171 results match your criteria Superficial Heat and Cold


Thermal heterogeneity of selected retreats in cool-temperate viviparous lizards suggests a potential benefit of future climate warming.

J Therm Biol 2021 Apr 9;97:102869. Epub 2021 Feb 9.

Department of Zoology, University of Otago, Dunedin, 9016, New Zealand; Biodiversity Group, Department of Conservation, Dunedin, 9058, New Zealand.

Rocky retreats are limited and geologically constrained resources for rock-dwelling nocturnal lizards. Such lizards should seek retreats that offer thermoregulatory benefits without the risk of overheating during the day, and that protect from predation. For cold-adapted species where air temperature is frequently lower than optimum temperature for performance, factors influencing retreat-site selection and whether future warmer conditions will force superficial rock slabs to be abandoned on hot days remain poorly known. Read More

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Pesticide treatment in biobed systems at microcosms level under critical moisture and temperature range using an Orthic Solonchaks soil from southeastern Mexico amended with corn husk as support.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Jun 2;772:145038. Epub 2021 Feb 2.

Facultad de Ingeniería, Universidad Autónoma de Yucatán, Av. Industrias no Contaminantes por Periférico Norte, Apdo. Postal 150, Cordemex, CP 97310 Mérida, Yucatán, Mexico. Electronic address:

Agriculture effluents from cleaning and handling equipment used in pesticide applications can contaminate superficial and groundwater sources when not correctly disposed of. Biobeds using soil enriched with amendments represent a viable technology to control and minimize pesticide pollution of soil and water in farmlands. They are usually installed outdoors without protection, making them vulnerable to rain flooding, lack of moisture, drought, and intense heat or cold. Read More

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Noninvasive Measurement of Time-Varying Arterial Wall Elastance Using a Single-Frequency Vibration Approach.

Sensors (Basel) 2020 Nov 12;20(22). Epub 2020 Nov 12.

Biomedical Information Engineering Laboratory, The University of Aizu, Aizu-Wakamatsu City, Fukushima 965-8580, Japan.

The arterial wall elastance is an important indicator of arterial stiffness and a kind of manifestation associated with vessel-related disease. The time-varying arterial wall elastances can be measured using a multiple-frequency vibration approach according to the Voigt and Maxwell model. However, such a method needs extensive calculation time and its operating steps are very complex. Read More

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November 2020

Skeletal muscle and cardiac transcriptomics of a regionally endothermic fish, the Pacific bluefin tuna, Thunnus orientalis.

BMC Genomics 2020 Sep 17;21(1):642. Epub 2020 Sep 17.

Department of Biology, Hopkins Marine Station, Stanford University, Pacific Grove, CA, USA.

Background: The Pacific bluefin tuna (Thunnus orientalis) is a regionally endothermic fish that maintains temperatures in their swimming musculature, eyes, brain and viscera above that of the ambient water. Within their skeletal muscle, a thermal gradient exists, with deep muscles, close to the backbone, operating at elevated temperatures compared to superficial muscles near the skin. Their heart, by contrast, operates at ambient temperature, which in bluefin tunas can range widely. Read More

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September 2020

Keratinocytes contribute to normal cold and heat sensation.

Elife 2020 07 30;9. Epub 2020 Jul 30.

Department of Cell Biology, Neurobiology, and Anatomy, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, United States.

Keratinocytes are the most abundant cell type in the epidermis, the most superficial layer of skin. Historically, epidermal-innervating sensory neurons were thought to be the exclusive detectors and transmitters of environmental stimuli. However, recent work from our lab (Moehring et al. Read More

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Substance P-expressing Neurons in the Superficial Dorsal Horn of the Mouse Spinal Cord: Insights into Their Functions and their Roles in Synaptic Circuits.

Neuroscience 2020 12 4;450:113-125. Epub 2020 Jul 4.

Institute of Neuroscience and Psychology, College of Medical, Veterinary and Life Sciences, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ, UK. Electronic address:

The tachykinin peptide substance P (SP) is expressed by many interneurons and some projection neurons in the superficial dorsal horn of the spinal cord. We have recently shown that SP-expressing excitatory interneurons in lamina II correspond largely to a morphological class known as radial cells. However, little is known about their function, or their synaptic connectivity. Read More

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December 2020

Contrast therapy: Tissue heating and cooling properties within the equine distal limb.

Equine Vet J 2021 Jan 29;53(1):149-156. Epub 2020 May 29.

Gail Homes Equine Orthopedic Research Center, College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO, USA.

Background: Rehabilitation of tendon injuries in horses often involves cryotherapy to reduce inflammation and occasionally tissue heating to increase collagen extensibility. The application of alternating cold and hot (ie contrast therapy) is widely used in human physical therapy; however, its utility in equine rehabilitation is largely unknown.

Objectives: The objectives of this study were to (a) assess if the equipment could achieve therapeutic tissue temperatures (<15 and >40°C) at different tissue depths relative to the digital flexor tendons and (b) evaluate the time-temperature profiles during serial heating and cooling cycles using a contrast therapy device. Read More

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January 2021

Pre-harvest climate and post-harvest acclimation to cold prevent from superficial scald development in Granny Smith apples.

Sci Rep 2020 04 10;10(1):6180. Epub 2020 Apr 10.

IRHS-UMR1345, Université d'Angers, INRAE, Institut Agro, SFR 4207 QuaSaV, 49071, Beaucouzé, France.

Superficial scald is one of the most serious postharvest physiological disorders that can affect apples after a prolonged cold storage period. This study investigated the impact of pre- and post-harvest climatic variations on superficial scald in a susceptible apple cultivar. Fruit batches with contrasting phenotypes for superficial scald incidence were identified among several years of "Granny Smith" fruit production. Read More

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The acute impact of local cooling versus local heating on human skin microcirculation using laser Doppler flowmetry and tissue spectrophotometry.

Burns 2020 02 16;46(1):104-109. Epub 2019 Dec 16.

Department of Plastic, Reconstructive, Hand and Burn Surgery, BG-Trauma Center, Eberhard Karls University Tuebingen, Germany.

Introduction: Knowledge of thermally induced skin injury has increased, but its pathophysiology remains unclear. Although it is assumed that local cooling may protect tissue, little is known about the impact of local heating on human skin. This study aimed to evaluate acute skin perfusion dynamics following thermal stimuli in healthy human volunteers. Read More

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February 2020

Nonpharmacological Treatment of Army Service Members with Chronic Pain Is Associated with Fewer Adverse Outcomes After Transition to the Veterans Health Administration.

J Gen Intern Med 2020 03 28;35(3):775-783. Epub 2019 Oct 28.

VA Health Services Research & Development, Center for Innovation to Implementation (Ci2i), VA Palo Alto Health Care System, Menlo Park, CA, USA.

Background: Potential protective effects of nonpharmacological treatments (NPT) against long-term pain-related adverse outcomes have not been examined.

Objective: To compare active duty U.S. Read More

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From low to high latitudes: changes in fatty acid desaturation in mammalian fat tissue suggest a thermoregulatory role.

BMC Evol Biol 2019 07 26;19(1):155. Epub 2019 Jul 26.

Evolution and Ecology Research Centre, School of Biological, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of New South Wales, Sydney, 2052, Australia.

Background: Most fatty acids (FAs) making up the adipose tissue in mammals have a dietary origin and suffer little modification when they are stored. However, we propose that some of those FAs, specifically those that can be synthesised or modified by mammals, are also being influenced by thermal forces and used as part of the mechanism to regulate core body temperature. As FA desaturation increases, adipose tissues can reach colder temperatures without solidifying. Read More

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Seasonal muscle ultrastructure plasticity and resistance of muscle structural changes during temperature increases in resident black-capped chickadees and rock pigeons.

J Exp Biol 2019 06 24;222(Pt 12). Epub 2019 Jun 24.

Hamilton College, Department of Biology, 198 College Hill Road, Clinton, NY 13323, USA.

Resident birds in temperate zones respond to seasonally fluctuating temperatures by adjusting their physiology, such as changes in basal metabolic rate or peak metabolic rate during cold exposure, or altering their organ sizes, so as to match the thermogenic requirements of their current environment. Climate change is predicted to cause increases in the frequency of heat and cold wave events, which could increase the likelihood that birds will face an environmental mismatch. Here, we examined seasonality and the effects of acute and chronic heat shock to 33°C and subsequent recovery from heat shock on the ultrastructure of the superficial pectoralis muscle fiber diameter, myonuclear domain (MND) and capillary density in two temperate bird species of differing body mass, the black-capped chickadee () and the rock pigeon (). Read More

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Deep continuous theta burst stimulation of the operculo-insular cortex selectively affects Aδ-fibre heat pain.

J Physiol 2018 10 4;596(19):4767-4787. Epub 2018 Sep 4.

Institute of Neuroscience (IONS) Université catholique de Louvain (UCL), Brussels, Belgium.

Key Points: Deep continuous theta burst stimulation (cTBS) of the right operculo-insular cortex delivered with a double cone coil selectively impairs the ability to perceive thermonociceptive input conveyed by Aδ-fibre thermonociceptors without concomitantly affecting the ability to perceive innocuous warm, cold or vibrotactile sensations. Unlike deep cTBS, superficial cTBS of the right operculum delivered with a figure-of-eight coil does not affect the ability to perceive thermonociceptive input conveyed by Aδ-fibre thermonociceptors. The effect of deep operculo-insular cTBS on the perception of Aδ-fibre input was present at both the contralateral and the ipsilateral hand. Read More

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October 2018

Mechanical/thermal sensitivity and superficial temperature in the stump of long-term tail-docked dairy cows.

PeerJ 2018 18;6:e5213. Epub 2018 Jul 18.

Veterinary Clinical Sciences Department, Universidad Austral de Chile, Valdivia, Chile.

Background: Tail docking of dairy cows is a painful procedure that affects animal welfare level. The aims of this study were first to evaluate the response to mechanical and thermal stimulation, and second to determine the superficial temperature of the stump of tail-docked dairy cows.

Methods: One hundred and sixty-four dairy cows were enrolled. Read More

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Analysis of the distribution of spinal NOP receptors in a chronic pain model using NOP-eGFP knock-in mice.

Br J Pharmacol 2018 07 6;175(13):2662-2675. Epub 2018 May 6.

Torrey Pines Institute for Molecular Studies, Port St. Lucie, FL, 34987, USA.

Background And Purpose: The nociceptin/orphanin FQ opioid peptide (NOP) receptor system plays a significant role in the regulation of pain. This system functions differently in the spinal cord and brain. The mechanism by which the NOP receptor agonists regulate pain transmission in these regions is not clearly understood. Read More

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Intermittent Cooling During Judo Training in a Warm/Humid Environment Reduces Autonomic and Hormonal Impact.

J Strength Cond Res 2019 Aug;33(8):2241-2250

Institute of Exercise Physiology and Wellness, University of Central Florida, Orlando, Florida.

Carballeira, E, Morales, J, Fukuda, DH, Granada, ML, Carratalá-Deval, V, López Díaz de Durana, A, and Stout, JR. Intermittent cooling during Judo training in a warm/humid environment reduces autonomic and hormonal impact. J Strength Cond Res 33(8): 2241-2250, 2019-The purpose of this study was to identify the effects of superficial cooling on physiological responses while training in a warm, humid environment during an international Judo training camp. Read More

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Effects of superficial heating and insulation on walking speed in people with hereditary and spontaneous spastic paraparesis: A randomised crossover study.

Ann Phys Rehabil Med 2018 Mar 11;61(2):72-77. Epub 2017 Dec 11.

School of Health Professions, Faculty of Health and Human Sciences, Plymouth University, Peninsula Allied Health Centre, Derriford Road, Plymouth, PL6 8BH, United Kingdom.

Objectives: Cooling of the lower limb in people with Hereditary and Spontaneous Spastic Paraparesis (pwHSSP) has been shown to affect walking speed and neuromuscular impairments. The investigation of practical strategies, which may help to alleviate these problems is important. The potential of superficial heat to improve walking speed has not been explored in pwHSSP. Read More

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The effect of self-administered superficial local hot and cold application methods on pain, functional status and quality of life in primary knee osteoarthritis patients.

J Clin Nurs 2017 Dec 10;26(23-24):5179-5190. Epub 2017 Oct 10.

Department of Orthopaedics and Traumatology, Gulhane Training and Research Hospital, Ankara, Turkey.

Aims And Objectives: To investigate the effect of the self-administered superficial local hot and cold applications on pain, and the functional status and the quality of life in primary knee osteoarthritis patients.

Background: Superficial local hot and cold application is used as a nonpharmacological method for the treatment of knee osteoarthritis. However, various guidelines for the management of knee osteoarthritis have conflicting recommendation for hot and cold therapy. Read More

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December 2017

Semi-intact ex vivo approach to investigate spinal somatosensory circuits.

Elife 2016 12 19;5. Epub 2016 Dec 19.

Department of Neurobiology, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, United States.

The somatosensory input that gives rise to the perceptions of pain, itch, cold and heat are initially integrated in the superficial dorsal horn of the spinal cord. Here, we describe a new approach to investigate these neural circuits in mouse. This semi-intact somatosensory preparation enables recording from spinal output neurons, while precisely controlling somatosensory input, and simultaneously manipulating specific populations of spinal interneurons. Read More

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December 2016

Exploration of conditioned pain modulation effect on long-term potentiation-like pain amplification in humans.

Eur J Pain 2017 04 20;21(4):645-657. Epub 2016 Oct 20.

Department of Health Science and Technology, Center for Neuroplasticity and Pain (CNAP), SMI, Aalborg University, Denmark.

Background: This study aimed to explore conditioned pain modulation (CPM) effect on long-term potentiation (LTP)-like pain amplification induced by cutaneous 10-Hz conditioning electrical stimulation (CES).

Methods: Conditioned pain modulation was induced by cold pressor conditioning stimulus (CPCS) (4 °C) which was applied immediately before CES in the active session. In the control session, water with a temperature of 32 °C was used. Read More

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Correlations Between the Autolytic Changes and Postmortem Interval in Refrigerated Cadavers.

Rom J Intern Med 2016 Apr-Jun;54(2):105-12

Introduction: In forensic pathology the autolytic process has been observed and documented in order to determine the postmortem interval as accurately as possible. The observation and experiments have been carried out on cadavers exposed to environmental conditions - heat, humidity, air currents, soil, water.

Methods: For this study hematoxylin and eosin (HE) stained sections of organ samples from 30 autopsied bodies were examined under the microscope. Read More

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September 2016

Superficial warming and cooling of the leg affects walking speed and neuromuscular impairments in people with spastic paraparesis.

Ann Phys Rehabil Med 2016 Dec 1;59(5-6):326-332. Epub 2016 Jun 1.

School of Health Professions, Faculty of Health and Human Sciences, Plymouth University, Devon PL6 8BH, United Kingdom.

Background: People with hereditary and spontaneous spastic paraparesis (HSSP) report that their legs are stiffer and walking is slower when their legs are cold.

Objectives: This study explored the effects of prolonged superficial cooling and warming of the lower leg on walking speed and local measures of neuromuscular impairments.

Methods: This was a randomised pre- and post-intervention study of 22 HSSP participants and 19 matched healthy controls. Read More

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December 2016

High-Concentration L-Menthol Exhibits Counter-Irritancy to Neurogenic Inflammation, Thermal and Mechanical Hyperalgesia Caused by Trans-cinnamaldehyde.

J Pain 2016 08 31;17(8):919-29. Epub 2016 May 31.

Center for Sensory-Motor Interaction (SMI), Department of Health Science and Technology, Faculty of Medicine, Aalborg University, Aalborg, Denmark. Electronic address:

Unlabelled: The transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily M 8 (TRPM8) agonist L-menthol has been used traditionally for its topical counterirritant properties. Although the use of topical L-menthol for pain is casuistically established, evidence regarding its efficacy is negligible. This study aimed to characterize the effect of L-menthol as a counterirritant on cutaneous pain and hyperalgesia provoked by topical application of the transient receptor potential cation channel, subfamily A, member 1 (TRPA1) agonist trans-cinnamaldehyde (CA). Read More

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Arterio-venous anastomoses in the human skin and their role in temperature control.

Authors:
Lars Walløe

Temperature (Austin) 2016 Jan-Mar;3(1):92-103. Epub 2015 Oct 12.

Department of Physiology, Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, University of Oslo , Oslo, Norway.

Arterio-venous anastomoses (AVAs) are direct connections between small arteries and small veins. In humans they are numerous in the glabrous skin of the hands and feet. The AVAs are short vessel segments with a large inner diameter and a very thick muscular wall. Read More

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A vibration-based approach to quantifying the dynamic elastance of the superficial arterial wall.

Biomed Eng Online 2016 Apr 16;15:40. Epub 2016 Apr 16.

Department of Biomedical Engineering, I-Shou University, Kaohsiung, 8, Yida Rd., Yanchao District, Kaohsiung, 82445, Taiwan, ROC.

Background: The purpose of this study is to propose a novel method for assessing dynamic elastance of the superficial arterial wall using the sinusoidal minute vibration method.

Methods: A sinusoidal signal was used to drive a vibrator which induced a displacement of 0.15 mm with a frequency range between 40 and 85 Hz. Read More

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Infantile hemangioma status by dynamic infrared thermography: A preliminary study.

Int J Dermatol 2016 Oct 8;55(10):e522-32. Epub 2016 Apr 8.

Skin Sciences Program, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH, USA.

Background: Infantile hemangiomas (IH) are initially warm due to increased proliferation and perfusion then involute with apoptosis and reduced perfusion. Objective quantitative evaluation of IH treatment response is essential for improving outcomes. We applied a functional imaging method, dynamic infrared (IR) thermography, to investigate IH status versus control skin and over time. Read More

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October 2016

[Characteristics and clinical application of the arrival of qi in suspended moxibustion].

Zhongguo Zhen Jiu 2015 Nov;35(11):1137-9

The characteristics and clinical application of the arrival of qi in suspended moxibustion was discussed in this paper. Through literature research and clinical practice, three aspects, including characteristics of arrival of qi in suspended moxibustion, the clinical basis regarding arrival of qi in suspended moxibustion improving therapeutic effects and how to acquire arrival of qi in suspended moxibustion, were discussed to clarify the essential role of arrival of qi in suspended moxibustion as well as its importance to the development of moxibustion medicine. The suspended moxibustion at acupoints could produce arrival of qi similar to acupuncture, which was characterized as non-local or non-superficial heat sensation such as penetrating heat, expanding heat, transmitting heat, even non-hot sensation such as aching, numbing, distending, painful, heavy, cold sensation in the applied region. Read More

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November 2015

Re: Don't dive cold when you don't have to.

Authors:
Neal W Pollock

Diving Hyperb Med 2015 Sep;45(3):209

Center for Hyperbaric Medicine and Environmental Physiology, Duke University Medical Center and Divers Alert Network, Durham NC, USA, E-mail:

The letter by Clarke et al unfortunately misrepresents the work at the US Navy Experimental Diving Unit (NEDU) to which it refers, and delivers a confused picture of the physiological impact of thermal status on decompression stress. A series of earlier reports outline the importance of thermal status. Being warm during a dive results in higher post-dive Doppler bubble scores. Read More

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September 2015