagnosis and associated with increased maternal age. Four sSMCs contained pericentromeric portions only, whereas eight had additional non-contiguous portions of the same chromosome, assembled together in a disordered fashion by repair-based mechanisms in a chromothriptic event. Maternal hetero/isodisomy was detected with a paternal origin of the sSMC in some cases, whereas in others two maternal alleles in the sSMC region and biparental haplotypes of the homologs were detected. Read More
Front Vet Sci 2018 22;5:260. Epub 2018 Oct 22.
Neurology Department, Clinic of Small Animal Surgery, Vetsuisse-Faculty Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland.
Corpus callosum abnormalities (CCA) rarely occur in dogs and are related to hypo/adypsic hypernatremia and seizures. Hypoplasia and dysplasia of the corpus callosum (CC) with concomitant lobar holoprosencephaly is the most common variant. It is currently uncertain using conventional MRI if canine CCA reflects the failure of commissural fibers to develop or the failure of the commissural fibers to cross hemispheres. Read More
Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2018 Jul-Aug;11(4):294-298. Epub 2018 Aug 1.
House Officer, Department of Medicine and Surgery, University of Milano-Bicocca, Milan, Italy.
Aim: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the surgical options for supernumerary teeth (SNT) in the premaxillary region of children.
Materials And Methods: A total of 69 patients with 82 partially or completely formed SNT in the anterior maxillary region were identified over a 3-year period. All selected patients were assessed for the number, location, and family history of SNT, damage to adjacent roots, and associated symptoms. Read More
Acta Chir Belg 2018 Nov 2:1-2. Epub 2018 Nov 2.
b Department of History of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine , University of Crete , Heraklion , Greece.
Introduction: Polydactyly, or polydactylism, is a common congenital disorder of the limbs, consisting of any digit duplication beyond the normal five. The term syndactyly refers to fused digits. We herein present a thorough description of these diseases together with their surgical treatment, provided by Oribasius, a Byzantine physician of the 4th century. Read More
Elife 2018 10 30;7. Epub 2018 Oct 30.
Department of Agricultural Biotechnology, Seoul National University, Seoul, Republic of Korea.
The first wave of transcriptional activation occurs after fertilisation in a species-specific pattern. Despite its importance to initial embryonic development, the characteristics of transcription following fertilisation are poorly understood in Aves. Here, we report detailed insights into the onset of genome activation in chickens. Read More
J Int Neuropsychol Soc 2018 Oct;24(9):917-927
1Department of Psychology,Drexel University,Philadelphia,Pennsylvania.
Objectives: Past research suggests that youth with sex chromosome aneuploidies (SCAs) present with verbal fluency deficits. However, most studies have focused on sex chromosome trisomies. Far less is known about sex chromosome tetrasomies and pentasomies. Read More
Clin Oral Investig 2018 Oct 29. Epub 2018 Oct 29.
Paediatric Dentistry, School of Dentistry, University of Western Australia, Perth, WA, 6009, Australia.
Objective: Development of human dentition has been used as a predictor for evaluating the growth and maturity of an individual. It is fairly identical in a specific population, but the effect of development on subjects with dental anomalies had not been fully explored, particularly on subjects with supernumerary teeth (ST). This study hence aims to evaluate the dental development of children with and without ST. Read More
Genes (Basel) 2018 Oct 26;9(11). Epub 2018 Oct 26.
Instituto de Biociências/IB, Departamento de Biologia, UNESP-Universidade Estadual Paulista, Rio Claro, São Paulo 01049-010, Brazil.
Supernumerary (B) chromosomes are dispensable genomic elements occurring frequently among grasshoppers. Most B chromosomes are enriched with repetitive DNAs, including satellite DNAs (satDNAs) that could be implicated in their evolution. Although studied in some species, the specific ancestry of B chromosomes is difficult to ascertain and it was determined in only a few examples. Read More
Genes (Basel) 2018 Oct 22;9(10). Epub 2018 Oct 22.
Leibniz Institute of Plant Genetics and Crop Plant Research (IPK), Corrensstrasse 3, 06466 Gatersleben, Germany.
B chromosomes are supernumerary chromosomes found in addition to the normal standard chromosomes (A chromosomes). B chromosomes are well known to accumulate several distinct types of repeated DNA elements. Although the evolution of B chromosomes has been the subject of numerous studies, the mechanisms of accumulation and evolution of repetitive sequences are not fully understood. Read More
Sci Rep 2018 Oct 23;8(1):15647. Epub 2018 Oct 23.
Institut für Molekulare Zellbiologie, Westfälische Wilhelms-Universität, Schloßplatz 5, D-48149, Münster, Germany.
The highly conserved Rap1 GTPases perform essential functions during neuronal development. They are required for the polarity of neuronal progenitors and neurons as well as for neuronal migration in the embryonic brain. Neuronal polarization and axon formation depend on the precise temporal and spatial regulation of Rap1 activity by guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs) and GTPases-activating proteins (GAPs). Read More
Genes (Basel) 2018 Oct 19;9(10). Epub 2018 Oct 19.
State Key Laboratory of Crop Stress Biology for Arid Areas, College of Agronomy, Northwest A&F University, Yangling 712100, China.
The branched spike phenotype is an important supernumerary spikelet trait of Triticum turgidum L. associated with the production of significantly more grains per spike, thereby offering a higher potential yield. However, the genetic basis of branch meristem (BM) development remains to be fully elucidated in wheat. Read More
iScience 2018 Oct 11;8:222-235. Epub 2018 Oct 11.
Centre for Synthetic and Systems Biology, School of Biological Sciences, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, EH9 3BF UK. Electronic address:
Centrioles, the cores of centrosomes and cilia, duplicate every cell cycle to ensure their faithful inheritance. How only a single procentriole is produced on each mother centriole remains enigmatic. We propose the first mechanistic biophysical model for procentriole initiation which posits that interactions between kinase PLK4 and its activator-substrate STIL are central for procentriole initiation. Read More
Glia 2018 Oct 19. Epub 2018 Oct 19.
Department of Neurology and Neurosurgery, Montreal Neurological Institute, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada.
Nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB) is activated in neural progenitor cells in the developing murine cerebral cortex during the neurogenic phase, when it acts to prevent premature neuronal differentiation. Here we show that NF-κB activation continues in mouse neocortical neural progenitor cells during the neurogenic-to-gliogenic switch. Blockade of endogenous NF-κB activity during neocortical gliogenesis leads to the formation of supernumerary committed gliogenic progenitors and premature glial cell differentiation. Read More
Cureus 2018 Aug 7;10(8):e3117. Epub 2018 Aug 7.
Neurosurgery, Seattle Science Foundation, Seattle, USA.
Wormian bones are formed due to abnormal ossification centers in various locations in the skull. Genetic and/or environmental factors have been proposed to explain their formation. These bones can be normal anatomical variants or associated with a number of pathological conditions. Read More
J Dent Res 2018 Oct 16:22034518803095. Epub 2018 Oct 16.
1 Division of Anatomy and Developmental Biology, Department of Oral Biology, Yonsei University College of Dentistry, Seoul, Korea.
Crown shapes in mammalian teeth vary considerably from species to species, and morphological characters in crown shape have been used to identify species. Cusp pattern is one of the characters in crown shape. In the processes governing the formation of cusp pattern, the Shh pathway has been implicated as an important player. Read More
Front Physiol 2018 26;9:1329. Epub 2018 Sep 26.
Biofilm Research Group, Department of Pediatric Dentistry, Faculty of Dentistry, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen, Thailand.
In this study, we report a unique dominantly inherited disorganized supernumerary cusp and single root phenotype presented by 11 affected individuals belonging to 5 north-eastern Thai families. Using whole exome sequencing (WES) we identified a common single missense mutation that segregates with the phenotype in exon 6 of (Ca1.1) (NM_000069. Read More
Zootaxa 2018 Aug 10;4457(4):557-567. Epub 2018 Aug 10.
School of Plant Protection, Anhui Agricultural University, Hefei, Anhui Province 230036, China.
Polyamia (Polyamia) choromorica sp. n., representing the first record of the genus Polyamia DeLong from South America, is described and illustrated. Read More
Genes (Basel) 2018 Oct 9;9(10). Epub 2018 Oct 9.
Institute for Biological Research "Siniša Stanković", Department of Genetic Research, University of Belgrade, Bulevar despota Stefana 142, Belgrade 11060, Serbia.
The study of B chromosomes (Bs) started more than a century ago, while their presence in mammals dates since 1965. As the past two decades have seen huge progress in application of molecular techniques, we decided to throw a glance on new data on Bs in mammals and to review them. We listed 85 mammals with Bs that make 1. Read More
Ann R Coll Surg Engl 2018 Oct 5:e1-e3. Epub 2018 Oct 5.
Ear, Nose and Throat Department, Queen Alexandra Hospital , Portsmouth , UK.
We present the case of a 36-year-old man who presented with left-sided nasal obstruction and facial pain. Clinical examination and computed tomography revealed an inverted midline supernumerary tooth buckling and deviating the nasal septum to the left. Full surgical resection of the tooth was achieved through a minimally invasive endoscopic septoplasty with full resolution of symptoms. Read More
PLoS One 2018 3;13(10):e0204079. Epub 2018 Oct 3.
Department of Biology, University of Hildesheim, Hildesheim, Germany.
Skulls of 1,901 Eastern Atlantic harbor seals (Phoca vitulina vitulina) were systematically studied for externally visible dental anomalies and lesions. The sample comprised 927 males and 974 female individuals, with age at death ranging between 1 week and 25 years. Most of the skulls originated from animals collected in 1988, when the population suffered from a mass mortality event caused by the phocine distemper virus (PDV). Read More
Mol Biol Cell 2018 Oct 3:mbcE18070459. Epub 2018 Oct 3.
Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, USA.
The structural maintenance of chromosomes complex, SMC5/6, is thought to be essential for DNA repair and chromosome segregation during mitosis and meiosis. To determine the requirements of the SMC5/6 complex during mouse spermatogenesis we combined a conditional knockout allele for Smc5, with four germ cell specific Cre recombinase transgenes, Ddx4-Cre, Stra8-Cre, Spo11-Cre and Hspa2-Cre, to mutate Smc5 in spermatogonia, in spermatocytes prior to meiotic entry, during early meiotic stages, and during mid-meiotic stages, respectively. Conditional mutation of Smc5 resulted in destabilization of the SMC5/6 complex. Read More
Folia Morphol (Warsz) 2018 Oct 3. Epub 2018 Oct 3.
Department of Normal and Clinical Anatomy, Interfaculty Chair of Anatomy and Histology, Medical University of Lodz, Poland, Poland.
Renal vessels exhibit a high degree of anatomical variations in terms of their number, level of origin, diameter and topographical relationships. In particular, it applies to the left renal vein which can take retroaortic or even circumaortic placement. Anatomical variations of the left renal vein may be of great clinical significance, particularly in the case of renal transplantation, retroperitoneal surgery as well as vascular or diagnostic procedures. Read More