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    441 results match your criteria Sunscreens and Photoprotection

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    "Active" photoprotection: sunscreens with DNA repair enzymes. A review of the literature.
    G Ital Dermatol Venereol 2017 Feb 16. Epub 2017 Feb 16.
    Department of Dermatology, University of Naples Federico II, Naples, Italy.
    Ultraviolet (UV) radiation exerts different harmful effects on human health, being the main etiological agents of certain skin cancers and photoaging. In this context, photoprotection, intended as a set of measures adopted to limit and prevent the effects of UV radiation, plays a critical role in avoiding undesired sunlight outcomes. Traditional sunscreens represent a widely used photoprotective approach, even if they exert a "passive photoprotection" and are not effective once damage to skin cells has been generated after sun exposure. Read More

    Rational Design and Synthesis of Efficient Sunscreens To Boost the Solar Protection Factor.
    Angew Chem Int Ed Engl 2017 Mar 27;56(10):2632-2635. Epub 2017 Jan 27.
    Department of Chemistry, Centro de Investigación en Síntesis Química (CISQ), Universidad de La Rioja, Madre de Dios 53, 26006, Logroño, Spain.
    Skin cancer incidence has been increasing in the last decades, but most of the commercial formulations used as sunscreens are designed to protect only against solar erythema. Many of the active components present in sunscreens show critical weaknesses, such as low stability and toxicity. Thus, the development of more efficient components is an urgent health necessity and an attractive industrial target. Read More

    Ultraviolet radiation and the skin: Photobiology and sunscreen photoprotection.
    J Am Acad Dermatol 2017 Mar 27;76(3S1):S100-S109. Epub 2016 Dec 27.
    Clinical Skin Research and Development Center, Pierre Fabre Dermo-Cosmétique, Toulouse, France; Department of Dermatology, Toulouse University Hospital, Toulouse, France.
    The efficacy of sunscreens can be measured by different methods, involving in vitro, ex vivo, or in vivo techniques. There is a need for a worldwide standardization of these methods to avoid misunderstanding and confusion among sunscreen users. The clinical benefits of sunscreens have been demonstrated in randomized controlled trials that established the role of sunscreens in the prevention of actinic keratoses, squamous cell carcinomas, nevi, and melanomas. Read More

    Photoprotection in specific populations: Children and people of color.
    J Am Acad Dermatol 2017 Mar 27;76(3S1):S110-S121. Epub 2016 Dec 27.
    Buster Dermatology, Tulsa, Oklahoma; University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama.
    Improved education on appropriate photoprotection in children is vital. Photoprotection for these individuals should include seeking shade, the use of physical agents (clothing, hat, sunglasses), and application of sunscreens on exposed areas. Avoidance of the use of tanning beds is an important component of education for teenagers. Read More

    Hydrogen bond dynamics governs the effective photoprotection mechanism of plant phenolic sunscreens.
    Photochem Photobiol Sci 2017 Feb;16(2):211-219
    Hubei Key Laboratory of Agricultural Bioinformatics, College of Informatics, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan, 430070, P.R. China.
    Sinapic acid derivatives are important sunscreen species in natural plants, which could provide protection from solar UV radiation. Using a combination of ultrafast excited state dynamics, together with classical molecular dynamics studies, we demonstrate that there is direct coupling of hydrogen bond motion with excited state photoprotection dynamics as part of the basic mechanism in solution. Beyond the intra-molecular degree of freedom, the inter-molecular motions on all timescales are potentially important for the photochemical or photophysical events, ranging from the ultrafast hydrogen bond motion to solvent rearrangements. Read More

    Photophysics of sunscreen molecules in the gas phase: a stepwise approach towards understanding and developing next-generation sunscreens.
    Proc Math Phys Eng Sci 2016 Nov;472(2195):20160677
    Department of Chemistry , University of Warwick , Coventry CV4 7AL , UK.
    The relationship between exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation and skin cancer urges the need for extra photoprotection, which is presently provided by widespread commercially available sunscreen lotions. Apart from having a large absorption cross section in the UVA and UVB regions of the electromagnetic spectrum, the chemical absorbers in these photoprotective products should also be able to dissipate the excess energy in a safe way, i.e. Read More

    A Perspective on the Ultrafast Photochemistry of Solution-Phase Sunscreen Molecules.
    J Phys Chem Lett 2016 Nov 7;7(22):4655-4665. Epub 2016 Nov 7.
    Department of Chemistry, University of Warwick , Gibbet Hill Road, Coventry CV4 7AL, United Kingdom.
    Sunscreens are one of the most common ways of providing on-demand additional photoprotection to the skin. Ultrafast transient absorption spectroscopy has recently proven to be an invaluable tool in understanding how the components of commercial sunscreen products display efficient photoprotection. Important examples of how this technique has unravelled the photodynamics of common components are given in this Perspective, and some of the remaining unanswered questions are discussed. Read More

    The Photostabilizing Effect of Grape Seed Extract on Three Common Sunscreen Absorbers.
    Photochem Photobiol 2016 Nov 30;92(6):870-884. Epub 2016 Nov 30.
    School of Chemistry and Physics, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, South Africa.
    The photostabilizing ability of grape seed extract on three common sunscreen absorbers, 2-ethylhexyl-p-methoxycinnamate (EHMC), benzophenone-3 (BP3) and tert-butylmethoxy dibenzoylmethane (BMDBM), was investigated. Samples were exposed to simulated solar radiation and monitored by spectrophotometric and chromatographic methods. The chemical composition of the grape seed extract was determined by GC-MS and HPLC-MS, and the major secondary metabolites were found to be epicatechin and catechin. Read More

    Quality by design (QbD), Process Analytical Technology (PAT), and design of experiment applied to the development of multifunctional sunscreens.
    Drug Dev Ind Pharm 2017 Feb 13;43(2):246-256. Epub 2016 Oct 13.
    a Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences , University of São Paulo , São Paulo , Brasil.
    Multifunctional formulations are of great importance to ensure better skin protection from harm caused by ultraviolet radiation (UV). Despite the advantages of Quality by Design and Process Analytical Technology approaches to the development and optimization of new products, we found in the literature only a few studies concerning their applications in cosmetic product industry. Thus, in this research work, we applied the QbD and PAT approaches to the development of multifunctional sunscreens containing bemotrizinol, ethylhexyl triazone, and ferulic acid. Read More

    Use of Agave tequilana-lignin and zinc oxide nanoparticles for skin photoprotection.
    J Photochem Photobiol B 2016 Oct 24;163:156-61. Epub 2016 Aug 24.
    Department of Wood, Cellulose and Paper Research, University of Guadalajara, 45110 Guadalajara, Jal, Mexico. Electronic address:
    The use of sunscreens is essential for preventing skin damage and the potential appearance of skin cancer in humans. Inorganic active components such as zinc oxide (ZnO) have been used commonly in sunscreens due to their ability to block UVA radiation. This ultraviolet (UV) protection might be enhanced to cover the UVB and UVC bands when combined with other components such as titanium dioxide (TiO2). Read More

    A new insight into the photochemistry of avobenzone in gas phase and acetonitrile from ab initio calculations.
    Phys Chem Chem Phys 2016 Aug;18(32):22168-78
    Faculty of Physical Chemistry, University of Belgrade, Studentski trg 12-16, 11000 Belgrade, Serbia.
    Avobenzone (4-tert-butyl-4'-methoxydibenzoylmethane, AB) is one of the most widely used filters in sunscreens for skin photoprotection in the UVA band. The photochemistry of AB includes keto-enol tautomerization, cis-trans isomerization, rotation about the single bond and α bond cleavages of carbonyl groups. In this contribution we study chelated and non-chelated enol, rotamers Z and E, and keto tautomers of AB in the ground and excited states in gas phase and acetonitrile by means of a coupled cluster method. Read More

    Photoprotective Potential of Baccharis antioquensis (Asteraceae) as Natural Sunscreen.
    Photochem Photobiol 2016 Sep 12;92(5):742-52. Epub 2016 Aug 12.
    Research Group on Functional Compounds, Institute of Chemistry, University of Antioquia, Medellín, Colombia.
    In the quest for new natural agents of photoprotection, we evaluated the photoprotective and antioxidant activity of B. antioquensis leaf extracts as well as its phenolic composition. The methanolic extract treated with activated carbon showed the highest absorption coefficients for UVA-UVB radiation, as well as an antioxidant capacity comparable to butylated hydroxy toluene. Read More

    Ultrafast photoprotective properties of the sunscreening agent octocrylene.
    Opt Express 2016 May;24(10):10700-9
    Today octocrylene is one of the most common molecules included in commercially available sunscreens. It provides broadband photoprotection for the skin from incident UV-A and UV-B radiation of the solar spectrum. In order to understand how octocrylene fulfils its role as a sunscreening agent, femtosecond pump-probe transient electronic UV-visible absorption spectroscopy is utilised to investigate the ultrafastnonradiative relaxation mechanism of octocrylene in cyclohexane or methanol after UV-B photoexcitation. Read More

    The photoprotective effects of 2-benzoyl-3-phenylquinoxaline 1,4-dioxide against UVB-induced damage in HaCaT cells.
    Med Oncol 2016 Aug 4;33(8):86. Epub 2016 Jul 4.
    Department of Biology, American University of Beirut, Beirut, Lebanon.
    With the increasing levels of atmospheric ozone depletion, there has been much concern about the causal effects of high levels of ultraviolet radiation reaching the Earth's surface on skin cancer. This has led to growing interest in identifying new active ingredients for use in commercial sunscreens. In our study, the chemical compound 2-benzoyl-3-phenylquinoxaline 1,4-dioxide (BPQ) prepared by the Beirut reaction was tested for its ability to protect a human keratinocyte cell line (HaCaT) against ultraviolet B radiation (280-315 nm). Read More

    Update on treatment of photodermatosis.
    Dermatol Online J 2016 Feb 17;22(2). Epub 2016 Feb 17.
    First Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, Jiangsu.
    Photodermatoses are a group of skin conditions associated with an abnormal reaction to ultraviolet (UV) radiation. There are several of the photosensitive rashes which mainly affect the UV exposed areas of the skin. It can be classified into four groups: immunology mediated photodermatoses, chemical and drug induced photosensitivity, photoaggravated dermatoses, and genetic disorders. Read More

    Repartition of oil miscible and water soluble UV filters in an applied sunscreen film determined by confocal Raman microspectroscopy.
    Photochem Photobiol Sci 2016 Jul;15(7):861-71
    University of Applied Sciences Northwestern Switzerland, School of Life Sciences, Institute of Pharmaceutical Technology, Muttenz/Basel, Switzerland and University of Basel, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Basel, Switzerland.
    Photoprotection provided by topical sunscreens is expressed by the sun protection factor (SPF) which depends primarily on the UV filters contained in the product and the applied sunscreen amount. Recently, the vehicle was shown to significantly impact film thickness distribution of an applied sunscreen and sunscreen efficacy. In the present work, repartition of the UV filters within the sunscreen film upon application is investigated for its role to affect sun protection efficacy. Read More

    Photoprotective effect and acute oral systemic toxicity evaluation of the novel heterocyclic compound LQFM048.
    J Photochem Photobiol B 2016 Aug 2;161:50-8. Epub 2016 Apr 2.
    Laboratório de Química Farmacêutica Medicinal (LQFM), Faculdade de Farmácia, Universidade Federal de Goiás, Goiânia, GO, Brazil. Electronic address:
    The new heterocyclic derivative LQFM048 (3) (2,4,6-tris ((E)-ethyl 2-cyano-3-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)acrylate)-1,3,5-triazine) was originally designed through the molecular hybridization strategy from Uvinul® T 150 (1) and (E)-ethyl 2-cyano-3-(4hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)acrylate (2) sunscreens, using green chemistry approach. This compound was obtained in global yields (80%) and showed an interesting redox potential. In addition, it is thermally stable up to temperatures around 250°C. Read More

    Antioxidant activity and potential photoprotective from amazon native flora extracts.
    J Photochem Photobiol B 2016 Aug 11;161:34-9. Epub 2016 May 11.
    Núcleo de Pesquisa e Inovação em Ciências da Saúde (NUPICS), Faculdade de Farmácia, Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora, Rua José Lourenço Kelmer, s/n, CEP:36036-330, Juiz de Fora, MG, Brazil. Electronic address:
    Plant species are sources of active compounds that can fight and/or prevent damage caused by reactive oxygen species, which enables the development of natural products that can help to prevent premature aging caused by exposure to solar radiation. This study assessed the antioxidant and photoprotective activities of six dried extracts of plants from the Brazilian Amazon biome. Plant extracts were prepared in 70% (v/v) ethanol by dynamic maceration for 72h in the dark, and then filtered, concentrated and lyophilized. Read More

    In vitro photosafety and efficacy screening of apigenin, chrysin and beta-carotene for UVA and VIS protection.
    Eur J Pharm Sci 2016 Jun 26;89:146-53. Epub 2016 Apr 26.
    Departamento de Ciências Farmacêuticas, Universidade de São Paulo, Faculdade de Ciências Farmacêuticas de Ribeirão Preto, Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brazil. Electronic address:
    Currently most of sunscreens provide effective protection in the full UV range but lack VIS protection. The addition of effective antioxidants to sunscreens might afford suitable UV-VIS protection. Apigenin (API), chrysin (CRI) and beta-carotene (BTC) have shown potential for UV-VIS protection. Read More

    Layer Thickness of SPF 30 Sunscreen and Formation of Pre-vitamin D.
    Anticancer Res 2016 Mar;36(3):1409-15
    Department of Radiation Biology, Oslo University Hospital, The Norwegian Radium Hospital, Montebello, Oslo, Norway
    Background: Most studies have demonstrated that sunscreens with lower sun protection factor (SPF) do not prevent the production of vitamin D because much lower amount of sunscreen (SPF<30) is applied than recommended (2 mg/cm(2)) indicating that a significant amount of UV radiation can penetrate the skin. Since less sunscreen is applied, higher SPF sunscreens may be used to achieve the desired protection. However, there is little information regarding the application of high-SPF sunscreen and vitamin D formation. Read More

    Nanosystems in Photoprotection.
    J Nanosci Nanotechnol 2015 Dec;15(12):9679-88
    The ultraviolet (UV) radiation is responsible for stimulating acute responses in the human skin, those including positive responses like vitamin D synthesis along with negative ones such as erythema. The chronic effects of UV radiation include photoaging and cancer. Sunscreens are classified as organic and inorganic and the safety of the products containing them is related to the evaluation of the effects of these actives on the skin (irritation and sensitization) and also the possibility of cutaneous permeation that may cause the product to permeate into the bloodstream, possibly generating systemic toxicity. Read More

    [Congenital erythropoietic porphyria : An update].
    Hautarzt 2016 Mar;67(3):216-20
    Hautklinik und Europäisches Porphyriezentrum, Universitätsklinikum der Heinrich Heine Universität Düsseldorf, Moorenstr. 5, 40225, Düsseldorf, Deutschland.
    Background: Congenital erythropoetic porphria is a very rare type of autosomal recessive nonacute porphyria. Homozygous or compound heterozygous mutations in the uroporphyrinogen III consynthase gene cause a marked enzymatic deficiency of uroporphyrinogen III consynthase, the fourth enzyme along the heme biosynthetic pathway.

    Clinical Presentation: Clinically, affected patients are characterized by a moderate to severe photosensitivity. Read More

    Requirement for vitamin D supplementation in patients using photoprotection: variations in vitamin D levels and bone formation markers.
    Int J Dermatol 2016 Apr 6;55(4):e176-83. Epub 2015 Nov 6.
    Department of Dermatology and Venereology, Medical University of Lodz, Lodz, Poland.
    Background: Avoiding sun exposure is obligatory in photodermatoses; however, the need for oral supplementation with vitamin D appears unrecognized. The aim of the study was to investigate the seasonal variation of vitamin D level and bone formation markers in healthy individuals and to compare it with vitamin D status in patients using photoprotection.

    Methods: Thirty-four healthy inhabitants of the Lodz region, Poland, a country in central Europe (51° and 52° north latitudes), were examined at the baseline visit within 2 weeks of peak sun exposure during recreational activity on vacation, after 8, and after 16 weeks. Read More

    French Maritime Pine Bark Extract (Pycnogenol®) Effects on Human Skin: Clinical and Molecular Evidence.
    Skin Pharmacol Physiol 2016 23;29(1):13-7. Epub 2015 Oct 23.
    IUF, Leibniz Research Institute for Environmental Medicine, Dx00FC;sseldorf, Germany.
    Nutritional strategies to benefit skin health are of growing importance. Current approaches mainly involve nutritional supplements containing antioxidants which were initially designed to protect human skin against ultraviolet radiation-induced damage. Within recent years, however, a growing number of studies suggests that the beneficial effects of these products clearly extend beyond photoprotection. Read More

    Novel In Vitro Antioxidant and Photoprotection Capacity of Plants from High Altitude Ecosystems of Colombia.
    Photochem Photobiol 2016 Jan-Feb;92(1):150-7. Epub 2015 Dec 12.
    Research Group on Functional Compounds, Institute of Chemistry, University of Antioquia, Medellín, Colombia.
    Currently, plants have gained widespread interest as a source of natural sunscreen. Specifically, plants from high altitude ecosystems are exposed to high UVR levels; therefore, they must produce an adaptive chemical response. The aim of this study was to evaluate the photo-protection and antioxidant capacity in vitro of nine plants from high altitude ecosystems in Antioquia, Colombia (Sphagnum meridense, Calamagrostis effusa, Lycopodiella alopecuroides, Morella parvifolia, Baccharis antioquensis, Pentacalia pulchella, Castilleja fissifolia, Hesperomeles ferruginea and Hypericum juniperinum). Read More

    Effects of solar radiation on hair and photoprotection.
    J Photochem Photobiol B 2015 Dec 8;153:240-6. Epub 2015 Oct 8.
    Departament of Pharmacy, University of São Paulo, 580 Prof. Lineu Prestes Avenue, Bl-13/15, 05508-000 São Paulo, Brazil.
    In this paper the negative effects of solar radiation (ultraviolet, visible and infrared wavelengths) on hair properties like color, mechanical properties, luster, protein content, surface roughness, among others, will be discussed. Despite knowing that radiation damages hair, there are no consensus about the particular effect of each segment of solar radiation on the hair shaft. The hair photoprotection products are primarily targeted to dyed hair, specially auburn pigments, and gray shades. Read More

    Rutin nanostructured lipid cosmeceutical preparation with sun protective potential.
    J Photochem Photobiol B 2015 Dec 4;153:59-66. Epub 2015 Sep 4.
    Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, National Research Center, Dokki, Al-Bohooth St., Cairo, Egypt.
    Skin cancer is related to unprotected exposure to sunlight. Despite the broad expansion of sunscreen market, various researches are focused on the inefficiency and danger of sun products. This study was focused on the development of photoprotective nanoparticulate dermal preparations of the antioxidant flavonoid Rutin (RT). Read More

    Rutin increases critical wavelength of systems containing a single UV filter and with good skin compatibility.
    Skin Res Technol 2016 Aug 7;22(3):325-33. Epub 2015 Sep 7.
    Laboratory of Cosmetology, Department of Pharmacy, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of São Paulo, São Paulo - SP, Brazil.
    Background/purpose: Ultraviolet (UV) radiation is responsible for sunburns, skin cancer, photoaging, and the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). The awareness on preventing these deleterious effects made the use of anti-UVB formulations an important part of population habits; however, despite the availability of several antioxidants capable of ROS scavenging, the pharmaceutical market lacks products associating UV filters with natural compounds of proven efficacy. Here, we investigated the effect of rutin, a flavonoid with antioxidant activity, associated with UVB filters in dermocosmetic preparations. Read More

    New Strategies in the Prevention of Actinic Keratosis: A Critical Review.
    Skin Pharmacol Physiol 2015 22;28(6):281-9. Epub 2015 Aug 22.
    IUF - Leibniz Research Institute for Environmental Medicine, Dx00FC;sseldorf, Germany.
    Actinic keratosis (AK) or lesions of epidermal dysplasia occurring in skin chronically exposed to solar radiation is very prevalent in lighter skin persons, with chronic long-term sun exposure being the major risk factor. With an aging population it is expected that the prevalence of AK will further increase. AK can progress to nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC) and is a public health concern. Read More

    Broadband ultrafast photoprotection by oxybenzone across the UVB and UVC spectral regions.
    Photochem Photobiol Sci 2015 Oct;14(10):1814-20
    Department of Chemistry, University of Warwick, Gibbet Hill Road, Coventry, CV4 7AL, UK.
    Recent studies have shed light on the energy dissipation mechanism of oxybenzone, a common ingredient in commercial sunscreens. After UVA photoexcitation, the dissipation mechanism may be understood in terms of an initial ultrafast excited state enol → keto tautomerisation, followed by nonadiabatic transfer to the ground electronic state and subsequent collisional relaxation to the starting enol tautomer. We expand on these studies using femtosecond transient electronic absorption spectroscopy to understand the non-radiative relaxation pathways of oxybenzone in cyclohexane and in methanol after UVB and UVC excitation. Read More

    Rosacea: Diagnosis and Treatment.
    Am Fam Physician 2015 Aug;92(3):187-96
    Louisiana State University Department of Family Medicine, University Hospital and Clinics, Lafayette, LA, USA.
    Rosacea is a chronic facial skin condition of unknown cause. It is characterized by marked involvement of the central face with transient or persistent erythema, telangiectasia, inflammatory papules and pustules, or hyperplasia of the connective tissue. Transient erythema, or flushing, is often accompanied by a feeling of warmth. Read More

    Probing the Ultrafast Energy Dissipation Mechanism of the Sunscreen Oxybenzone after UVA Irradiation.
    J Phys Chem Lett 2015 Apr 30;6(8):1363-8. Epub 2015 Mar 30.
    †Department of Chemistry, University of Warwick, Gibbet Hill Road, Coventry, CV4 7AL, United Kingdom.
    Oxybenzone is a common constituent of many commercially available sunscreens providing photoprotection from ultraviolet light incident on the skin. Femtosecond transient electronic and vibrational absorption spectroscopies have been used to investigate the nonradiative relaxation pathways of oxybenzone in cyclohexane and methanol after excitation in the UVA region. The present data suggest that the photoprotective properties of oxybenzone can be understood in terms of an initial ultrafast excited state enol → keto tautomerization, followed by efficient internal conversion and subsequent vibrational relaxation to the ground state (enol) tautomer. Read More

    A Pilot Study of the Photoprotective Effects of Strawberry-Based Cosmetic Formulations on Human Dermal Fibroblasts.
    Int J Mol Sci 2015 Aug 4;16(8):17870-84. Epub 2015 Aug 4.
    Department of Clinical Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, Polytechnic University of Marche, Ancona 60131, Italy.
    Strawberry polyphenols have been extensively studied over the last two decades for their beneficial properties. Recently, their possible use in ameliorating skin conditions has also been proposed; however, their role in preventing UVA-induced damage in cosmetic formulation has not yet been investigated. Skin is constantly exposed to several environmental stressors, such as UVA radiation, that induce oxidative stress, inflammation and cell death via the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Read More

    Non-melanoma skin cancer, sun exposure and sun protection.
    G Ital Dermatol Venereol 2015 Aug 17;150(4):369-78. Epub 2015 Jul 17.
    Department of Dermatology, University of Brescia, Brescia, Italy -
    The incidence of skin tumors including squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), and its biological precursor, the actinic keratosis, and basal cell carcinoma (BCC) often named together non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) is growing all over the world in people of Caucasian ancestry. A plenty of clinical and epidemiological studies have demonstrated the causal relationship with high cumulative solar dosages and number of sunburns, although the hazard may be different for different tumors according to the modalities of ultraviolet (UV) exposure. BCC is much more strongly related to measures of intermittent ultraviolet exposure (particularly those of childhood or adolescence) than to measures of cumulative exposure. Read More

    Sun-screening bioactive compounds mycosporine-like amino acids in naturally occurring cyanobacterial biofilms: role in photoprotection.
    J Appl Microbiol 2015 Sep 2;119(3):753-62. Epub 2015 Aug 2.
    Laboratory of Cyanobacterial Biotechnology, Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Science, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand.
    Aims: To investigate the occurrence of UV sunscreening biomolecules and their role in photoprotection in cyanobacterial biofilms growing in brightly lit habitats with high UV fluxes.

    Methods And Results: High performance liquid chromatography with photodiode-array and mass spectrometry revealed the presence of mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs) shinorine (λ(max) 334 nm, m/z 333), porphyra-334 (λ(max) 334 nm, m/z 347), mycosporine-glycine (λ(max) 310 nm, m/z 246) and palythinol (λ(max) 332 nm, m/z 303). Two unknown MAAs with λ(max) at 320 (m/z 289) and 329 nm (m/z 318) were also found. Read More

    Cyanobacterial Sunscreen Scytonemin: Role in Photoprotection and Biomedical Research.
    Appl Biochem Biotechnol 2015 Jul 27;176(6):1551-63. Epub 2015 May 27.
    BRD School of Biosciences, Sardar Patel Maidan, Vadtal Road, Satellite Campus, Sardar Patel University, Post Box No. 39, Vallabh Vidyanagar, 388 120, Anand, Gujarat, India,
    Cyanobacteria are the most promising group of photosynthetic microorganisms capable of producing an array of natural products of industrial importance. Scytonemin is a small hydrophobic alkaloid pigment molecules present in the extracellular sheath of several cyanobacteria as a protective mechanism against short wavelength solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation. It has great efficacy to minimize the production of reactive oxygen species and formation of DNA lesions. Read More

    Functional photostability and cutaneous compatibility of bioactive UVA sun care products.
    J Photochem Photobiol B 2015 Jul 20;148:154-9. Epub 2015 Apr 20.
    Department of Pharmacy, University of São Paulo, 580 Prof. Lineu Prestes Av., Bl. 15, Conjunto das Químicas, Cidade Universitária, 05508-900 São Paulo, SP, Brazil.
    Sunscreens are the most-established approach for photoprotection. The strategy of providing antioxidant properties to sun care products by addition of natural and potent anti-free radical compounds has led to the development of bioactive sunscreens, able to neutralize the harmful effects of ultraviolet (UV) radiation. UVA filters, such as benzophenone-3 (BP) and butyl methoxydibenzoylmethane (BMDBM), can exhibit photodegradation which limits the development of broad spectrum sunscreens. Read More

    Evaluation of benefit to educational material for photoprotection in those with cutaneous lupus erythematosus.
    J Drugs Dermatol 2015 Apr;14(4):355-8
    Background: Photosensitivity (PS) in cutaneous lupus erythematosus (CLE) contributes to decreased quality of life (QoL).

    Aims: We aimed to assess baseline knowledge about sun protection in persons with CLE and identify knowledge differences by race. Additionally, we aimed to determine the impact of a verbal educational intervention on photoprotection and CLE. Read More

    Synthesis of conjugated bile acids/azastilbenes as potential antioxidant and photoprotective agents.
    Steroids 2015 Jun 23;98:114-21. Epub 2015 Mar 23.
    Departamento de Química, Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora, Campus Universitário, Juiz de Fora 36036-900, Brazil.
    A series of 14 bile acids/azastilbenes conjugates (1a-g and 2a-g) was prepared through the condensation of bile amides (1 and 2) and aromatic aldehydes. The newly synthesized conjugates were evaluated in vitro for their antioxidant and photoprotective activities. Six compounds (1, 1a, 1b, 2, 2a and 2b) showed promising antioxidant activity with IC50 values of 19. Read More

    Non-melanoma Skin Cancer in Canada Chapter 2: Primary Prevention of Non-melanoma Skin Cancer.
    J Cutan Med Surg 2015 May-Jun;19(3):216-26. Epub 2015 Mar 16.
    SCRIPT, Toronto, ON, Canada.
    Background: Non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC), including basal and squamous cell carcinoma (BCC and SCC), represents the most common malignancy.

    Objective: To provide guidance to Canadian health care practitioners regarding primary prevention of NMSC.

    Methods: Structured literature searches were conducted, using search terms including prevention, sunscreen, and sun prevention factor. Read More

    Brazilian consensus on photoprotection.
    An Bras Dermatol 2014 Nov-Dec;89(6 Suppl 1):1-74
    Federal University of Campina Grande, Campina Grande, PB, Brazil.
    Brazil is a country of continental dimensions with a large heterogeneity of climates and massive mixing of the population. Almost the entire national territory is located between the Equator and the Tropic of Capricorn, and the Earth axial tilt to the south certainly makes Brazil one of the countries of the world with greater extent of land in proximity to the sun. The Brazilian coastline, where most of its population lives, is more than 8,500 km long. Read More

    High prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in patients with xeroderma pigmetosum-A under strict sun protection.
    Eur J Clin Nutr 2015 Jun 11;69(6):693-6. Epub 2015 Feb 11.
    Department of Hygienic Sciences, Kobe Pharmaceutical University, Kobe, Japan.
    Background/objectives: Xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) is a rare autosomal recessive disease characterized by defective repair of ultraviolet (UV) irradiation-induced DNA damage and high risk of skin cancer. Thus, these patients require strict photoprotection. Considering the importance of UV-mediated cutaneous vitamin D production, such rigorous photoprotection would cause vitamin D deficiency. Read More

    Polypodium leucotomos: a potential new photoprotective agent.
    Am J Clin Dermatol 2015 Apr;16(2):73-9
    Director of Clinical Dermatology, Therapeutics Clinical Research, San Diego, CA, USA,
    As the understanding of the immune system pathways, cytokine balances, and cellular interactions continues to expand, so must the potential applications of therapies that can impact the process of diseases instead of just controlling their symptoms. In the case of Polypodium leucotomos extract, which is derived from a tropical fern of the Polypodiaceae family, the future potential of applications in dermatology and beyond will be better understood as its incorporation into daily routines gives rise to the development of new regimens. Clinicians may position this agent as an option for daily maintenance, accept its use in combinations, or use it as a template for further development of oral supplementation that may evolve into a true immunomodulator. Read More

    Multifunction hexagonal liquid-crystal containing modified surface TiO2 nanoparticles and terpinen-4-ol for controlled release.
    Int J Nanomedicine 2015 22;10:811-9. Epub 2015 Jan 22.
    Drugs and Medicines Department, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, São Paulo State University - UNESP, Araraquara, Brazil.
    Multifunctional products have been developed to combine the benefits of functional components and terpinen-4-ol (TP) delivery systems. In this way, p-toluene sulfonic acid modified titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles and TP, an antioxidant, have been incorporated in liquid-crystalline formulations for photoprotection and controlled release of the TP, respectively. By X-ray powder diffraction and diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, we noted that using p-toluene sulfonic acid as a surface modifier made it possible to obtain smaller and more transparent TiO2 nanoparticles than those commercially available. Read More

    EDIFICE Melanoma survey: knowledge and attitudes on melanoma prevention and diagnosis.
    J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol 2015 Feb;29 Suppl 2:11-5
    Department of Dermatology, Hôpital Ambroise Paré, Boulogne-Billancourt, France.
    Background: Melanoma incidence is increasing worldwide thus justifying information campaigns aimed at reducing ultraviolet exposure levels and promoting early diagnosis.

    Objectives: We set out to assess awareness, knowledge and attitudes of the French population with regard to melanoma prevention and early diagnosis, following more than 15 years of nationwide information campaigns.

    Methods: The French nationwide observational survey, EDIFICE Melanoma, was conducted after the summer (September to October 2011) through structured telephone interviews of a representative sample of 1502 individuals aged ≥18 years, using the quota method. Read More

    Photoprotection: facts and controversies.
    Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci 2015 Jan;19(1):98-112
    Faculty of Pharmacy, Specialisation Cosmetology, Poznan University of Medical Sciences, Poznan, Poland.
    Excessive exposure of the skin to sunlight can lead to many negative effects, such as sunburn, photoaging and skin cancer development. Pollution and stratospheric ozone layer depletion are factors that increase exposure to ultraviolet radiation. This work is an accurate summary of the current state of knowledge on broad-spectrum photoprotection. Read More

    Natural products as photoprotection.
    J Cosmet Dermatol 2015 Mar 12;14(1):47-63. Epub 2015 Jan 12.
    School of Cosmetic Science, Mae Fah Luang University, Muang, Chiangrai, Thailand.
    The rise in solar ultraviolet radiation on the earth's surface has led to a depletion of stratospheric ozone over recent decades, thus accelerating the need to protect human skin against the harmful effects of UV radiation such as erythema, edema, hyperpigmentation, photoaging, and skin cancer. There are many different ways to protect skin against UV radiation's harmful effects. The most popular way to reduce the amount of UV radiation penetrating the skin is topical application of sunscreen products that contain UV absorbing or reflecting active molecules. Read More

    Natural compounds for solar photoprotection: a patent review.
    Expert Opin Ther Pat 2015 Apr 9;25(4):467-78. Epub 2015 Jan 9.
    Federal University of Sergipe, Department of Pharmacy , Lagarto, SE , Brazil.
    Introduction: Ultraviolet irradiation has deleterious effects on human skin, including tanning, sunburn, cancer and connective tissue degradation (photoaging). Botanical antioxidants have been shown to be associated with reduced incidence of photocarcinogenesis and photoaging through their photoprotective profile.

    Areas Covered: Here, the authors summarized therapeutic patent applications concerning the employment of medicinal plants on the technological development of a formulation with photoprotective or photoaging application. Read More

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