540,238 results match your criteria Strategies for Studying Brain Disorders[Journal]


Strategies for the management of invasive fungal infections due to filamentous fungi in high-risk hemato-oncological patients.

Rev Esp Quimioter 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Carlos Vallejo, Hospital Donostia, Begiristain Doktorea Pasealekua, 109, 20014 Donostia, Gipuzkoa, Spain.

Objective: In recent years, the introduction of new antifungals for the prevention of invasive fungal infections (IFIs) in hemato- oncological patients, particularly extended-spectrum azoles, has led to a change in the diagnostic and therapeutic strategies for established or suspected breakthrough IFI. The aim of the study was to identify the diagnostic and therapeutic strategies used in the management of IFIs in hemato-oncological patients in Spain, and to assess compliance with the recommendations of the consensus documents and clinical practice guidelines.

Methods: An online, anonymous, cross-sectional survey was conducted between January and September 2016 involving 137 specialists from third-level hospitals in Spain with Departments of Hematology that regularly deal with IFIs. Read More

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December 2018
2 Reads

[Introduction: The city of Villeurbanne has made the political choice to reduce social inequalities in health (SIH). The Public Health Department wanted to assess the health impact in the context of this project. The main objective was to analyse the links between urban development and health in order to identify the impact of the urban project on health and to make recommendations to reduce physical inactivity of children. Attention was focused on a neighbourhood of 6,000 inhabitants in the process of urban renewal. A high rate of adults on antidiabetic treatment was observed in this relatively deprived neighbourhood. School medicine also noted a high proportion of overweight children in schools in the neighbourhood, higher than in all schools of the city. The objective of this HIA was therefore to identify the impact of the renovation project on children’s mobility and to make recommendations in order to combat their physical inactivity by encouraging spontaneous physical activity.Methods: The selected determinants were grouped into four categories: outdoor environment, use of open spaces, adapted sports facilities/equipment, roads. The evaluation was based on analysis of urban planning documents, environmental analysis reports, ad hoc surveys, individual interviews with the various partners and target actors. A bibliographic review confirmed the positive or negative impacts of various aspects of the project on health.Results: Although some aspects of the project had a positive impact on the health of the inhabitants, others have a negative impact on children’s mobility, well-being and social capital. About 30 recommendations were proposed and prioritized according to their political support and their technical, economic and temporal feasibility.Discussion].

Sante Publique 2018 Sep;S2(HS2):63-67

Introduction: The city of Villeurbanne has made the political choice to reduce social inequalities in health (SIH). The Public Health Department wanted to assess the health impact in the context of this project. The main objective was to analyse the links between urban development and health in order to identify the impact of the urban project on health and to make recommendations to reduce physical inactivity of children. Read More

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September 2018

Universalisme proportionné : vers une « égalité réelle » de la prévention en France.

Sante Publique 2018 Sep;S2(HS2):13-24

Although their design may feature a considerable amount of universalism, prevention strategies often produce results that are socially and/or spatially differentiated. This differentiation process can induce social or territorial gradients of access to and/or effectiveness of prevention and, in turn, worsen health inequalities. This process also accentuates the gap between the principles of certain public policies and their practical implementation, raising the question of the real benefit of these policies for beneficiaries. Read More

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September 2018
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A Drug Repurposing Method Based on Drug-Drug Interaction Networks and Using Energy Model Layouts.

Methods Mol Biol 2019 ;1903:185-201

Faculty of Pharmacy, "Victor Babeş" University of Medicine and Pharmacy Timişoara, Timişoara, Romania.

Complex network representations of reported drug-drug interactions foster computational strategies that can infer pharmacological functions which, in turn, create incentives for drug repositioning. Here, we use Gephi (a platform for complex network visualization and analysis) to represent a drug-drug interaction network with drug interaction information from DrugBank 4.1. Read More

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January 2019

Implementation of a Pipeline Using Disease-Disease Associations for Computational Drug Repurposing.

Methods Mol Biol 2019 ;1903:129-148

Department of Biotechnology, School of Bio Sciences and Technology, Vellore Institute of Technology, Vellore, Tamil Nadu, India.

Drug repurposing is a powerful technique which has been recently employed in both industry and academia to discover and validate previously approved drugs for new indications. It provides the quickest possible transition from bench to bedside. In essence, computational strategies are appealing because they putatively nominate the most encouraging candidate for a given indication. Read More

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January 2019

A Computational Bipartite Graph-Based Drug Repurposing Method.

Methods Mol Biol 2019 ;1903:115-127

Institute of Medical Information/Library, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences/Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, China.

We present a bipartite graph-based approach to calculate drug pairwise similarity for identifying potential new indications of approved drugs. Both chemical and molecular features were used in drug similarity calculation. In this paper, we first extracted drug chemical structures and drug-target interactions. Read More

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January 2019

Methods for Discovering and Targeting Druggable Protein-Protein Interfaces and Their Application to Repurposing.

Methods Mol Biol 2019 ;1903:1-21

Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Koc University, Istanbul, Turkey.

Drug repurposing is a creative and resourceful approach to increase the number of therapies by exploiting available and approved drugs. However, identifying new protein targets for previously approved drugs is challenging. Although new strategies have been developed for drug repurposing, there is broad agreement that there is room for further improvements. Read More

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January 2019

A national survey on attitudes and barriers on recycling and environmental sustainability efforts among Canadian anesthesiologists: an opportunity for knowledge translation.

Can J Anaesth 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Department of Anesthesia, Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada.

Background: Anesthesia-related activities produce 25% of all operating room (OR) waste and contribute to environmental pollution and climate change. The aim of this study was to document Canadian anesthesiologists' current practice, attitudes towards, and perceived barriers regarding recycling of OR waste and environmental sustainability efforts.

Methods: With Research Ethics Board approval, members of the Canadian Anesthesiologists' Society (CAS) completed an online survey consisting of 25 questions assessing current environmentally sustainable practices in anesthesiology and gaps, barriers, and interest in gaining further knowledge on this topic. Read More

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December 2018

Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for subcutaneous panniculitis-like T-cell lymphoma: single center experience in an Asian population.

Int J Hematol 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Division of Hematology, Department of Medicine, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, No. 201, Sec 2, Shih-Pai Road, Taipei, 112, Taiwan.

Subcutaneous panniculitis-like T-cell lymphoma (SPTL) is a rare form of cytotoxic T-cell lymphoma. It is believed that SPTL in patients without hemophagocytic syndrome (HPS) follows an indolent course; in contrast, SPTL in patients with HPS has been associated with unfavorable survival. To provide more clinical data on SPTL in Asian populations and to identify optimal therapeutic strategies for SPTL, we assessed the clinicopathological features and long-term follow-up data of 10 Taiwanese SPTL patients diagnosed at a single center. Read More

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December 2018

Nerve grafting for peripheral nerve injuries with extended defect sizes.

Wien Med Wochenschr 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Medical University of Vienna, Währinger Gürtel 18-20, 1090, Vienna, Austria.

Artificial and non-artificial nerve grafts are the gold standard in peripheral nerve reconstruction in cases with extensive loss of nerve tissue, particularly where a direct end-to-end suture or an autologous nerve graft is inauspicious. Different materials are marketed and approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for peripheral nerve graft reconstruction. The most frequently used materials are collagen and poly(DL-lactide-ε-caprolactone). Read More

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December 2018
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Understanding Patient Preferences and Unmet Needs in Non-alcoholic Steatohepatitis (NASH): Insights from a Qualitative Online Bulletin Board Study.

Adv Ther 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Novartis Healthcare Pvt Ltd, Hyderabad, India.

Introduction: The aim of this work was to understand how patients with non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) perceive their disease, unmet needs, and expectations regarding future treatment through online bulletin board (OBB) qualitative research.

Methods: OBB is an asynchronous online qualitative market research tool that provides an open forum for interactive discussion among participants. Patients with NASH were recruited via physician referral and completed a screener questionnaire to ensure their eligibility and willingness to participate. Read More

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December 2018

Effects of Migration on Risky Sexual Behavior and HIV Acquisition in South Africa: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis, 2000-2017.

AIDS Behav 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Africa Health Research Institute, K-RITH Tower Building, 719 Umbilo Road, Congella, Private Bag X7, Durban, South Africa.

While human mobility has been implicated in fueling the HIV epidemic in South Africa, the link between migration and HIV has not been systematically reviewed and quantified. We conducted a systematic review of the role of migration in HIV risk acquisition and sexual behaviour based on 29 studies published between 2000 and 2017. Furthermore, we performed a meta-analysis of the association between migration and HIV risk acquisition in four of the studies that used HIV incidence as an outcome measure. Read More

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December 2018

Inhibitory Control and Information Processing in ADHD: Comparing the Dual Task and Performance Adjustment Hypotheses.

J Abnorm Child Psychol 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Department of Pediatrics, Center for Advancement of Youth, University of Mississippi Medical Center, 2500 North State Street, Jackson, MS, 39216, USA.

Inhibition is a key neurocognitive domain in ADHD that is commonly assessed with the stop-signal task. The stop-signal involves both "go" and "stop" trials; previous research indicates that response times are reliably slower to "go" trials during tasks with vs. without intermittent "stop" trials. Read More

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December 2018
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Carbon costs and benefits of France's biomass energy production targets.

Carbon Balance Manag 2018 Dec 13;13(1):26. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

CESAER, AgroSup Dijon, INRA, Univ. Bourgogne Franche-Comté, 21000, Dijon, France.

Background: Concern about climate change has motivated France to reduce its reliance on fossil fuel by setting targets for increased biomass-based renewable energy production. This study quantifies the carbon costs and benefits for the French forestry sector in meeting these targets. A forest growth and harvest simulator was developed for French forests using recent forest inventory data, and the wood-use chain was reconstructed from national wood product statistics. Read More

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December 2018

Comparison of percutaneous endoscopic lumbar discectomy versus microendoscopic discectomy for the treatment of lumbar disc herniation: a meta-analysis.

Int Orthop 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Spine Surgery Center, Zhongda Hospital, Medical School, Southeast University, 87 Dingjiaqiao, Nanjing, 210009, Jiangsu, China.

Purpose: We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to compare the clinical outcomes of percutaneous endoscopic lumbar discectomy (PELD) and microendoscopic discectomy (MED) for the treatment of lumbar disc herniation (LDH), and to clarify whether PELD is more superior to MED.

Methods: We performed a comprehensive search in the databases of MEDLINE, EMBASE, PubMed, Web of Science, Cochrane database, CNKI, and Wanfang Data to acquire all relevant studies up to July 2018. The searched literatures were then screened according to the strict inclusion and exclusion criteria. Read More

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December 2018

The Morel-Lavallée lesion in thoracolumbar spine trauma-two index cases.

J Spine Surg 2018 Sep;4(3):654-657

Department of Neurosurgery, Royal North Shore Hospital, Sydney, Australia.

The Morel-Lavallée lesion (MLL) is a closed degloving injury caused by traumatic separation of the subcutaneous tissue from the underlying fascia, without a break in the overlying skin. We present two cases that demonstrate a previously unrecognised association of the MLL with thoracolumbar spine fractures. The lesion is frequently missed, or its significance is overlooked, on initial evaluation. Read More

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September 2018

Cartilage Tissue Engineering Using Stem Cells and Bioprinting Technology-Barriers to Clinical Translation.

Front Surg 2018 27;5:70. Epub 2018 Nov 27.

Department of Surgery, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, VIC, Australia.

There is no long-term treatment strategy for young and active patients with cartilage defects. Early and effective joint preserving treatments in these patients are crucial in preventing the development of osteoarthritis. Tissue engineering over the past few decades has presented hope in overcoming the issues involved with current treatment strategies. Read More

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November 2018

Contribution of IL-33 to the Pathogenesis of Colorectal Cancer.

Front Oncol 2018 28;8:561. Epub 2018 Nov 28.

Department of Gastroenterology, University Hospital of North Norway, Tromsø, Norway.

The development of colorectal cancer (CRC) is not only determined by transformed cells , but also by factors existing in their immune microenvironment. Accumulating scientific evidence has revealed that interleukin (IL)-33, an IL-1 family member, plays an essential role in the regulation of immune response and is relevant in CRC pathogenesis. Data from both human and experimental studies demonstrated that IL-33 inhibits host anti-tumor immunity, remodels tumor stroma and enhances angiogenesis, thereby promoting the development of CRC. Read More

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November 2018

Novel vaccines targeting dendritic cells by coupling allergoids to mannan.

Allergo J Int 2018 18;27(8):256-262. Epub 2018 May 18.

1Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, School of Chemistry, Complutense University of Madrid, 28040 Madrid, Spain.

Allergen-specific immunotherapy (AIT) is the single disease-modifying treatment for allergy. Clinical trials show AIT to be safe and effective for many patients; however, it still faces problems related to efficacy, safety, long treatment duration and low patient adherence. There has been intensive research to develop alternative strategies, including novel administration routes, adjuvants or hypoallergenic molecules. Read More

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TGF-β enhances the cytotoxic activity of Vδ2 T cells.

Oncoimmunology 2019 26;8(1):e1522471. Epub 2018 Sep 26.

Institute of Immunology, Christian-Albrechts University of Kiel, Kiel, Germany.

TGF-β is a pleiotropic cytokine with multiple roles in immunity. Apart from its suppressive activity, TGF-β is a driving cytokine in the differentiation of induced regulatory T cells (iTreg) but also in the polarization of interleukin-9 (IL-9) producing T helper 9 (Th9) T cells. Human Vδ2 expressing γδ T cells exert potent cytotoxicity towards a variety of solid tumor and leukemia/lymphoma target cells and thus are in the focus of current strategies to develop cell-based immunotherapies. Read More

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September 2018

Virotherapy-recruited PMN-MDSC infiltration of mesothelioma blocks antitumor CTL by IL-10-mediated dendritic cell suppression.

Oncoimmunology 2019 16;8(1):e1518672. Epub 2018 Oct 16.

AIDS Institute and Department of Microbiology, Li Ka Shing Faculty of Medicine, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong SAR, PR China.

Antitumor cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) are essential for immune surveillance, yet the blockade of eliciting such CTLs during oncolytic virotherapy remains incompletely understood. Here, we show that oncolysis of mesothelioma by modified vaccinia Tiantan (MVTT) induces damage-associated molecular patterns exposure. Although MVTT leads to regression of established mesothelioma dose-dependently, antitumor CTLs are rarely induced. Read More

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October 2018

The role of CMV in glioblastoma and implications for immunotherapeutic strategies.

Oncoimmunology 2019 16;8(1):e1514921. Epub 2018 Oct 16.

Lillian S. Wells Department of Neurosurgery, UF Brain Tumor Immunotherapy Program, Preston A. Wells, Jr. Center for Brain Tumor Therapy, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA.

Controversy surrounds the role of cytomegalovirus (CMV) in glioblastoma (GBM). However, several studies have shown that CMV nucleic acids and proteins are present within GBM tumor tissue. CMV has been implicated in GBM pathogenesis by affecting tumor stem cell factors, angiogenesis and immune pathways. Read More

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October 2018
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Warming up the tumor microenvironment in order to enhance immunogenicity.

Oncoimmunology 2019 1;8(1):e1510710. Epub 2018 Oct 1.

Department of Pathology and Immunology, University of Geneva Medical School, Gemeva, Switzerland.

We have recently demonstrated that intratumoral CpG-B vaccination enhances anti-tumor immunity and tumor regression in mice. We further show that the local delivery of TLR9 agonists converts the tolerogenic tumor microenvironment into an immunopermissive one, which may benefit current immunotherapeutic anticancer strategies by enhancing innate and adaptive tumor-associated immune cell responses. Read More

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October 2018

Combination PD-1 blockade and irradiation of brain metastasis induces an effective abscopal effect in melanoma.

Oncoimmunology 2019 11;8(1):e1507669. Epub 2018 Oct 11.

Department of Immunology, Lerner Research Institute, Cleveland, OH, USA.

Nearly half of melanoma patients develop brain metastases during the course of their disease. Despite advances in both localized radiation and systemic immunotherapy, brain metastases remain difficult to treat, with most patients surviving less than 5 months from the time of diagnosis. While both treatment regimens have individually shown considerable promise in treating metastatic melanoma, there is interest in combining these strategies to take advantage of potential synergy. Read More

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October 2018
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Multiple well-differentiated cardiac liposarcoma with a concomitant myocardial lipoma: A case report.

Mol Clin Oncol 2018 Dec 5;9(6):617-621. Epub 2018 Oct 5.

Department of Radiology, Shengjing Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang, Liaoning 110004, P.R. China.

A cardiac lipoma and a cardiac liposarcoma are very uncommon conditions; however, the simultaneous development of the two is extremely rare. In addition, the symptoms of these conditions are not evident in the vast majority of cases, making them easily missed during diagnosis. The present case report describes a case of well-differentiated cardiac liposarcoma with a concomitant myocardial lipoma that was misdiagnosed as multiple cardiac lipomas. Read More

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December 2018

Effect of enhanced detailing and mass media on community use of oral rehydration salts and zinc during a scale-up program in Gujarat and Uttar Pradesh.

J Glob Health 2019 Jun;9(1):010501

Clinton Health Access Initiative, New Delhi, India.

Background: The Clinton Health Access Initiative implemented a program from 2012-2016 to increase use of oral rehydration salts (ORS) and zinc to treat diarrhea in children under five in three states in India: Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh, and Uttar Pradesh. The program interventions included detailing and development of a rural supply chain to reach private rural health care providers, training of Accredited Social Health Activists (ASHAs), technical support to the state governments, and a mass media campaign targeted at caregivers. In Gujarat and Uttar Pradesh, some of the program activities, such as detailing and ASHA trainings, were targeted to high-burden focal districts, thus providing an opportunity to study their effect compared to statewide activities that covered all districts, such as the mass media campaign. Read More

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Transaminase-Catalyzed Racemization with Potential for Dynamic Kinetic Resolutions.

ChemCatChem 2018 Nov 11;10(21):5012-5018. Epub 2018 Oct 11.

Department of Industrial Biotechnology KTH Royal Institute of Technology AlbaNova University Center Stockholm SE-106 91 Sweden.

Dynamic kinetic resolution (DKR) reactions in which a stereoselective enzyme and a racemization step are coupled in one pot would represent powerful tools for the production of enantiopure amines through enantioconvergence of racemates. The exploitation of DKR strategies is currently hampered by the lack of effective, enzyme-compatible and scalable racemization strategies for amines. In the present work, the proof of concept of a fully biocatalytic method for amine racemization is presented. Read More

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November 2018
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Urban tinkering.

Sustain Sci 2018 6;13(6):1549-1564. Epub 2018 Aug 6.

19University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa.

Cities are currently experiencing serious, multifaceted impacts from global environmental change, especially climate change, and the degree to which they will need to cope with and adapt to such challenges will continue to increase. A complex systems approach inspired by evolutionary theory can inform strategies for policies and interventions to deal with growing urban vulnerabilities. Such an approach would guide the design of new (and redesign of existing) urban structures, while promoting innovative integration of grey, green and blue infrastructure in service of environmental and health objectives. Read More

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Olefin metathesis catalysts embedded in β-barrel proteins: creating artificial metalloproteins for olefin metathesis.

Beilstein J Org Chem 2018 19;14:2861-2871. Epub 2018 Nov 19.

Institute of Inorganic Chemistry, RWTH Aachen University, Landoltweg 1, 52074 Aachen, Germany.

This review summarizes the recent progress of Grubbs-Hoveyda (GH) type olefin metathesis catalysts incorporated into the robust fold of β-barrel proteins. Anchoring strategies are discussed and challenges and opportunities in this emerging field are shown from simple small-molecule transformations over ring-opening metathesis polymerizations to in vivo olefin metathesis. Read More

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November 2018

Possible predictive role of cancer/testis antigens in breast ductal carcinoma .

Oncol Lett 2018 Dec 3;16(6):7245-7255. Epub 2018 Oct 3.

Department of Oncology, University of Zagreb School of Medicine, Sisters of Mercy University Hospital Center, University Hospital for Tumors, 10000 Zagreb, Croatia.

Cancer/testis antigens (CTAs) are a large family of tumor-associated antigens expressed in human tumors of different histological origin, but not in normal tissues, with the exception of the testes and placenta. Numerous immunohistochemical studies have reported associations between CTA expression and a negative estrogen receptor (ER) status in breast tumors, and demonstrated that CTAs are frequently expressed in tumors with higher nuclear grade. The expression of CTAs has not been studied as extensively in ductal carcinoma (DCIS) as it has been in invasive breast cancer. Read More

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December 2018

Oxidative stress induced by carboplatin promotes apoptosis and inhibits migration of HN-3 cells.

Oncol Lett 2018 Dec 10;16(6):7131-7138. Epub 2018 Oct 10.

Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Shanghai Key Clinical Disciplines of Otorhinolaryngology, Eye and ENT Hospital of Fudan University, Shanghai 200031, P.R. China.

Laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma (LSCC) is currently a serious public health problem in China; thus, it is urgent to identify effective treatment strategies for this disease. Previous studies demonstrated that reactive oxygen species (ROS) serve important roles in the apoptosis of LSCC cells. It has also been indicated that carboplatin (CBDCA), a second-generation platinum compound with broad antineoplastic properties, is able to induce oxidative stress to produce ROS, which in turn promotes apoptosis. Read More

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December 2018

Novel insight into the function of tankyrase.

Authors:
Mi Kyung Kim

Oncol Lett 2018 Dec 5;16(6):6895-6902. Epub 2018 Oct 5.

Department of Systems Biology, College of Life Science and Biotechnology, Yonsei University, Seoul 03722, Republic of Korea.

Tankyrases are multifunctional poly(ADP-ribose) polymerases that regulate a variety of cellular processes, including Wnt signaling, telomere maintenance and mitosis regulation. Tankyrases interact with target proteins and regulate their interactions and stability through poly(ADP-ribosyl) ation. In addition to their roles in telomere maintenance and regulation of mitosis, tankyrase proteins regulate tumor suppressors, including AXIN, phosphatase and tensin homolog and angiomotin. Read More

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December 2018

Surgical strategy for temporal lobe epilepsy with dual pathology and incomplete evidence from EEG and neuroimaging.

Exp Ther Med 2018 Dec 19;16(6):4886-4892. Epub 2018 Sep 19.

Department of Neurosurgery, The Second Hospital of Dalian Medical University, Dalian, Liaoning 116000, P.R. China.

Coexistence of hippocampal sclerosis (HS) and a temporal neocortical lesion, including focal cortical dysplasia, vascular malformations or benign primary brain tumors, is defined as dual pathology. In the majority of cases, the complete evidence based on electroencephalogram (EEG) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for each of the dual pathological lesions is difficult to obtain. As a result, patients with dual pathology are poor surgical candidates due to potential incomplete resection of the epileptogenic zone. Read More

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December 2018

Human umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells ameliorate the enteropathy of food allergies in mice.

Exp Ther Med 2018 Dec 19;16(6):4445-4456. Epub 2018 Sep 19.

Department of Immunology, School of Medicine, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang, Jiangsu 212013, P.R. China.

Food allergy prevalence has steadily increased worldwide over the past decades and immunotherapeutic treatment strategies are gaining attention. Human umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hUC-MSCs) exhibit similar immune regulatory properties to bone marrow-derived MSCs. hUC-MCSs can be prepared with fewer ethical constraints and are potential candidates for allergic disorder therapies. Read More

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December 2018

Neuroinflammation in mouse models of Alzheimer's disease.

Clin Exp Neuroimmunol 2018 Nov 23;9(4):211-218. Epub 2018 Sep 23.

RIKEN Center for Brain Science Laboratory for Proteolytic Neuroscience Wako Japan.

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common type of neurocognitive disorder. Although both amyloid β peptide deposition and neurofibrillary tangle formation in the AD brain have been established as pathological hallmarks of the disease, many other factors contribute in a complex manner to the pathogenesis of AD before clinical symptoms of the disease become apparent. Longitudinal pathophysiological processes cause patients' brains to exist in a state of chronic neuroinflammation, with glial cells acting as key regulators of the neuroinflammatory state. Read More

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November 2018

Non-operative management of blunt hepatic and splenic injuries-practical aspects and value of radiological scoring systems.

Eur Surg 2018 20;50(6):285-298. Epub 2018 Jul 20.

1Department of Visceral, Transplantation and Thoracic Surgery, Medical University of Innsbruck, Anichstraße 35, 6020 Innsbruck, Austria.

Background: Non-operative management (NOM) of blunt hepatic and splenic injuries has become popular in haemodynamically stable adult patients, despite uncertainty about efficacy, patient selection, and details of management. Up-to-date strategies and practical recommendations are presented.

Methods: A selective literature search was conducted in PubMed and the Cochrane Library (1989-2016). Read More

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FGF10 Signaling in Heart Development, Homeostasis, Disease and Repair.

Front Genet 2018 28;9:599. Epub 2018 Nov 28.

Aix-Marseille Univ, INSERM, MMG, U1251, Marseille, France.

Essential muscular organ that provides the whole body with oxygen and nutrients, the heart is the first organ to function during embryonic development. Cardiovascular diseases, including acquired and congenital heart defects, are the leading cause of mortality in industrialized countries. Fibroblast Growth Factors (FGFs) are involved in a variety of cellular responses including proliferation, differentiation, and migration. Read More

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November 2018

Plant Immunity Is Compartmentalized and Specialized in Roots.

Front Plant Sci 2018 28;9:1692. Epub 2018 Nov 28.

Normandie Univ, UNIROUEN, Laboratoire Glycobiologie et Matrice Extracellulaire Végétale EA4358, Rouen, France.

Roots are important organs for plant survival. In recent years, clear differences between roots and shoots in their respective plant defense strategies have been highlighted. Some putative gene markers of defense responses usually used in leaves are less relevant in roots and are sometimes not even expressed. Read More

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November 2018

Injectable Biomimetic Hydrogels as Tools for Efficient T Cell Expansion and Delivery.

Front Immunol 2018 28;9:2798. Epub 2018 Nov 28.

Department of Tumor Immunology, Oncode Institute, Radboud Institute for Molecular Life Sciences, Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen, Netherlands.

Biomaterial-based scaffolds are promising tools for controlled immunomodulation. They can be applied as three dimensional (3D) culture systems , whereas they may be used to dictate cellular localization and exert spatiotemporal control over cues presented to the immune system. As such, scaffolds can be exploited to enhance the efficacy of cancer immunotherapies such as adoptive T cell transfer, in which localization and persistence of tumor-specific T cells dictates treatment outcome. Read More

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November 2018

CD38: A Target for Immunotherapeutic Approaches in Multiple Myeloma.

Front Immunol 2018 28;9:2722. Epub 2018 Nov 28.

Laboratory of Immunogenetics, Department of Medical Sciences, University of Torino, Torino, Italy.

Multiple Myeloma (MM) is a hematological cancer characterized by proliferation of malignant plasma cells in the bone marrow (BM). MM represents the second most frequent hematological malignancy, accounting 1% of all cancer and 13% of hematological tumors, with ~9,000 new cases per year. Patients with monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) and asymptomatic smoldering MM (SMM) usually evolve to active MM in the presence of increased tumor burden, symptoms and organ damage. Read More

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November 2018

Effects of Reading Proficiency and of Base and Whole-Word Frequency on Reading Noun- and Verb-Derived Words: An Eye-Tracking Study in Italian Primary School Children.

Front Psychol 2018 28;9:2335. Epub 2018 Nov 28.

NeuroMI - Milan Centre for Neuroscience, Milan, Italy.

The aim of this study is to assess the role of readers' proficiency and of the base-word distributional properties on eye-movement behavior. Sixty-two typically developing children, attending 3, 4, and 5 grade, were asked to read derived words in a sentence context. Target words were nouns derived from noun bases (e. Read More

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November 2018

A Review of Treatments for Young Black Males Experiencing Depression.

Res Soc Work Pract 2018 Mar 7;28(3):320-329. Epub 2017 May 7.

George Warren Brown School of Social Work, Washington University in St. Louis, St. Louis, MO, USA.

The objective was to qualitatively examine the treatment effects of depression interventions on young, Black males (YBM) across treatment providers and settings via a review. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) seeking to ameliorate depressive symptomology in Black males ages 12-29 were eligible for inclusion. After review of 627 abstracts and 212 full-text articles, 12 studies were selected. Read More

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Pneumococcal quorum sensing drives an asymmetric owner-intruder competitive strategy during carriage via the competence regulon.

Nat Microbiol 2019 Jan 10;4(1):198-208. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Department of Microbiology, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY, USA.

Competition among microorganisms is a key determinant of successful host colonization and persistence. For Streptococcus pneumoniae, lower than predicted rates of co-colonizing strains suggest a competitive advantage for resident bacteria over newcomers. In light of evolutionary theory, we hypothesized that S. Read More

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January 2019

The role of the microbiota in infectious diseases.

Nat Microbiol 2019 Jan 13;4(1):35-45. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Department of Internal Medicine, Infectious Diseases Division, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, MI, USA.

The human body is colonized by a diverse community of microorganisms collectively referred to as the microbiota. Here, we describe how the human microbiota influences susceptibility to infectious diseases using examples from the respiratory, gastrointestinal and female reproductive tract. We will discuss how interactions between the host, the indigenous microbiota and non-native microorganisms, including bacteria, viruses and fungi, can alter the outcome of infections. Read More

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January 2019

REASSURED diagnostics to inform disease control strategies, strengthen health systems and improve patient outcomes.

Nat Microbiol 2019 Jan 13;4(1):46-54. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, England.

Lack of access to quality diagnostics remains a major contributor to health burden in resource-limited settings. It has been more than 10 years since ASSURED (affordable, sensitive, specific, user-friendly, rapid, equipment-free, delivered) was coined to describe the ideal test to meet the needs of the developing world. Since its initial publication, technological innovations have led to the development of diagnostics that address the ASSURED criteria, but challenges remain. Read More

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January 2019

Post-translational modifications of Beclin 1 provide multiple strategies for autophagy regulation.

Cell Death Differ 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Department of Medical Genetics, Cambridge Institute for Medical Research, Wellcome Trust/MRC Building, Cambridge Biomedical Campus, Hills Road, Cambridge, CB2 0XY, UK.

Autophagy is a conserved intracellular degradation pathway essential for protein homeostasis, survival and development. Defects in autophagic pathways have been connected to a variety of human diseases, including cancer and neurodegeneration. In the process of macroautophagy, cytoplasmic cargo is enclosed in a double-membrane structure and fused to the lysosome to allow for digestion and recycling of material. Read More

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December 2018

Hippo-YAP/TAZ signalling in organ regeneration and regenerative medicine.

Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

VIB Center for Cancer Biology, and KU Leuven Department of Oncology, University of Leuven, Leuven, Belgium.

The Hippo pathway and its downstream effectors, the transcriptional co-activators Yes-associated protein (YAP) and transcriptional co-activator with PDZ-binding motif (TAZ), regulate organ growth and cell plasticity during animal development and regeneration. Remarkably, experimental activation of YAP/TAZ in the mouse can promote regeneration in organs with poor or compromised regenerative capacity, such as the adult heart and the liver and intestine of old or diseased mice. However, therapeutic YAP/TAZ activation may cause serious side effects. Read More

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December 2018

Late onset neonatal acute kidney injury: results from the AWAKEN Study.

Pediatr Res 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Golisano Children's Hospital, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY, USA.

Background: Most studies of neonatal acute kidney injury (AKI) have focused on the first week following birth. Here, we determined the outcomes and risk factors for late AKI (>7d).

Methods: The international AWAKEN study examined AKI in neonates admitted to an intensive care unit. Read More

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December 2018
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