255,571 results match your criteria Substance Abuse Treatment Prevention and Policy [Journal]


The association between the longitudinal course of common mental disorders and subsequent physical activity status in young adults: A 30-year birth cohort study.

J Psychiatr Res 2018 Dec 6;109:173-177. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Queensland Centre for Mental Health Research, The Park Centre for Mental Health, Wacol, Australia; School of Public Health, The University of Queensland, Herston, Australia; Metro North Mental Health, Royal Brisbane and Women's Hospital, Herston, Australia.

Low physical activity is a major public health concern. There has been extensive research examining the role of physical activity as a potentially modifiable risk factor for the onset of mental illness. However, fewer studies have reported how mental disorders affect future physical activity. Read More

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December 2018
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Predictors of self-harm emergency department visits in adolescents: A statewide longitudinal study.

Gen Hosp Psychiatry 2018 Dec 8;56:28-35. Epub 2018 Dec 8.

Violence Prevention Research Program, University of California, Davis, Sacramento, CA 95817, USA. Electronic address:

Objective: This study investigated patient- and area-level characteristics associated with adolescent emergency department (ED) patients' risk of subsequent ED visits for self-harm.

Method: Retrospective analysis of adolescent patients presenting to a California ED in 2010 (n = 480,706) was conducted using statewide, all-payer, individually linkable administrative data. We examined associations between multiple predictors of interest (patient sociodemographic factors, prior ED utilization, and residential mobility; and area-level characteristics) and odds of a self-harm ED visit in 2010. Read More

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December 2018

Plasma and erythrocyte ω-3 and ω-6 fatty acids are associated with multiple inflammatory and oxidative stress biomarkers in breast cancer.

Nutrition 2018 Aug 21;58:194-200. Epub 2018 Aug 21.

Nutrition Department, Faculdade de Saúde Pública, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil. Electronic address:

Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess the association of plasma and erythrocyte ω-3 and ω-6 fatty acids with multiple oxidative stress biomarkers in breast cancer patients.

Methods: Ninety-five women with recently diagnosed breast cancer and no previous treatment were selected for this study. The socioeconomic, clinical, and demographic profile of the patients was determined using a structured questionnaire and medical records. Read More

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Automated small-scale in vitro transfer model as screening tool for the prediction of in vivo-dissolution and precipitation of poorly solubles.

Int J Pharm 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Institute of Pharmacy, Department of Biopharmaceutics and Pharmaceutical Technology, University of Greifswald, Felix-Hausdorff-Strasse 3, 17489 Greifswald, Germany. Electronic address:

Precipitation testing, especially for weakly basic APIs, represents a key parameter in drug substance characterization during early development stages, where the amount of API available is limited. Therefore, it was the aim of this study to develop an automated small-scale in vitro transfer model to characterize the supersaturation and precipitation behavior of two poorly water-soluble drugs. Following automation and scale-down of the standard transfer model, the developed small-scale model was used to assess the impact of gastrointestinal variability, i. Read More

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December 2018

Pitfalls in the triage and evaluation of patients with suspected acute ethanol intoxication in an emergency department.

Intern Emerg Med 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Division of Emergency Medicine, Department of Community Medicine, Primary Care and Emergency Medicine, Geneva University Hospitals and Geneva University, Faculty of Medicine, Geneva, Switzerland.

Acute ethanol intoxication (AEI) is frequent in emergency departments (EDs). These patients are at risk of mistriage, and to leave the ED without being seen. This study's objective was to describe the process and performance of triage and trajectory for patients with suspected AEI. Read More

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December 2018

Substance Use and Depression Among Recently Migrated African Gay and Bisexual Men Living in the United States.

J Immigr Minor Health 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

HIV Center for Clinical and Behavioral Studies, New York State Psychiatric Institute and Columbia University, 1051 Riverside Drive, Unit 15, New York, NY, 10032, USA.

Immigrant African gay and bisexual men (GBM) are at risk for substance use and adverse mental health outcomes due to negative experiences in home and host countries. Little is known about correlates of substance use and mental health outcomes in this population. We explored pre- and post-migratory factors associated with substance use and depression in recently migrated African GBM. Read More

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December 2018

In vitro-to-in vivo extrapolation (IVIVE) by PBTK modeling for animal-free risk assessment approaches of potential endocrine-disrupting compounds.

Arch Toxicol 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

BASF SE, Experimental Toxicology and Ecology, Carl Bosch Straße 38, 67056, Ludwigshafen, Germany.

While in vitro testing is used to identify hazards of chemicals, nominal in vitro assay concentrations may misrepresent potential in vivo effects and do not provide dose-response data which can be used for a risk assessment. We used reverse dosimetry to compare in vitro effect concentrations-to-in vivo doses causing toxic effects related to endocrine disruption. Ten compounds (acetaminophen, bisphenol A, caffeine, 17α-ethinylestradiol, fenarimol, flutamide, genistein, ketoconazole, methyltestosterone, and trenbolone) have been tested in the yeast estrogen screening (YES) or yeast androgen-screening (YAS) assays for estrogen and androgen receptor binding, as well as the H295R assay (OECD test guideline no. Read More

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December 2018

Examining the Association and Directionality between Mental Health Disorders and Substance Use among Adolescents and Young Adults in the U.S. and Canada-A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

J Clin Med 2018 Dec 13;7(12). Epub 2018 Dec 13.

School of Public Health, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK S7N 2Z4, Canada.

Background: The purpose of this systematic review was to examine the association and directionality between mental health disorders and substance use among adolescents and young adults in the U.S. and Canada. Read More

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December 2018

Microfluidic Preconcentration Chip with Self-Assembled Chemical Modified Surface for Trace Carbonyl Compounds Detection.

Sensors (Basel) 2018 Dec 13;18(12). Epub 2018 Dec 13.

R&D Center of HealthCare Electronics, Institute of Microelectronics of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100029, China.

Carbonyl compounds in water sources are typical characteristic pollutants, which are important indicators in the health risk assessment of water quality. Commonly used analytical chemistry methods face issues such as complex operations, low sensitivity, and long analysis times. Here, we report a silicon microfluidic device based on click chemical surface modification that was engineered to achieve rapid, convenient and efficient capture of trace level carbonyl compounds in liquid solvent. Read More

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December 2018

Chemopreventive mechanisms of galangin against hepatocellular carcinoma: A review.

Biomed Pharmacother 2019 Jan 26;109:2054-2061. Epub 2018 Nov 26.

Department of Ultrasound, Fuling Central Hospital of Chongqing City, Chongqing, China. Electronic address:

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common cancers and has a high mortality rate in less developed countries, especially in China. Galangin (GA), one of the most important and naturally active flavonoids, extracted primarily from the root of Alpinia officinarum Hance, has been demonstrated to be effective in the treatment of HCC. It is a substance with defensive actions and a broad range of biological properties, including inhibitory effects on bacteria, fungi, viruses, the control of hypertension and diabetes, and chemoprevention of several cancers. Read More

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January 2019

Factors predicting re-hospitalization for inpatients with bipolar mania--A naturalistic cohort.

Psychiatry Res 2018 Dec 30;270:749-754. Epub 2018 Oct 30.

Kaohsiung Municipal Kai-Syuan Psychiatric Hospital, Kaohsiung, Taiwan. Electronic address:

Patients with bipolar mania often require re-hospitalization, which can be a social-economic burden. This study aimed to investigate the factors affecting time to re-hospitalization for inpatients with acute bipolar mania. In this 6-year naturalistic study we reviewed the charts of inpatients with acute bipolar mania. Read More

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December 2018

Sex differences in an old adult sample with substance use disorder: A 6 months follow-up study.

Psychiatry Res 2018 Dec 16;270:1157-1165. Epub 2018 Oct 16.

Addiction and Dual Diagnosis Unit, Vall Hebron University Hospital, Barcelona, Spain; Psychiatry Service, CIBERSAM, Vall Hebron University Hospital, Barcelona, Spain; Autonomous University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain.

Substance use disorder (SUD) is a worldwide concern that has its own particularities regarding age and sex. This study aims to assess the differences between old SUD women and men regarding socio-demographics, clinical factors and outcomes. A 6-months follow-up longitudinal study was conducted in an outpatient center, on a convenience sample of 115 SUD old adults (≥65 years old, average age of 71. Read More

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December 2018

Addiction.

Authors:

Tex Dent J 2016 Aug;133(8):476-483

All it takes is a phone call to start the journey to a substance-free life. Professional Recovery Network's trained social workers are available 24-hours a day to guide and support you through this difficult time. We'll connect you with other professionals in recovery who have been where you are! Addiction is a chronic disease of the brain, and while it cannot be cured, it can be treated and managed to allow you to reclaim the life and career you've worked so hard to build. Read More

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4-Fluoramphetamine in the Netherlands: Text-mining and sentiment analysis of internet forums.

Int J Drug Policy 2018 Dec 11;64:34-39. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Trimbos Institute, The Netherlands Institute of Mental Health and Addiction, Da Costakade 45, 3521VS, Utrecht, the Netherlands.

Background: Users of new psychoactive substances including 4-fluoroamphetamine (4-FA/4-FMP) frequently share their experiences or opinions in online drug forums. We have tested the potential of computerised analysis of drug users' forum posts for monitoring and early detection of trends. Specifically, we tested whether changes in the volume of 4-FA related posts and sentiments expressed in those posts can be observed around the time 4-FA was increasingly reported by Dutch drug monitoring sources (2012-2017). Read More

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December 2018

Lacking evidence for the association between frequent urine drug screening and health outcomes of persons on opioid agonist therapy.

Int J Drug Policy 2018 Dec 11;64:30-33. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

British Columbia Centre on Substance Use, 400-1045 Howe Street, Vancouver, BC, V6Z 2A9, Canada; Department of Medicine, University of British Columbia, St. Paul's Hospital, 608-1081 Burrard Street, Vancouver, BC, V6Z 1Y6, Canada; School of Medicine, University College Dublin, Health Sciences Centre, Belfield, Dublin 4, Ireland. Electronic address:

Background: Opioid agonist therapy (OAT) is a first-line treatment for opioid use disorder (OUD); however, the efficacy and role of urine drug screening (UDS) in OAT has received little research attention. Prior evidence suggests that UDS frequency reflects philosophy and practice context rather than differences in patient characteristics or clinical need. Therefore, we reviewed the literature on the effect of and recommendations for the frequency of UDS on health outcomes for persons with OUD who receive OAT. Read More

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December 2018

Distinct regulation pattern of Egr-1, BDNF and Arc during morphine-withdrawal conditioned place aversion paradigm: role of glucocorticoids.

Behav Brain Res 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Department of Pharmacology, University of Murcia, Murcia, Spain; Murcia Institute of Biomedical Research (IMIB), University of Murcia, Spain.

Negative affective aspects of opiate abstinence contribute to the persistence of substance abuse. Importantly, interconnected brain areas involved in aversive motivational processes, such as the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), become activated when animals are confined to withdrawal-paired environments. In the present study, place aversion was elicited in sham and adrenalectomized (ADX) animals by conditioned naloxone-precipitated drug withdrawal following exposure to chronic morphine. Read More

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December 2018

Degradation Rate Observations as a Function of Drug Load in Solid State Drug Products.

J Pharm Sci 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Analytical Research & Development, Pfizer Inc, Sandwich, UK.

Degradation rates of solid state drug products generally increase as the drug load decreases. A model for quantifying this effect based on surface area ratios is proposed here. This model relates the degradation rate to an estimate of the proportion of drug substance in contact with the excipient, and that the drug substance in contact with excipients degrades more quickly. Read More

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December 2018

Bayesian hierarchical vector autoregressive models for patient-level predictive modeling.

PLoS One 2018 14;13(12):e0208082. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Department of Statistics, Columbia University, New York, NY, United States of America.

Predicting health outcomes from longitudinal health histories is of central importance to healthcare. Observational healthcare databases such as patient diary databases provide a rich resource for patient-level predictive modeling. In this paper, we propose a Bayesian hierarchical vector autoregressive (VAR) model to predict medical and psychological conditions using multivariate time series data. Read More

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December 2018
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Obstetric and Pediatric Provider Perspectives on Mandatory Reporting of Prenatal Substance Use.

J Addict Med 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Department of Health Policy and Management, University of Pittsburgh Graduate School of Public Health (MJ); University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine (SM, CH); Magee-Womens Research Institute, University of Pittsburgh (JCC); Departments of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Sciences and Internal Medicine, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA (JCC).

Objective: In many states, health care providers are legally required to report pregnant women who use substances, or infants affected by prenatal substance use, to child welfare authorities. The objective of this study was to characterize obstetric and pediatric providers' perceptions of and experiences with policies requiring mandatory reporting of prenatal substance use to child welfare authorities.

Methods: We conducted a qualitative interview study among 20 obstetric and pediatric providers to elicit participants' perspectives about and experience with current policy requiring mandatory reporting of prenatal substance use. Read More

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December 2018

Molecular diagnostics of disorders of sexual development: an Indian survey and systems biology perspective.

Syst Biol Reprod Med 2018 Dec 14:1-16. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

b Division of Pharmacology and Toxicology , CSIR- Indian Institute of Chemical Technology , Hyderabad , India.

We aimed to survey the monogenic causes of disorders of sex development (DSD) and thereby its prevalence in India. This study revealed mutations resulting in androgen insensitivity syndrome, 5α-reductase type 2 deficiency, and gonadal dysgenesis were commonly reported. Intriguingly, AR deficits were the most prevalent (32 mutations) and of 11/26 missense mutations were in exons 4-8 (encoding ligand binding domain). Read More

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December 2018

[The effect of the nasal packing material on nasal epithelial cells].

Lin Chung Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke Za Zhi 2018 Dec;32(24):1900-1903

Department of Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery,Beijing Tongren Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing Institute of Otolaryngology, Key Laboratory of Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery (Capital Medical University), Ministry of Education, Beijing, 100730,China.

The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of polyethylene glycol acrylate hybrid hydrogel degradation substance on nasal mucociliary transport system. In our experiment, the complex hydrogel were formed by the combination of different ratios of polyethyleneglycol diacrylate, chitosan and polyvinyl alcohol. The experiment was divided into four groups according to the international standard of medical devices. Read More

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December 2018
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[FSGS collapsing variant during anabolic steroid abuse: Case Report].

G Ital Nefrol 2018 Dec;35(6)

UO Nefrologia e Dialisi AUSL Romagna Ospedale Infermi Rimini.

Anabolic Androgenic Steroids (AAS) is an hormone family whose use has considerably increased among body-builders during the last decades. The AAS abuse, especially associated with other drugs or nutritional supplements and protein loads, may cause a variety of pathologies to several organs with a mechanism related to dosage, timing and substance. The kidney is the main metabolizer of these drugs and it can be acutely or chronically damaged with ESKD. Read More

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December 2018

Heterogeneity of Treatment Effects of Long-Acting Injectable Antipsychotic Medications.

J Clin Psychiatry 2018 Nov 27;80(1). Epub 2018 Nov 27.

Department of Psychiatry and Health Behaviors, Augusta University Health, Augusta, Georgia, USA.

Objective: To investigate subgroup responses to long-acting injectable (LAI) medications haloperidol decanoate (HD) and paliperidone palmitate (PP) in a randomized controlled trial that found no difference between the treatments on the primary outcome of efficacy failure.

Methods: A Comparison of Long-Acting Injectable Medications for Schizophrenia (ACLAIMS) enrolled 311 participants from March 2011 to July 2013 meeting DSM-IV-TR criteria for diagnoses of schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder at risk of relapse due to medication nonadherence or substance abuse. Participants were randomly assigned to double-blinded treatment with HD or PP and followed for up to 2 years. Read More

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November 2018
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Development and Psychometric Evaluation of a Brief Approach and Avoidance of Alcohol Questionnaire.

Alcohol Clin Exp Res 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Department of Psychology, University of South Florida, 4202 East Fowler Ave, Tampa, FL, 33620.

Background: The Approach and Avoidance of Alcohol questionnaire (AAAQ) was developed as a measure of craving to assess both desires to consume and desires to avoid consuming alcohol. Although the measure has been used in a variety of populations to predict future alcohol use behavior, the factor structures observed varies based on sample type (e.g. Read More

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December 2018

Neuronal cell adhesion molecule regulating neural systems underlying addiction.

Neuropsychopharmacol Rep 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Department of Biology, William Paterson University, Wayne, New Jersey.

Aims: The human NRCAM gene is associated with polysubstance use. Nrcam knockout mice do not acquire a preference for addictive substances. We aimed to elucidate the role of Nrcam in specific neural circuits underlying congenital preference for substances and the acquisition of addiction. Read More

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December 2018

In vitro antimicrobial activity of seven adjuvants against common pathogens associated with canine otitis externa.

Vet Dermatol 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Australian Centre for Antimicrobial Resistance Ecology, School of Animal and Veterinary Sciences, The University of Adelaide, Roseworthy, South Australia, 5371, Australia.

Background: An antibiotic adjuvant is a chemical substance used to modify or augment the effectiveness of primary antimicrobial agents against drug-resistant micro-organisms. Its use provides an alternative approach to address the global issue of antimicrobial resistance and enhance antimicrobial stewardship.

Hypothesis/objectives: To determine the antimicrobial activity of a panel of potential antimicrobial adjuvants against common pathogens associated with canine otitis externa (OE). Read More

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December 2018
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Uptake of direct acting antiviral therapies for the treatment of hepatitis C virus among people who inject drugs in a universal health-care system.

Drug Alcohol Rev 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

National Drug and Alcohol Research Centre, University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia.

Introduction And Aims: Direct acting antiviral (DAA) treatment can reduce hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection incidence and mortality, although large scale uptake of these treatments is necessary to achieve those reductions. Targeting people who inject drugs (PWID) will be crucial to achieve the necessary reductions. Previously, treatment uptake has been very low (1-2%) among PWID, but these new DAAs have been subsidised in Australia since March 2016. Read More

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December 2018

Expectations about alcohol, cocaine, and benzodiazepine abstinence following inpatient heroin withdrawal management.

Am J Addict 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Behavioral Medicine Department, Butler Hospital, Providence 02906, Rhode Island.

Background And Objectives: Polysubstance use is associated with relapse and poor treatment outcomes among people dependent on heroin. Despite the high prevalence of polysubstance use among patients detoxifying from heroin, little is known about patients' expectations to abstain or use non-opiate substances. The current study examined factors associated with expectations about abstaining from alcohol, cocaine, and benzodiazepines (BZDs) following heroin withdrawal management. Read More

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December 2018

Drug use and hazardous drinking are associated with PTSD symptoms and symptom clusters in US Army Reserve/National Guard Soldiers.

Am J Addict 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Department of Psychiatry, University of Pittsburgh, 3811 O'Hara Street, Pittsburgh 15213, Pennsylvania.

Background And Objectives: There is strong evidence of the association between Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) symptoms and substance use. Previous work has found sex differences in these associations. With revisions to the DSM, it is important to understand how overall PTSD symptoms and the new symptom clusters relate to substance use among Reserve/Guard soldiers-a high risk group. Read More

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December 2018

Overexpression of transketolase gene promotes chilling tolerance by increasing the activities of photosynthetic enzymes, alleviating oxidative damage and stabilizing cell structure in Cucumis sativus L.

Physiol Plant 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

StateKey Laboratory of Crop Biology/key laboratory of crop biology and genetic improvement of horticultural crops in huanghuai region/College of Horticulture Science and Engineering, Shandong Agricultural University, Tai'an Shandong, 271018, China.

Despite being a key enzyme of Cavin cycle, Transketolase (TK)s believed to be related to abiotic resistance in higher plants. However, how TK affects chilling tolerance still remains largely unknown. Here, we describe the effect of overexpression of the Cucumis sativa TK gene (CsTK) on growth, photosynthesis, ROS metabolismand cell ultrastructure under chilling stress. Read More

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December 2018
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The SUMMIT ambulatory-ICU primary care model for medically and socially complex patients in an urban federally qualified health center: study design and rationale.

Addict Sci Clin Pract 2018 Dec 14;13(1):27. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Division of General Internal Medicine and Geriatrics, Oregon Health and Science University, 3181 SW Sam Jackson Park Road L475, Portland, OR, 97239-3098, USA.

Background: Medically complex urban patients experiencing homelessness comprise a disproportionate number of high-cost, high-need patients. There are few studies of interventions to improve care for these populations; their social complexity makes them difficult to study and requires clinical and research collaboration. We present a protocol for a trial of the streamlined unified meaningfully managed interdisciplinary team (SUMMIT) team, an ambulatory ICU (A-ICU) intervention to improve utilization and patient experience that uses control populations to address limitations of prior research. Read More

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December 2018

Using PhotoVoice to Understand Health Determinants of Formerly Homeless Individuals Living in Permanent Housing in Detroit.

Qual Health Res 2018 Dec 14:1049732318816670. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

4 Neighborhood Service Organization, Detroit, Michigan, USA.

Housing First is an evidence-based approach to addressing chronic homelessness that provides permanent, low-barrier housing. Previous literature on the health of tenants of Housing First programs has primarily focused on mental health, substance use, and health care. Using the social-ecological model, we conducted a community-based participatory research (CBPR) PhotoVoice study to better understand what Housing First residents in Detroit identify as factors that impact their health. Read More

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December 2018

Case report and review of clenbuterol cardiac toxicity.

J Cardiol Cases 2013 Oct 31;8(4):131-133. Epub 2013 Aug 31.

Division of Cardiology, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada.

Clenbuterol is an oral β2-agonist utilized as an illicit substance for performance-enhancement or weight loss. We report a case of a 23-year-old male who presented with anxiety and chest tightness after intentional ingestion of 5000 μg of clenbuterol (125 times the recommended adult dose) to lose weight. His electrocardiogram showed sinus tachycardia and diffuse nonspecific repolarization abnormalities with mild inferolateral ST-segment depression. Read More

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October 2013

Group Therapy for Substance Use Disorders: A Survey of Clinician Practices.

J Groups Addict Recover 2017 8;12(4):243-259. Epub 2017 Dec 8.

Department of Psychology, University of Michigan.

Substance use disorder (SUD) treatment is typically delivered in group format, but clinical research focuses on individual therapy. This exploratory study narrows this gap through a survey of 566 SUD group clinicians in the United States, concerning most commonly used group practices, attitudes about evidence-based treatments (EBTs), and beliefs about addiction. Clinicians reported high use of open groups, moderately high utilization of EBT practices, and moderate use of questionable practices. Read More

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December 2017

The Interaction of Race and Gender as a Significant Driver of Racial Arrest Disparities for African American Men.

J Urban Health 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

San Diego School of Medicine, Center on Gender Equity and Health, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA, USA.

The mass incarceration of African Americans is both a driver of racial health inequalities in the USA. Systemic social biases which associate African American men with criminality, violence, and as a particular threat to white women may partially explain their over-representation in the criminal justice system. We combined data from the Washington, DC Metro Police Department (MPD) and the American Community Survey to test whether neighborhood-level gender, race, and economic makeup were associated with elevated drug-related arrest disproportions for African American men. Read More

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December 2018

Adolescent Depression and Substance Use: the Protective Role of Prosocial Peer Behavior.

J Abnorm Child Psychol 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

University of Tennessee, Center for Behavioral Health Research, Henson Hall, 213, Knoxville, TN, 37996-3332, USA.

Adolescents with depression disorders have higher rates of substance use. In order to advance contextually relevant mental health interventions, basic research is needed to test social ecological mechanisms hypothesized to influence adolescent depression and substance use. Accordingly, we conducted growth curve modeling with a sample of 248 urban adolescents to determine if depression's effect on substance use was dependent upon peer network health (sum of peer risk and protective behaviors) and activity space risk (likelihood of high-risk behaviors at routine locations). Read More

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December 2018

Race/ethnicity, nativity, and lifetime risk of mental disorders in US adults.

Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Disparities Research Unit, Department of Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital, 50 Staniford Street, Suite 830, Boston, MA, 02114, USA.

Purpose: There has been no comprehensive examination of how race/ethnicity and nativity intersect in explaining differences in lifetime prevalence of mental disorders among Asian, Black, Latino, and White adults. This study aims to estimate racial/ethnic differences in lifetime risk of mental disorders and examine how group differences vary by nativity.

Methods: Survival models were used to estimate racial/ethnic and nativity differences in lifetime risk of DSM-IV anxiety, mood, and substance use disorders in a nationally representative sample of over 20,000 respondents to four US surveys. Read More

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December 2018

Psychometric Properties of a Modified Moral Injury Questionnaire in a Military Population.

Traumatology (Tallahass Fla) 2018 Dec 3;24(4):301-312. Epub 2018 May 3.

Center on Alcoholism, Substance Abuse, & Addictions, University of New Mexico.

Moral injury (MI) results from perpetration of or exposure to distressing events, known as morally injurious events (MIEs), that challenge moral beliefs and values. Due to the type of involvement in recent military conflicts, many veterans report MIEs that may cause dissonance and, in turn, MI. Although two existing measures assess MIEs, neither currently assesses the defining characteristics of MI (i. Read More

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December 2018

Turbulent mixing: A perspective.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

School of Mathematics, Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton, NJ 08540

Mixing of initially distinct substances plays an important role in our daily lives as well as in ecological and technological worlds. From the continuum point of view, which we adopt here, mixing is complete when the substances come together across smallest flow scales determined in part by molecular mechanisms, but important stages of the process occur via the advection of substances by an underlying flow. We know how smooth flows enable mixing but less well the manner in which a turbulent flow influences it; but the latter is the more common occurrence on Earth and in the universe. Read More

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December 2018

Increased Use of Medical Marijuana: Skepticism vs. Evidence.

Authors:
Jeannette Y Wick

Consult Pharm 2018 Dec;33(12):680-689

The use of medical marijuana-both the psychoactive tetrahydrocannabinol and its nonpsychoactive relative cannabidiol-is a growing practice in facilities served by senior care pharmacists. Currently, 30 states have approved its use under a variety of different regulations and for a number of conditions. Its use is bolstered by a growing number of Americans who support legalization of cannabis. Read More

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December 2018

Advancing pharmacological treatments for opioid use disorder (ADaPT-OUD): protocol for testing a novel strategy to improve implementation of medication-assisted treatment for veterans with opioid use disorders in low-performing facilities.

Addict Sci Clin Pract 2018 Dec 13;13(1):25. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Center for Innovation to Implementation, Palo Alto Health Care System, 795 Willow Rd, MC152, Palo Alto, CA, 94304, USA.

Background: In the US, emergency room visits and overdoses related to prescription opioids have soared and the rates of illicit opioid use, including heroin and fentanyl, are increasing. Opioid use disorder (OUD) is associated with higher morbidity and mortality, higher HIV and HCV infection rates, and criminal behavior. Opioid agonist therapy (OAT; methadone and buprenorphine) is proven to be effective in treating OUD and decreasing its negative consequences. Read More

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December 2018

Accessibility and suitability of residential alcohol treatment for older adults: a mixed method study.

Subst Abuse Treat Prev Policy 2018 Dec 13;13(1):49. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Substance Misuse and Ageing Research Team, Tilda Goldberg Centre for Social Work and Social Care, University of Bedfordshire, University Square, Luton, LU1 3JU, UK.

Background: Whilst alcohol misuse is decreasing amongst younger adults in many countries, it is increasing in older adults. Residential rehabilitation (rehab) is a vital component of the alcohol treatment system, particularly for those with relatively complex needs and entrenched alcohol problems. In this study, we sought to find out to what extent rehabs in England have upper age limits that exclude older adults, whether rehabs are responsive to older adults' age-related needs and how older adults experience these services. Read More

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December 2018

Topical Application of JAK1/JAK2 Inhibitor Momelotinib Exhibits Significant Anti-Inflammatory Responses in DNCB-Induced Atopic Dermatitis Model Mice.

Int J Mol Sci 2018 Dec 10;19(12). Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Division of Dermatology, Department of Clinical Medicine, Medical College of Yanbian University, Yanji 133000, China.

Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic recurrent skin disease dominated by T-helper 2 inflammation. Momelotinib (MMB) is a novel JAK1/JAK2 inhibitor suppressing the signal transduction of multiple pro-inflammatory cytokines. Recent studies indicated that JAK inhibitor could play a therapeutic role in AD disease. Read More

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December 2018
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Altered Purinergic Receptor Sensitivity in Type 2 Diabetes-Associated Endothelial Dysfunction and Up₄A-Mediated Vascular Contraction.

Int J Mol Sci 2018 Dec 7;19(12). Epub 2018 Dec 7.

Unit of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm 17176, Sweden.

Purinergic signaling may be altered in diabetes accounting for endothelial dysfunction. Uridine adenosine tetraphosphate (Up₄A), a novel dinucleotide substance, regulates vascular function via both purinergic P1 and P2 receptors (PR). Up₄A enhances vascular contraction in isolated arteries of diabetic rats likely through P2R. Read More

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December 2018

Examining the link between reward and response inhibition in individuals with substance abuse tendencies.

Drug Alcohol Depend 2018 Dec 3;194:518-525. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Department of Psychological and Brain Sciences, Texas A and M University, 400 Bizzell St., College Station, TX, 77843, USA.

Background: Substance use problems are often characterized by dysregulation in reward sensitivity and inhibitory control. In line with this representation, the goal of this investigation was to determine how substance abuse tendencies among university students affect incentivized response inhibition. Additionally, this study examined whether striatal dopamine moderates the impact of substance use on response inhibition performance. Read More

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December 2018

Integration of Buprenorphine Treatment with Primary Care: Comparative Effectiveness on Retention, Utilization, and Cost.

Popul Health Manag 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

3 Department of Medicine, Johns Hopkins Bayview Medical Center, Baltimore, Maryland.

Opioid use disorder (OUD) is a national crisis. Health care must achieve greater success than it has to date in helping opioid users achieve recovery. Integration of comprehensive primary care with treatment for OUD has the potential to increase care access among the substance-using population, improve outcomes, and reduce costs. Read More

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December 2018

Attitudes Towards Evidence-Based Practice in Substance Use Treatment Programs Serving American Indian Native Communities.

J Behav Health Serv Res 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Child and Adolescent Research Centre, San Diego, USA.

The objective of this paper was to compare attitudes towards evidence-based practice (EBP) of substance use disorder treatment (SUDT) center employees' serving American Indian and Alaskan Native (AIAN) populations to those serving non-AIAN populations. Survey data on the openness and divergence subscales of the Evidence-Based Practice Attitude Scale (EBPAS) were collected and analyzed. Independent samples T tests were performed to compare the two samples. Read More

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December 2018