105,715 results match your criteria Stimulants


Enantioselective LC-MS/MS for anthropogenic markers of septic tank discharge.

Chemosphere 2018 Dec 3;219:191-201. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

School of Pharmacy and Life Sciences, Robert Gordon University, Aberdeen, AB10 7GJ, UK. Electronic address:

Households in rural locations utilize septic tanks for wastewater treatment and can cause surface water contamination. A new methodology was developed to help investigate the role septic tanks play in the dissemination of prescription and over-the-counter drugs, personal care products and stimulants in the aqueous environment. Simultaneous analysis of 16 chiral and achiral anthropogenic markers was achieved using a Chirobiotic V2 enantioselective column in polar ionic mode. Read More

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December 2018

Tilorone activates NK cells and cytotoxic lymphocytes that kill HLA-negative tumor cells.

IUBMB Life 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Molecular Immunogenetics of cancer laboratory, Institute of gene biology, RAS, Moscow, 119334, Russia.

Tilorone hydrochloride, a low-molecular-weight synthetic compound, induces interferon production and has been reported to have both antiviral and antitumor activities. Here, we have demonstrated the ability of tilorone to activate NK cells and specific subpopulations of cytotoxic CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes that recognize immune-evasive tumor cells and kill them via the FasL-Fas interaction. We have also performed a comparative analysis of characteristics between lymphocytes activated in the fraction of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) upon treatment with different stimulants of the immune response: tilorone, innate immunity protein Tag7, and cytokine IL-2, a regulator of adaptive immunity. Read More

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December 2018

The diacylglycerol kinase α (DGKα)/Akt/NF-κB feedforward loop promotes esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) progression via FAK-dependent and FAK-independent manner.

Oncogene 2018 Dec 7. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

Key laboratory of Carcinogenesis and Translational Research (Ministry of Education/Beijing), Laboratory of Molecular Oncology, Peking University Cancer Hospital & Institute, 100142, Beijing, China.

Many reports have described DGKα as an oncogene, hence, we investigated its function and the underlying mechanisms in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) progression. This study demonstrated that DGKα was upregulated by inflammatory stimulants and formed feedforward loop with Akt/NF-κB signaling in ESCC cells. Mechanistically, DGKα-activated Akt/NF-κB signaling via stimulating PA production to reduce cAMP level and PTEN activity, and specifically, independently of its kinase function, through direct interaction with the FERM domain of FAK to relieve the auto-inhibitory effect of FERM domain on FAK. Read More

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December 2018

New stimulant formulations for pediatric attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: a case-based approach for the primary care provider.

Curr Opin Pediatr 2018 Dec 6. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Department of Psychiatry, Boston Children's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, USA and Department of Pediatric and Adolescent Medicine, Rochester, MN, USA.

Purpose Of Review: To provide an up-to-date clinical review of U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved stimulant medications for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), including a framework for individualized treatment by primary care pediatric providers. Read More

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December 2018

Simultaneous determination of methylphenidate and ritalinic acid in hair using LC-MS/MS.

Forensic Sci Int 2018 Nov 29;294:183-188. Epub 2018 Nov 29.

National Forensic Service, 139 Jiyang-ro, Yangcheon-Gu, Seoul 158-707, Republic of Korea.

Methylphenidate (MPH) is one of the most commonly prescribed stimulants for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and its abuse is on the rise with its growing availability. Some analytical methods have been reported for the detection of MPH in hair. However, the concentration range of MPH as well as its metabolite, ritalinic acid (RA) in the hair of MPH abuse cases has not been reported. Read More

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November 2018

α4β2 Nicotinic receptor desensitizing compounds can decrease self-administration of cocaine and methamphetamine in rats.

Eur J Pharmacol 2018 Dec 7. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

Drug Discovery Program and Georgetown University School of Medicine, Washington, DC 20057, USA.

Sazetidine-A [6-(5(((S)-azetidine-2-yl)methoxy)pyridine-3-yl)hex-5-yn-1-ol] is a selective α4β2 nicotinic receptor desensitizing agent and partial agonist. Sazetidine-A has been shown in our previous studies to significantly reduce nicotine and alcohol self-administration in rats. The question arises whether sazetidine-A would reduce self-administration of other addictive drugs as well. Read More

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December 2018

Assessment of illicit drugs in wastewater and estimation of drugs of abuse in Adana Province, Turkey.

Forensic Sci Int 2018 Nov 23;294:132-139. Epub 2018 Nov 23.

Cukurova University, Biotechnology Research and Application Centre, Adana 01330, Turkey. Electronic address:

Wastewater-based epidemiology (WBE) is a rapidly developing discipline that has the potential to monitor real-time data on regional and temporal differences regarding the use of illicit drugs. With WBE, metabolic products discharged for drug consumption are rapidly collected by sewage systems, which provide valuable evidence on the types and quantities of drugs consumed by a given community. In this study, the samples were collected from the wastewaters entering the facilities in Seyhan and Yuregir Waste Water Treatment Plants (WWTPs), in Adana Province. Read More

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November 2018

Several clock genes polymorphisms are meaningful risk factors in the development and severity of cannabis addiction.

Chronobiol Int 2018 Dec 11:1-13. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

a Dpt Biochimie et Oncogénétique, plate-forme Oncomolpath/INCa - F94800 , AP-HP, GH Paris-Sud, Hôpital Paul Brousse , Villejuif , France.

Circadian rhythms have been related to psychiatric diseases and regulation of dopaminergic transmission, especially in substance abusers. The relationship between them remained enigmatic and no data on the role of clock genes on cannabis dependence have been documented. We aimed at exploring the role of clock gene genotypes as potential predisposing factor to cannabis addiction, using a high throughput mass spectrometry methodology that enables the large-scale analysis of the known relevant polymorphisms of the clock genes. Read More

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December 2018

[Validation of a questionnaire to study the prevalence of nutritional supplements used by elite Spanish athletes].

Nutr Hosp 2018 Dec 3;35(6):1366-1371. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

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Introduction: the use of dietary supplements is a widespread strategy performed by high-performance athletes worldwide. However, there is no validated questionnaire to determine the frequency and type of dietary supplements used by elite Spanish athletes.

Objective: the purpose of this investigation was to test the validity of a questionnaire designed to assess the prevalence in the use of dietary supplements by elite Spanish athletes. Read More

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December 2018

Psychosocial interventions to reduce alcohol consumption in concurrent problem alcohol and illicit drug users.

Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2018 Dec 5;12:CD009269. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

BC Centre on Substance Use, BC Centre for Excellence in HIV/AIDS, 611 Powell Street, Vancouver, BC, Canada, V6A 1H2.

Background: Problem alcohol use is common among people who use illicit drugs (PWID) and is associated with adverse health outcomes. It is also an important factor contributing to a poor prognosis among drug users with hepatitis C virus (HCV) as it impacts on progression to hepatic cirrhosis or opioid overdose in PWID.

Objectives: To assess the effectiveness of psychosocial interventions to reduce alcohol consumption in PWID (users of opioids and stimulants). Read More

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December 2018
5 Reads

The Effects of Substance Abuse on Blood Glucose Parameters in Patients with Diabetes: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2018 Nov 29;15(12). Epub 2018 Nov 29.

Department of Family Care & Mental Health, University of Greenwich, London SE9 2UG, UK.

: People who abuse substances are at increased risk of metabolic syndrome and diabetes resulting partly from increased cell damage and due to the effects of opioids on glucose homeostasis. Therefore, people with diabetes who abuse substances may carry greater health risks than the general population resulting from their effect on glucose metabolism. These substances may be in the form of cannabis, hallucinogens, opioids, and stimulants. Read More

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November 2018
1 Read

University students' self-reported reasons for abstinence from prescription and non-prescription stimulants and depressants.

Drug Alcohol Depend 2018 Nov 22;194:476-481. Epub 2018 Nov 22.

Department of Psychology, Bowling Green State University, Bowling Green, OH, 43403, USA.

Background: No previous publication has evaluated whether the importance of university students' reasons for abstinence differs across prescription stimulants, prescription opioids, and two illicit forms of those medications (cocaine and heroin).

Methods: In response to a recruitment email sent to all enrolled undergraduates at a large public university, 768 students who reported no prior recreational use of these four substances rated the importance of 17 reasons for lifelong abstention from each of the four drugs.

Results: Based on factor analyses, 16 of the 17 reasons comprised four subscales (Negative Consequences, Difficult to Acquire, Not Enjoyable, Social Disapproval). Read More

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November 2018
1 Read

Alcohol and nicotine consumption trends in three U.S. communities determined by wastewater-based epidemiology.

Sci Total Environ 2018 Nov 24;656:174-183. Epub 2018 Nov 24.

The Biodesign Center for Environmental Health Engineering, Biodesign Institute and School of Sustainable Engineering and the Built Environment, Arizona State University, 781 E. Terrace Mall, Tempe, AZ 85287, USA. Electronic address:

Wastewater-based epidemiology (WBE), an emerging tool for monitoring public health in near real-time, is used extensively in Europe but applications to U.S. populations are still scarce. Read More

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November 2018

Diabesity and mood disorders: Multiple links through the microbiota-gut-brain axis.

Mol Aspects Med 2018 Dec 7. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

Research Unit of Translational Neurogastroenterology, Division of Pharmacology, Otto Loewi Research Centre, Medical University of Graz, Universitätsplatz 4, A-8010 Graz, Austria; BioTechMed-Graz, Mozartgasse 12, A-8010 Graz, Austria. Electronic address:

The global prevalence of diabesity is on the rise, and the clinical, social and economic health burden arising from this epidemic is aggravated by a significant co-morbidity of diabesity with neuropsychiatric disease, particularly depression. Importantly, not only is the prevalence of mood disorders elevated in patients with type 2 diabetes, depressed patients are also more prone to develop diabetes. This reciprocal relationship calls for a molecular and systemic analysis of diabesity-brain interactions to guide preventive and therapeutic strategies. Read More

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December 2018
3 Reads

A case series involving young children presenting with accidental ingestion of amphetamine based stimulants.

Toxicol Rep 2018 3;5:1129-1133. Epub 2018 Nov 3.

Department of Pathology, University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics, Iowa City, IA, 52242, USA.

•Attention Deficity Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) affects adults and children.•Stimulant prescribing for ADHD is increasing.•Overdose of amphetamine based stimulants results in a sympathomimetic toxidrome. Read More

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November 2018

Trends in use of prescription stimulants in the United States and Territories, 2006 to 2016.

PLoS One 2018 28;13(11):e0206100. Epub 2018 Nov 28.

Department of Pharmacy Practice, University of New England College of Pharmacy, Portland, Maine, United States of America.

Background: Stimulants are considered the first-line treatment for Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in the US and they are used in other indications. Stimulants are also diverted for non-medical purposes. Ethnic and regional differences in ADHD diagnosis and in stimulant use have been identified in earlier research. Read More

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November 2018

Trends in Serious Psychological Distress and Outpatient Mental Health Care of US Adults.

JAMA Psychiatry 2018 Nov 28. Epub 2018 Nov 28.

National Institute on Drug Abuse, Bethesda, Maryland.

Importance: Reports of a recent increase in US outpatient mental health care raise questions about whether it has been driven by rising rates of psychological distress and whether mental health treatment has become either more or less focused on people with higher levels of distress.

Objective: To characterize national trends in serious psychological distress and trends in outpatient mental health service use by adults with and without serious psychological distress.

Design, Setting, And Participants: The 2004-2005, 2009-2010, and 2014-2015 Medical Expenditure Panel Surveys (MEPS) were nationally representative surveys taken in US households. Read More

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November 2018

Cluster randomised controlled trial of an online intervention to prevent ecstasy and new psychoactive substance use among adolescents: final results and implications for implementation.

BMJ Open 2018 Nov 25;8(11):e020433. Epub 2018 Nov 25.

NHMRC Centre of Research Excellence in Mental Health and Substance Use, National Drug and Alcohol Research Centre, UNSW Sydney, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia.

Objectives: To evaluate the effectiveness of the online over 2 years, and examine the impact of intervention dose on outcomes.

Design: Cluster randomised controlled trial.

Setting: Secondary schools in Australia. Read More

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November 2018
3 Reads

Cyclodextrin-induced acidity modification of substituted cathinones studied by capillary electrophoresis supported by density functional theory calculations.

J Chromatogr A 2018 Dec 22;1580:142-151. Epub 2018 Oct 22.

Jagiellonian University in Kraków, Faculty of Chemistry, Department of Analytical Chemistry, Gronostajowa St. 2, 30-387 Kraków, Poland.

This paper shows that the acidity of substituted cathinones can change in a diversified and poorly predictable manner upon supramolecular interaction with cyclodextrins used as buffer additives in capillary electrophoresis. The direction and range of pK shifts may be noticeably different for the particular cyclodextrins and cathinones, suggesting a strict correlation with structure. The most interesting results were observed for 2-hydroxyethyl-β-cyclodextrin, which is capable for inducing the large negative and enantioselective apparent pK shifts for α-pyrrolidinovalerophenone and methylenedioxypyrovalerone, even much above -1. Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

Age-specific risk of substance use disorders associated with controlled medication use and misuse subtypes in the United States.

Addict Behav 2018 Nov 14;90:285-293. Epub 2018 Nov 14.

Texas State University, Department of Psychology, San Marcos, TX, USA.

Objective: To examine the age-specific risk of past-year substance use disorders (SUDs) associated with use and misuse of prescription opioids, stimulants, sedatives and tranquilizers.

Methods: The authors analyzed nationally representative data from 114,043 U.S. Read More

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November 2018
3 Reads

White powder identification using broadband coherent light in the molecular fingerprint region.

Opt Express 2018 Sep;26(19):25364-25369

We show that a variety of white powder samples, including painkillers, amino acids, stimulants and sugars are readily discriminated by diffuse reflectance infrared spectroscopy involving no preparation of the sample and no physical contact with it. Eleven powders were investigated by illuminating each sample with broadband coherent light in the 8-9-µm band from an OPGaP femtosecond optical parametric oscillator. The spectra of the scattered light were obtained using Fourier-transform spectroscopy. Read More

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September 2018
3 Reads

Modafinil and orexin system: interactions and medico-legal considerations.

Front Biosci (Landmark Ed) 2019 01 1;24:564-575. Epub 2019 Jan 1.

Clinic of Child and Adolescent Neuropsychiatry, Department of Mental Health, Physical and Preventive Medicine, Università degli Studi della Campania,Luigi Vanvitelli, Naples, Italy.

Modafinil (Mo) is increasingly being used as an enhancement drug rather than for its therapeutic effects. The effects of this drug have been examined in attention deficit disorders, depression, mental fatigue, and in enhancing concentration. The drug possesses wakefulness-promoting properties which are mediated through the interaction of orexinergic system with the activated sympathetic nervous system. Read More

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January 2019
1 Read

Antioxidant therapies in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

Front Biosci (Landmark Ed) 2019 01 1;24:313-333. Epub 2019 Jan 1.

Department of Biology, College of Sciences, Shiraz Branch, Islamic Azad University, Shiraz, Iran.

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a common neurodevelopmental disorder among children and adults. Impulsivity, inattention, and hyperactivity are hallmark of ADHD. While ADHD is not on the autism spectrum, they are related in several ways as they have some overlapping symptoms. Read More

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January 2019
3 Reads

Neurofeedback versus psychostimulants in the treatment of children and adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: a systematic review.

Authors:
Bashar Razoki

Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat 2018 30;14:2905-2913. Epub 2018 Oct 30.

Department of Psychology, Erasmus School of Social and Behavioural Sciences, Erasmus University Rotterdam, Rotterdam, the Netherlands,

This systematic review aimed to evaluate the efficacy of neurofeedback (NF) compared to stimulant medication in treating children and adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Included in this review are eight randomized controlled trials that compared an NF condition, either alone or combined with medication, to a medication condition, which was mainly methylphenidate. Outcome measures included behavioral assessments by parents and teachers, self-reports, neurocognitive measures, electroencephalogram power spectra and event-related potentials. Read More

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October 2018
1 Read

Association of Candidate Genes with Response to Heat and Newcastle Disease Virus.

Genes (Basel) 2018 Nov 19;9(11). Epub 2018 Nov 19.

Department of Animal Science, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011, USA.

Newcastle disease is considered the number one disease constraint to poultry production in low and middle-income countries, however poultry that is raised in resource-poor areas often experience multiple environmental challenges. Heat stress has a negative impact on production, and immune response to pathogens can be negatively modulated by heat stress. Candidate genes and regions chosen for this study were based on previously reported associations with response to immune stimulants, pathogens, or heat, including: , , , MHC-B (major histocompatibility complex, gene complex), , , , , , , , , , and . Read More

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November 2018
1 Read

Impact of Nicotine and Other Stimulants on Sleep in Young Adults.

J Addict Med 2018 Nov 16. Epub 2018 Nov 16.

Behavioral Medicine and Addiction Research Unit, Butler Hospital, Providence, RI (CMC, BJA, MDS); Health Law, Policy & Management, Boston University School of Public Health, Boston, MA (MDS).

Objectives: Sleep problems can have long-term negative consequences. This study explored the relationship of commonly used stimulant substances to poor sleep quality in young adults.

Methods: We surveyed 498 participants, aged 18 to 25, who reported recent alcohol or marijuana use. Read More

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November 2018
4 Reads

Systematic review and exploratory meta-analysis of the efficacy, safety, and biological effects of psychostimulants and atomoxetine in patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder.

CNS Spectr 2018 Nov 21:1-17. Epub 2018 Nov 21.

10Zucker Hillside Hospital,Psychiatry Research,Northwell Health,Glen Oaks,New York.

Objective: Our aim was to summarize the efficacy and safety of atomoxetine, amphetamines, and methylphenidate in schizophrenia.

Methods: We undertook a systematic review, searching PubMed/Scopus/Clinicaltrials.gov for double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled studies of psychostimulants or atomoxetine in schizophrenia published up to 1 January 2017. Read More

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November 2018
2 Reads
2.710 Impact Factor

Body temperature regulation and drugs of abuse.

Handb Clin Neurol 2018 ;157:623-633

Division of Pharmacology and Toxicology, College of Pharmacy, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX, United States.

Phenethylamine-induced hyperthermia can occur following exposure to several different types of illicit stimulants, such as amphetamine, methamphetamine, 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine ("Molly"), synthetic cathinones ("bath salts"), and N-methoxybenyl ("NBOMe"), to name a few. Peripheral norepinephrine release mediated by these sympathomimetic agents induces a double-edged sword of heat accumulation through β-adrenoreceptor-dependent activation of uncoupling protein (UCP1 and 3)-regulated thermogenesis and loss of heat dissipation through α-adrenoreceptor-mediated vasoconstriction. Additionally, thyroid hormones are important determinants of the capacity of thermogenesis induced by phenethylamines through the regulation of free fatty acid release and the transcriptional activation of a host of metabolic genes, including adrenergic receptors and mitochondrial uncoupling proteins. Read More

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January 2018
15 Reads

Brain temperature: from physiology and pharmacology to neuropathology.

Handb Clin Neurol 2018 ;157:483-504

Behavioral Neuroscience Branch, National Institute on Drug Abuse - Intramural Research Program, National Institutes of Health, Baltimore, MD, United States. Electronic address:

Brain temperature is a physiologic parameter that depends on metabolism-related intracerebral heat production and heat loss by cerebral circulation to the rest of the body and then to the external environment. Despite the importance of temperature as a metabolism-related parameter and a factor affecting neural activity and function, it is generally believed that brain temperature is a tightly regulated and highly stable homeostatic parameter. To challenge this view, we present data on fluctuations in brain temperature occurring in rats following exposure to various arousing stimuli and during different behaviors and discuss their mechanisms. Read More

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January 2018
4 Reads

Substance Use and Adherence to HIV Preexposure Prophylaxis for Men Who Have Sex with Men.

Emerg Infect Dis 2018 Dec;24(12)

The effectiveness of oral HIV preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) strongly depends on maintaining adherence. We investigated the association between substance use and PrEP adherence, as well as incident sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in a high-risk cohort of 394 participants (391 men who have sex with men and 3 transgender women) who were enrolled in a PrEP demonstration project. We assessed baseline and ongoing substance use over a 48-week period for stimulants and nonstimulant substances and for each substance separately. Read More

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December 2018
7 Reads

Relationship Between Recency and Frequency of Youth Cannabis Use on Other Substance Use.

J Adolesc Health 2018 Nov 16. Epub 2018 Nov 16.

Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Rockville, Maryland.

Purpose: To assess the relationship between lifetime, past-year, and frequent past-year cannabis use on use of other substances among youth in order to inform prevention initiatives.

Methods: Data are from 27,900 youth aged 12-17 participating in the 2015-2016 National Surveys on Drug Use and Health. Multivariable multinomial logistic regression assessed the relationship between levels of youth cannabis use and past-year use of other substances compared to youth with no lifetime cannabis use. Read More

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November 2018
8 Reads

Non-medical prescription stimulant use to improve academic performance among Australian university students: prevalence and correlates of use.

BMC Public Health 2018 Nov 19;18(1):1270. Epub 2018 Nov 19.

The University of Queensland Centre for Youth Substance Abuse Research, St Lucia, Brisbane, QLD, Australia.

Background: Some university students consume pharmaceutical stimulants without a medical prescription with the goal of improving their academic performance. The prevalence of this practice has been well documented in the US, but less so in other countries. The potential harms of using prescription stimulants require a better understanding of the prevalence of this practice within Australian universities. Read More

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November 2018
1 Read

Application of vested interest theory to prevention of non-medical prescription stimulant and marijuana use: Unforeseen benefits of attitude-behavior inconsistency.

Drug Alcohol Depend 2018 Oct 30;194:210-215. Epub 2018 Oct 30.

Health Psychology and Prevention Science Institute, School of Social Science, Policy, and Evaluation, Claremont Graduate University, 150 E. 10th Street, Claremont, CA 91711, United States.

Background: Vested interest (VI) has been found to enhance attitude-behavior consistency in several contexts. With an eye toward a potentially novel method of prevention (i.e. Read More

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October 2018
2 Reads

Augmentation of DTH reaction of mycobacterial antigenic cocktail using synthetic mycobacterial 19-kDa lipoprotein as a TLR-stimulant.

J Immunoassay Immunochem 2018 Nov 19:1-24. Epub 2018 Nov 19.

a Laboratory Medicine, Faculty of Applied Medical Sciences , Umm Al-Qura University , Makkah , Saudi Arabia.

The current study proposed that previously characterized individual antigenic proteins could represent potential replacement for conventional purified protein derivative (PPD) in tuberculosis skin testing when used in cocktails triggered by suitable TLR-stimulants that would provide the missing pro-inflammatory stimulus. Three different cocktails of previously selected antigens, including C1 (ESAT-6/CPF-10/MPB-83); C2 (ESAT-6/MPB-64/MPB-83); and C3 (CPF-10/MPB-64/MPB-83), were evaluated in vitro using lymphocytic proliferation and IFN-γ production assays, as well as mRNA and protein expression levels of TNF-α, IL-12p40, and IL-2 as pro-inflammatory molecules. C1 showed the highest significant induction of pro-inflammatory molecules as compared to other cocktails, yet still significantly lower than that induced by conventional PPD. Read More

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November 2018
4 Reads

Incremental clinical utility of continuous performance tests in childhood ADHD - an evidence-based assessment approach.

Scand J Psychol 2018 Nov 19. Epub 2018 Nov 19.

Department of Clinical Sciences Lund, Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Skane University Hospital, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.

Despite extensive research on attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), there are still uncertainties regarding the clinical utility of different ADHD assessment methods. This study aimed to examine the incremental clinical utility of Conners' continuous performance test (CPT) II and QbTest in diagnostic assessments and treatment monitoring of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Retrospective data from child and adolescent psychiatric records of two populations were studied. Read More

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November 2018
3 Reads

Contextualizing study drugs - An exploratory study of perceptions and practices among study counselors, general practitioners, psychiatrists and from student polls.

Res Social Adm Pharm 2018 Oct 12. Epub 2018 Oct 12.

Copenhagen University, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, Department of Pharmacy, Universitetsparken 2, Copenhagen, Denmark.

Background: Recent decades have revealed a growing use of medicines for non-disease conditions, especially among university students. The prevalence rates for the use of study drugs (SDs), i.e. Read More

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October 2018
2 Reads

Conditional probabilities of substance use disorders and associated risk factors: Progression from first use to use disorder on alcohol, cannabis, stimulants, sedatives and opioids.

Drug Alcohol Depend 2018 Nov 3;194:136-142. Epub 2018 Nov 3.

National Drug and Alcohol Research Centre, University of New South Wales, NSW 2052, Sydney, Australia; NHMRC Centre of Research Excellence in Mental Health and Substance Use, University of New South Wales, NSW 2052, Sydney, Australia.

Background: Relatively little is known about factors that may lead to the development of a substance use disorder (SUD), across a range of drug classes. This study aimed to identify factors that predict the likelihood of transition from use to SUD and the speed with which this may occur at the population level, with a focus on the impact of pre-existing mental disorders.

Methods: Data were collected as part of the 2007 Australian National Survey of Mental Health and Wellbeing, a nationally representative survey of 8841 Australian adults. Read More

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November 2018
3 Reads

Interplay of N acetyl cysteine and melatonin in regulating oxidative stress-induced cardiac hypertrophic factors and microRNAs.

Arch Biochem Biophys 2018 Nov 12;661:56-65. Epub 2018 Nov 12.

Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Biological Sciences, Quaid-i-Azam, University, Islamabad, 45320, Pakistan. Electronic address:

Early and specific diagnosis of oxidative stress linked diseases as cardiac heart diseases remains a major dilemma for researchers and clinicians. MicroRNAs may serve as a better tool for specific early diagnostics and propose their utilization in future molecular medicines. We aimed to measure the microRNAs expressions in oxidative stress linked cardiac hypertrophic condition induced through stimulants as Endothelin and Isoproterenol. Read More

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November 2018
4 Reads
3.017 Impact Factor

Development and validation of an open screening method for doping substances in urine by gas chromatography quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

Anal Chim Acta 2018 Dec 28;1042:52-59. Epub 2018 Aug 28.

Ghent University, Department of Clinical Chemistry, Microbiology and Immunology, Doping Control Laboratory, Technologiepark 30 B, B-9052, Zwijnaarde, Belgium.

In anti-doping, a high number of classes of substances are prohibited and laboratories need to detect these at low urinary concentrations. Traditionally, testing is done using complimentary liquid chromatography mass spectrometry and gas chromatography mass spectrometry. High resolution mass spectrometric acquisition has some important advantages over triple quadrupole instruments (e. Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

Orexin supplementation in narcolepsy treatment: A review.

Med Res Rev 2018 Nov 14. Epub 2018 Nov 14.

Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Hradec Kralove, Hradec Kralove, Czech Republic.

Narcolepsy is a rare, chronic neurological disease characterized by excessive daytime sleepiness, cataplexy, vivid hallucinations, and sleep paralysis. Narcolepsy occurs in approximately 1 of 3000 people, affecting mainly adolescents aged 15 to 30 years. Recently, people with narcolepsy were shown to exhibit extensive orexin/hypocretin neuronal loss. Read More

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November 2018
11 Reads

HIV prevalence, related risk behaviors, and correlates of HIV infection among people who use drugs in Cambodia.

BMC Infect Dis 2018 Nov 13;18(1):562. Epub 2018 Nov 13.

Department of Epidemiology, University of Washington, Seattle, USA.

Background: Although HIV prevalence in Cambodia has declined to 0.6% among the general population, the prevalence remains high among female sex workers (14.0%) and men who have sex with men (2. Read More

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November 2018
3 Reads

Polysubstance Use by Stimulant Users: Health Outcomes Over Three Years.

J Stud Alcohol Drugs 2018 Sep;79(5):799-807

Center for Mental Healthcare and Outcomes Research, Central Arkansas Veterans Healthcare System, North Little Rock, Arkansas.

Objective: Studies show that stimulant users have varied substance use patterns and that polysubstance use is associated with poorer past or concurrent medical, mental health, and substance use outcomes. This study examined outcomes of substance use patterns prospectively.

Method: A latent class analysis was conducted to examine substance use patterns among adults using stimulants (n = 710; 38. Read More

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September 2018
3 Reads

Prohibited Stimulants in Dietary Supplements After Enforcement Action by the US Food and Drug Administration.

JAMA Intern Med 2018 Dec;178(12):1721-1723

Clinical Toxicology and Environmental Biomonitoring Laboratory, University of California, San Francisco.

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December 2018
5 Reads

Effect of Microalgae Polysaccharides on Biochemical and Metabolomics Pathways Related to Plant Defense in Solanum lycopersicum.

Appl Biochem Biotechnol 2018 Nov 12. Epub 2018 Nov 12.

Green Biotechnology Laboratory, Moroccan Foundation for Advanced Science, Innovation &Research (MASCIR), Rabat Design Center, Rue Mohamed Al Jazouli - Madinat Al Irfane, 10 100, Rabat, Morocco.

Microalgae are photosynthetic microorganisms that produce several bioactive molecules that have received considerable attention in scientific and industrial communities. Today, many plant biostimulants including seaweed extracts and polysaccharides are used in agriculture. However, microalgae have not been largely exploited in this field as a potential source of plant bio stimulants. Read More

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November 2018
3 Reads

Review of WADA Prohibited Substances: Limited Evidence for Performance-Enhancing Effects.

Sports Med 2018 Nov 8. Epub 2018 Nov 8.

Centre for Human Drug Research, Zernikedreef 8, 2333 CL, Leiden, The Netherlands.

The World Anti-Doping Agency is responsible for maintaining a Prohibited List that describes the use of substances and methods that are prohibited for athletes. The list currently contains 23 substance classes, and an important reason for the existence of this list is to prevent unfair competition due to pharmacologically enhanced performance. The aim of this review was to give an overview of the available evidence for performance enhancement of these substance classes. Read More

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November 2018
1 Read

Neuropharmacology of Synthetic Cathinones.

Handb Exp Pharmacol 2018 Nov 8. Epub 2018 Nov 8.

Center for Physiology and Pharmacology, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria.

Synthetic cathinones are derivatives of the naturally occurring compound cathinone, the main psychoactive ingredient in the khat plant Catha edulis. Cathinone is the β-keto analog of amphetamine, and all synthetic cathinones display a β-keto moiety in their structure. Several synthetic cathinones are widely prescribed medications (e. Read More

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November 2018
9 Reads

Thalidomide protects against acute pentylenetetrazol and pilocarpine-induced seizures in mice.

J Toxicol Sci 2018 ;43(11):671-684

Physiology Department, Escuela Nacional de Ciencias Biológicas, Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Unidad Profesional Adolfo López Mateos, Mexico.

Thalidomide was originally developed to treat primary neurological and psychiatric diseases. There are reports of anticonvulsant effects of thalidomide in rats and antiepileptic effects in patients. Hence, thalidomide (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg) was herein administered to mice to evaluate possible protection against seizures induced by the systemic administration of neurotoxins: 10 mg/kg of 4-aminopyridine (4-AP), 90 mg/kg of pentylenetetrazol (PTZ), or 380 mg/kg of pilocarpine. Read More

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November 2018
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Structure-activity relationships of bath salt components: substituted cathinones and benzofurans at biogenic amine transporters.

Psychopharmacology (Berl) 2018 Nov 5. Epub 2018 Nov 5.

Research Service, VA Portland Health Care System, 3710 SW US Veterans Hospital Rd., Portland, OR, 97239, USA.

Rationale: New psychoactive substances (NPSs), including substituted cathinones and other stimulants, are synthesized, sold on the Internet, and ingested without knowledge of their pharmacological activity and/or toxicity. In vitro pharmacology plays a role in therapeutic drug development, drug-protein in silico interaction modeling, and drug scheduling.

Objectives: The goal of this research was to determine mechanisms of action that may indicate NPS abuse liability. Read More

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November 2018
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