aPET Imaging Center, Asahi General Hospital bDepartment of Clinical Cell Biology and Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University, Chiba cDepartment of Diagnostic Radiology, Graduate School of Medicine, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo dDepartment of Radiology, Asahi General Hospital, Chiba, Japan.
Background: In addition to its established role in oncologic imaging, F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (F-FDG PET/CT) is useful for the assessment of inflammatory activity. However, subacute thyroiditis (SAT) in thyrotoxicosis is rarely detected during these scans.
Case: A 66-year-old man with SAT in thyrotoxicosis demonstrated symptoms of transient fatigue, headache, and fever, without typical neck pain. Read More
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the predictive value of ultrasonography (US) patterns based on the 2015 American Thyroid Association (ATA) guidelines for malignancy in atypia of undetermined significance or follicular lesion of undetermined significance (AUS/FLUS) nodules.
Methods: From January 2014 to August 2015, 133 thyroid nodules that were initially diagnosed as AUS/FLUS on fine needle aspiration (FNA) were included in this study. Each nodule was assigned a category with US patterns defined by the ATA guidelines. Read More
Purpose: The incidences of perithyroidal lymph nodes (PTLNs) in benign thyroid diseases were investigated.
Methods: A total of 108 patients were divided into 36 with benign thyroid nodules, 33 with Hashimoto's thyroiditis, 14 with Graves' disease, 10 with hypothyroidism of undetermined etiology, nine with silent thyroiditis, and six with subacute thyroiditis. We assessed the relationships among PTLNs and these groups, thyroid volume, thyroid parenchyma echogenicity, and anti-thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor, anti-thyroglobulin, and anti-thyroid peroxidase antibodies (TRAb, TgAb, and TPOAb). Read More
Acute suppurative thyroiditis (AST) is an uncommon condition, in the patients with preexisting thyroid disease or immunosuppression. The most common cause of AST is bacterial, and the most common bacteria are Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Escherichia coli, and Klebsiella species. Due to various complications such as septicemia, septic thrombophlebitis, necrotizing mediastinitis, or pericarditis, prompt diagnosis and treatment are the keys to reduce mortality and morbidity. Read More
Purpose: Although Sjögren's syndrome (SS) is the most common disease causing xerostomia, autoimmune thyroid diseases can also affect the salivary glands. The aim of our study was to estimate the prevalence of thyroid diseases (TD) in subjects with symptoms of xerostomia and evaluate the efficacy of salivary gland scintigraphy (SGS) in the detection of TD in patients with SS and without SS.
Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the SGS findings of 173 subjects (men:women, 29:144) with symptoms of xerostomia. Read More
Introduction: Subacute thyroiditis is a self-limited, inflammatory viral thyroid disease which presents with neck pain, usually accompanied by systemic symptoms. On the other hand, thyroid storm is a clinical condition of severe sudden hyperthyroidism accompanied by physiologic de-compensation. We presented a 29-year-old male with features of subacute thyroiditis and thyroid storm who is the third reported case managed by steroid, beta-blocker and analgesics. Read More
A 26-year-old Japanese woman presented with adrenal insufficiency, and treatment was started with cortisone and fludrocortisone in 1975. A few years later, she presented with hypoparathyroidism and was diagnosed with autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome type I (APS I), and treatment with calcium and alfacalcidol was started. She was found to have subacute thyroiditis and relative adrenal failure in 2006. Read More
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) 2016 24;7:150. Epub 2017 Jan 24.
Zabludowicz Center for Autoimmune Diseases, Sheba Medical Center, Tel-Aviv, Israel; Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel-Aviv University, Tel-Aviv, Israel; Laura Schwarz-Kipp Chair for Research of Autoimmune Diseases, Tel-Aviv University, Tel-Aviv, Israel.
The autoimmune/inflammatory syndrome induced by adjuvants (ASIA), presented by Shoenfeld and Agmon-Levin in 2011, is an entity that incorporates diverse autoimmune conditions induced by the exposure to various adjuvants. Adjuvants are agents that entail the capability to induce immune reactions. Adjuvants are found in many vaccines and used mainly to increase the response to vaccination in the general population. Read More
Fever of unknown origin (FUO) is sometimes a diagnostic dilemma for clinicians. Endocrine causes reported in the literature include subacute thyroiditis, thyrotoxicosis, adrenal insufficiency and pheochromocytoma. Among these, subacute thyroiditis is often overlooked as it can occasionally lack typical symptoms. Read More
Background: Leber hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) and mitochondrial encephalopathy, myopathy, lactic acidosis and stroke-like episodes (MELAS) syndromes are mitochondrially inherited disorders characterized by acute visual failure and variable multiorgan system presentation, respectively.
Materials And Methods: A 12-year-old girl with otherwise unremarkable medical history presented with abrupt, painless loss of vision. Over the next few months, she developed moderate sensorineural hearing loss, vertigo, migraines, anhedonia and thyroiditis. Read More
Hashimoto's encephalopathy is a rare, imprecisely defined autoimmune neurologic syndrome associated with Hashimoto's thyroiditis that normally responds to corticosteroids. Here, we describe the case of a 55-year-old woman who presented with subacute cognitive decline and ataxia. Neoplastic, paraneoplastic, infectious, and metabolic etiologies were ruled out. Read More
Acute transverse myelitis is a rare manifestation of dengue infection. To the best of our knowledge, only 6 cases of acute transverse myelitis as a manifestation of dengue infection have been reported thus far. The present study described a case of acute transverse myelitis complicated with subacute thyroiditis 6 days after the onset of dengue viral infection. Read More
Subacute thyroiditis is a transient inflammatory thyroid disease of unknown etiology. The primary goal for treatment is to mitigate inflammation. The aim of this retrospective study was to compare the therapeutic effects of prednisolone and nonsteroidal anti-inflammation drugs in patients with subacute thyroiditis. Read More
Background: Interferon alpha is a widely used therapeutic agent in the treatment of hepatitis C virus infection. Clinical thyroid disease is seen in nearly 15 % of patients receiving interferon alpha for hepatitis C virus infection. The mechanism of thyroid dysfunction with interferon alpha is either autoimmune or inflammatory. Read More
Background: The measurement of free thyroid hormone, instead of the total form, is more commonly used in current practice. We aimed to evaluate the usefulness of the ratio of serum free triiodothyronine (FT3, pg/mL) to free thyroxine (FT4, ng/dL) for differentiating Graves' disease from subacute thyroiditis.
Materials And Methods: Medical records of thyrotoxic patients aged >15 years who had measurement of FT3, FT4 and thyrotropin on the first diagnosis of thyrotoxicosis before initiating treatment were retrospectively reviewed. Read More
Typical presentation of subacute thyroiditis (SAT) is an anterior neck pain radiating up to the jaw and ear, often associated with asthenia and fever. Biology shows hyperthyroidism and inflammation. The thyroid uptake is low at scintigraphy. Read More
Subacute thyroiditis, which is most commonly observed after a viral infection and may heal spontaneously, is an inflammatory thyroid disease. The co-occurrence of subacute thyroiditis and papillary carcinoma is quite rare. A 58-year-old male patient who applied to our hospital with the complaints of sore throat and neck swelling was performed total thyroidectomy following physical examination, ultrasound, and laboratory analysis. Read More
The majority of dengue viral infections are asymptomatic, though symptoms may range from self-limiting febrile illness to life threatening hemorrhagic manifestations. As the burden of disease is dramatically rising in recent years, more patients with atypical presentations and rare complications are increasingly reported. Dengue virus may rarely involve different organ systems including CNS, liver, and heart. Read More
Objectives: This study aimed to assess the sonographic characteristics and interval changes of subacute thyroiditis using follow-up sonography.
Methods: From January 2008 to December 2014, 85 patients with clinically suspected subacute thyroiditis underwent sonographic examinations by a single radiologist. Subacute thyroiditis was confirmed on the basis of the clinical, sonographic, and cytohistopathologic findings. Read More
A 68-year-old woman who underwent distal pancreatectomy combined with resection of the celiac axis had an abdominal wall recurrence and resection 2 years after the first surgery. She was treated with S-1 at an outpatient clinic following the surgery. She returned to the clinic with a high fever after the S-1 administration and was diagnosed with febrile neutropenia. Read More
Autoimmune dementia and encephalopathies (ADE) are complex disorders that can cause immune-mediated cognitive deficits and have confusing nomenclature. Presentation varies from acute limbic encephalitis to subacute or chronic disorders of cognition mimicking neurodegenerative dementia. It may occur as a paraneoplastic phenomenon or an idiopathic autoimmune phenomenon. Read More
A 29-year-old woman with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) presented with palpitation and neck swelling. Initial sonography showed an ill-defined hypoechoic lesion in the right thyroid gland, mentioning subacute thyroiditis. The patient received conservative care for one week. Read More
This review article deals with the classification, clinical features and morphology of thyroiditis. These inflammatory diseases account for approximately 20 % of all thyroid diseases. The vast majority of cases of thyroiditis are of immunogenic origin while non-immunogenic thyroiditis (caused by pathogens or iatrogenic) is a rarity. Read More
Objective: To determine the histopathological pattern of thyroid diseases among patients in Hadhramout Province, Yemen Methods: A descriptive retrospective study was conducted at Ibn Sina Central Teaching Hospital, in Mukalla city, Hadhramout, Yemen between January 2007 and December 2012. Eight hundred and seventeen patients with thyropathy were included in this study diagnosed histologically by experienced pathologists using fine needle aspiration cytology. This was followed-up by postoperative pathological thyroid specimen study. Read More
The aim of this report was to review and summarize the literature on cases of concomitant inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and thyroid diseases. We included the following previous case reports of concomitant IBD and thyroid diseases: 16 cases of ulcerative colitis (UC) and Graves' disease (GD), 3 cases of Crohn's disease (CD) and GD, 10 cases of CD and Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT), 4 cases of IBD and subacute thyroiditis (SAT) or SAT-like symptoms, and 13 cases of IBD (12/13 cases were CD) and amyloid goiter. There might be no obvious differences of prevalence of thyroid dysfunction (hyper- or hypothyroidism), GD, and thyroid cancer between IBD patients and general populations. Read More
The characteristic sonographic finding of subacute thyroiditis of a heterogeneous poorly defined hypoechoic area in the thyroid gland may mimic that of thyroid malignancy. This finding needs to be interpreted in the correct clinical context to avoid an unnecessary biopsy. We describe 3 patients who underwent thyroid biopsy on the basis of suspicious sonographic findings but who subsequently had a diagnosis of subacute thyroiditis. Read More
Background/aim: The differential diagnosis of fever of unknown origin (FUO) includes more than 200 different diseases and conditions. The aim of this study was to identify the most frequent causes of FUO among adult patients according to gender and age.
Methods: The study included 74 patients examined from June 2010 to June 2013 at the Infectious Disease Clinic, Clinical Center Kragujevac in Serbia, according to the defined criteria for FUO. Read More
Objective: To compare the clinical effects between ginger-partition moxibustion combined with glucocorticoid and simple oral glucocorticoid for thyreoitis at subacute stage.
Methods: Eighty-one patients were randomly divided into an observation group (41 cases) and a control group (40 cases). In the observation group, ginger-partition moxibustion and hormone were applied. Read More
A 60-year-old woman presented with a neck mass and underwent fine needle aspiration of a left thyroid nodule. During this time, she had been injected with hCG for weight loss. Soon after, she developed rapid diffuse thyroid growth with pain. Read More
Objective: A 61 years old woman presented with low grade fever and weight loss for a month. Thyroid function tests showed hyperthyroidism: increased technetium-99m pertechnetate ((99m)Tc O(-)4) and radioiodine ((131)I) uptake and elevated thyroid stimulating hormone receptor antibodies (TSHRAb). She also had high erythrocyte sedimentation rate. Read More
A peritoneal dialysis patient who experienced a repeating attack after a vaccination for influenza while she was being followed and treated succesfully for subacute thyroiditis (SAT) is presented. This case shows SAT as a rare condition following vaccination.. Read More
Definite clinico-cytological criterion is outlined for thyroid lesions. Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) makes it easier to segregate cases of thyroiditis (Chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis/Hashimoto's thyroiditis-CLT/HT, and subacute thyroiditis-SAT) from other benign and malignant lesions of thyroid. The study was done for a period of 5½ years at a diagnostic centre in Guwahati. Read More
Objective: IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD) is a systemic mass-forming fibro-inflammatory condition which can affect nearly every organ system. Its pathophysiology remains incompletely understood, but affected tissues are characterized by a lymphoplasmacytic infiltrate rich in IgG4-positive plasma cells which cause chronic inflammation, storiform fibrosis and phlebitis. These findings on histopathological specimens are considered the gold standard for the diagnosis. Read More
Mitochondrial disorders (MIDs) require biochemical or genetic investigations for being diagnosed. In some cases, however, the diagnosis can be suspected upon the syndromic phenotype or upon clinical presentation and family history, as in the following case. The patient was a 74-year-old male admitted for worsening of pre-existing left-sided ptosis and ophthalmoparesis after a birthday party. Read More
Background: The development of Graves' disease (GD) after subacute thyroiditis (SAT) is very rare and only a limited number of cases have been reported.
Objectives: Here, we report a patient with SAT followed by hypothyroidism and later GD, with ophthalmopathy, occurring 11 years after SAT.
Conclusion: This case illustrates the appearance of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) receptor antibodies in a female 1 year after SAT, the development of hypothyroidism requiring thyroxine, and later the occurrence of GD with severe ophthalmopathy, 11 years after SAT. Read More
Introduction: Thyroiditis is a disorder that involves inflammation of the thyroid gland. Subacute thyroiditis is the most common cause of acute painful thyroiditis. It is thought to be a viral inflammatory disorder. Read More
Radiographics 2015 Nov-Dec;35(7):2007-25. Epub 2015 Oct 16.
From the Departments of Radiology (A.M.d.A., S.B.G., R.G.F., A.B.N., C.V.M.), Pathology (I.A.N.), and Internal Medicine (J.A.D.P.), Hospital Clínico Universitario de Santiago de Compostela, Choupana s/n, 15706 Santiago de Compostela (A Coruña), Spain.
Immunoglobulin G4 (IgG4)-related disease is a relatively recently proposed clinical-pathologic entity that is characterized by fibro-inflammatory lesions rich in IgG4-positive plasma cells and, often but not always, elevated serum IgG4 concentrations. IgG4-related disease was recognized as a systemic disease in 2003, when extrapancreatic manifestations were identified in patients with autoimmune pancreatitis. Since then, the disease has been reported as affecting virtually every organ system and has been identified in the biliary tree, salivary and lacrimal glands, periorbital tissues, lungs, lymph nodes, thyroid gland, kidneys, prostate gland, testicles, breasts, and pituitary gland. Read More
Even though it is a rare event, most associations of thyroid carcinoma with subacute thyroiditis described in the literature are related to its granulomatous form (Quervain's thyroiditis). We present a patient with subacute lymphocytic thyroiditis (painless thyroiditis) and papillary thyroid cancer that was first suspected in an initial ultrasound evaluation. A 30-year old female patient who was referred to the emergency room due to hyperthyroidism symptoms was diagnosed with painless thyroiditis established by physical examination and laboratory findings. Read More
Drug-induced hypersensitivity syndrome (DIHS) is a severe multiorgan system adverse drug reaction with reactivation of human herpesviruses (HHVs) such as HHV-6, HHV-7, cytomegalovirus (CMV) and Epstein-Barr virus. Various complications, including autoimmune diseases, sometimes appear during the course of DIHS. We report a case of salazosulfapyridine-induced DIHS associated with HHV-6 reactivation. Read More
The goal of this study was to explore the value of strain ratio from real-time elastography in the semi-quantitative assessment of diffuse thyroid disease. Fifty-one patients with primary hyperthyroidism, 70 with Hashimoto's thyroiditis, 8 with subacute thyroiditis and 43 with normal healthy thyroids were recruited to measure the strain ratio (SR) of thyroid tissue and sternocleidomastoid muscle (on the same side of the thyroid). SR values of all groups were subjected to statistical analysis. Read More
Objective: The purpose of study was to investigate whether incidental thyroid gland uptake had an important during Tc-99m sestamibi (MIBI) myocardial perfusion scintigraphy (SPECT).
Patients And Methods: In the presented study, 968 consecutive patients were evaluated for the presence or absence of thyroid gland uptake in the raw data of the Tc-99m MIBI SPECT. All of the patients had thyroid gland uptake of the Tc-99m MIBI underwent laboratory evaluation of thyroid function, ultrasonographic imaging, and hystopathological examination. Read More
Thyroidal pain is usually due to subacute thyroiditis (SAT). In more severe forms prednisone doses up to 40 mg daily for 2-3 weeks are recommended. Recurrences occur rarely and restoration of steroid treatment cures the disease. Read More
Background: Subacute granulomatous thyroiditis (SGT) is an inflammatory disease that presents with different clinical and cytological characteristics. Although the diagnosis is generally made clinically, imaging methods and fine-needle aspiration (FNA) may provide assistance, particularly in atypical cases. The objective of this study is to reveal the ultrasonographic (USG) and cytological characteristics of SGT. Read More