1,400,253 results match your criteria Structure London England : 1993[Journal]


Characteristics of interactions at protein segments without non-local intramolecular contacts in the Protein Data Bank.

PLoS One 2018 11;13(12):e0205052. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

School of Life Science and Technology, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Nagatsuda-cho, Midori-ku, Yokohama, Kanagawa, Japan.

The principle of three-dimensional protein structure formation is a long-standing conundrum in structural biology. A globular domain of a soluble protein is formed by a network of atomic contacts among amino acid residues, but regions without intramolecular non-local contacts are often observed in the protein structure, especially in loop, linker, and peripheral segments with secondary structures. Although these regions can play key roles for protein function as interfaces for intermolecular interactions, their nature remains unclear. Read More

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December 2018

In Vivo Assessment of Combined Effects of Glibenclamide and Losartan in Diabetic Rats.

Med Princ Pract 2018 Dec 10. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Objective: Diabetic complications involve multiple pathological pathways, including hyperglycemia-induced oxidative stress and inflammation. Combination therapy is usually employed to improve treatment outcomes and to lower potential adverse effects. In this study, we evaluated the effects of antidiabetic and antihypertensive agents, glibenclamide (GLI) and losartan (LT), on diabetes-associated metabolic changes in rats. Read More

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December 2018

Cu2O porous nanostructured films fabricated by positive bias sputtering deposition.

Nanotechnology 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Changzhou University, Changzhou, 213164, CHINA.

In this work, the authors fabricated Cu2O porous nanostructured films (PNFs) on glass slide substrates by the newly developed positive bias deposition approach in a balanced magnetron sputtering (MS) system. It was found that the surface morphology, crystal structure and optical property of the as-deposited products were greatly dependent on the applied positive substrate bias. In particular, when the substrate was biased at +50 V and +150 V, both of the as-prepared Cu2O PNFs exhibited a unique triangular pyramids-like structure with obvious edges and corners and little gluing, a preferred orientation of (111) and a blue shift of energy band gap at 2. Read More

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December 2018

Comparing two high correlation models to test the mechanical stability of Americium-II.

J Phys Condens Matter 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Instituto de Fisica, Benemerita Universidad Autonoma de Puebla, 18 sur y av. San Claudio, CU, San Manuel, Puebla, Puebla, 72570, MEXICO.

In this work two high DFT correlation methodologies, the so called DFT+U (or GGA+U) implementation and the eece hybrid DFT functional (or one case of HYB-DFT), are tested to determine the mechanical properties of Americium-II. For each case, the numeric value of their principal parameter is chosen (U for the first case and α for the second one) once the crystalline structure meets all the mechanical stability conditions. The results show that there is a range of values of U and α in which both methodologies generate a stable (experimentally correct) non-magnetic ground state, reaching approximately the same numeric value of the set of elastic constants of the cubic structure. Read More

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December 2018
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Integration of sputter-deposited multiferroic CoFe2O4-BiFeO3 nanocomposites on conductive La0.7Sr0.3MnO3 electrodes.

Nanotechnology 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Myongji University - Natural Science Campus, Yongin, 449-728, Korea (the Republic of).

The structure, magnetic and ferroelectric properties of sputtered epitaxial CoFe2O4-BiFeO3 (CFO-BFO) nanocomposite thin films grown on La0.7Sr0.3MnO3 (LSMO) layers on (001) oriented SrTiO3 (STO) substrates and on STO-buffered Si are described. Read More

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December 2018

Superior activity of Pd nanoparticles confined in carbon nanotubes for hydrogen production from formic acid decomposition at ambient temperature.

J Colloid Interface Sci 2018 Dec 4;538:474-480. Epub 2018 Dec 4.

College of Chemistry and Environmental Protection Engineering, Southwest Minzu University, Chengdu 610041, Sichuan, China. Electronic address:

Designing highly efficient and low-cost catalysts is essential toward realizing the practical application of hydrogen generation by formic acid decomposition (FAD) under ambient conditions. Herein, we report the synthesis of a hybrid material of Pd nanoparticles encapsulated within carbon nanotubes (CNTs) (Pd-CNTs-in). Transmission electron microscopy images show that most Pd nanoparticles (mean diameter 4. Read More

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December 2018

Graphene from discharged dry cell battery electrodes.

J Hazard Mater 2018 Dec 3;366:358-369. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Visvesvaraya National Institute of Technology, Nagpur, 440010, India. Electronic address:

Utilization of extracted graphite rods from discharged dry cell batteries for synthesis of graphene oxide / graphene serves two purposes, one is waste management which supports environmental safety and the second is low cost production of graphene oxide / graphene which are highly promising 2D materials in various fields of research. In the present work, a sustainable feasibility for the synthesis of graphene oxide / graphene from graphite rods of waste dry cell batteries is demonstrated. The graphite rods separated from the waste dry cell batteries were subjected to electrochemical exfoliation (ECE) in an acidic media. Read More

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December 2018

Molecular docking, molecular dynamics simulations and QSAR studies on some of 2-arylethenylquinoline derivatives for inhibition of Alzheimer's amyloid-beta aggregation: Insight into mechanism of interactions and parameters for design of new inhibitors.

J Mol Graph Model 2018 Dec 4;87:129-143. Epub 2018 Dec 4.

Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman, Kerman, Iran. Electronic address:

Alzheimer's disease is characterized using amyloid-beta (Aβ) aggregation. The present work was carried out to extend and design a novel quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) model on inhibition efficiency of some of new 2-arylethenylquinoline derivatives against the Aβ peptide aggregation. The QSAR study, molecular docking and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations were performed to explore the influence of the structural features and investigate the molecular mechanism of ligands interactions with the Aβ peptide. Read More

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December 2018

Interacted mechanism of functional groups in ligand targeted with folate receptor via docking, molecular dynamic and MM/PBSA.

J Mol Graph Model 2018 Dec 5;87:121-128. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

School of Science, TianJin ChengJian University, Tianjin, China.

Twenty novel compounds with different functional groups (-COOH, -OH, -NH2 and -CH3) were designed to study the interaction mechanism of ligands with folate receptors (FRs). The optimized structure and the dipole moment of the novel compounds were calculated by a density functional tight-binding method (DFTB). The binding mechanism of the compounds with FRs was studied by molecular docking, molecular dynamic (MD) simulations and MM/PBSA free energy calculations. Read More

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December 2018

QSPR estimation models of normal boiling point and relative liquid density of pure hydrocarbons using MLR and MLP-ANN methods.

J Mol Graph Model 2018 Nov 29;87:109-120. Epub 2018 Nov 29.

Laboratory of Biomaterials and Transport Phenomena (LBMPT), University of Médéa, Médéa, 26000, Algeria.

This work aimed to predict the normal boiling point temperature (Tb) and relative liquid density (d20) of petroleum fractions and pure hydrocarbons, through a multi-layer perceptron artificial neural network (MLP-ANN) based on the molecular descriptors. A set of 223 and 222 diverse data points for Tb and d20 were respectively used to build two quantitative structure property relationships-artificial neural network (QSPR-ANN) models. For each model, the total database was divided respectively into two subsets: 80% for the training set and 20% for the test set. Read More

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November 2018

Comparative physiological and proteomic analyses of the chloroplasts in halophyte Sesuvium portulacastrum under differential salt conditions.

J Plant Physiol 2018 Nov 16;232:141-150. Epub 2018 Nov 16.

Institute of Tropical Biosciences and Biotechnology, Chinese Academy of Tropical Agricultural Sciences, Haikou Hainan 571101, China; College of Life Sciences, Key Laboratory for Ecology of Tropical Islands, Ministry of Education, Hainan Normal University, Haikou, Hainan 571158, China. Electronic address:

Sesuvium portulacastrum, an important mangrove-associated true halophyte belongs to the family Aizoaceae, has excellent salt tolerance. Chloroplasts are the most sensitive organelles involved in the response to salinity. However, the regulation mechanism of chloroplasts of S. Read More

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November 2018

PVA/CS and PVA/CS/Fe gel beads' synthesis mechanism and their performance in cultivating anaerobic granular sludge.

Chemosphere 2018 Dec 3;219:130-139. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Department of Environmental Engineering, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an 710049, China.

Biomass washout from high-speed anaerobic suspended bed bio-reactors is still a challenge to their stable operation. Preserving active biomass to efficiently retain biomass in the reactor is one of the solutions to this problem. Herein, two carriers (polyvinyl alcohol/chitosan (PVA/CS) and PVA/CS/Fe gel beads) were prepared using the cross-linking method. Read More

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December 2018

Mid-calf skeletal muscle density and its associations with physical activity, bone health and incident 12-month falls in older adults: The Healthy Ageing Initiative.

Bone 2018 Dec 8. Epub 2018 Dec 8.

Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Geriatric Medicine, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.

Background: Lower skeletal muscle density, indicating greater infiltration of adipose tissue into muscles, is associated with higher fracture risk in older adults. We aimed to determine whether mid-calf muscle density is associated with falls risk and bone health in community-dwelling older adults.

Methods: 2214 community-dwelling men and women who participated in the Healthy Ageing Initiative (Sweden) study at age 70 were included in this analysis. Read More

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December 2018
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What's going on at the entrance? A characterisation of the social interface in ant nests.

Behav Processes 2018 Dec 8. Epub 2018 Dec 8.

Unit of Social Ecology, Université libre de Bruxelles, CP231, Bd du Triomphe, 1050, Brussels, Belgium.

Nest entrances are key locations where information about environmental opportunities and constraints are shared between foragers and inner-nest workers. However, despite its functional value, we still lack a detailed characterisation of the interface between the nest and the environment. Here, we identified the social interface in the ant Myrmica rubra as being the population of ants that faced the nest entrance and that received significantly more contacts from returning foragers than other nearby ants. Read More

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December 2018
2 Reads

Topological design, permeability and mechanical behavior of additively manufactured functionally graded porous metallic biomaterials.

Acta Biomater 2018 Dec 8. Epub 2018 Dec 8.

Department of Biomechanical Engineering, Delft University of Technology, Mekelweg 2, 2628 CD Delft, The Netherlands.

Recent advances in additive manufacturing (AM) have enabled the fabrication of functionally graded porous biomaterials (FGPBs) for application as orthopedic implants and bone substitutes. Here, we present a step-wise topological design of FGPB based on diamond unit cells to mimic the structure of the femoral diaphysis. The FGPB was manufactured from Ti-6Al-4V powder using the selective laser melting (SLM) technique. Read More

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December 2018

Biopolymers - Calcium phosphates composites with inclusions of magnetic nanoparticles for bone tissue engineering.

Int J Biol Macromol 2018 Dec 8. Epub 2018 Dec 8.

Grigore T. Popa University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medical Bioengineering, Department of Biomedical Sciences, Iasi, Romania. Electronic address:

Composites based on combination of biopolymers (chitosan, hyaluronic acid and bovine serum albumin or gelatin), calcium phosphates (CP) and magnetic nanoparticles have been prepared by a biomimetic co-precipitation method. The biomimetic strategy is inspired by natural mineralization processes, where the synthesized minerals are usually combined with proteins, polysaccharides or other mineral forms to form composite, in physiological conditions of temperature and pH. The morphology of the magnetic composites, studied using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) indicated a macroporous structure, which influenced the retention of simulated biological fluids. Read More

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December 2018

Investigation of efficiency of a novel, zinc oxide loaded TEMPO-oxidized cellulose nanofiber based hemostat for topical bleeding.

Int J Biol Macromol 2018 Dec 8. Epub 2018 Dec 8.

Department of Regenerative Medicine, College of Medicine, Soonchunhyang University Cheonan-31151, Republic of Korea; Institute of Tissue Regeneration, College of Medicine, Soonchunhyang University 366-1, Cheonan 31151, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

Lethal bleeding due to street accidents, natural calamities, orthopedic/dental surgeries, organ transplantation and household injuries, is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality. In the current study, zinc oxide (ZnO) was incorporated in TEMPO-oxidized cellulose nanofiber (TOCN) and polyethylene glycol (PEG) polymer system for hemorrhage control by freeze drying method. SEM and XRD data showed the presence of ZnO in the porous structure. Read More

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December 2018
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Synthesis of Negative-Charged Metal-Containing Cyclomatrix Polyphosphazene Microspheres Based on Polyoxometalates and Application in Charge-Selective Dye Adsorption.

Macromol Rapid Commun 2018 Dec 7:e1800730. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

Department of Applied Chemistry, School of Science MOE Key Lab for Materials Physics and Chemistry Extraordinary Condition, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi'an 710129, Shaanxi, China.

A negative-charged, metal-containing cyclomatrix polyphosphazene microsphere (MCPM) is synthesized using the strategy of precipitation polymerization of di-functionalized polyoxometalates (POMs) and hexachlorocyclotriphosphazene. The chemical structure of these MCPMs is well characterized by C MAS NMR and P MAS NMR, as well as FT-IR, electron microscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The covalent grafting of the rigid POMs clusters into the framework of these microspheres prevents the collapsing of the pores, making these MCPMs porous materials. Read More

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December 2018

Improved resin-to-dentin bond strength and durability via non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasma drying of etched dentin.

Eur J Oral Sci 2018 Dec 9. Epub 2018 Dec 9.

Department of Health Policy and Management, College of Health Science, Seoul, Korea.

This study aimed to evaluate the improvement in strength and durability of the bond between dentin and composite resins following plasma drying of the etched dentin surface using non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasma. Plasma drying was applied to the etched dentin before applying adhesive. Conventional wet-bonding and helium (He) gas-dried bonding schemes were used as control groups. Read More

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December 2018

Protein-Bound Freestanding 2D Metal Film for Stealth Information Transmission.

Adv Mater 2018 Dec 9:e1803377. Epub 2018 Dec 9.

Key Laboratory of Applied Surface and Colloid Chemistry, Ministry of Education, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi'an, 710119, China.

The welding and sintering of nanomaterials is usually achieved at high temperatures and high pressures. Here, it is found that merging of metal nanoparticles occurs under ambient conditions in an aqueous solution via protein bonding. It is discovered that the silver nanoparticles from the in situ reduction of silver ammonium ions by glucose undergo confined nucleation and growth and are bound by ultrathin amyloid-like β-sheet stacking of lysozyme. Read More

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December 2018

Sleeping site and tree selection by Sichuan snub-nosed monkeys (Rhinopithecus roxellana) in Baihe Nature Reserve, Sichuan, China.

Am J Primatol 2018 Dec;80(12):e22936

College of Environmental Science and Engineering, China West Normal University, Nanchong, Sichuan, China.

For non-human primates to optimize their survival chances, sleeping site selection is crucial as they spend much of their time sleeping. We studied sleeping site and tree selection by a group of wild Sichuan snub-nosed monkeys (Rhinopithecus roxellana) in the temperate forests of Baihe Nature Reserve, Sichuan, China, to assess if certain site and tree characteristics were selected. We identified a total of 39 sleeping sites and 111 sleeping trees over a period of 1 year. Read More

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December 2018

Molecular scaffolds as double targeting agents for the diagnosis and treatment of Neuroblastoma.

Angew Chem Int Ed Engl 2018 Dec 10. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Facultad de Farmacia, Ciudad Universitaria, 28040, Madrid, SPAIN.

The selective delivery of therapeutic and imaging agents to tumoral cells has been postulated as some of the most important challenges in nanomedicine field. The cellular selectivity of nanocarriers is usually achieved by their surface decoration with targeting moieties able to recognize these cells in a specific manner. Neuroblastoma (NB) is the most frequent extra-cranial pedriatic tumor, almost incurable at advanced stages. Read More

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December 2018

Effects of Polyamines on the Ultrafiltration of Plasmid DNA.

Biotechnol Prog 2018 Dec 10:e2765. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Department of Chemical Engineering, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA, 16802.

It is well established that the structure of plasmid DNA is a strong function of solution ionic conditions due to changes in intramolecular electrostatic interactions between the charged phosphate groups along the DNA backbone. Multivalent cations like spermine and spermidine play a critical role in compacting and controlling the structure of supercoiled DNA in living cells. The objective of this work was to investigate the effects of these polyamines on the ultrafiltration of plasmid DNA, including possible opportunities to use these polycations to enhance the purification of specific plasmid isoforms. Read More

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December 2018

Melatonin inhibits the migration of human gastric carcinoma cells at least in part by remodeling tight junction.

J Cell Biochem 2018 Dec 9. Epub 2018 Dec 9.

Laboratory of Molecular Biology and Department of Biochemistry, Anhui Medical University, Hefei, People's Republic of China.

The recurrence and metastasis is one of the major reasons for malignant tumor treatment failure. Melatonin, a naturally occuring hormone, could reduce the recurrence and metastasis of various tumors. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms of melatonin on tumor metastasis inhibition have not been fully elucidated. Read More

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December 2018

Psychometric properties of Authentic Leadership Self-Assessment Questionnaire in a population-based sample of Polish nurses.

J Adv Nurs 2018 Dec 10. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Division of Teaching and Outcomes of Education, Faculty of Health Science, Medical University of Warsaw, Żwirki i Wigury 61, 02-091, Warsaw, Poland.

Aim: The purpose of the study was to adapt and evaluate the psychometric characteristics of the Polish language version of the Authentic Leadership Self-Assessment Questionnaire (ALSAQ) intended for use among registered nurses.

Design: A cross-sectional study where the ALSAQ was administered to a representative group of 3,299 Polish registered nurses was carried out between September and November 2017.

Methods: Linguistic-cultural adaptation of the ALSAQ was carried out according to the WHO guidelines. Read More

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December 2018

Novel microbial community composition and carbon biogeochemistry emerge over time following saltwater intrusion in wetlands.

Glob Chang Biol 2018 Dec 9. Epub 2018 Dec 9.

Department of Biology, Trani Center for Life Sciences, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia.

Sea level rise and changes in precipitation can cause saltwater intrusion into historically freshwater wetlands, leading to shifts in microbial metabolism that alter greenhouse gas emissions and soil carbon sequestration. Saltwater intrusion modifies soil physicochemistry and can immediately affect microbial metabolism, but further alterations to biogeochemical processing can occur over time as microbial communities adapt to the changed environmental conditions. To assess temporal changes in microbial community composition and biogeochemical activity due to saltwater intrusion, soil cores were transplanted from a tidal freshwater marsh to a downstream mesohaline marsh and periodically sampled over 1 year. Read More

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December 2018

Grey matter alterations in obesity: A meta-analysis of whole-brain studies.

Obes Rev 2018 Dec 10. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Center of Mental Health, Department of Psychiatry, Psychosomatics, and Psychotherapy, University Hospital of Würzburg, Würzburg, Germany.

Obesity is a major problem in the modern world causing a higher risk for various cerebrovascular diseases causing a profound individual and societal burden. The neurobiological foundation bears potential to understand the complex interaction of individual differences in brain structure and function and ingestive behaviour. This systematic review was performed on the current evidence of structural abnormalities in grey matter volume (GMV) in patients with obesity based on studies published until December 2017, which were selected through search in PubMed, CENTER (Cochrane Library), PsycINFO, Web of Science, and Ovid MEDLINE. Read More

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December 2018
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A High Lignin Content Removable and Glycol-Assisted Repairable Coating Based on Dynamic Covalent Bonds.

ChemSusChem 2018 Dec 10. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Washington State University, School of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, Composite Materials and Engineering Center, Pullman, UNITED STATES.

Conventional thermoset coating cannot be easily repaired and removed due to their highly crosslinked structure. The investigation of repairable or removable coating has been receiving extensive attentions, but few reported coatings possess both features. In this work, a repairable and removable coating is developed through the curing of a modified Kraft lignin (L-COOH) with poly (ethylene glycol) diglycidyl ether (PEG-epoxy) in the presence of zinc catalyst. Read More

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December 2018

Z-scheme Polyimide/AgBr@Ag aerogel with excellent photocatalytic performance for degradation of oxytetracycline.

Chem Asian J 2018 Dec 9. Epub 2018 Dec 9.

Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory for Special Silicone-Containing Materials, Advanced Materials Institute, QiLu University of Technology (Shandong Academy of Sciences), Jinan 250014, P. R. China, 250014, Jinan, CHINA.

A novel Z-scheme Polyimide (PI)/AgBr@Ag aerogel photocatalyst has been successfully synthesized by combining in-situ precipitation method and supercritical drying method. The as-prepared PI/AgBr@Ag-50 (50% of AgBr@Ag in PI/AgBr@Ag) aerogel photocatalyst exhibited excellent photocatalytic activity for oxytetracycline degradation with a rate constant of 0.025 min-1, which was 6. Read More

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December 2018
2 Reads

Patterns of structural change in gonads of the divine dwarfgoby Eviota epiphanes as they sexually transition.

J Fish Biol 2018 Dec 7. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

University of Hawai'i at Mānoa 2538 McCarthy Mall Edmondson Hall 216 Honolulu, Hawai'I, USA.

This study documents changes in gonadal structure for the serial hermaphrodite (or bidirectional sex changer) divine dwarfgoby Eviota epiphanes (family Gobiidae) as individuals transition in both directions. To evaluate transitional gonad morphology, individuals actively producing the same gamete type (oocytes or sperm) were set up into pairs and euthanised over a period of 14 days to get a time series of morphological changes during gonad transformation. Results from this study show that rapid changes in the gonad take place at a structural level as individuals change their reproductive function and gamete production. Read More

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December 2018

Selective Primary Oxidation of Lignin Streams from Butanol-Pretreated Agricultural Waste Biomass.

ChemSusChem 2018 Dec 10. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

University of St Andrews, School of Chemistry, North Haugh, KY16 9ST, St Andrews, UNITED KINGDOM.

Chemically modified lignins are important for the generation of biomass-derived materials and as precursors to renewable aromatic monomers. A butanol-based organosolv pretreatment has been used to convert an abundant agricultural waste product, rice husks, into a cellulose pulp and three additional product streams. One of these streams, a butanol-modified lignin, was oxidised at the γ-position to give a carboxylic acid functionalized material. Read More

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December 2018

Stabilizing RbPbBr3 Perovskite Nanocrystals through Cs+ Substitution.

Chemistry 2018 Dec 10. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Beijing Institute of Technology, 100081, Beijing, CHINA.

The ABX3-type halide perovskite nanocrystals (NCs) have been a hot topic recently due to their fascinating optoelectronic properties. It has been demonstrated that A-site ion has an impact on the photophysical and chemical properties, such as optical bandgap and chemical stability. The pursuit of halide perovskite materials with diversified A-site species would deepen the understanding on the structure-property relationship of the perovskite family. Read More

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December 2018

Structural and mechanistic insights into polymyxin resistance mediated by EptC originating from Escherichia coli.

FEBS J 2018 Dec 7. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

Division of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, State Key Laboratory of Biotherapy, West China Hospital of Sichuan University and Collaborative Innovation Center of Biotherapy, Chengdu, 610041, China.

Gram-negative bacteria defend against the toxicity of polymyxins by modifying their outer membrane lipopolysaccharide (LPS). This modification mainly occurs through the addition of cationic molecules such as phosphoethanolamine (PEA). EcEptC is a PEA transferase from Escherichia coli (E. Read More

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December 2018

On hormonal regulation of the dynamic apical hook development.

New Phytol 2018 Dec 7. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

Institute of Plant and Food Science, Department of Biology, Southern University of Science and Technology, Shenzhen, Guangdong, 518055, China.

To deal with the ever-changing environment, sessile plants adapt diverse and plastic organ structures during postembryonic development. Among these, the apical hook forms shortly after seed germination of most dicots, protects the delicate shoot meristem from mechanical damage during soil emergence. For decades, this structure has been taken as an excellent model for investigating the mechanisms underlying differential growth of plant tissues. Read More

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December 2018
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A nanostructured Si/SiOC composite anode with volume-change-buffering microstructure for lithium ion batteries.

Chemistry 2018 Dec 7. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

Harbin Institute of Technology, School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, No.92 West Da Zhi Street, 150001, Harbin, CHINA.

Si/SiOC composites are promising high-capacity anode materials of lithium ion batteries since SiOC matrix can buffer effectively the volumetric change of Si during cycling. However, the structure of Si nanoparticles enwrapped by continuous SiOC phase shows typically poor cyclic stability and low charge/discharge rate due to the structure failure of bulk SiOC shell that derived from carbon-rich organosilicon. In this instance, a Si/SiOC nanocomposite with volume-change-buffering microstructure, where Si nanoparticles disperse uniformly in SiOC nanospheres matrix, is synthesized. Read More

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December 2018

The Development of Cocatalysts for Photoelectrochemical CO Reduction.

Adv Mater 2018 Dec 9:e1804710. Epub 2018 Dec 9.

Key Laboratory for Green Chemical Technology of Ministry of Education, School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Tianjin University, Collaborative Innovation Center of Chemical Science and Engineering (Tianjin), Tianjin, 300072, China.

The ever-increasing anthropogenic consumption of fossil fuels and the resulting large emission of CO have led to a severe energy crisis and climate change. Photocatalytic reduction of CO into fuels using solar energy is considered as a promising way to address these two problems. In particular, photoelectrochemical (PEC) reduction of CO can integrate and optimize the advantages of both photocatalysis and electrocatalysis for improved conversion efficiency and selectivity. Read More

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December 2018

Its all about connections: hubs and invasion in habitat networks.

Ecol Lett 2018 Dec 9. Epub 2018 Dec 9.

Université Côte d'Azur, INRA, CNRS, ISA, 06900, Sophia Antipolis, France.

During the early stages of invasion, the interaction between the features of the invaded landscape, notably its spatial structure, and the internal dynamics of an introduced population has a crucial impact on establishment and spread. By approximating introduction areas as networks of patches linked by dispersal, we characterised their spatial structure with specific metrics and tested their impact on two essential steps of the invasion process: establishment and spread. By combining simulations with experimental introductions of Trichogramma chilonis (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) in artificial laboratory microcosms, we demonstrated that spread was hindered by clusters and accelerated by hubs but was also affected by small-population mechanisms prevalent for invasions, such as Allee effects. Read More

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December 2018

Human polyomavirus 7 (HPyV7)-associated dermatoses: novel molecular mechanism driven by viral activation of 4E-BP1 and MEK-ERK-cJun.

Int J Dermatol 2018 Dec 10. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Department of Dermatology, University of Texas Medical School, Houston, TX, USA.

A number of pruritic skin conditions arising in immunocompromised patients are associated with viral infection. Recently, human polyomavirus 7 (HPyV7) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of eruptive pruritic parakeratotic and dyskeratotic dermatoses with distinct "peacock plumage" histology. While expression of HPyV7 viral protein, namely small tumor (sT) antigen, is prominent within lesional tissue, the functional role of HPyV7 in cutaneous pathobiology is not yet known. Read More

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December 2018
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Arachnoid cysts of the internal auditory canal: An underappreciated entity?

Laryngoscope 2018 Dec 8. Epub 2018 Dec 8.

Department of Otolaryngology, Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary, Boston, Massachusetts, U.S.A.

Objectives/hypothesis: To describe the histopathologic findings and clinical presentation of arachnoid cysts (ACs) within the human temporal bone.

Study Design: Retrospective cohort analysis.

Methods: An analysis of all medical records of patients diagnosed with an AC was performed. Read More

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December 2018

Selective Formation of Helical Tetrapyrrin-fused Porphyrins by Oxidation of beta-to-beta Linked meso-Aminoporphyrin Dimers.

Chemistry 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

CHINA.

Oxidation of β-to-β directly linked and sulfur-bridged meso-amino NiII-porphyrin dimers with PbO2 gave helical tetrapyrrin (biliverdin analogue)-fused NiII-porphyrins. These ring cleaving reactions differ markedly from the previously reported oxidation of a β-β linked NiII-porphyrin dimer carrying one amino-group that gave an azepine-fused porphyrin dimer. The tetrapyrrin-fused NiII-porphyrins display intense NIR absorption bands reaching at 1200-1400 nm and reversible redox processes because of the highly π-conjugated networks and rigid structures. Read More

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December 2018

Bimetallic covalent organic frameworks for constructing multifunctional electrocatalyst.

Chemistry 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

No.99 Haike Road, Zhangjiang Hi-Tech Park, CHINA.

Covalent organic frameworks (COFs) are a new class of crystalline porous polymers, which comprise mainly of carbons and are versatile for integrating heteroatoms such as B, O and N to the skeletons. The designable structure and abundant composition render COFs useful as precursors for heteroatom-doped porous carbons for energy storage and conversion. Herein, we describe a multifunctional electrochemical catalyst by pyrolysis of a bimetallic COF. Read More

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December 2018

Towards the 150th anniversary of the Markovnikov's rule.

Angew Chem Int Ed Engl 2018 Dec 10. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Moscow State University, Chemistry, RUSSIAN FEDERATION.

The Markovnikov rule, known to every student of organic chemistry, was formulated 150 years ago, in 1869. During its long history (almost as long as the history of organic chemistry itself) attitudes towards this famous statement of chemical reactivity have evolved from indifference up to the 1930s, through common acceptance as a useful educational paradigm with a marginal use in research until the 1990s, to its vigorous re-launch as an important marker of regioselectivity in the last few decades. The unexpected new popularity of the classical rule is accounted for by a rapid expansion of catalytic addition reactions and their critical importance as highly effective atom-economical, regioselective methods in modern organic synthesis. Read More

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December 2018

Structures and activities of widely conserved small prokaryotic Aminopeptidases P clarify classification of M24B peptidases.

Proteins 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

High Pressure and Synchrotron Radiation Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai, India.

The proline-specific M24B peptidases that cleave Xaa-Pro iminopeptide bond in dipeptides are called prolidases while those that preferentially cleave this bond at the N-termini of longer peptides are called aminopeptidases-P. Escherichia coli and other bacteria have small aminopeptidases-P (36-39 kDa) which are considerably diverged from the canonical aminopeptidase-P of E. coli (50 kDa). Read More

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December 2018

The Praxis of Decoloniality in Researcher Training and Community-Based Data Collection.

Am J Community Psychol 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Steinhardt School of Culture, Education, and Human Development, New York University, New York, NY, USA.

In this paper, we detail our praxis of decoloniality in the context of a community-based study that employs a quantitative experimental methodology to evaluate an intervention for girls involved in the juvenile legal system. We resist the essentializing of methodology that positions quantitative paradigms as impermeable to reflexivity and decoloniality, and describe a model for training and supervising researchers engaged in an experimental randomized controlled trial of an advocacy program for girls, most of whom are girls of color and about half of whom identify as LGBT. In this way, we consider researcher training as a critical teaching context and describe the ways in which our training, community-based data collection, and supervision structure are anchored in de/anti/post colonial and indigenous scholarships. Read More

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December 2018

Characterization of the atypical Ppz/Hal3 phosphatase system from the pathogenic fungus Cryptococcus neoformans.

Mol Microbiol 2018 Dec 8. Epub 2018 Dec 8.

Departament de Bioquímica i Biologia Molecular and Institut de Biotecnologia i Biomedicina, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Bellaterra, Barcelona, Spain.

Ppz Ser/Thr protein phosphatases (PPases) are found only in fungi and have been proposed as potential antifungal targets. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae Ppz1 (ScPpz1) is involved in regulation of monovalent cation homeostasis. ScPpz1 is inhibited by two regulatory proteins, Hal3 and Vhs3, which have moonlighting properties, contributing to the formation of an unusual heterotrimeric PPC decarboxylase (PPCDC) complex crucial for CoA biosynthesis. Read More

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December 2018
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Critical Considerations on the Clinical Translation of Upconversion Nanoparticles (UCNPs): Recommendations from the European Upconversion Network (COST Action CM1403).

Adv Healthc Mater 2018 Dec 10:e1801233. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Institute of Analytical Chemistry, Chemo- and Biosensors, University of Regensburg, 93040, Regensburg, Germany.

The unique photoluminescent properties of upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs) have attracted worldwide research interest and inspired many bioanalytical applications. The anti-Stokes emission with long luminescence lifetimes, narrow and multiple absorption and emission bands, and excellent photostability enable background-free and multiplexed detection in deep tissues. So far, however, in vitro and in vivo applications of UCNPs are restricted to the laboratory use due to safety concerns. Read More

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December 2018

Microtubules: From understanding their dynamics to using them as potential therapeutic targets.

Authors:
Yaron Ilan

J Cell Physiol 2018 Dec 10. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Department of Medicine, Hadassah-Hebrew University Medical Center, Jerusalem, Israel.

Microtubules (MT) and actin microfilaments are dynamic cytoskeleton components involved in a range of intracellular processes. MTs play a role in cell division, beating of cilia and flagella, and intracellular transport. Over the past decades, much knowledge has been gained regarding MT function and structure, and its role in underlying disease progression. Read More

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December 2018
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High risk Epstein-Barr virus variants characterized by distinct polymorphisms in the EBER locus are strongly associated with nasopharyngeal carcinoma.

Int J Cancer 2018 Dec 10. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Department of Paediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, Li Ka Shing Faculty of Medicine, The University of Hong Kong, Queen Mary Hospital, Pokfulam, Hong Kong SAR, China.

Whether certain variants of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) are linked to the pathogenesis of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC), which shows a marked geographic restriction, remains an unresolved issue. We performed a case-control study comparing genomic sequences of EBV isolated from saliva samples of 142 population carriers with those from primary tumour biopsies derived from 62 patients with NPC of Hong Kong. Cluster analysis discovered five EBV subgroups 1A-C and 2A-B amongst the population carriers in contrast to the predominance of 1A and -B in the majority of NPC. Read More

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December 2018

Moisture-Resistant Mn4+-Doped Core-Shell Structured Fluoride Red Phosphor Exhibiting High Luminous Efficacy for Warm White LEDs.

Angew Chem Int Ed Engl 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Fujian Institute of Research on the Structure of Matter, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 155 West Yangqiao Road, CHINA.

K2TiF6:Mn4+ is a highly efficient narrow-band emission red phosphor with promising applications in white LEDs and wide-gamut displays. Nevertheless, the poor moisture-resistant property of this material hinders its further commercialization. Herein, we introduce a convenient reverse cation exchange strategy to construct a core-shell structured K2TiF6:Mn4+@K2TiF6 phosphor. Read More

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December 2018

The role of fork stalling and DNA structures in causing chromosome fragility.

Genes Chromosomes Cancer 2018 Dec 9. Epub 2018 Dec 9.

Department of Biology, Tufts University, Suite 4700, 200 Boston Ave, Medford, MA, USA.

Alternative non-B form DNA structures, also called secondary structures, can form in certain DNA sequences under conditions that produce single-stranded DNA, such as during replication, transcription, and repair. Direct links between secondary structure formation, replication fork stalling, and genomic instability have been found for many repeated DNA sequences that cause disease when they expand. Common fragile sites (CFSs) are known to be AT-rich and break under replication stress, yet the molecular basis for their fragility is still being investigated. Read More

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December 2018
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