498,588 results match your criteria Stem cell reviews[Journal]
ILAR J 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.
Translational Medicine and The Comparative Medicine Institute, College of Veterinary Medicine, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina.
For more than a century, transplantation of tissues and organs from animals into man, xenotransplantation, has been viewed as a potential way to treat disease. Ironically, interest in xenotransplantation was fueled especially by successful application of allotransplantation, that is, transplantation of human tissue and organs, as a treatment for a variety of diseases, especially organ failure because scarcity of human tissues limited allotransplantation to a fraction of those who could benefit. In principle, use of animals such as pigs as a source of transplants would allow transplantation to exert a vastly greater impact than allotransplantation on medicine and public health. Read More
Nucleic Acids Res 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.
Division of Medical Genetics and Genomics, The Children's Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310058, China.
The tissue specificity of mitochondrial tRNA mutations remains largely elusive. In this study, we demonstrated the deleterious effects of tRNAThr 15927G>A mutation that contributed to pathogenesis of coronary artery disease. The m. Read More
Nucleic Acids Res 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.
State Key Laboratory of Molecular Biology, CAS Center for Excellence in Molecular Cell Science, Shanghai Institute of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences; University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, 320 Yueyang Road, Shanghai 200031, P.R. China.
Human NOL1/NOP2/Sun RNA methyltransferase family member 6 (hNSun6) generates 5-methylcytosine (m5C) at C72 of four specific tRNAs, and its homologs are present only in higher eukaryotes and hyperthermophilic archaea. Archaeal NSun6 homologs possess conserved catalytic residues, but have distinct differences in their RNA recognition motifs from eukaryotic NSun6s. Until now, the biochemical properties and functions of archaeal NSun6 homologs were unknown. Read More
Ann Bot 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.
Department of Botany, Faculty of Science, University of South Bohemia, Branišovská, Ceské Budejovice, Czech Republic.
Background And Aims: Polyploidy has played an important role in the evolution of ferns. However, the dearth of data on cytotype diversity, cytotype distribution patterns and ecology in ferns is striking in comparison with angiosperms and prevents an assessment of whether cytotype coexistence and its mechanisms show similar patterns in both plant groups. Here, an attempt to fill this gap was made using the ploidy-variable and widely distributed Cystopteris fragilis complex. Read More
Jpn J Clin Oncol 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.
Department of Gastroenterological Surgery, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka, Japan.
The classical cancer therapies, including chemotherapy and radiation therapy, can initially show good results and tumor shrinkage; however, for most cancer patients disease recurrence is a common event. This tumor regrowth following therapy is now thought to depend on a small population of cancer stem cells (CSCs), which, similar to other stem cells, have the capacity for self-renewal and multipotent differentiation. Cancer stem cells have been identified based on cell surface protein expression in many tumor types, and for all diseases studied, this specific cell population is required for serial transplantation in animal models. Read More
Plant Cell Physiol 2018 Dec;59(12):2549-2563
CAS Key Laboratory of Tropical Plant Resources and Sustainable Use, Xishuangbanna Tropical Botanical Garden, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Menglun, Mengla, Yunnan, China.
Jatropha curcas is a promising feedstock for biofuel production because its oil is highly suitable for processing bio-jet fuels and biodiesel. However, Jatropha exhibits a long juvenile stage in subtropical areas. miR172, a conserved small non-protein-coding RNA molecule with 21 nucleotides, regulates a wide range of developmental processes. Read More
ILAR J 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.
Unit for Laboratory Animal Medicine, University of Michigan Medical School in Ann Arbor, Michigan.
Research using laboratory animals has been revolutionized by the creation of humanized animal models, which are immunodeficient animals engrafted with human cells, tissues, or organs. These animal models provide the research community a unique and promising opportunity to mimic a wide variety of disease conditions in humans, from infectious disease to cancer. A vast majority of these models are humanized mice like those injected with human CD34+ hematopoietic stem cells and patient-derived xenografts. Read More
Cell Physiol Biochem 2018 12;51(3):1193-1206. Epub 2018 Dec 12.
Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery of the University Hospital of Tübingen, Tübingen,
Background/aims: Periosteal tissue is a valuable source of multipotent stem cells for bone tissue engineering. To characterize these cells in detail, we generated an immortalized human cranial periosteal cell line and observed an increased MSCA-1 and CD146 expression, as well as an earlier and stronger mineralization compared to the parental cells. Further, we detected a higher osteogenic potential of MSCA-1high compared to MSCA-1low cranial periosteal cell (CPC) fractions. Read More
Gynecol Obstet Invest 2018 Dec 12:1-7. Epub 2018 Dec 12.
Department of Radiation Oncology, Henry Ford Hospital, Detroit, Michigan,
Objective: To compare survival endpoints between African American (AA) and non-AA (NAA) women with endometrial carcinoma (EC) stage I-II using a robust matching analysis.
Methods And Materials: Patients were matched by stage, grade, adjuvant management (surveillance, vaginal brachytherapy or pelvic radiation treatment), age, and year of hysterectomy. Recurrence-free survival (RFS), disease-specific survival (DSS) and overall survival (OS) were calculated. Read More
Stem Cell Reports 2018 Dec;11(6):1579-1580
Stem Cell Reports 2018 Dec;11(6):1565-1578
Department of Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm 171 77, Sweden. Electronic address:
Spinal motor axons traverse large distances to innervate target muscles, thus requiring local control of cellular events for proper functioning. To interrogate axon-specific processes we developed Axon-seq, a refined method incorporating microfluidics, RNA sequencing (RNA-seq), and bioinformatic quality control. We show that the axonal transcriptome is distinct from that of somas and contains fewer genes. Read More
Stem Cell Reports 2018 Dec;11(6):1551-1564
Diabetes Research Group, BC Children's Hospital Research Institute, Vancouver, BC V5Z 4H4, Canada; Departments of Surgery and Cellular and Physiological Sciences, University of British Columbia, 950 28(th) Avenue West, Vancouver, BC V5Z4H4, Canada. Electronic address:
Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) are a potential unlimited source of insulin-producing β cells for diabetes treatment. A greater understanding of how β cells form during embryonic development will improve current hESC differentiation protocols. All pancreatic endocrine cells, including β cells, are derived from Neurog3-expressing endocrine progenitors. Read More
Stem Cell Reports 2018 Dec;11(6):1365-1377
Global Safety Pharmacology, Non-Clinical Safety, Janssen Research & Development, A Division of Janssen Pharmaceutica NV, Turnhoutseweg 30, 2340 Beerse, Belgium.
Human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (hiPSC-CMs) have emerged as a promising cardiac safety platform, demonstrated by numerous validation studies using drugs with known cardiac adverse effects in humans. However, the challenge remains to implement hiPSC-CMs into cardiac de-risking of new chemical entities (NCEs) during preclinical drug development. Here, we used the calcium transient screening assay in hiPSC-CMs to develop a hazard score system for cardiac electrical liabilities. Read More
Stem Cell Reports 2018 Dec;11(6):1324-1326
San Raffaele Telethon Institute for Gene Therapy (SR-TIGET), Milan 20132, Italy. Electronic address:
Being able to summarize properly your work is not an easy task. But learning the skill of writing a good abstract is very important, as it can open many doors, including the possibility to be selected as a speaker at conferences. As meeting abstract reviewers, here we are writing to give you insights into the abstract review process and insiders' tips to help increase your chances of landing on that podium. Read More
Stem Cell Reports 2018 Dec;11(6):1312-1323
Department of Surgery and Biochemistry, Weill Cornell Medical College, 1300 York Avenue, New York, NY 10065, USA. Electronic address:
Cell-permeable compounds provide a convenient and efficient approach to manipulate biological processes. A number of compounds controlling stem cell self-renewal, survival, differentiation, and reprogramming have been identified through high-throughput/content screens. Using these powerful chemical tools, strategies have been developed to direct human pluripotent stem cell (hPSC) differentiation to functional cells. Read More
Stem Cell Reports 2018 Dec;11(6):1306-1311
Department of Anatomy and Embryology, Leiden University Medical Centre, PO Box 9600, 2300 RC Leiden, the Netherlands. Electronic address:
Cardiovascular disease is still a major cause of ill-health and mortality, heart failure and arrhythmia being among the causes of sudden cardiac death. There are few drugs available for treatment or prevention and it remains difficult to predict who will develop these conditions, even when disease-causing mutations or associated gene variants are identified in individuals or families. This is in part because widely used rodent models may not fully capture the physiology of the human heart. Read More
Stem Cell Reports 2018 Dec;11(6):1305
2019 ISSCR Program Committee Chair.
Stem Cell Reports 2018 Dec;11(6):1303-1304
Editor-in-Chief, Stem Cell Reports.
Cell Rep 2018 Dec;25(11):3215-3228.e9
Center for Molecular Medicine, Maine Medical Center Research Institute, 81 Research Drive, Scarborough, ME 04074, USA; School of Biomedical Sciences and Engineering, The University of Maine, Orono, ME 04469, USA; Tufts University School of Medicine, 145 Harrison Avenue, Boston, MA 02111, USA. Electronic address:
Molecular- and cellular-based therapies have the potential to reduce obesity-associated disease. In response to cold, beige adipocytes form in subcutaneous white adipose tissue and convert energy stored in metabolic substrates to heat, making them an attractive therapeutic target. We developed a robust method to generate a renewable source of human beige adipocytes from induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). Read More
Cell Rep 2018 Dec;25(11):3021-3035.e5
Department of Hematology, Cancer Center Amsterdam (CCA), Amsterdam UMC, VU Medical Center, Amsterdam, the Netherlands. Electronic address:
Leukemic stem cells (LSCs) are thought to be the major cause of the recurrence of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) due to their potential for self-renewal. To identify therapeutic strategies targeting LSCs, while sparing healthy hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs), we performed gene expression profiling of LSCs, HSCs, and leukemic progenitors all residing within the same AML bone marrow and identified insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 7 (IGFBP7) as differentially expressed. Low IGFBP7 is a feature of LSCs and is associated with reduced chemotherapy sensitivity. Read More
Cell Rep 2018 Dec;25(11):3006-3020.e7
Department of Cell Biology, NYU School of Medicine, New York, NY 10016, USA; Department of Urology, NYU School of Medicine, New York, NY 10016, USA. Electronic address:
There is a considerable need to identify those individuals with prostate cancer who have indolent disease. We propose that genes that control adult stem cell homeostasis in organs with slow turnover, such as the prostate, control cancer fate. One such gene, KLF4, overexpressed in murine prostate stem cells, regulates their homeostasis, blocks malignant transformation, and controls the self-renewal of tumor-initiating cells. Read More
Cell Rep 2018 Dec;25(11):2992-3005.e5
Division of Biology and Biological Engineering, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125, USA. Electronic address:
Long-term hematopoietic stem cells (LT-HSCs) maintain hematopoietic output throughout an animal's lifespan. However, with age, the balance is disrupted, and LT-HSCs produce a myeloid-biased output, resulting in poor immune responses to infectious challenge and the development of myeloid leukemias. Here, we show that young and aged LT-HSCs respond differently to inflammatory stress, such that aged LT-HSCs produce a cell-intrinsic, myeloid-biased expression program. Read More
Cell Rep 2018 Dec;25(11):2935-2936
Department of Cell and Developmental Biology, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, USA; Institute for Diabetes, Obesity and Metabolism, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, USA. Electronic address:
Beige fat cells hold significant promise for reducing obesity and metabolic disease. Su et al. (2018) present a robust method to produce human beige adipocytes from pluripotent stem cells via the generation of an expandable intermediary population of mesenchymal progenitor cells. Read More
Orthopedics 2018 Dec 11:1-5. Epub 2018 Dec 11.
No study has compared the prevalence of fretting and corrosion at the trunnion of cobalt-chrome (Co-Cr) and zirconia ceramic heads in the same patients. The authors sought to compare the prevalence of fretting and corrosion at the trunnion after total hip arthroplasty with a 32-mm Co-Cr or a 32-mm zirconia ceramic head-on-polyethylene bearing. Isolated revision of the ace-tabular components was performed in 78 patients (156 hips) for polyethylene wear and osteolysis of the acetabulum. Read More
PLoS One 2018 12;13(12):e0208110. Epub 2018 Dec 12.
Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California, United States of America.
The propensity for differentiation varies substantially across human pluripotent stem cell (hPSC) lines, greatly restricting the use of hPSCs for cell replacement therapy or disease modeling. Here, we investigate the underlying mechanisms and demonstrate that activation of the retinoblastoma (Rb) pathway in a transient manner is important for differentiation. In prior work, we demonstrated that pre-treating hPSCs with dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) before directed differentiation enhanced differentiation potential across all three germ layers. Read More
PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2018 Dec 12;12(12):e0006977. Epub 2018 Dec 12.
Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia Pennsylvania, United States of America.
Background: The study of Onchocerca volvulus has been limited by its host range, with only humans and non-human primates shown to be susceptible to the full life cycle infection. Small animal models that support the development of adult parasites have not been identified.
Methodology/principal Findings: We hypothesized that highly immunodeficient NSG mice would support the survival and maturation of O. Read More
PLoS Biol 2018 Dec 12;16(12):e2005595. Epub 2018 Dec 12.
MRC Human Genetics Unit, Institute of Genetics and Molecular Medicine, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, United Kingdom.
Genome editing occurs in the context of chromatin, which is heterogeneous in structure and function across the genome. Chromatin heterogeneity is thought to affect genome editing efficiency, but this has been challenging to quantify due to the presence of confounding variables. Here, we develop a method that exploits the allele-specific chromatin status of imprinted genes in order to address this problem in cycling mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs). Read More
Ann Plast Surg 2019 Jan;82(1S Suppl 1):S108-S118
Department of Biochemistry, National Defense Medical Center, Taipei, Taiwan.
Introduction: Reconstruction of segmental peripheral nerve gap is still challenging when the autografts are unavailable owing to limited availability of donor site and functional recovery. The creation of artificial conduits composed of biological or synthetic materials is still developing. Acellular dermal matrix (ADM) has been widely studied and its extension and plasticity properties may become suitable nerve conduits under different forms of nerve gaps. Read More
Curr Opin Organ Transplant 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.
Transplant Nephrology, Keck Hospital of USC, California, USA.
Purpose Of Review: Delayed graft function (DGF) has several long-term graft implications in the field of kidney transplantation and remains a challenge. The incidence of DGF is on the rise because of an increasing use of marginal kidneys in an era of organ shortage. Risk factors for DGF are numerous and stem from multiple sources in the transplant chain starting from the donor to its final allocation in the recipient. Read More
Plant Dis 2018 Dec 12:PDIS01180147RE. Epub 2018 Dec 12.
Department of Plant Pathology and Weed Research, Agricultural Research Organization (ARO), the Volcani Center, Rishon Le'Zion, 7528809 Israel.
Heart rot, caused by Alternaria alternata, is a major pomegranate disease that impacts production worldwide; most fruits in orchards are colonized by A. alternata but, nevertheless, symptoms are apparent on only a small proportion of the colonized fruits. During the years of our previous research it was noticed that within individual orchards, the incidence of pomegranate fruits exhibiting heart rot symptoms was related to the visual appearance of the trees: trees that appeared visually frail bore more diseased fruits than robust trees. Read More
Phytopathology 2018 Dec 12:PHYTO07180245FI. Epub 2018 Dec 12.
Department of Plant and Microbial Biology, University of California, Berkeley 94720.
Effective preventive measures and therapies are lacking for control of Pierce's disease of grape caused by the xylem-colonizing bacterium Xylella fastidiosa responsible for serious losses in grape production. In this study we explored the potential for endophytic bacteria to alter the disease process. While most endophytic bacteria found within grape did not grow or multiply when inoculated into mature grape vines, Paraburkholderia phytofirmans strain PsJN achieved population sizes as large as 10 cells/g and moved 1 m or more within 4 weeks after inoculation into vines. Read More
Magy Seb 2018 Dec;71(4):163-169
Department of Organ Fabrication, Keio University School of Medicine 35 Shinanomachi, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 160-8582, Japan.
Introduction: Research has made progress in organ fabrication using an extracellular matrix, cell sheets, or organoids. Human liver tissue has been constructed using a 3-dimensional (3D) bioprinter and showed evidence that an in vitro generated liver bud was reformed in a rodent liver model. This study describes the stages of development of rat fetal organs and liver structure and reviews recent progress in liver organoid transplantation. Read More
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.
Titanium dioxide nanomaterials have good capability to prevent human cells from damage under UV irradiation. However, some studies indicated that the nanoscale of titanium dioxide could potentially cause harmful effects such as free radicals generation under UV irradiation and thereby accelerate the progress of cell aging. Fullerenes can scavenge large amounts of free radicals due to the fact that fullerenes contain enormous amount of π electrons with low lying lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO), but its adverse properties, such as the poor solubility in water, restricted the applicability. Read More
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.
Inorganic cesium lead halide perovskite nanowires, generating laser emission in the broad spectral range at room temperature and low threshold, have become powerful tools for the cutting-edge applications in the optoelectronics and nanophotonics. However, to achieve high-quality nanowires with the outstanding optical properties, it was necessary to employ long-lasting and costly methods of their synthesis, as well as postsynthetic separation and transfer procedures that are not convenient for largescale production. Here we report a novel approach to fabricate high-quality CsPbBr nanolasers obtained by rapid precipitation from dimethyl sulfoxide solution sprayed onto an arbitrary hydrophobic substrate at ambient conditions. Read More
Adv Physiol Educ 2019 Mar;43(1):1-6
Department of Biology, Beloit College , Beloit, Wisconsin.
Science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) continue to work to increase the diversity of the fields, yet there are still significant historical and societal hurdles to be overcome before we reach full representation throughout STEM. The concept of science identity has become a point of interest in this process; it has been suggested that development of one's identity as a scientist is critical to persistence in the field. Metaphors that are rooted in bodily experience can provide a starting point to understand abstract concepts, including science identity and how we as STEM educators respond to increasing diversity within our fields. Read More
J Nat Prod 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.
State Key Laboratory of Phytochemistry and Plant Resources in West China, Kunming Institute of Botany , Chinese Academy of Sciences , Kunming 650201 , People's Republic of China.
An unusual Daphniphyllum alkaloid, 2-deoxymacropodumine A (1), possessing an 11-membered macrolactone ring, was obtained from an extract of the stems of Daphniphyllum angustifolium. The structure of 1 was elucidated by 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopic methods and chemical calculations. Based on a comparison of the experimental and calculated NMR data, the structure of macropodumine A (2'), an analogue of 1, was also revised. Read More
Rev Bras Enferm 2018 ;71(suppl 6):2837-2842
Universidade Federal do Paraná. Curitiba, Paraná, Brazil.
Objective: to report the use experience of convergent healthcare research for developing a nursing care protocol.
Method: convergent care research developed in university hospital, from July to December 2016, with 27 participants.
Results: the stages of the research and its results are described in the steps: conception, instrumentation, screening and analysis. Read More
Braz J Med Biol Res 2018 Dec 10;52(1):e7784. Epub 2018 Dec 10.
Sabin Medicina Diagnóstica, Brasília, DF, Brasil.
Myelofibrosis (MF) is characterized by increased circulating hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPCs), abnormal cytokine levels, and the survival advantage of neoplastic progenitors over their normal counterparts, which leads to progressive disappearance of polyclonal hematopoiesis. CD47 is a surface glycoprotein with many functions, such as acting as a phagocytosis inhibitor of the expressing cell, that is increased in normal hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells mobilized into the blood and several human cancer-initiating cells, such as in acute myeloid leukemia. We compared CD47 expression in hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells of patients with MF and controls and found it to be decreased in progenitors of MF. Read More
J Cancer Res Ther 2018 Dec;14(Supplement):S1004-S1011
Key Laboratory of Nutrition and Metabolism, Institute for Nutritional Sciences, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai, China.
Background: Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are responsible for tumor relapse after chemotherapy and radiotherapy in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The aim of this study is to explore the profile and role of microRNA (miRNA) in CSC of NSCLC.
Materials And Methods: We studied the expression of stem cell marker in side population cells and serum-free cultured spheres of NSCLC. Read More
Neural Regen Res 2019 Mar;14(3):480-484
Department of Neurology, Children's Hospital of Chongqing Medical University; Chongqing International Science and Technology Cooperation Center for Child Development and Disorders; Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Child Development and Disorders; Key Laboratory of Pediatrics in Chongqing, Chongqing, China.
Status epilepticus has been shown to activate the proliferation of neural stem cells in the hippocampus of the brain, while also causing a large amount of neuronal death, especially in the subgranular zone of the dentate gyrus and the subventricular zone. Simultaneously, proliferating stem cells tend to migrate to areas with obvious damage. Our previous studies have clearly confirmed the effect of sodium valproate on cognitive function in rats with convulsive status epilepticus. Read More
Cytokine 2019 Jan 24;113:13-20. Epub 2018 Oct 24.
Shanxi Medical University School and Hospital of Stomatology, Taiyuan 030001, China. Electronic address:
Platelet-derived growth factor-BB (PDGF-BB) is involved in the tissue repair and tumor progression effects, and act as a rapid and early effector cytokines which are released in response to pathogen-induced changes in the microenvironment. Recent researches have implicated PDGF-BB as a potential contributing factor to the spectrum of the cell signaling pathway of interrelated diseases, particularly mesangial cells, mesenchymal stem cells, human dermal fibroblasts, tumor pericytes and smooth muscle cells. In this review, we generalize the present literatures on the roles of PDGF-BB in the various interrelated diseases, providing insights or strategies into the underlying cellular and signaling mechanisms that will help guide future studies further into promising interventional targets with therapeutic potential. Read More
J Allergy Clin Immunol 2018 Dec 26;142(6):1971-1974.e7. Epub 2018 Oct 26.
Department of Molecular and Cell Biology, School of Natural Sciences, University of California Merced, Merced, Calif; Health Sciences Research Institute, University of California Merced, Merced, Calif. Electronic address:
Curr Drug Targets 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.
Department of Clinical Pharmacy, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Harbin Medical University, Harbin 150086, China; and Department of Pharmacology, College of Pharmacy, Harbin Medical University, Harbin 150081. China.
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the number one killer of human beings which has long become the disease with the highest incidence and disability rate in modern society. Currently induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), with the potential to form fresh myocardium and better safety than other stem cells, are widely used in the CVD therapy studies. Moreover, iPSC-derived cardiomyocytes (CMs), as a novel disease model, appear to play an important role in new drug screening, drug safety assessment, and pathological mechanisms of disease. Read More
Methods Mol Biol 2019 ;1870:125-136
Department of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery, Unit 1489, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX, USA.
MicroRNA (miRNA) plays an important role in posttranscriptional regulation of gene expression by dominantly binding to the 3'-UTR regions of target mRNAs in the miRNA-induced silencing complex (miRISC), triggering off their sequential cleavage and 3'-uridylation, facilitating their degradation, repressing target gene expression, and leading to a reduced protein output. The miRNA-mediated target mRNA cleavage activity generates cleaved mRNA fragments with varied termini, which creates major technical challenges for the accurate and efficient detection and verification of cleavage sites on target mRNAs and the resulting mRNA fragments in transition. Here we described a sensitive stem-loop array reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (SLA-RT-PCR) approach to detect and verify the miRNA-mediated target mRNA cleavage sites by determining precise sequences at the 3'- termini of cleaved mRNA fragments and their 3'-uridylation in human cells under physiological conditions. Read More
Methods Mol Biol 2019 ;1870:23-39
Department of Biomedical Engineering, College of Engineering, Peking University, Beijing, China.
Over the past decade, emerging evidence has indicated that long intergenic noncoding RNAs (lincRNAs), a class of RNA transcripts greater than 200 nt in length, function as key regulators of gene expression in cellular physiology and pathogenesis. Greater understanding of lincRNA activities, particularly in the context of subcellular localization and dynamic regulation at the single-molecule level, is expected to provide in-depth understanding of molecular mechanisms that regulate cell behavior and disease evolution. We have recently developed a fluorescence-imaging approach to investigate RNA dynamics in living cells at the single-molecule level. Read More