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    457 results match your criteria Sunscreens and Photoprotection

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    Prospects of topical protection from ultraviolet radiation exposure: a critical review on the juxtaposition of the benefits and risks involved with the use of chemoprotective agents.
    J Dermatolog Treat 2017 Aug 8:1-44. Epub 2017 Aug 8.
    a Division of Pharmaceutical Technology, Defence Research Laboratory , Tezpur 784001 , Assam , India.
    Solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation exposure is known to cause inevitable damage to human skin via different mechanisms which include disruption of genetic material and generation of free radicals. In the ever emerging field of photoprotective agents, there have been constant endeavors to uphold the standards for optimum protection from solar UV induced damages which include alarming conditions ranging from severe keratosis to malignant transformation of skin cells. Out of the various methods available for photoprotection, chemical photoprotective agents are most popular due to its ease of applicability, availability and efficacy. Read More

    Observing and understanding the ultrafast photochemistry in small molecules: applications to sunscreens.
    Sci Prog 2016 Sep;99(3):282-311
    In this review, we discuss the importance of biological and artificial photoprotection against overexposure to harmful ultraviolet radiation. Transient electronic and transient vibrational absorption spectroscopies are highlighted as important tools in understanding the energy transfer in small molecules, with a focus on the application to commercial sunscreens with representative examples given. Oxybenzone, a common ingredient in commercial sunscreens and sinapoyl malate, a biological sunscreen in plant leaves are presented as case studies. Read More

    A method to assess the protective efficacy of sunscreens against visible light-induced pigmentation.
    Photodermatol Photoimmunol Photomed 2017 Jun 11. Epub 2017 Jun 11.
    Dermatology Department, L'Archet 2 Hospital, Nice, France.
    Background: Until now, photoprotection of human skin has involved the development of sunscreens effective in the ultraviolet (UV) domain. During the last ten years, several studies have shown that besides the well-known damaging effects of UV, visible (400-700 nm) and even infrared light (> 700 nm) can induce damage which contributes to photoaging. Furthermore, many photodermatoses are also known to be triggered by visible light (VL). Read More

    Photoprotection: extending lessons learned from studying natural sunscreens to the design of artificial sunscreen constituents.
    Chem Soc Rev 2017 Jun;46(12):3770-3791
    School of Chemistry, University of Bristol, Cantock's Close, Bristol, BS8 1TS, UK.
    Evolution has ensured that plants and animals have developed effective protection mechanisms against the potentially harmful effects of incident ultraviolet radiation (UVR). Tanning is one such mechanism in humans, but tanning only occurs post-exposure to UVR. Hence, there is ever growing use of commercial sunscreens to pre-empt overexposure to UVR. Read More

    Mycosporine-like Amino Acids for Skin Photoprotection.
    Curr Med Chem 2017 May 29. Epub 2017 May 29.
    King's College London - St. John's Institute of Dermatology, Faculty of Life Sciences and Medicine London. United Kingdom.
    Excessive human exposure to solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR) continues to be a major public health concern, with skin cancer rates increasing year on year. The major protective measure is the use of synthetic UVR filters formulated into sunscreens, but there is growing concern that these chemicals cause damage to delicate marine ecosystems. One alternative is the use of biocompatible mycosporine-like amino acids (MAA), which occur naturally and are found predominantly in a wide range of marine species. Read More

    Ultrafast Transient Absorption Spectroscopy of the Sunscreen Constituent Ethylhexyl Triazone.
    J Phys Chem Lett 2017 May 28;8(10):2113-2118. Epub 2017 Apr 28.
    Department of Chemistry and ‡Centre for Scientific Computing, University of Warwick , Gibbet Hill Road, Coventry CV4 7AL, United Kingdom.
    The ultrafast photoprotection mechanisms in operation in ethylhexyl triazone (EHT, octyl triazone), an approved ultraviolet-B (UV-B) chemical filter for commercial sunscreens, remain elusive, with a notable absence of ultrafast time-resolved measurements. These large organic molecules are of increasing interest as they are suspected to be less likely to penetrate the skin than some of the smaller approved filters, thereby reducing the possible adverse effects from sunscreen products. We apply femtosecond transient absorption spectroscopy with electronic structure calculations to unravel the complete photodeactivation mechanism that EHT undergoes after UV-B irradiation. Read More

    Development and photoprotective effect of a sunscreen containing the antioxidants Spirulina and dimethylmethoxy chromanol on sun-induced skin damage.
    Eur J Pharm Sci 2017 Jun 22;104:52-64. Epub 2017 Mar 22.
    Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences of Ribeirão Preto, University of São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brazil. Electronic address:
    The literature claims that incorporation of antioxidants into sunscreens provides additional skin photoprotection by scavenging free radicals formed due to sun radiation, but there are limited in vivo studies that support this hypothesis. This study aims to examine whether addition of antioxidants to a broad-spectrum sunscreen increases its photoprotective effect in real-use conditions. Sunscreen formulations composed of stable UV filters (Tinosorb® S, Tinosorb® M, Uvinul® APlus, and Uvinul® T150) alone or in combination with antioxidants (Spirulina and dimethylmethoxy chromanol-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles) were developed and their appearance, odor, rheological behavior, Sun Protection Factor (SPF), and UVA protection were analyzed. Read More

    In vitro skin models for the evaluation of sunscreen-based skin photoprotection: molecular methodologies and opportunities.
    Curr Med Chem 2017 Mar 3. Epub 2017 Mar 3.
    L`Oreal Research and Innovation, 1 avenue Eugène Schueller , Aulnay sous Bois 93600. France.
    Identifying and understanding the biological events that occur following ultraviolet (UV) exposure are mandatory to elucidate the biological and clinical consequences of sun exposure, and to provide efficient and adequate photoprotection strategies. The main UV-induced biological features (markers related to sunburn, cancer, photoaging immunosuppression, pigmentation), characterized in human skin in vivo, could be reproduced in adapted models of reconstructed skin in vitro, attesting their high relevance in the field of photobiology. In turn, 3D skin models were useful to discover precise biological pathways involved in UV response and were predictive of in vivo situation. Read More

    Comparison of ultraviolet A light protection standards in the United States and European Union through in vitro measurements of commercially available sunscreens.
    J Am Acad Dermatol 2017 Jul 24;77(1):42-47. Epub 2017 Feb 24.
    BASF Grenzach GmbH, Grenzach-Wyhlen, Germany.
    Background: The importance of adequate ultraviolet A light (UVA) protection has become apparent in recent years. The United States and Europe have different standards for assessing UVA protection in sunscreen products.

    Objective: We sought to measure the in vitro critical wavelength (CW) and UVA protection factor (PF) of commercially available US sunscreen products and see if they meet standards set by the United States and the European Union. Read More

    "Active" photoprotection: sunscreens with DNA repair enzymes.
    G Ital Dermatol Venereol 2017 Jun 16;152(3):302-307. Epub 2017 Feb 16.
    Department of Dermatology, Federico II University, Naples, Italy.
    Ultraviolet (UV) radiation exerts different harmful effects on human health, being the main etiological agent of certain skin cancers and photoaging. In this context, photoprotection, intended as a set of measures adopted to limit and prevent the effects of UV radiation, plays a critical role in avoiding undesired sunlight outcomes. Traditional sunscreens represent a widely used photoprotective approach, even if they exert a "passive photoprotection" and are not effective once damage to skin cells has been generated after sun exposure. Read More

    Rational Design and Synthesis of Efficient Sunscreens To Boost the Solar Protection Factor.
    Angew Chem Int Ed Engl 2017 Mar 27;56(10):2632-2635. Epub 2017 Jan 27.
    Department of Chemistry, Centro de Investigación en Síntesis Química (CISQ), Universidad de La Rioja, Madre de Dios 53, 26006, Logroño, Spain.
    Skin cancer incidence has been increasing in the last decades, but most of the commercial formulations used as sunscreens are designed to protect only against solar erythema. Many of the active components present in sunscreens show critical weaknesses, such as low stability and toxicity. Thus, the development of more efficient components is an urgent health necessity and an attractive industrial target. Read More

    Current challenges in photoprotection.
    J Am Acad Dermatol 2017 Mar 27;76(3S1):S91-S99. Epub 2016 Dec 27.
    Fundacion del Cancer de Piel, Buenos Aires, Argentina.
    Electromagnetic radiation in the ultraviolet, visible, and infrared ranges all produce biologic effects. Ultraviolet filters are the most well-studied photoprotective measure for the adverse effects of ultraviolet radiation. Because of the reported endocrinologic effects of oxybenzone in animal studies, its effects on coral reefs, and its photocontact allergy potential, its use has been minimized in many countries worldwide. Read More

    Ultraviolet radiation and the skin: Photobiology and sunscreen photoprotection.
    J Am Acad Dermatol 2017 Mar 27;76(3S1):S100-S109. Epub 2016 Dec 27.
    Clinical Skin Research and Development Center, Pierre Fabre Dermo-Cosmétique, Toulouse, France; Department of Dermatology, Toulouse University Hospital, Toulouse, France.
    The efficacy of sunscreens can be measured by different methods, involving in vitro, ex vivo, or in vivo techniques. There is a need for a worldwide standardization of these methods to avoid misunderstanding and confusion among sunscreen users. The clinical benefits of sunscreens have been demonstrated in randomized controlled trials that established the role of sunscreens in the prevention of actinic keratoses, squamous cell carcinomas, nevi, and melanomas. Read More

    Photoprotection in specific populations: Children and people of color.
    J Am Acad Dermatol 2017 Mar 27;76(3S1):S110-S121. Epub 2016 Dec 27.
    Buster Dermatology, Tulsa, Oklahoma; University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama.
    Improved education on appropriate photoprotection in children is vital. Photoprotection for these individuals should include seeking shade, the use of physical agents (clothing, hat, sunglasses), and application of sunscreens on exposed areas. Avoidance of the use of tanning beds is an important component of education for teenagers. Read More

    Hydrogen bond dynamics governs the effective photoprotection mechanism of plant phenolic sunscreens.
    Photochem Photobiol Sci 2017 Feb;16(2):211-219
    Hubei Key Laboratory of Agricultural Bioinformatics, College of Informatics, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan, 430070, P.R. China.
    Sinapic acid derivatives are important sunscreen species in natural plants, which could provide protection from solar UV radiation. Using a combination of ultrafast excited state dynamics, together with classical molecular dynamics studies, we demonstrate that there is direct coupling of hydrogen bond motion with excited state photoprotection dynamics as part of the basic mechanism in solution. Beyond the intra-molecular degree of freedom, the inter-molecular motions on all timescales are potentially important for the photochemical or photophysical events, ranging from the ultrafast hydrogen bond motion to solvent rearrangements. Read More

    Photophysics of sunscreen molecules in the gas phase: a stepwise approach towards understanding and developing next-generation sunscreens.
    Proc Math Phys Eng Sci 2016 Nov;472(2195):20160677
    Department of Chemistry , University of Warwick , Coventry CV4 7AL , UK.
    The relationship between exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation and skin cancer urges the need for extra photoprotection, which is presently provided by widespread commercially available sunscreen lotions. Apart from having a large absorption cross section in the UVA and UVB regions of the electromagnetic spectrum, the chemical absorbers in these photoprotective products should also be able to dissipate the excess energy in a safe way, i.e. Read More

    A Perspective on the Ultrafast Photochemistry of Solution-Phase Sunscreen Molecules.
    J Phys Chem Lett 2016 Nov 7;7(22):4655-4665. Epub 2016 Nov 7.
    Department of Chemistry, University of Warwick , Gibbet Hill Road, Coventry CV4 7AL, United Kingdom.
    Sunscreens are one of the most common ways of providing on-demand additional photoprotection to the skin. Ultrafast transient absorption spectroscopy has recently proven to be an invaluable tool in understanding how the components of commercial sunscreen products display efficient photoprotection. Important examples of how this technique has unravelled the photodynamics of common components are given in this Perspective, and some of the remaining unanswered questions are discussed. Read More

    The Photostabilizing Effect of Grape Seed Extract on Three Common Sunscreen Absorbers.
    Photochem Photobiol 2016 11 30;92(6):870-884. Epub 2016 Nov 30.
    School of Chemistry and Physics, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, South Africa.
    The photostabilizing ability of grape seed extract on three common sunscreen absorbers, 2-ethylhexyl-p-methoxycinnamate (EHMC), benzophenone-3 (BP3) and tert-butylmethoxy dibenzoylmethane (BMDBM), was investigated. Samples were exposed to simulated solar radiation and monitored by spectrophotometric and chromatographic methods. The chemical composition of the grape seed extract was determined by GC-MS and HPLC-MS, and the major secondary metabolites were found to be epicatechin and catechin. Read More

    Quality by design (QbD), Process Analytical Technology (PAT), and design of experiment applied to the development of multifunctional sunscreens.
    Drug Dev Ind Pharm 2017 Feb 13;43(2):246-256. Epub 2016 Oct 13.
    a Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences , University of São Paulo , São Paulo , Brasil.
    Multifunctional formulations are of great importance to ensure better skin protection from harm caused by ultraviolet radiation (UV). Despite the advantages of Quality by Design and Process Analytical Technology approaches to the development and optimization of new products, we found in the literature only a few studies concerning their applications in cosmetic product industry. Thus, in this research work, we applied the QbD and PAT approaches to the development of multifunctional sunscreens containing bemotrizinol, ethylhexyl triazone, and ferulic acid. Read More

    Use of Agave tequilana-lignin and zinc oxide nanoparticles for skin photoprotection.
    J Photochem Photobiol B 2016 Oct 24;163:156-61. Epub 2016 Aug 24.
    Department of Wood, Cellulose and Paper Research, University of Guadalajara, 45110 Guadalajara, Jal, Mexico. Electronic address:
    The use of sunscreens is essential for preventing skin damage and the potential appearance of skin cancer in humans. Inorganic active components such as zinc oxide (ZnO) have been used commonly in sunscreens due to their ability to block UVA radiation. This ultraviolet (UV) protection might be enhanced to cover the UVB and UVC bands when combined with other components such as titanium dioxide (TiO2). Read More

    A new insight into the photochemistry of avobenzone in gas phase and acetonitrile from ab initio calculations.
    Phys Chem Chem Phys 2016 Aug;18(32):22168-78
    Faculty of Physical Chemistry, University of Belgrade, Studentski trg 12-16, 11000 Belgrade, Serbia.
    Avobenzone (4-tert-butyl-4'-methoxydibenzoylmethane, AB) is one of the most widely used filters in sunscreens for skin photoprotection in the UVA band. The photochemistry of AB includes keto-enol tautomerization, cis-trans isomerization, rotation about the single bond and α bond cleavages of carbonyl groups. In this contribution we study chelated and non-chelated enol, rotamers Z and E, and keto tautomers of AB in the ground and excited states in gas phase and acetonitrile by means of a coupled cluster method. Read More

    Photoprotective Potential of Baccharis antioquensis (Asteraceae) as Natural Sunscreen.
    Photochem Photobiol 2016 09 12;92(5):742-52. Epub 2016 Aug 12.
    Research Group on Functional Compounds, Institute of Chemistry, University of Antioquia, Medellín, Colombia.
    In the quest for new natural agents of photoprotection, we evaluated the photoprotective and antioxidant activity of B. antioquensis leaf extracts as well as its phenolic composition. The methanolic extract treated with activated carbon showed the highest absorption coefficients for UVA-UVB radiation, as well as an antioxidant capacity comparable to butylated hydroxy toluene. Read More

    Ultrafast photoprotective properties of the sunscreening agent octocrylene.
    Opt Express 2016 May;24(10):10700-9
    Today octocrylene is one of the most common molecules included in commercially available sunscreens. It provides broadband photoprotection for the skin from incident UV-A and UV-B radiation of the solar spectrum. In order to understand how octocrylene fulfils its role as a sunscreening agent, femtosecond pump-probe transient electronic UV-visible absorption spectroscopy is utilised to investigate the ultrafastnonradiative relaxation mechanism of octocrylene in cyclohexane or methanol after UV-B photoexcitation. Read More

    The photoprotective effects of 2-benzoyl-3-phenylquinoxaline 1,4-dioxide against UVB-induced damage in HaCaT cells.
    Med Oncol 2016 Aug 4;33(8):86. Epub 2016 Jul 4.
    Department of Biology, American University of Beirut, Beirut, Lebanon.
    With the increasing levels of atmospheric ozone depletion, there has been much concern about the causal effects of high levels of ultraviolet radiation reaching the Earth's surface on skin cancer. This has led to growing interest in identifying new active ingredients for use in commercial sunscreens. In our study, the chemical compound 2-benzoyl-3-phenylquinoxaline 1,4-dioxide (BPQ) prepared by the Beirut reaction was tested for its ability to protect a human keratinocyte cell line (HaCaT) against ultraviolet B radiation (280-315 nm). Read More

    Design of novel starch-based Pickering emulsions as platforms for skin photoprotection.
    J Photochem Photobiol B 2016 Sep 16;162:56-64. Epub 2016 Jun 16.
    Research Institute for Medicines and Pharmaceutical Sciences (iMed.ULisboa), Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Lisbon, Portugal. Electronic address:
    Green coffee oil and modified starch were recently found to have an enhanced protection effect against UV radiation. Therefore, this work aimed to develop an innovative sunscreen formulation based on Pickering emulsions concept, i.e. Read More

    Update on treatment of photodermatosis.
    Dermatol Online J 2016 Feb 17;22(2). Epub 2016 Feb 17.
    First Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, Jiangsu.
    Photodermatoses are a group of skin conditions associated with an abnormal reaction to ultraviolet (UV) radiation. There are several of the photosensitive rashes which mainly affect the UV exposed areas of the skin. It can be classified into four groups: immunology mediated photodermatoses, chemical and drug induced photosensitivity, photoaggravated dermatoses, and genetic disorders. Read More

    Repartition of oil miscible and water soluble UV filters in an applied sunscreen film determined by confocal Raman microspectroscopy.
    Photochem Photobiol Sci 2016 Jul;15(7):861-71
    University of Applied Sciences Northwestern Switzerland, School of Life Sciences, Institute of Pharmaceutical Technology, Muttenz/Basel, Switzerland and University of Basel, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Basel, Switzerland.
    Photoprotection provided by topical sunscreens is expressed by the sun protection factor (SPF) which depends primarily on the UV filters contained in the product and the applied sunscreen amount. Recently, the vehicle was shown to significantly impact film thickness distribution of an applied sunscreen and sunscreen efficacy. In the present work, repartition of the UV filters within the sunscreen film upon application is investigated for its role to affect sun protection efficacy. Read More

    Protection against UV-induced toxicity and lack of mutagenicity of Antarctic Sanionia uncinata.
    Toxicology 2017 Feb 24;376:126-136. Epub 2016 May 24.
    Laboratory of Environmental Mutagenesis, Department of Biophysics and Biometry, Roberto Alcantra Gomes Biology Institute, University of the State of Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil.
    Antarctica moss Sanionia uncinata (Hedw.) Loeske is exposed in situ to damaging levels of ultraviolet (UV) radiation. This moss has the ability to respond to UV radiation exposure producing secondary metabolites such as flavonoids, and has been recommended as a potential source of photoprotective compounds and antioxidants. Read More

    Photoprotective effect and acute oral systemic toxicity evaluation of the novel heterocyclic compound LQFM048.
    J Photochem Photobiol B 2016 Aug 2;161:50-8. Epub 2016 Apr 2.
    Laboratório de Química Farmacêutica Medicinal (LQFM), Faculdade de Farmácia, Universidade Federal de Goiás, Goiânia, GO, Brazil. Electronic address:
    The new heterocyclic derivative LQFM048 (3) (2,4,6-tris ((E)-ethyl 2-cyano-3-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)acrylate)-1,3,5-triazine) was originally designed through the molecular hybridization strategy from Uvinul® T 150 (1) and (E)-ethyl 2-cyano-3-(4hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)acrylate (2) sunscreens, using green chemistry approach. This compound was obtained in global yields (80%) and showed an interesting redox potential. In addition, it is thermally stable up to temperatures around 250°C. Read More

    Antioxidant activity and potential photoprotective from amazon native flora extracts.
    J Photochem Photobiol B 2016 Aug 11;161:34-9. Epub 2016 May 11.
    Núcleo de Pesquisa e Inovação em Ciências da Saúde (NUPICS), Faculdade de Farmácia, Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora, Rua José Lourenço Kelmer, s/n, CEP:36036-330, Juiz de Fora, MG, Brazil. Electronic address:
    Plant species are sources of active compounds that can fight and/or prevent damage caused by reactive oxygen species, which enables the development of natural products that can help to prevent premature aging caused by exposure to solar radiation. This study assessed the antioxidant and photoprotective activities of six dried extracts of plants from the Brazilian Amazon biome. Plant extracts were prepared in 70% (v/v) ethanol by dynamic maceration for 72h in the dark, and then filtered, concentrated and lyophilized. Read More

    Sunburn and sun-protective behaviors among adults with and without previous nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC): A population-based study.
    J Am Acad Dermatol 2016 Aug 16;75(2):371-379.e5. Epub 2016 May 16.
    Department of Dermatology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland.
    Background: Individuals with previous nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC) are at increased risk for subsequent skin cancer, and should therefore limit ultraviolet exposure.

    Objective: We sought to determine whether individuals with previous NMSC engage in better sun protection than those with no skin cancer history.

    Methods: We pooled self-reported data (2005 and 2010 National Health Interview Surveys) from US non-Hispanic white adults (758 with and 34,161 without previous NMSC). Read More

    In vitro photosafety and efficacy screening of apigenin, chrysin and beta-carotene for UVA and VIS protection.
    Eur J Pharm Sci 2016 Jun 26;89:146-53. Epub 2016 Apr 26.
    Departamento de Ciências Farmacêuticas, Universidade de São Paulo, Faculdade de Ciências Farmacêuticas de Ribeirão Preto, Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brazil. Electronic address:
    Currently most of sunscreens provide effective protection in the full UV range but lack VIS protection. The addition of effective antioxidants to sunscreens might afford suitable UV-VIS protection. Apigenin (API), chrysin (CRI) and beta-carotene (BTC) have shown potential for UV-VIS protection. Read More

    Layer Thickness of SPF 30 Sunscreen and Formation of Pre-vitamin D.
    Anticancer Res 2016 Mar;36(3):1409-15
    Department of Radiation Biology, Oslo University Hospital, The Norwegian Radium Hospital, Montebello, Oslo, Norway
    Background: Most studies have demonstrated that sunscreens with lower sun protection factor (SPF) do not prevent the production of vitamin D because much lower amount of sunscreen (SPF<30) is applied than recommended (2 mg/cm(2)) indicating that a significant amount of UV radiation can penetrate the skin. Since less sunscreen is applied, higher SPF sunscreens may be used to achieve the desired protection. However, there is little information regarding the application of high-SPF sunscreen and vitamin D formation. Read More

    Melatonin-based pickering emulsion for skin's photoprotection.
    Drug Deliv 2016 Jun 11;23(5):1594-607. Epub 2016 Jan 11.
    a Research Institute for Medicines (iMed.ULisboa), Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Lisbon , Portugal and.
    Context: Based on its antioxidant activity, melatonin was recently found to have a protection effect against photocarcinogenesis.

    Objective: This work aimed to develop an innovative sunscreen formulation based on the Pickering emulsions concept, stabilized by physical UV filters, modified starch and natural oils associated to melatonin as a key strategy for prevention against UV-induced skin damage.

    Materials And Methods: For this purpose, melatonin was incorporated in Pickering emulsions that were characterized using physicochemical, in vitro and in vivo testing. Read More

    Nanosystems in Photoprotection.
    J Nanosci Nanotechnol 2015 Dec;15(12):9679-88
    The ultraviolet (UV) radiation is responsible for stimulating acute responses in the human skin, those including positive responses like vitamin D synthesis along with negative ones such as erythema. The chronic effects of UV radiation include photoaging and cancer. Sunscreens are classified as organic and inorganic and the safety of the products containing them is related to the evaluation of the effects of these actives on the skin (irritation and sensitization) and also the possibility of cutaneous permeation that may cause the product to permeate into the bloodstream, possibly generating systemic toxicity. Read More

    [Congenital erythropoietic porphyria : An update].
    Hautarzt 2016 Mar;67(3):216-20
    Hautklinik und Europäisches Porphyriezentrum, Universitätsklinikum der Heinrich Heine Universität Düsseldorf, Moorenstr. 5, 40225, Düsseldorf, Deutschland.
    Background: Congenital erythropoetic porphria is a very rare type of autosomal recessive nonacute porphyria. Homozygous or compound heterozygous mutations in the uroporphyrinogen III consynthase gene cause a marked enzymatic deficiency of uroporphyrinogen III consynthase, the fourth enzyme along the heme biosynthetic pathway.

    Clinical Presentation: Clinically, affected patients are characterized by a moderate to severe photosensitivity. Read More

    Requirement for vitamin D supplementation in patients using photoprotection: variations in vitamin D levels and bone formation markers.
    Int J Dermatol 2016 Apr 6;55(4):e176-83. Epub 2015 Nov 6.
    Department of Dermatology and Venereology, Medical University of Lodz, Lodz, Poland.
    Background: Avoiding sun exposure is obligatory in photodermatoses; however, the need for oral supplementation with vitamin D appears unrecognized. The aim of the study was to investigate the seasonal variation of vitamin D level and bone formation markers in healthy individuals and to compare it with vitamin D status in patients using photoprotection.

    Methods: Thirty-four healthy inhabitants of the Lodz region, Poland, a country in central Europe (51° and 52° north latitudes), were examined at the baseline visit within 2 weeks of peak sun exposure during recreational activity on vacation, after 8, and after 16 weeks. Read More

    French Maritime Pine Bark Extract (Pycnogenol®) Effects on Human Skin: Clinical and Molecular Evidence.
    Skin Pharmacol Physiol 2016 23;29(1):13-7. Epub 2015 Oct 23.
    IUF, Leibniz Research Institute for Environmental Medicine, Dx00FC;sseldorf, Germany.
    Nutritional strategies to benefit skin health are of growing importance. Current approaches mainly involve nutritional supplements containing antioxidants which were initially designed to protect human skin against ultraviolet radiation-induced damage. Within recent years, however, a growing number of studies suggests that the beneficial effects of these products clearly extend beyond photoprotection. Read More

    Novel In Vitro Antioxidant and Photoprotection Capacity of Plants from High Altitude Ecosystems of Colombia.
    Photochem Photobiol 2016 Jan-Feb;92(1):150-7. Epub 2015 Dec 12.
    Research Group on Functional Compounds, Institute of Chemistry, University of Antioquia, Medellín, Colombia.
    Currently, plants have gained widespread interest as a source of natural sunscreen. Specifically, plants from high altitude ecosystems are exposed to high UVR levels; therefore, they must produce an adaptive chemical response. The aim of this study was to evaluate the photo-protection and antioxidant capacity in vitro of nine plants from high altitude ecosystems in Antioquia, Colombia (Sphagnum meridense, Calamagrostis effusa, Lycopodiella alopecuroides, Morella parvifolia, Baccharis antioquensis, Pentacalia pulchella, Castilleja fissifolia, Hesperomeles ferruginea and Hypericum juniperinum). Read More

    Effects of solar radiation on hair and photoprotection.
    J Photochem Photobiol B 2015 Dec 8;153:240-6. Epub 2015 Oct 8.
    Departament of Pharmacy, University of São Paulo, 580 Prof. Lineu Prestes Avenue, Bl-13/15, 05508-000 São Paulo, Brazil.
    In this paper the negative effects of solar radiation (ultraviolet, visible and infrared wavelengths) on hair properties like color, mechanical properties, luster, protein content, surface roughness, among others, will be discussed. Despite knowing that radiation damages hair, there are no consensus about the particular effect of each segment of solar radiation on the hair shaft. The hair photoprotection products are primarily targeted to dyed hair, specially auburn pigments, and gray shades. Read More

    Rutin nanostructured lipid cosmeceutical preparation with sun protective potential.
    J Photochem Photobiol B 2015 Dec 4;153:59-66. Epub 2015 Sep 4.
    Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, National Research Center, Dokki, Al-Bohooth St., Cairo, Egypt.
    Skin cancer is related to unprotected exposure to sunlight. Despite the broad expansion of sunscreen market, various researches are focused on the inefficiency and danger of sun products. This study was focused on the development of photoprotective nanoparticulate dermal preparations of the antioxidant flavonoid Rutin (RT). Read More

    Rutin increases critical wavelength of systems containing a single UV filter and with good skin compatibility.
    Skin Res Technol 2016 Aug 7;22(3):325-33. Epub 2015 Sep 7.
    Laboratory of Cosmetology, Department of Pharmacy, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of São Paulo, São Paulo - SP, Brazil.
    Background/purpose: Ultraviolet (UV) radiation is responsible for sunburns, skin cancer, photoaging, and the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). The awareness on preventing these deleterious effects made the use of anti-UVB formulations an important part of population habits; however, despite the availability of several antioxidants capable of ROS scavenging, the pharmaceutical market lacks products associating UV filters with natural compounds of proven efficacy. Here, we investigated the effect of rutin, a flavonoid with antioxidant activity, associated with UVB filters in dermocosmetic preparations. Read More

    New Strategies in the Prevention of Actinic Keratosis: A Critical Review.
    Skin Pharmacol Physiol 2015 22;28(6):281-9. Epub 2015 Aug 22.
    IUF - Leibniz Research Institute for Environmental Medicine, Dx00FC;sseldorf, Germany.
    Actinic keratosis (AK) or lesions of epidermal dysplasia occurring in skin chronically exposed to solar radiation is very prevalent in lighter skin persons, with chronic long-term sun exposure being the major risk factor. With an aging population it is expected that the prevalence of AK will further increase. AK can progress to nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC) and is a public health concern. Read More

    Broadband ultrafast photoprotection by oxybenzone across the UVB and UVC spectral regions.
    Photochem Photobiol Sci 2015 Oct;14(10):1814-20
    Department of Chemistry, University of Warwick, Gibbet Hill Road, Coventry, CV4 7AL, UK.
    Recent studies have shed light on the energy dissipation mechanism of oxybenzone, a common ingredient in commercial sunscreens. After UVA photoexcitation, the dissipation mechanism may be understood in terms of an initial ultrafast excited state enol → keto tautomerisation, followed by nonadiabatic transfer to the ground electronic state and subsequent collisional relaxation to the starting enol tautomer. We expand on these studies using femtosecond transient electronic absorption spectroscopy to understand the non-radiative relaxation pathways of oxybenzone in cyclohexane and in methanol after UVB and UVC excitation. Read More

    Rosacea: Diagnosis and Treatment.
    Am Fam Physician 2015 Aug;92(3):187-96
    Louisiana State University Department of Family Medicine, University Hospital and Clinics, Lafayette, LA, USA.
    Rosacea is a chronic facial skin condition of unknown cause. It is characterized by marked involvement of the central face with transient or persistent erythema, telangiectasia, inflammatory papules and pustules, or hyperplasia of the connective tissue. Transient erythema, or flushing, is often accompanied by a feeling of warmth. Read More

    Probing the Ultrafast Energy Dissipation Mechanism of the Sunscreen Oxybenzone after UVA Irradiation.
    J Phys Chem Lett 2015 Apr 30;6(8):1363-8. Epub 2015 Mar 30.
    †Department of Chemistry, University of Warwick, Gibbet Hill Road, Coventry, CV4 7AL, United Kingdom.
    Oxybenzone is a common constituent of many commercially available sunscreens providing photoprotection from ultraviolet light incident on the skin. Femtosecond transient electronic and vibrational absorption spectroscopies have been used to investigate the nonradiative relaxation pathways of oxybenzone in cyclohexane and methanol after excitation in the UVA region. The present data suggest that the photoprotective properties of oxybenzone can be understood in terms of an initial ultrafast excited state enol → keto tautomerization, followed by efficient internal conversion and subsequent vibrational relaxation to the ground state (enol) tautomer. Read More

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