259,395 results match your criteria Substance Abuse Treatment Prevention and Policy [Journal]


Influence of Gamma-Hydroxybutyric Acid-Use and Gamma-Hydroxybutyric Acid-Induced Coma on Affect and the Affective Network.

Eur Addict Res 2019 Apr 18:1-9. Epub 2019 Apr 18.

Department of Psychiatry, Amsterdam Neuroscience, Amsterdam UMC, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Background: Gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) is a drug of abuse associated with increased emergency room attendances, due to GHB-induced comas. Withdrawal from GHB often increases social anxiety and is linked to alterations in emotion processing. However, little is known about the effects of GHB-use and GHB-induced comas on affect regulation in humans. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000497381DOI Listing

Parental views on state cannabis laws and marijuana use for their medically vulnerable children.

Drug Alcohol Depend 2019 Feb 14;199:59-67. Epub 2019 Feb 14.

Division of Adolescent and Young Adult Medicine, Boston Children's Hospital, Boston, MA, United States; Department of Pediatrics, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, United States.

Background: Given a rapidly changing policy landscape, we sought to characterize the effects of state marijuana laws on parents' views of marijuana use by their teenage children.

Methods: Data are from 595 respondents to a nationally administered, web-based survey of parents of adolescents (ages 13-18 years) with any of three chronic conditions (type 1 diabetes, rheumatic disease, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder). Multivariate ordinal logistic regression was used to model the effects of parents' reports of state cannabis laws on their views toward marijuana use by their child. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2018.12.027DOI Listing
February 2019

The role of phytochromes in Nicotiana tabacum against Chilli veinal mottle virus.

Plant Physiol Biochem 2019 Apr 5;139:470-477. Epub 2019 Apr 5.

Key Laboratory of Bio-Resource and Eco-Environment of Ministry of Education, College of Life Sciences, Sichuan University, Chengdu, 610065, Sichuan, PR China. Electronic address:

It has been reported that phytochrome A (phyA) and phytochrome B (phyB) are potent regulators of plant defense. However, the mechanisms that phytochromes use to interfere with plant resistance to viral infection remain largely unclear. In this study, Chilli veinal mottle virus (ChiVMV) was used to investigate the role of phytochromes in response to biotic stress. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.plaphy.2019.04.002DOI Listing

Transcriptome signatures of the Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei hepatopancreas in response to stress in biofloc culture systems.

Fish Shellfish Immunol 2019 Apr 15. Epub 2019 Apr 15.

The Key Laboratory of Mariculture, Ministry of Education, Ocean University of China, Qingdao, 266003, People's Republic of China; Function Laboratory for Marine Fisheries Science and Food Production Processes, Qingdao National Laboratory for Marine Science and Technology, Qingdao, Shandong Province, 266235, China.

Comparative transcriptome analysis via high throughput sequencing was applied to gain knowledge on the immune response in Litopenaeus vannamei reared in biofloc technology systems (BFT). Two types of carbon sources, namely, traditional carbon sources (molasses) and biodegradable polymers [hydroxybutyric acid-co-3-hydroxyvaleric acid (PHBV)] were used in BFT systems. Clear water systems without the addition of carbon sources were treated as the control. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fsi.2019.04.043DOI Listing

Epigenetic regulation of immediate-early gene Nr4a2/Nurr1 in the medial habenula during reinstatement of cocaine-associated behavior.

Neuropharmacology 2019 Apr 15. Epub 2019 Apr 15.

Department of Neurobiology and Behavior, School of Biological Sciences University of California, Irvine, USA; UC Irvine Center for Addiction Neuroscience, School of Biological Sciences, University of California, Irvine, USA; Center for the Neurobiology of Learning and Memory, School of Biological Sciences, University of California, Irvine, USA. Electronic address:

Propensity to relapse following long-periods of abstinence is a key feature of substance use disorder. Drugs of abuse, such as cocaine, cause long-term changes in the neural circuitry regulating reward, motivation, and memory processes through dysregulation of various molecular mechanisms, including epigenetic regulation of activity-dependent gene expression. Underlying drug-induced changes to neural circuit function are the molecular mechanisms regulating activity-dependent gene expression. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuropharm.2019.04.016DOI Listing

Omega-3 fatty acids protects against chronic sleep-deprivation induced memory impairment.

Life Sci 2019 Apr 15. Epub 2019 Apr 15.

Department of Clinical Pharmacy, Jordan University of Science and Technology, Irbid, Jordan.

Aims: The current study aims to evaluate the possible protective effect of omega-3 fatty acids on memory impairment induced by sleep-deprivation in rats.

Materials And Methods: Animals were chronically sleep deprived using the modified multiple platform model (8 h/day for 8 weeks). Omega-3 fatty acids were administered as fish oil via oral gavage at a daily dose of 100 mg omega-3 PUFA/100 g BWT. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S00243205193028
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.lfs.2019.04.028DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Incidence and factors associated with substance abuse and patient-related violence in the emergency department: A literature review.

Australas Emerg Care 2018 Nov 2;21(4):159-170. Epub 2018 Nov 2.

Austin Clinical School of Nursing, La Trobe University, Heidelberg, Victoria, Australia.

Background: The level of workplace violence in emergency departments worldwide has reached an alarming level. Substance abuse is thought to play a major part in the escalation of aggressive and violent behaviour and is suspected to be responsible for the majority of violent escalations in the emergency department. The aim of this scoping review was (1) to investigate the incidence of workplace violence in the emergency department, their association to substance abuse and (2) to identify factors associated with workplace violence such as perpetrator characteristics and environmental factors. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.auec.2018.10.004DOI Listing
November 2018

Barriers to providing optimal management of psychiatric patients in the emergency department (psychiatric patient management).

Australas Emerg Care 2019 Mar 29;22(1):8-12. Epub 2019 Jan 29.

Emergency Department, Austin Hospital, Studley Road, Heidelberg, Vic 3084, Australia; Department of Medicine, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Vic 3052, Australia. Electronic address:

Background: We aimed to determine the barriers to optimal management of psychiatric patients in the emergency department (ED).

Methods: We undertook an observational study in a tertiary referral ED with a 24h acute psychiatric nursing service (February to April, 2017). Following patient discharge, the attending psychiatric nurse completed a validated questionnaire to determine the barriers they encountered with their patient. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.auec.2019.01.001DOI Listing

Toward a Positive Psychology of Immigrants.

Perspect Psychol Sci 2019 Apr 18:1745691619825848. Epub 2019 Apr 18.

6 Department of Educational Methodology, Policy, and Leadership, University of Oregon.

The vast majority of immigration-focused research in psychology is rooted in deficit models that center on negative health outcomes (e.g., depression, acculturative stress, anxiety, substance use), resulting in a widely held assumption that immigrants are at greater risk for pathology and poor well-being compared with native-born individuals. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1745691619825848DOI Listing

Conscience and Religious Freedom Division Marks Its First Anniversary with Action.

Authors:
Sandra H Johnson

Hastings Cent Rep 2019 Mar;49(2):4-5

In January 2018, the Trump administration established the Conscience and Religious Freedom Division within the Department of Health and Human Services' Office of Civil Rights with the explicit goal of intensifying legal protection of religious and conscience objections in health care. The establishment of OCR's new division illustrates the significant powers of administrative agencies to mold the substance of law without seeking legislative action. The mere formation of a division dedicated to protecting conscience rights is already having a significant impact; it is causing health care entities, including hospitals, research organizations, and clinics, to change policies and practices to comply with the declared enforcement strategy. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/hast.986DOI Listing

Multidimensional latent structure of risk-related phenotypes in healthy young adults.

Exp Clin Psychopharmacol 2019 Apr 18. Epub 2019 Apr 18.

Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Neuroscience.

Risk-taking behavior can result in a range of maladaptive behaviors such as illicit substance use, unsafe driving, and high-risk sexual behavior. Perception of risk and preference for engaging in risky behaviors have been measured using both self-report measures and a range of behavioral tasks designed for the purpose, and these may predict future risk-taking behavior. However, the interrelationships between these measures and the latent constructs underlying them are poorly understood. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/pha0000282DOI Listing

Recovery dialects: A pilot study of stigmatizing and nonstigmatizing label use by individuals in recovery from substance use disorders.

Exp Clin Psychopharmacol 2019 Apr 18. Epub 2019 Apr 18.

National Institute on Drug Abuse.

Previous research has found language used to describe individuals with a substance use disorder (SUD; e.g., "addict," "substance abuser") contributes to and elicits negative bias among the general public and health care professionals. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/pha0000286DOI Listing

Sudachitin Inhibits Matrix Metalloproteinase-1 and -3 Production in Tumor Necrosis Factor-α-Stimulated Human Periodontal Ligament Cells.

Inflammation 2019 Apr 17. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

Department of Conservative Dentistry, Institute of Biomedical Sciences, Tokushima University Graduate School, 3-18-15 Kuramoto-cho, Tokushima, 770-8504, Japan.

Sudachitin, a polymethoxylated flavonoid found in the skin of Citrus sudachi, is a biologically active substance. The aim of this study was to examine whether sudachitin could be used to inhibit the expression of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-1 and MMP-3, which are involved in the destruction of periodontal tissues in periodontal lesions, in tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α-stimulated human periodontal ligament cells (HPDLC). Sudachitin suppressed TNF-α-induced MMP-1 and MMP-3 production in HPDLC. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10753-019-01007-zDOI Listing

Two amino acids missing of MtrA resulted in increased erythromycin level and altered phenotypes in Saccharopolyspora erythraea.

Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 2019 Apr 17. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

Lab of Biosystems and Microanalysis, State Key Laboratory of Bioreactor Engineering, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai, 200237, China.

The MtrA-MtrB two-component regulatory system is highly conserved in Actinobacteria and plays crucial roles in cell cycle progression, cell morphology, antibiotic resistance, and osmoprotection. Previously, we revealed that the MtrA protein of Saccharopolyspora erythraea E3 strain (a high erythromycin-producing strain) had a two amino acid (H197 and V198) deletion in the DNA recognition helices of the C-terminal domain compared to the wild type S. erythraea strain NRRL2338. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00253-019-09825-9DOI Listing

Rationally synthesized coumarin based pyrazolines ameliorate carrageenan induced inflammation through COX-2/pro-inflammatory cytokine inhibition.

Medchemcomm 2019 Mar 23;10(3):421-430. Epub 2019 Jan 23.

Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry , ISF College of Pharmacy , Moga-142001 , Punjab , India . Email: ; ; Tel: +91 1636 324200.

In the present work, coumarin based pyrazolines () have been synthesized and investigated for their and anti-inflammatory potential. Amongst the synthesized compounds, compounds , and exhibited significant anti-inflammatory activity as compared to the standard etoricoxib. Keeping this in mind, investigations were carried out carrageenan induced inflammation and acetic acid induced writhing models in male Wistar rats and compound was found to possess appreciable anti-inflammatory and analgesic potential. Read More

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http://xlink.rsc.org/?DOI=C8MD00457A
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c8md00457aDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6430084PMC
March 2019
1 Read

Life projects: the transformative potential of direct-acting antiviral treatment for hepatitis C among people who inject drugs.

Int J Drug Policy 2019 Apr 15. Epub 2019 Apr 15.

Oregon State University, 2520 SW Campus Way, 118C Milam Hall, Corvallis, OR, 97331, United States.

Background And Objectives: People who inject drugs (PWID) are disproportionately affected by chronic hepatitis C (HCV) in high-income countries. The advent of direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) makes treatment of this underserved population more possible than ever. The dearth of programs adapted to the needs of PWID and stigma associated with drug use and chronic HCV pose significant barriers to the effective uptake of treatment among this population. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.drugpo.2019.03.015DOI Listing

Cellulolytic Enzyme Production by Three Fungi Grown in a Ground Corn Cob Medium .

J Food Prot 1989 Apr;52(4):248-251

Department of Food Science and Nutrition, University of Missouri-Columbia, 122 Eckles Hall, Columbia, MO 65211.

Trichoderma reesei NRRL 11236, Trichoderma viride ATCC 32630, Trichoderma viride ATCC 32098 and Myrothecium verrucaria ATCC 9095 were evaluated for the production of toxic substances with the fertile egg tests. Strains NRRL 11236, ATCC 32630, and ATCC 9095 produced no detectable toxic substance. However, when an oil extract was made of fermented corn cobs, strain ATCC 32098 produced a significant kill of 23. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4315/0362-028X-52.4.248DOI Listing

Accurately quantifying the reductive capacity of microbial extracellular polymeric substance by mediated electrochemical oxidation method.

Sci Total Environ 2019 Apr 10;673:541-545. Epub 2019 Apr 10.

CAS Key Laboratory of Urban Pollutant Conversion, Department of Applied Chemistry, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, 230026, China. Electronic address:

The reductive capacity of microbial extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) plays important roles in environmental processes involved in heavy metal detoxification and organic contaminant degradation. However, the crucial parameter to evaluate the reductive capacity of EPS, electron donating capacity (EDC) lacks a quantitative approach. In this study, a novel mediated electrochemical oxidation (MEO) method was developed to investigate the EDCs of microbial EPS extracted from Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 (S. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2019.04.130DOI Listing

Schekwanglupaside C, a new lupane saponin from Schefflera kwangsiensis, is a potent activator of sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca-ATPase.

Fitoterapia 2019 Apr 14. Epub 2019 Apr 14.

State Key Laboratory of Natural Medicines and Department of Pharmacology, School of Traditional Chinese Pharmacy, China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing 211198, PR China. Electronic address:

Schefflera kwangsiensis Merr. ex H.L. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fitote.2019.04.005DOI Listing

Strength training and running elicit different neuroprotective outcomes in a β-amyloid peptide-mediated Alzheimer's disease model.

Physiol Behav 2019 Apr 14. Epub 2019 Apr 14.

Applied Neuromechanics Group, Federal University of Pampa, Uruguaiana, 97501-970, Brazil. Electronic address:

Aerobic exercise induces neuroprotection, but few studies investigated whether strength training has similar potential. Here we examine whether effects of strength training differ from those of running training concerning cognitive symptomatology, oxidative stress and cholinergic status in a model of AD-like cognitive impairment induced by intrahippocampal infusion of a mix of β-amyloid peptides (Aβ) in rats. Male Wistar rats were submitted to 8 weeks of running exercise (RunEx; 40 min sessions at 70% of indirect VO max, 3 times/week) or strength exercise (StrEx; 3 sessions/week, 12 repetitions in 8 sets, 2 sets with repetitions at 50%, 2 at 75%, 2 at 90% and 2 at 100% of the maximum load), followed by Aβ infusion in the dorsal hippocampus. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.physbeh.2019.04.012DOI Listing

Restoring retinal neurovascular health via substance P.

Exp Cell Res 2019 Apr 14. Epub 2019 Apr 14.

Academic Unit of Ophthalmology, Bristol Medical School, University of Bristol, Bristol, UK; National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) Biomedical Research Centre at Moorfields Eye Hospital and University College London Institute of Ophthalmology, London, UK. Electronic address:

Regulation of vascular permeability plays a major role in the pathophysiology of visually threatening conditions such as retinal vein occlusion and diabetic retinopathy. Principally, several factors such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), are up-regulated or induced in response to hypoxia thus adversely affecting the blood-retinal barrier (BRB), resulting in retinal edema and neovascularisation. Furthermore, current evidence supports a dysregulation of the inner retinal neural-vascular integrity as a critical factor driving retinal ganglion cell (RGC) death and visual loss. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S00144827193015
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.yexcr.2019.04.008DOI Listing
April 2019
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Impact of abstinence and of reducing illicit drug use without abstinence on HIV viral load.

Clin Infect Dis 2019 Apr 17. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

University of Washington, Seattle, WA.

Background: Substance use is common among people living with HIV (PLWH) and a barrier to achieving viral suppression.

Objective: Among PLWH who report illicit drug use, we evaluated associations between HIV viral load (VL) and reduced use of illicit opioids, methamphetamine/crystal, cocaine/crack, and marijuana, regardless of whether or not abstinence was achieved.

Design: Longitudinal cohort studySetting/participantsPLWH in clinical care at 8 HIV clinics or 5 clinical studies. Read More

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https://academic.oup.com/cid/advance-article/doi/10.1093/cid
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciz299DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Simultaneous Quantification of Chlorpheniramine, Phenylephrine, Guaifenesin in Presence of Preservatives with Detection of Related Substance Guaiacol in their Cough Syrup by RP-HPLC and TLC-Densitometric Methods.

J Chromatogr Sci 2019 Apr 17. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

Analytical Chemistry Department, Faculty of Pharmacy, Cairo University, Kasr El-Aini Street, Cairo 11562, Egypt.

Two sensitive chromatographic methods have been developed, and validated for chlorpheniramine maleate (CM), phenylephrine (PE) and guaifenesin (GF) determination in their mixture and in presence of GF related substance guaiacol (GL) and preservative namely; sodium benzoate (NaB). The first method was based on thin layer chromatographic separation (TLC) followed by densitometric determination of the separated spots. The separation was achieved using silica gel 60 F254 TLC plates and ethyl acetate: methanol: toluene: ammonia (7:1. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/chromsci/bmz027DOI Listing

Comparison of Smartphone Ownership, Social Media Use, and Willingness to Use Digital Interventions Between Generation Z and Millennials in the Treatment of Substance Use: Cross-Sectional Questionnaire Study.

J Med Internet Res 2019 Apr 17;21(4):e13050. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

Department of Psychology and Neuroscience, Baylor University, Waco, TX, United States.

Background: Problematic substance use in adolescence and emerging adulthood is a significant public health concern in the United States due to high recurrence of use rates and unmet treatment needs coupled with increased use. Consequently, there is a need for both improved service utilization and availability of recovery supports. Given the ubiquitous use of the internet and social media via smartphones, a viable option is to design digital treatments and recovery support services to include internet and social media platforms. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2196/13050DOI Listing

Cannabis Use among Patients in a Rural Academic Palliative Care Clinic.

J Palliat Med 2019 Apr 17. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

1 Geisel School of Medicine, Dartmouth College, Hanover, New Hampshire.

Therapeutic cannabis is being more widely used by patients to manage multiple symptoms, but the patterns of use in the palliative care population are not well defined. The primary aim of this pilot study was to describe the use of cannabis among patients attending a palliative care clinic (PCC). The study was a retrospective chart review of patients seen at four different interval points during 2017 and 2018 in an ambulatory palliative care setting. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/jpm.2018.0534DOI Listing
April 2019
2 Reads

Pilot Evaluation of a Conservation Corps Program for Young Adults.

Int J Offender Ther Comp Criminol 2019 Apr 17:306624X19843424. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

3 University of California, Irvine, USA.

Education and employment programs may be effective at reducing problem behaviors among at-risk young adults. This pilot study evaluated whether participants in a Conservation Corps program ( N = 100) showed changes in antisocial behavior, gang membership, and substance use during the program. Participants were young adults between 18 and 24 years who were predominantly male (60%) and ethnic minority (62% Latino; 31% African American). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0306624X19843424DOI Listing

Xanthatin inhibits STAT3 and NF-κB signalling by covalently binding to JAK and IKK kinases.

J Cell Mol Med 2019 Apr 16. Epub 2019 Apr 16.

Shanghai Institute of Materia Medica, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai, PR China.

Aberrant activation of the signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) and the nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) signalling pathways is associated with the development of cancer and inflammatory diseases. JAKs and IKKs are the key regulators in the STAT3 and NF-κB signalling respectively. Therefore, the two families of kinases have been the major targets for developing drugs to regulate the two signalling pathways. Read More

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https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/jcmm.14322
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jcmm.14322DOI Listing
April 2019
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The role of sensory innervation in cornea-lens regeneration.

Dev Dyn 2019 Apr 17. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

University of Illinois, Department of Cell and Developmental Biology, Urbana, Illinois.

Background: Numerous sensory nerves in the cornea contribute to normal tissue homeostasis. Interestingly, cells within the basal corneal epithelium can regenerate new lenses in the frog, Xenopus. In this study, we investigated whether cornea sensory nerves or their neuropeptides are important for supporting cornea-lens regeneration. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/dvdy.42DOI Listing

Initiation Sequence of E-Cigarette and Cigarette Smoking among US Adolescents: A National Study.

Am J Addict 2019 Apr 16. Epub 2019 Apr 16.

Center for the Study of Drugs, Alcohol, Smoking, and Health, Department of Health Behavior and Biological Sciences, School of Nursing, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan.

Background And Objectives: The primary objectives were to: (1) examine the initiation sequence of e-cigarette use and cigarette smoking; (2) assess other substance use as a function of the initiation sequence of e-cigarettes and cigarettes; and (3) investigate the role of early e-cigarette initiation among US secondary school students.

Methods: Data were collected via self-administered questionnaires from independent 2015 and 2016 nationally representative cross-sectional samples of 8th grade, 10th grade, and 12th grade students (N = 36 410).

Results: The lifetime initiation sequence included: (1) e-cigarette use before cigarette smoking (1. Read More

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https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/ajad.12886
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ajad.12886DOI Listing
April 2019
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Reciprocal Effects of Alcohol Use and Violence Perpetration Among Early Adolescents in Mexico: A Gendered Analysis.

J Youth Adolesc 2019 Apr 16. Epub 2019 Apr 16.

Global Center for Applied Health Research, Arizona State University, 411 N. Central Ave., Suite 720, Phoenix, AZ, 85004, USA.

Although substance use and violent behaviors often emerge together in adolescence, and both have similar widely cited causes and negative consequences for development, it remains unclear whether and how they may be linked causally. This study of early adolescents in Mexico's three largest cities tested whether alcohol use and violence perpetration are temporally related, whether their relationship is unidirectional or reciprocal, and whether the relationship differs by gender and the type of violence. The study employed longitudinal data from seventh grade students (N = 4830; M age = 12. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10964-019-01014-1DOI Listing

Relationship between Bullying, Substance Use, Psychiatric Disorders, and Social Problems in a Sample of Kenyan Secondary Schools.

Prev Sci 2019 Apr 16. Epub 2019 Apr 16.

Africa Mental Health Research and Training Foundation, Mawensi Road, Off Elgon road, Mawensi Garden, Nairobi, Kenya.

We aimed to investigate how direct bullying and victimization relate with substance use, the presence of psychiatric disorders, poor school performance, disruptive behaviors, and social problems among secondary school students. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 20 randomly selected mixed-day secondary school students in forms one to three in Machakos County, equivalent to students in grades 1 to 11. From a random starting point, every sixth student in the class was invited to participate. Read More

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http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s11121-019-01014-4
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11121-019-01014-4DOI Listing
April 2019
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Will worker DNELs derived under the European REACH regulation extend the landscape of occupational exposure guidance values?

Arch Toxicol 2019 Apr 16. Epub 2019 Apr 16.

Integrative Toxicology, Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.

Derived no-effect levels for workers (wDNELs) under the European REACH legislation have many aspects in common with occupational exposure limits (OELs). In an attempt to examine under which circumstances wDNELs might be used as exposure guidance outside their intended application, we compared derivation methods, coverage of substances and numerical values of wDNELs against two regulatory OEL lists (European Commission and Sweden) and three sets of recommendations (European SCOEL, German MAK and US ACGIH). Finally, we looked closer at wDNELs where SCOEL concluded that data were insufficient to derive an OEL. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00204-019-02439-0DOI Listing

The unethicality of doping in sports.

Clin Ter 2019 Mar-Apr;170(2):e100-e101

School of Law, University of Camerino, Camerino, Italy.

Performance enhancing drug use in sport arguably constitutes a crisis, and as such, targeted measures are needed in order to stem it. Substance abuse in professional sports and competitions has besmirched many world-class athletes' reputations and standing, in addition to jeopardizing their health. Furthermore, there are many instances of amateur athletes and school-aged competitors who have taken to using such substances as well, significantly exacerbating the overall picture. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.7417/CT.2019.2117DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Electrocatalytic N-to-NH conversion with high faradaic efficiency enabled using a Bi nanosheet array.

Chem Commun (Camb) 2019 Apr 17. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

Institute of Fundamental and Frontier Sciences, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu 610054, Sichuan, China. and Chemical Synthesis and Pollution Control, Key Laboratory of Sichuan Province, School of Chemistry and Chemical engineering, China West Normal University, Nanchong 637002, Sichuan, China.

Electrocatalytic N2 reduction represents a promising alternative to the conventional Haber-Bosch process for ambient N2-to-NH3 fixation, but it is severely challenged by competitive hydrogen evolution, which limits the current efficiency for NH3 formation. In this work, a nanosheet array of metallic Bi, an environmentally benign elemental substance previously predicted theoretically to have low hydrogen-evolving activity, is proposed as a superior catalyst for N2 reduction electrocatalysis. Electrochemical tests show that the Bi nanosheet array on Cu foil as a stable 3D catalyst electrode achieves a high faradaic efficiency of 10. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c9cc01703hDOI Listing

An efficient and concise access to 2-amino-4-benzothiopyran-4-one derivatives.

Beilstein J Org Chem 2019 18;15:703-709. Epub 2019 Mar 18.

State Key Laboratory of Bioactive Substance and Function of Natural Medicines & Beijing Key Laboratory of Active Substance Discovery and Druggability Evaluation, Institute of Materia Medica, Peking Union Medical College and Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, 1 Xian Nong Tan Street, Beijing 100050, P. R. China.

A highly efficient and convenient protocol was developed to access 2-amino-4-benzothiopyran-4-ones through a process of conjugated addition-elimination. The sulfinyl group was proved to be the optimum leaving group by thorough investigations on the elimination of sulfide, sulfinyl, and sulfonyl groups at the 2-position of benzothiopyranone. Most 2-aminobenzothiopyranones were obtained in good to excellent yields under refluxing in isopropanol within 36 h. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3762/bjoc.15.65DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6444430PMC

Mental Healthcare Act, 2017, and addiction treatment: Potential pitfalls and trepidations.

Indian J Psychiatry 2019 Mar-Apr;61(2):208-212

Department of Psychiatry, National Drug Dependence Treatment Centre, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India.

The Mental Healthcare Act (MHCA), 2017, is enacted with an aim to promote and protect the rights of and improve the care and treatment for people affected by mental illness in India. The Act purportedly includes substance use disorder (SUD) specifically in the definition of mental illness itself. However, some of the phrases used in the definition such as "abuse" are not clear, as the current classificatory systems of mental illnesses do not have any diagnostic category termed "abuse. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/psychiatry.IndianJPsychiatry_463_18DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6425793PMC

Study of family burden in substance dependence: A tertiary care hospital-based study.

Indian J Psychiatry 2019 Mar-Apr;61(2):131-138

Department of Psychiatry, Guru Gobind Singh Medical College, Faridkot, Punjab, India.

Background: A substance-dependent person affects almost all aspects of family life, for example, interpersonal and social relationships, leisure time activities, and finances. Substance dependence invariably increases conflicts, negatively affects family members, and burdens the families.

Aims And Objectives: To assess family burden perceived by primary caretakers (PCTs) of individuals with substance dependence and relevant clinico-socio-demographic profile of individuals as well as PCTs. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/psychiatry.IndianJPsychiatry_123_15DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6425802PMC

Transcriptomic analysis reveals differences in the regulation of amino acid metabolism in asexual and sexual planarians.

Sci Rep 2019 Apr 16;9(1):6132. Epub 2019 Apr 16.

Department of Biology, Faculty of Agriculture and Life Science, Hirosaki University, 3 Bunkyo-cho, Hirosaki, Aomori, 036-8561, Japan.

Many flatworms can alternate between asexual and sexual reproduction. This is a powerful reproductive strategy enabling them to benefit from the features of the two reproductive modes, namely, rapid multiplication and genetic shuffling. The two reproductive modes are enabled by the presence of pluripotent adult stem cells (neoblasts), by generating any type of tissue in the asexual mode, and producing and maintaining germ cells in the sexual mode. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-019-42025-zDOI Listing

Ten Years After the ADA Amendment Act (2008): The Relationship Between ADA Employment Discrimination and Substance Use Disorders.

Psychiatr Serv 2019 Apr 17:appips201800574. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

Division of Law, Ethics, and Psychiatry (Aoun and Appelbaum) and Center for Research on Ethical, Legal, and Social Implications of Psychiatric, Neurologic, and Behavioral Genetics (Appelbaum), Department of Psychiatry, Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York.

Objective: Title I of the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) provides protection against discrimination on the basis of disability. This article explores how the courts have dealt with provisions limiting these protections for persons with substance use disorders. Specifically, the ADA allows employees with substance use disorders to be held to the same standards as other employees, suggesting that employers may not be required to provide reasonable accommodations. Read More

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https://psychiatryonline.org/doi/10.1176/appi.ps.201800574
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1176/appi.ps.201800574DOI Listing
April 2019
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Psychiatric Manifestations With Sacubitril/Valsartan: A Case Report.

J Pharm Pract 2019 Apr 16:897190019842700. Epub 2019 Apr 16.

1 University of Texas at Tyler, Ben and Maytee Fisch College of Pharmacy, Tyler, TX, USA.

Sacubitril/valsartan is an angiotensin receptor-neprilysin inhibitor approved for the treatment of heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF). Valsartan is well studied, but sacubitril has much left to understand. This report describes a 31-year-old African American female diagnosed with HFrEF who presented with a 7-day history of psychiatric symptoms following a dose increase in sacubitril/valsartan. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0897190019842700DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Justice or Injustice: a History and Critique of the New York State Justice Center for the Protection of People with Special Needs.

Albany Law Rev 2017;80(3):1181-225

Albany Law School.

The creation of the New York State Justice Center for the Protection of People with Special Needs ("Justice Center") was announced with great fanfare in 2013. Its goal is laudable: strengthening and standardizing "the safety net for vulnerable persons, adults and children alike, who are receiving care from New York's human service agencies and programs." Its jurisdiction is broad: covering residential and non-residential programs and provider agencies that come within the purview of six state oversight agencies, namely, the Office of Mental Health, the Office for People with Developmental Disabilities, the Office of Alcohol and Substance Abuse Services, the Office of Children and Family Services, the Department of Health, and the State Education Department. Read More

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January 2017

Flexible assertive community treatment for individuals with a mild intellectual disability or borderline intellectual functioning: results of a longitudinal study in the Netherlands.

J Intellect Disabil Res 2019 Apr 16. Epub 2019 Apr 16.

Behavioural Science Institute (BSI), Radboud University, Nijmegen, the Netherlands & Trajectum, Zwolle, the Netherlands.

Background: Assertive community treatment (ACT) and Flexible assertive community treatment (FACT) are organisation models for intensive assertive outreach that were originally developed for individuals with severe mental illness. The models are increasingly applied to people with mild intellectual disability (MID) or borderline intellectual functioning (BIF) and challenging behaviour or mental illness. Research on these types of care for this population is limited. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jir.12619DOI Listing

Definition and Validity of the Construct "Problematic Khat Use": A Systematic Review.

Eur Addict Res 2019 Apr 16:1-12. Epub 2019 Apr 16.

Department of Psychiatry, Addis Ababa University, College of Health Sciences, School of Medicine Addis Ababa, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

Background: Problematic khat use, not khat use per se, is a public health and social concern for the public, researchers, and policy makers. However, the construct problematic khat use is not well-established and not fully recognized in the modern definition of substance use disorders including Diagnostic Statistic Manual (DSM-5) and international classification of diseases (ICD-10), although DSM-5 included it in the "stimulant use disorder" category. Existing scoping reviews have focused on khat use, which could not allow the differentiation of khat use from problematic khat use. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000499970DOI Listing
April 2019
2 Reads

Cost Savings from a Navigator Intervention for Repeat Detoxification Clients.

J Ment Health Policy Econ 2019 Mar;22(1):3-13

Brandeis University, 415 South Street, MS 035, Waltham, MA, 02453, USA,

Background: Many clients with substance use disorders (SUD) have multiple admissions to a 24-hour level of care for detoxification without ever progressing to SUD treatment. In the US, health insurers have become concerned about the high costs and ineffective results of repeat detox admissions. For other diseases, health systems increasingly target high-risk, high-cost patients with individually tailored interventions delivered by `navigators' who help patients negotiate the complex health care system. Read More

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March 2019
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The effect of N-acetylcysteine and working memory training on neural mechanisms of working memory and cue reactivity in regular cocaine users.

Psychiatry Res Neuroimaging 2019 Apr 5;287:56-59. Epub 2019 Apr 5.

Addiction, Development, and Psychopathology (ADAPT) lab, Department of Psychology, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, the Netherlands.

The current study investigated the combined effects of N-acetylcysteine and working memory (WM) training on behavioral and neural mechanisms of cue reactivity and WM in cocaine users in a randomized, double-blind design. Twenty-four of 38 cocaine-using men completed a 25-day treatment with either 2400 mg/day NAC or placebo. Both groups performed WM-training. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pscychresns.2019.03.011DOI Listing

Measurement of substance-free reinforcement in addiction: A systematic review.

Clin Psychol Rev 2019 Apr 5;70:79-90. Epub 2019 Apr 5.

Department of Psychology, University of Memphis, 400 Innovation Dr., Memphis, TN 38152, United States. Electronic address:

A robust body of theoretical and experimental work highlights the influence of alternative, substance-free rewards on decisions to use alcohol and other drugs. However, translational applications have been limited in part by the lack of consensus on how to measure substance-free reinforcement in applied and clinical settings. The current study summarizes extant research utilizing self-report reinforcement or reward methodologies, and critically reviews the psychometric properties of the available measures. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S02727358183045
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cpr.2019.04.003DOI Listing
April 2019
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Sustainable management of landfill leachate concentrate through recovering humic substance as liquid fertilizer by loose nanofiltration.

Water Res 2019 Apr 2;157:555-563. Epub 2019 Apr 2.

Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VA, 24061, USA.

The hybrid membrane bioreactor - nanofiltration treatment process can be an effective approach for treating the landfill leachate, but the residual leachate concentrate highly loaded with the humic substance and salts remains an environmental concern. Herein, a loose nanofiltration membrane (molecular weight cut-off of 860 Da) was used to recover the humic substance, which can act as a key component of organic fertilizer, from the leachate concentrate. The loose nanofiltration membrane showed the high permeation fluxes and high transmissions (>94. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S00431354193018
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2019.02.060DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read