255,629 results match your criteria Substance Use & Misuse [Journal]


Sandwich-type electrochemical immunosensor for sensitive detection of CEA based on the enhanced effects of Ag NPs@CS spaced Hemin/rGO.

Biosens Bioelectron 2018 Dec 7;126:785-791. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

School of Chemical Engineering, Shandong University of Technology, Zibo 255049, PR China.

An ultrasensitive sandwich-type electrochemical immunosensor was designed by using gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) as the substrate material and microporous carbon spheres (CS) loading silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) spaced Hemin/reduced graphene oxide (Hemin/rGO) porous composite materials (Ag NPs@CS-Hemin/rGO) as the detection antibodies (Ab) label for detecting carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA). The Au NPs with good electrical conductivity and biocompatibility could accelerate the electron transfer on the electrode interface and enhance the load capacity of capture antibodies (Ab). Hemin is peroxidase-like substance which has excellent catalytic ability for HO reduction but easy to molecular aggregation and oxidative self-destruction. Read More

View Article
December 2018

Stability of synthetic cathinones in blood and urine.

Forensic Sci Int 2018 Dec 6;295:36-45. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Jagiellonian University, Faculty of Chemistry, Gronostajowa 2, 30-387 Kraków, Poland.

Introduction: Although there is an observed decline in the number of new psychoactive substances entering the drug market, this phenomenon is still a significant public health problem. Synthetic cathinones are the second largest group of new substances and currently belong to the most frequently confiscated. Their availability and prevalence cause that they are often abused. Read More

View Article
December 2018
1 Read

Smoking cessation in the context of recovery from drug and alcohol problems: Prevalence, predictors, and cohort effects in a national U.S. sample.

Drug Alcohol Depend 2018 Dec 8;195:6-12. Epub 2018 Dec 8.

Recovery Research Institute, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, 151 Merrimac Street, Boston, MA, 02114, USA.

Background: Tobacco and alcohol and other drug (AOD) use remain prominent risk factors for morbidity, mortality, and health care utilization. Moreover, these often cluster together within persons, exponentiating health risks. Little is known regarding if and when people resolving AOD problems stop smoking, who stops, and whether recent general population trends toward smoking cessation are evident also among persons more recently entering recovery. Read More

View Article
December 2018

Use of marijuana exclusively for medical purposes.

Drug Alcohol Depend 2018 Dec 4;195:13-15. Epub 2018 Dec 4.

Department of Psychiatry, Columbia University, 1051 Riverside Drive, New York, NY 10032, United States; New York State Psychiatric Institute, New York, NY, United States.

Objectives: To characterize the socio-demographic characteristics, medical conditions, and psychiatric comorbidities of users of marijuana for medical and non-medical purposes.

Methods: Data were from the National Epidemiological Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions III, a US nationally representative in-person interview of 36,309 adults age ≥18 years in 2012-2013.

Results: In relation to non-medical only users (n = 3339), combined (n = 362) and medical only (n = 82) users had higher prevalence of every medical condition examined. Read More

View Article
December 2018

The association between comorbid psychiatric diagnoses and hospitalization-related factors among individuals with schizophrenia.

Compr Psychiatry 2018 Dec 7;89:7-15. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

Lev-Hasharon Medical Center, POB 90000, Netanya 42100, Israel; Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, POB 39040, Tel Aviv 69978, Israel. Electronic address:

Background: Though schizophrenia is associated with substantial psychiatric comorbidity, data pertaining to multiple comorbid psychiatric disorders among individuals with schizophrenia is missing. Furthermore, despite abundant research indicating that the course of schizophrenia is characterized by relapses, often leading to psychiatric emergency room visits and consequent hospitalizations, data regarding the association between different comorbid psychiatric diagnoses among schizophrenia patients, and these hospitalization-related factors is lacking. The aim of this study was to describe the number and types of comorbid psychiatric diagnoses of inpatients diagnosed with schizophrenia, and to explore whether these are associated with hospitalization-related factors. Read More

View Article
December 2018

Expression of immediate early genes in brain reward circuitries: Differential regulation by psychostimulant and opioid drugs.

Neurochem Int 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

NIDA Intramural Program, Molecular Neuropsychiatry Research Branch, 251 Bayview Boulevard, Baltimore, MD, 21224, USA. Electronic address:

Although some of the clinical manifestations of substance use disorders might be superficially similar, it is highly likely that different classes of abused drugs including opioids (heroin, morphine, and oxycodone, other opioids) and psychostimulants (cocaine and amphetamines) cause different neuroadaptations in various brain regions dependent in the distribution and concentration of their biochemical sites of actions. In fact, different molecular networks are indeed impacted by acute and chronic administration of addictive substances. Some of the genes whose expression is influenced by the administration of these substances are immediate-early genes (IEGs). Read More

View Article
December 2018

Development of a Commercial Process to Prepare AMG 232 Using A Green Ozonolysis-Pinnick Tandem Transformation.

J Org Chem 2018 Dec 17. Epub 2018 Dec 17.

A robust process to manufacture AMG 232 was developed to deliver drug substance of high purity. Highlights of the commercial process development efforts include: i. use of a novel bench-stable Vilsmeier reagent, methoxymethylene-N,N-dimethyliminium methyl sulfate, for selective in situ activation of a primary alcohol intermediate; ii. Read More

View Article
December 2018

Opioid and Cannabis Co-Use among Adults with Chronic Pain: Relations to Substance Misuse, Mental Health, and Pain Experience.

J Addict Med 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Department of Psychology, University of Houston, Houston, TX (AHR, JB, DJP, MJV); Department of Psychology, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA (JDB); College of Nursing, Washington State University, Washington, DC (MFO); Department of Psychology, Syracuse University, New York, NY (JWD); Department of Behavioral Science, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center (MJZ); and HEALTH Institute, University of Houston, Houston, TX (MJZ).

Objectives: Opioid misuse constitutes a significant public health problem and is associated with a host of negative outcomes. Despite efforts to curb this increasing epidemic, opioids remain the most widely prescribed class of medications. Prescription opioids are often used to treat chronic pain despite the risks associated with use, and chronic pain remains an important factor in understanding this epidemic. Read More

View Article
December 2018

The Epidemiology of Binge Drinking Among College-Age Individuals in the United States.

Alcohol Res 2018 ;39(1):23-30

Heather Krieger, M.A., is a graduate student; Chelsie M. Young, Ph.D., is a post-doctoral researcher; Amber M. Anthenien, M.S., is a graduate student; and Clayton Neighbors, Ph.D., is a professor, all in the Department of Psychology, University of Houston, Houston, Texas.

Rates of alcohol consumption continue to be a concern, particularly for individuals who are college age. Drinking patterns have changed over time, with the frequency of binge drinking (consuming four/five or more drinks for women/men) remaining high (30% to 40%). Young adults in the college age range are developmentally and socially at higher risk for drinking at binge levels. Read More

View Article
January 2018

Acute Mental Health Symptoms in Adolescent Marijuana Users.

JAMA Pediatr 2018 Dec 17. Epub 2018 Dec 17.

Division of Adolescent/Young Adult Medicine, Boston Children's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts.

View Article
December 2018

Gender-related differences in cue-elicited cravings in Internet gaming disorder: The effects of deprivation.

J Behav Addict 2018 Dec 17:1-12. Epub 2018 Dec 17.

5 Department of Psychiatry and Neurobiology, Child Study Center, Yale University School of Medicine , New Haven, CT, USA.

Background: Online gaming has become a popular leisure activity, in which males more frequently develop Internet gaming disorder (IGD) compared to females. However, gender-related neurocognitive differences have largely not been systematically investigated in IGD.

Methods: Cue-elicited-craving tasks were performed before game playing and immediately after deprivation operationalized as a forced break from gaming when the Internet was disconnected. Read More

View Article
December 2018

Real-world outcomes post-transition to once-every-three-month paliperidone palmitate in patients with schizophrenia within US commercial plans.

Curr Med Res Opin 2018 Dec 17. Epub 2018 Dec 17.

b Janssen Scientific Affairs, LLC , Titusville , NJ , 08560 , USA.

Objectives: To compare comorbidity-related outcomes, adherence to APs, healthcare resource utilization (HRU), and costs pre- and post-transition to once-every-three-month paliperidone palmitate (PP3M) in commercially-insured patients with schizophrenia.

Methods: Adults with ≥1 claim for PP3M, ≥2 schizophrenia diagnoses, and adequate treatment with once-monthly paliperidone palmitate (PP1M; i.e. Read More

View Article
December 2018

Hospitalization risk factors in antipsychotic-treated schizophrenia, bipolar I disorder or major depressive disorder.

J Comp Eff Res 2018 Dec 17. Epub 2018 Dec 17.

Health Economics and Outcomes Research, Lundbeck, 6 Parkway North, Deerfield, IL 60015, USA.

Aim: To examine hospitalization risk factors in antipsychotic-treated patients with schizophrenia, bipolar I disorder (BD-I) or major depressive disorder (MDD).

Patients & Methods: Using Truven Health MarketScan Commercial, Medicaid and Medicare Supplemental data (01/01/2012-06/30/2016), logistic regression models were performed to identify risk factors for both psychiatric and all-cause hospitalization in three separate analyses.

Results: Significant risk factors included prior hospitalization (schizophrenia: odds ratio [95% CI]: 2. Read More

View Article
December 2018

Deriving alternative criteria sets for alcohol use disorders using statistical optimization: Results from the National Survey on Drug Use and Health.

Exp Clin Psychopharmacol 2018 Dec 17. Epub 2018 Dec 17.

Department of Psychological Sciences.

Much of the foundation of clinical practice, psychiatric epidemiology, and research into the etiology, course, prevention, and treatment of alcohol use disorder (AUD) rests on psychiatric diagnosis. However, existing research has failed to adequately exploit empirical techniques and existing databases to derive criteria considered optimal with respect to predicting external correlates. The current project adopts a novel approach to deriving new diagnostic criteria sets and rules for AUD. Read More

View Article
December 2018

Tobacco and cannabis co-use: Drug substitution, quit interest, and cessation preferences.

Exp Clin Psychopharmacol 2018 Dec 17. Epub 2018 Dec 17.

Battelle Public Health Center for Tobacco Research.

The co-use of tobacco and cannabis is a common practice worldwide and carries with it substantial public health burden. Few interventions exist that target both substances and little is known about quit interest, treatment preferences, and drug substitution during past cessation attempts, which is critical to guide the development of treatment strategies. The goal of this study was to provide descriptive information regarding quit interest, treatment preferences, and perceived drug substitution among adult (age 18 +) cannabis-tobacco co-users. Read More

View Article
December 2018

Early life adversity and increased delay discounting: Findings from the Family Health Patterns project.

Exp Clin Psychopharmacol 2018 Dec 17. Epub 2018 Dec 17.

Behavioral Sciences Laboratories, Veterans Affairs Medical Center.

Increased discounting (devaluing) of delayed rewards is associated with nearly all types of substance use disorders (SUDs) and is also present in individuals with family histories of SUDs. Early life adversity (ELA) likely contributes to these findings as it is common in both individuals with SUDs and their children and is linked to increased delay discounting and other neurocognitive impairments in human and animal studies. Here we examined data from 1192 healthy young adults (average age 23. Read More

View Article
December 2018

Substance use and social stability of homeless youth: A comparison of three interventions.

Psychol Addict Behav 2018 Dec;32(8):873-884

Department of Human Sciences, The Ohio State University.

The current study identified subgroups of homeless youth and young adults that exhibited distinct co-occurring patterns of substance use and social stability (e.g., employment, school attendance, and housing), and evaluated the relative effectiveness of the Community Reinforcement Approach (CRA), Motivational Enhancement Therapy (MET), and case management (CM) in interrupting substance use and improving social stability. Read More

View Article
December 2018

Collective ethnic-racial identity and health outcomes among African American youth: Examination of promotive and protective effects.

Cultur Divers Ethnic Minor Psychol 2018 Dec 17. Epub 2018 Dec 17.

Community Evaluation and Research Collaborative, Michigan State University.

Objectives: Racial discrimination is associated with numerous negative health outcomes, including increased risk for depression and anxiety symptoms and substance use. Positive affect toward of one's ethnic or racial group (i.e. Read More

View Article
December 2018

Cultural Perspectives on Tobacco Use and Cessation Among Chinese American Immigrants: A Community-Engaged Qualitative Study.

J Transcult Nurs 2018 Dec 17:1043659618817583. Epub 2018 Dec 17.

3 Chinese Consolidated Benevolent Association of New England, Boston, MA, USA.

Introduction: Tobacco use is a preventable cause of death among ethnic minorities. Chinese Americans have high smoking rates and underutilize evidence-based cessation therapies. Community members' perspectives on tobacco use and cessation may help bridge treatment gaps and ensure that cessation approaches are aligned with cultural values. Read More

View Article
December 2018

Canadian response to need for transformation of youth mental health services: ACCESS Open Minds (Esprits ouverts).

Early Interv Psychiatry 2018 Dec 16. Epub 2018 Dec 16.

ACCESS Open Minds (Pan-Canadian Youth Mental Health Services Research Network), Douglas Mental Health University Institute, Montréal, Québec, Canada.

Aim: Youth mental health is of paramount significance to society globally. Given early onset of mental disorders and the inadequate access to appropriate services, a meaningful service transformation, based on globally recognized principles, is necessary. The aim of this paper is to describe a national Canadian project designed to achieve transformation of mental health services and to evaluate the impact of such transformation on individual and system related outcomes. Read More

View Article
December 2018

A case-control genome wide association study of substance use disorder (SUD) identifies novel variants on chromosome 7p14.1 in patients from the United Arab Emirates (UAE).

Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet 2018 Dec 16. Epub 2018 Dec 16.

School of Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences, The University of Western Australia, Crawley, Western Australia, Australia.

Genome wide association studies (GWASs) have provided insights into the molecular basis of the disorder in different population. This study presents the first GWAS of substance use disorder (SUD) in patients from the United Arab Emirates (UAE). The aim was to identify genetic association(s) that may provide insights into the molecular basis of the disorder. Read More

View Article
December 2018

"Slime" dermatitis, a fad-associated chronic hand dermatitis.

Pediatr Dermatol 2018 Dec 16. Epub 2018 Dec 16.

Division of Dermatology, Children's National Health Center, Washington, District of Columbia.

"Slime" is the colloquial name for a non-Newtonian viscoelastic putty-like substance that is currently a popular plaything among pre-teens and adolescents. Several ingredients in homemade slime recipes may cause irritant or allergic contact dermatitis. We report two children who developed slime-associated chronic hand dermatitis, more prominently on their dominant hand. Read More

View Article
December 2018

Promoting Recovery Identities Among Mothers with Histories of Addiction: Strategies of Family Engagement.

Fam Process 2018 Dec 17. Epub 2018 Dec 17.

School of Social Service Administration, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL.

Changes in identity are critical to managing transitions to recovery from substance and alcohol addictions. Identity change is particularly important for mothers, whose recovery processes are often in the context of critical but complex family relationships and societal expectations. But research and practice often underestimate the relational dimensions that promote or inhibit changes in one's identity during recovery. Read More

View Article
December 2018

Outcomes among pregnant recently incarcerated women attending a reentry transitions clinic.

J Community Psychol 2018 Dec 17. Epub 2018 Dec 17.

University of Rochester School of Medicine.

This mixed methods retrospective case series and qualitative descriptive study describes pregnancy outcomes during the postincarceration period. A retrospective case series via electronic medical record chart review from a subset of women attending a postincarceration primary care clinic with a condition of interest (pregnancy) described demographics, substance use, diagnoses, and pregnancy outcomes. We compared 27 pregnant to 79 nonpregnant women and contextualized quantitative data with qualitative descriptive vignettes. Read More

View Article
December 2018

Toxic cutaneous responses from inhalant abuse.

JAAD Case Rep 2019 Jan 4;5(1):31-33. Epub 2018 Dec 4.

Department of Dermatology, Boonshoft School of Medicine, Wright State University, Dayton, Ohio.

View Article
January 2019

Spatial-Temporal Cellular Bioeffects from Acoustic Droplet Vaporization.

Theranostics 2018 10;8(20):5731-5743. Epub 2018 Nov 10.

Department of Biomedical Engineering and Environmental Sciences, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu, Taiwan.

One of the major challenges in developing acoustic droplet vaporization (ADV)-associated therapy as an effective and safe strategy is the precise determination of the spatial cellular bioeffects after ADV (cell death or cell membrane permeabilization). In this study, we combined high-speed camera imaging and live-cell microscopic imaging to observe the transient dynamics of droplets during ADV and to evaluate the mechanical force on cells. C6 glioma cells were co-incubated with DiI-labeled droplets (radius: 1. Read More

View Article
November 2018

Cascaded Electrochemiluminescence Signal Amplifier for the Detection of Telomerase Activity from Tumor Cells and Tissues.

Theranostics 2018 9;8(20):5625-5633. Epub 2018 Nov 9.

Program of Infection and Immunity, the Fifth Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University, Zhongshan School of Medicine, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangdong, China.

Telomerase is closely linked to the physiological transformation of tumor cells and is commonly overexpressed in most types of tumor cells. Therefore, telomerase has become a potential biomarker for the process of tumorigenesis, progression, prognosis and metastasis. Thus, it is important to develop a simple, accurate and reliable method for detecting telomerase activity. Read More

View Article
November 2018

Induction of Viable but Nonculturable O157:H7 by Low Temperature and Its Resuscitation.

Front Microbiol 2018 13;9:2728. Epub 2018 Nov 13.

Research Center for Environmental Ecology and Engineering, Key Laboratory for Green Chemical Process of Ministry of Education, Key Laboratory for Hubei Novel Reactor and Green Chemical Technology, School of Environmental Ecology and Biological Engineering, Wuhan Institute of Technology, Wuhan, China.

Viable but non-culturable (VBNC) cells are alive bacteria cells, but lose their culturability in conventional culture media, usually escape detection by the plate count method and pose a serious threat to food safety and public health. Therefore, it is urgent to study the VBNC status, and to provide theoretical basis and scientific basis for food processing and safety control caused by pathogenic microorganisms. In this study, O157:H7 was induced to the VBNC state at two different temperatures (-20°C and 4°C) and its resuscitation and morphological changes under different nutritional conditions were studied. Read More

View Article
November 2018

Recruitment and Retention of Homeless Youth in a Substance Use and HIV-risk Reduction Program.

Field methods 2018 Feb 25;30(1):22-36. Epub 2017 Sep 25.

RAND Corporation, Santa Monica, CA, USA.

Conducting intervention studies with homeless populations can be difficult, particularly in terms of retaining participants across multiple sessions and locating them for subsequent follow-up assessments. Homeless youth are even more challenging to engage due to substance use, mental health problems, wariness of authority figures, and frequent relocations. This article describes methods used to successfully recruit a sample of 200 homeless youth from two drop-in centers in Los Angeles, engage them in a four-session substance use and sexual risk reduction program (79% of youth attended multiple sessions), and retain 91% of the full sample at a three-month follow-up assessment. Read More

View Article
February 2018

Postassault Substance Use and Coping: A Qualitative Study of Sexual Assault Survivors and Informal Support Providers.

Alcohol Treat Q 2018 25;36(3):330-353. Epub 2018 Apr 25.

Department of Criminology, Law, and Justice, University of Illinois at Chicago.

This qualitative interview study examined 45 informal support dyads where a sexual assault was disclosed. Data from matched pairs of survivors and their primary informal support provider (e.g. Read More

View Article

Correlates of Treatment Readiness among Formerly Incarcerated Homeless Women.

Crim Justice Behav 2018 Jul 15;45(7):969-983. Epub 2018 May 15.

Treatment readiness is a key predictor of drug treatment completion, rearrest, and recidivism during community reentry; however, limited data exists among homeless, female ex-offenders (HFOs). The purpose of this study was to present baseline data from a randomized controlled trial of 130 HFOs who had been released from jail or prison. Over half (60. Read More

View Article

Roles of , , and in tumourigenic transformation of NIH3T3 cell.

J Genet 2018 Dec;97(5):1155-1168

State Key Laboratory Cultivation Base for Cell Differentiation Regulation, Henan Normal University, Xinxiang 453007, People's Republic of China.

To analyse the mechanism of tumourigenic transformation of NIH3T3 cells at the transcriptional level, we used cancerogen 3-methylcholanthrene (3-MCA) and cancerogenic substance phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA) to transform NIH3T3 cells and the assessment of transformation was performed using Giemsa staining and methylcellulose colony formation assay. Changes in gene expression profile were detected by Mouse Genome 430 2.0 microarray; and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting were used to verify the expression changes of mRNAs and proteins, respectively. Read More

View Article
December 2018

Using the emergency department to investigate smoking in young adults.

Ann Epidemiol 2018 Nov 24. Epub 2018 Nov 24.

Biostatistics Program, School of Public Health, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center, New Orleans, LA.

Purpose: Smoking in young adults identifies the population at risk for future tobacco-related disease. We investigated smoking in a young adult population and within high-risk groups using emergency department (ED) data in a metropolitan area.

Methods: Using the electronic health record, we performed a retrospective study of smoking in adults aged 18-30 years presenting to the ED. Read More

View Article
November 2018

Muscarinic agonist, (±)-quinuclidin-3-yl-(4-fluorophenethyl)(phenyl)carbamate: High affinity, but low subtype selectivity for human M - M muscarinic acetylcholine receptors.

Bioorg Med Chem Lett 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40536, United States. Electronic address:

Novel quinuclidinyl N-phenylcarbamate analogs were synthesized, and binding affinities at M-M muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (mAChR) subtypes were determined using Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell membranes stably expressing one specific subtype of human mAChR. Although not subtype selective, the lead analog (±)-quinuclidin-3-yl-(4-fluorophenethyl)(phenyl)carbamate (3c) exhibited the highest affinity (K = 2.0, 13, 2. Read More

View Article
December 2018

Quadriceps augmentation of undersized hamstrings during ACL reconstruction.

Knee 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

The University of Texas Medical Branch, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery and Rehabilitation, 301 University Blvd., Rt. 0165, Galveston, TX 77555-0165, United States of America.

Background: Double hamstring autograft for anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction is a well-established graft option; however, a major concern with this method arises when the prepared graft is too small. Resorting to allograft can be a solution to this problem, but some surgeons prefer to use autograft in particular situations and some patients may refuse allograft. We investigate the merits of using autogenous quadriceps tendons to augment the insufficient hamstrings and compare the autograft composite graft to a standard hamstrings graft of equal size. Read More

View Article
December 2018

A National Wastewater Monitoring Program for a better understanding of public health: A case study using the Australian Census.

Environ Int 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Queensland Alliance for Environmental Health Sciences, The University of Queensland, Woolloongabba, Queensland 4102, Australia.

Wastewater contains a large range of biological and chemical markers of human activity and exposures. Through systematic collection and analysis of these markers within wastewater samples it is possible to measure the public health of whole populations. The analysis of effluent and biosolids can also be used to understand the release of chemicals from wastewater treatment plants into the environment. Read More

View Article
December 2018

Proximate determinants of tuberculosis in Indigenous peoples worldwide: a systematic review.

Lancet Glob Health 2019 Jan;7(1):e68-e80

Respiratory Epidemiology and Clinical Research Unit, Montreal Chest Institute, Respiratory Division, McGill University, Montreal, QC, Canada.

Background: Indigenous peoples worldwide carry a disproportionate tuberculosis burden. There is an increasing awareness of the effect of social determinants and proximate determinants such as alcohol use, overcrowding, type 1 and type 2 diabetes, substance misuse, HIV, food insecurity and malnutrition, and smoking on the burden of tuberculosis. We aimed to understand the potential contribution of such determinants to tuberculosis in Indigenous peoples and to document steps taken to address them. Read More

View Article
January 2019

Benzodiazepine Use and Misuse Among Adults in the United States.

Psychiatr Serv 2018 Dec 17:appips201800321. Epub 2018 Dec 17.

Department of Psychiatry, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, and Center for Clinical Management Research, Department of Veterans Affairs Ann Arbor Healthcare System, Ann Arbor.

Objective:: Goals were to determine the prevalence of benzodiazepine use (as prescribed and misuse), characterize misuse, and examine variation by age.

Methods:: A cross-sectional analysis was conducted of 2015 and 2016 National Survey on Drug Use and Health data limited to adults ≥18 (N=86,186) and data from those respondents reporting benzodiazepine use (N=10,290). Measurements included past-year prescription benzodiazepine use and misuse ("any way a doctor did not direct"), substance use disorders, mental illness, and demographic characteristics. Read More

View Article
December 2018

Prevalence of recent fentanyl use among treated users of illicit opioids in England: based on piloted urine drug screens.

Clin Toxicol (Phila) 2018 Dec 16:1-4. Epub 2018 Dec 16.

b Centre for Mental Health and Safety , University of Manchester , Manchester , UK.

Objective: To use a pilot of national fentanyl screening to establish the current prevalence of recent fentanyl use among treated users of illicit opioids in the English treatment system and inform the design of a full study.

Design: Cross-sectional fentanyl metabolite urine screening in randomly-selected study sites, stratified to cover all nine geographical regions of England, supplemented with self-report subsequent to a positive fentanyl test.

Patients: 468 adult (18 years of age and above) patients receiving treatment for opioid use disorder, screened December 2017 to May 2018. Read More

View Article
December 2018

Association between prenatal opioid exposure, neonatal opioid withdrawal syndrome, and neurodevelopmental and behavioral outcomes at 5-8 months of age.

Early Hum Dev 2018 Dec 13;128:69-76. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Department of Family and Community Medicine, School of Medicine, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM, United States of America.

Background: While use of prescription opioids and medication assisted therapy (MAT) for opioid use disorder in pregnancy, as well as the incidence of neonatal opioid withdrawal syndrome (NOWS) continue to rise, little is known about outcomes for children with NOWS beyond the newborn period.

Methods: We examined 1) prenatal MAT exposure vs. unexposed healthy controls [HC]; and 2) treatment for NOWS and NOWS severity on infant neurodevelopmental and behavioral outcomes at 5-8 months of age in 78 maternal-infant pairs from the ENRICH prospective cohort study. Read More

View Article
December 2018

Electrochemical behavior of titanium and platinum in dicarboxilic amino acids solution.

Bioelectrochemistry 2018 Dec 4;126:113-120. Epub 2018 Dec 4.

Irkutsk State University, 1, K.Marx Str., Irkutsk 664003, Russia. Electronic address:

Titanium and platinum samples as components of bimetallic implants for the osteoregeneration process have been modified in solutions modeling biological systems and studied by means of cyclic voltammetry, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and scanning probe microscopy. While aspartic and glutamic acids did not adsorb significantly on platinum in the potential region investigated, the presence of the amino acids affects oxide layer growth on the titanium surface under anodic polarization. The two studied amino acids behave differently on the titanium electrode surface due to differences in adsorption modes of these substances. Read More

View Article
December 2018

Typology of cannabis use among adults: A latent class approach to risk and protective factors.

Addict Behav 2018 Dec 10;92:6-13. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

University of Houston, Department of Psychology, Houston, TX, United States; The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Department of Behavioral Science, Houston, TX, United States. Electronic address:

Background: Cannabis is among the most widely used substances worldwide. The United States has seen an increase in the number of adult daily cannabis users and in the number of adults diagnosed with cannabis use disorder. However, little work has examined patterns of use or unique subgroups of adult cannabis users, which may be useful in developing targeted treatment interventions for problematic cannabis users. Read More

View Article
December 2018
3 Reads

Shifting characteristics of nonmedical prescription tranquilizer users in the United States, 2005-2014.

Drug Alcohol Depend 2018 Dec 8;195:1-5. Epub 2018 Dec 8.

Columbia University, Department of Epidemiology, Mailman School of Public Health, New York, NY, USA.

Background: Benzodiazepine overdose rates have increased in the US, largely from concomitant use of other drugs such as opioids. Studies are needed to examine trends in prescription tranquilizer (e.g. Read More

View Article
December 2018

Interpersonal-Level Discrimination Indices, Sociodemographic Factors, and Telomere Length in African-Americans and Whites.

Biol Psychol 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Laboratory of Epidemiology and Population Sciences, National Institute on Aging, Baltimore, MD, USA.

Objective: Studies have linked self-reported discrimination to telomere attrition, a biological marker of accelerated cellular aging. However, it is unknown whether intersections between social categories-race, socioeconomic status (SES), sex, and age-influence the association of varying forms of discrimination with telomere length. We examined these associations in a socioeconomically and racially/ethnically diverse urban sample. Read More

View Article
December 2018

Expression of calretinin among different neurochemical classes of interneuron in the superficial dorsal horn of the mouse spinal cord.

Neuroscience 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Institute of Neuroscience and Psychology, College of Medical, Veterinary and Life Sciences, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, G12 8QQ, UK. Electronic address:

Around 75% of neurons in laminae I-II of the mouse dorsal horn are excitatory interneurons, and these are required for normal pain perception. We have shown that four largely non-overlapping excitatory interneuron populations can be defined by expression of the neuropeptides neurotensin, neurokinin B (NKB), gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP) and substance P. In addition, we recently identified a population of excitatory interneurons in glabrous skin territory that express dynorphin. Read More

View Article
December 2018
1 Read

The association between the longitudinal course of common mental disorders and subsequent physical activity status in young adults: A 30-year birth cohort study.

J Psychiatr Res 2018 Dec 6;109:173-177. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Queensland Centre for Mental Health Research, The Park Centre for Mental Health, Wacol, Australia; School of Public Health, The University of Queensland, Herston, Australia; Metro North Mental Health, Royal Brisbane and Women's Hospital, Herston, Australia.

Low physical activity is a major public health concern. There has been extensive research examining the role of physical activity as a potentially modifiable risk factor for the onset of mental illness. However, fewer studies have reported how mental disorders affect future physical activity. Read More

View Article
December 2018
2 Reads

Predictors of self-harm emergency department visits in adolescents: A statewide longitudinal study.

Gen Hosp Psychiatry 2018 Dec 8;56:28-35. Epub 2018 Dec 8.

Violence Prevention Research Program, University of California, Davis, Sacramento, CA 95817, USA. Electronic address:

Objective: This study investigated patient- and area-level characteristics associated with adolescent emergency department (ED) patients' risk of subsequent ED visits for self-harm.

Method: Retrospective analysis of adolescent patients presenting to a California ED in 2010 (n = 480,706) was conducted using statewide, all-payer, individually linkable administrative data. We examined associations between multiple predictors of interest (patient sociodemographic factors, prior ED utilization, and residential mobility; and area-level characteristics) and odds of a self-harm ED visit in 2010. Read More

View Article
December 2018

Plasma and erythrocyte ω-3 and ω-6 fatty acids are associated with multiple inflammatory and oxidative stress biomarkers in breast cancer.

Nutrition 2018 Aug 21;58:194-200. Epub 2018 Aug 21.

Nutrition Department, Faculdade de Saúde Pública, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil. Electronic address:

Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess the association of plasma and erythrocyte ω-3 and ω-6 fatty acids with multiple oxidative stress biomarkers in breast cancer patients.

Methods: Ninety-five women with recently diagnosed breast cancer and no previous treatment were selected for this study. The socioeconomic, clinical, and demographic profile of the patients was determined using a structured questionnaire and medical records. Read More

View Article
August 2018
2 Reads

Automated small-scale in vitro transfer model as screening tool for the prediction of in vivo-dissolution and precipitation of poorly solubles.

Int J Pharm 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Institute of Pharmacy, Department of Biopharmaceutics and Pharmaceutical Technology, University of Greifswald, Felix-Hausdorff-Strasse 3, 17489 Greifswald, Germany. Electronic address:

Precipitation testing, especially for weakly basic APIs, represents a key parameter in drug substance characterization during early development stages, where the amount of API available is limited. Therefore, it was the aim of this study to develop an automated small-scale in vitro transfer model to characterize the supersaturation and precipitation behavior of two poorly water-soluble drugs. Following automation and scale-down of the standard transfer model, the developed small-scale model was used to assess the impact of gastrointestinal variability, i. Read More

View Article
December 2018