14,444 results match your criteria Status Epilepticus


Status epilepticus after intracranial neurosurgery: incidence and risk stratification by perioperative clinical features.

J Neurosurg 2021 May 14:1-13. Epub 2021 May 14.

Departments of1Neurosurgery and.

Objective: Status epilepticus (SE) is associated with significant mortality, cost, and risk of future seizures. In one of the first studies of SE after neurosurgery, the authors assess the incidence, risk factors, and outcome of postneurosurgical SE (PNSE).

Methods: Neurosurgical admissions from the MarketScan Claims and Encounters database (2007 through 2015) were assessed in a longitudinal cross-sectional sample of privately insured patients who underwent qualifying cranial procedures in the US and were older than 18 years of age. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Probable Sudden Unexpected Death in Dogs With Epilepsy (pSUDED).

Front Vet Sci 2021 27;8:600307. Epub 2021 Apr 27.

Department of Small Animal Medicine and Surgery, University of Veterinary Medicine, Hannover, Germany.

Sudden unexpected death in human epileptic patients (SUDEP) is defined as death related to recurrent unprovoked seizures, death occurring unexpectedly, and suddenly in a patient with reasonable state of health, without an obvious medical cause of death, trauma, asphyxia, or intractable status epilepticus, and in post mortem examination no obvious reason for death can be found. "Probable SUDEP" (pSUDEP) is defined as SUDEP not confirmed pathologically. The adapted abbreviation for dogs is used in the following: "pSUDED" (probable sudden unexpected death in dogs with epilepsy). Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Blood concentration of levetiracetam after bolus administration in patients with status epilepticus.

Seizure 2021 Apr 25;89:41-44. Epub 2021 Apr 25.

Department of Emergency and Critical Care Medicine, Nippon Medical School, Tama-Nagayama Hospital, 1-7-1 Nagayama, Tama City, Tokyo 2068512, Japan.

Purpose: We aimed to evaluate the blood concentration of levetiracetam (LEV), as a second-line drug, in patients with status epilepticus (SE) in an emergency clinical setting.

Methods: We prospectively evaluated 20 consecutive patients with SE admitted to our department between July 2017 and July 2019. LEV (2500 mg) was administered via bolus infusion after diazepam infusion, followed by 500 mg every 12 h for 48 h and then 500 mg orally. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Complexities of pyridoxine response in PNPO deficiency.

Epilepsy Behav Rep 2021 3;16:100443. Epub 2021 Apr 3.

Pediatric Neurology, Department of Pediatrics, Kalawati Saran Children's Hospital, Delhi, India.

Pyridox(am)ine- 5- phosphate Oxidase deficiency (PNPO) is a rare cause of neonatal metabolic encephalopathy associated with refractory status epilepticus. We report a case of a premature neonate presenting with drug-resistant seizures beginning at 2 hours of life. The baby showed initial transient response to pyridoxine followed by recurrence. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Teaching NeuroImages: CAR-T Induced Nonconvulsive Status Epilepticus.

Neurology 2021 May 12. Epub 2021 May 12.

Department of Neurology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, MA.

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Survival of brain tumour patients with epilepsy.

Brain 2021 May 11. Epub 2021 May 11.

Department of Neurology, Clinical Neuroscience Center and Brain Tumor Center, University and University Hospital Zurich, 8091 Zurich, Switzerland.

Pro-tumorigenic electrochemical synapses between neurons and brain tumor cells in pre-clinical studies suggest unfavorable effects of epilepsy on patient survival. We investigated associations of epilepsy and survival in three cohorts of brain tumor patients (meningioma, glioblastoma, brain metastases). Cohorts were segregated into three groups for comparative analyses: (i) no epilepsy, (ii) epilepsy without status epilepticus and (iii) status epilepticus. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Case Report: A Case of Eyelid Myoclonic Status With Tonic-Clonic Seizure and Literature Review.

Front Pediatr 2021 22;9:671732. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

Department of Pediatrics, Shengjing Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang, China.

Eyelid myoclonus with or without absence epilepsy is a rare and usually misdiagnosed disease in the neurology department. It is an idiopathic general epileptic syndrome, the onset period is 6-8 years, and is more common in girls. It is characterized by rapid abnormal eye blinking, accompanied by upward rolling of the eye and slight backward movement of the head, with eye closure sensitivity and photosensitivity. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

A Literature Overview on Epilepsy and Inflammasome Activation.

Brain Res Bull 2021 May 5. Epub 2021 May 5.

CNR Neuroscience Institute, Milan, Italy.

Epilepsy is one of the most prevalent serious brain disorders worldwide. Accumulating evidence has suggested that inflammation participates in the progression and pathogenesis of epilepsy. During inflammation, a cytosolic multimolecular complex called the "inflammasome" is activated, driving the innate immune response. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Cortical responsive neurostimulation in a baboon with genetic generalized epilepsy.

Epilepsy Behav 2021 May 4;120:107973. Epub 2021 May 4.

Southwest National Primate Research Center, Texas Biomedical Research Institute, San Antonio, TX, United States; Department of Animal Science, University of Wyoming, Laramie, WY, United States.

Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of cortical responsive neurostimulation (CRN) in a male baboon with epilepsy and with genetic generalized epilepsy (GGE), as well as the alteration of seizure patterns and their circadian rhythms due to treatment.

Methods: The baboon was implanted with two subdural frontoparietal strips, bridging the medial central sulci bilaterally. Electrocorticography (ECoG) data were downloaded daily during a three-month baseline, then every 2-3 days over a five-month treatment period. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Region-specific Effects of Early-life Status Epilepticus on the Adult Hippocampal CA3 - Medial Entorhinal Cortex Circuitry In vitro: Focus on Interictal Spikes and Concurrent High-frequency Oscillations.

Neuroscience 2021 May 4. Epub 2021 May 4.

Laboratory of Animal and Human Physiology, Department of Biological Applications and Technology, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Ioannina, 45110 Ioannina, Greece. Electronic address:

Convulsive status epilepticus (SE) in immature life is often associated with lasting neurobiological changes. We provoked SE by pentylenetetrazole in postnatal day 20 rat pups and examined communication modalities between the temporal hippocampus and medial entorhinal cortex (mEC) in vitro. After a minimum of 40 days post-SE, we prepared combined temporal hippocampal - medial entorhinal cortex (mEC) slices from conditioned (SE) and naïve (N) adult rats and recorded 4-aminopyridine-induced spontaneous epileptiform interictal-like discharges (IED) simultaneously from CA3 and mEC layer V-VI. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Status epilepticus and diabetes ketoacidosis: uncommon clinical presentations of acromegaly.

Endocrinol Diabetes Metab Case Rep 2021 Apr 1;2021. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Department of Internal Medicine, Kilimanjaro Christian Medical Centre, Moshi, Tanzania.

Summary: Acromegaly is a rare disease caused by hypersecretion of the growth hormone (GH). Most cases are caused by either pituitary microadenoma or macroadenoma. The GH producing tumors present with clinical manifestations of acromegaly due to excessive GH secretion or symptoms resulting from mass effects of the enlarging tumor. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

A pediatric case of transient periictal MRI abnormalities after repeated seizures.

Brain Dev 2021 May 3. Epub 2021 May 3.

Department of Pediatrics, Faculty of Medicine, Saga University, Saga, Japan. Electronic address:

Background: Transient periictal MRI abnormalities (TPMA) are caused by seizures, and may completely or partially reverse within a few days following seizure. Although TPMA are usually observed in patients with status epilepticus (SE), they have also been rarely reported after isolated/recurrent seizures not fulfilling the criteria for SE. Herein, we present a case of a 1-year-old girl with TPMA. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

ACR Appropriateness Criteria® Seizures-Child.

J Am Coll Radiol 2021 May;18(5S):S199-S211

Specialty Chair, Riley Hospital for Children Indiana University, Indianapolis, Indiana.

In children, seizures represent an extremely heterogeneous group of medical conditions ranging from benign cases, such as a simple febrile seizure, to life-threatening situations, such as status epilepticus. Underlying causes of seizures also represent a wide range of pathologies from idiopathic cases, usually genetic, to a variety of acute and chronic intracranial or systemic abnormalities. This document discusses appropriate utilization of neuroimaging tests in a child with seizures. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Responsive neurostimulation for focal motor status epilepticus.

Ann Clin Transl Neurol 2021 May 6. Epub 2021 May 6.

Department of Neurology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.

No clear evidence-based treatment paradigm currently exists for refractory and super-refractory status epilepticus, which can result in significant mortality and morbidity. While patients are typically treated with antiepileptic drugs and anesthetics, neurosurgical neuromodulation techniques can also be considered. We present a novel case in which responsive neurostimulation was used to effectively treat a patient who had developed super-refractory status epilepticus, later consistent with epilepsia partialis continua, that was refractory to antiepileptic drugs, immunomodulatory therapies, and transcranial magnetic stimulation. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Cell death of hippocampal CA1 astrocytes during early epileptogenesis.

Epilepsia 2021 May 6. Epub 2021 May 6.

Institute of Cellular Neurosciences, Medical Faculty, University of Bonn, Bonn, Germany.

Objective: Growing evidence suggests that dysfunctional astrocytes are crucial players in the development of mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE). Using a mouse model closely recapitulating key alterations of chronic human MTLE with hippocampal sclerosis, here we asked whether death of astrocytes contributes to the initiation of the disease and investigated potential underlying molecular mechanisms.

Methods: Antibody staining was combined with confocal imaging and semiquantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis to identify markers of different cellular death mechanisms between 4 h and 3 days after epilepsy induction. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Three Cases of Aphasic Status Epilepticus: Clinical and Electrographic Characteristics.

Clin Med Insights Case Rep 2021 10;14:11795476211009241. Epub 2021 Apr 10.

Department of Neurology, Nowon Eulji Medical Center, Eulji University, Seoul, Korea.

Aphasic status epilepticus (ASE) is unusual and has clinical characteristics similar to those of other disorders. Herein, we report 3 cases of ASE. A left-handed man (patient 1) showed continuous aphasia after the administration of flumazenil. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Seckel syndrome presenting with complete heart block.

Proc (Bayl Univ Med Cent) 2021 Jan 28;34(3):405-406. Epub 2021 Jan 28.

Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center, Lubbock, Texas.

Seckel syndrome is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by facial dysmorphic features known as bird-headed dwarfism. Only about 100 cases have been reported. Cardiac anomalies have been described as a potential association with Seckel syndrome. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
January 2021

Severe amnestic syndrome due to theophylline toxicity.

BMJ Case Rep 2021 May 5;14(5). Epub 2021 May 5.

Neurology, University Hospital Galway, Galway, Ireland.

We report a case of severe amnestic syndrome following theophylline overdose. A woman in her early 30s was admitted to hospital where she developed status epilepticus following an intentional overdose of theophylline and lansoprazole. She developed a profound acidosis and required intubation in the intensive care unit. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Mortality and Neurologic Sequelae in Influenza-Associated Encephalopathy: Retrospective Multicenter PICU Cohort in France.

Pediatr Crit Care Med 2021 05 4. Epub 2021 May 4.

Pediatric Intensive Care Unit, Robert-Debré University Hospital, Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris (AP-HP), and Université de Paris, Paris, France. Pediatric Neurology Unit, Robert-Debré University Hospital, AP-HP, and Université de Paris, Paris, France. Pediatric Intensive Care Unit, Necker-Enfants-Malades University Hospital, AP-HP, and Université de Paris, Paris, France. Pediatric Intensive Care Unit, Lyon University Hospital, and Université de Lyon, Lyon, France. Pediatric Intensive Care Unit, Le Kremlin-Bicêtre University Hospital, AP-HP, and Université de Paris-Saclay, Saclay, France. Pediatric Intensive Care Unit, Trousseau University Hospital, AP-HP, and Sorbonne University, Paris, France. Pediatric Intensive Care Unit, Raymond Poincaré University Hospital, AP-HP, Garches, and Université de Versailles Saint-Quentin, Paris, France. Pediatric Neurology Unit, Necker-Enfants-Malades University Hospital, AP-HP, and Université de Paris, Paris, France.

Objectives: To describe and estimate the mortality rate of severe influenza-associated encephalopathy/encephalitis among children admitted to PICUs.

Design: Multicenter retrospective study.

Setting: Twelve French PICUs. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Electroencephalography of mechanically ventilated patients at high risk of delirium.

Acta Neurol Scand 2021 May 5. Epub 2021 May 5.

Department of Intensive Care Medicine, University Hospital (CHUV) and University of Lausanne, Lausanne, Switzerland.

Objective: Neurophysiological exploration of ICU delirium is limited. Here, we examined EEG characteristics of medical-surgical critically ill patients with new-onset altered consciousness state at high risk for ICU delirium.

Materials And Methods: Pre-planned analysis of non-neurological mechanically ventilated medical-surgical ICU subjects, who underwent a prospective multicenter randomized, controlled EEG study (NCT03129438, April 2017-November 2018). Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Modeling seizures in the Human Phenotype Ontology according to contemporary ILAE concepts makes big phenotypic data tractable.

Epilepsia 2021 May 5. Epub 2021 May 5.

Division of Neurology, Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, PA, USA.

Objective: The clinical features of epilepsy determine how it is defined, which in turn guides management. Therefore, consideration of the fundamental clinical entities that comprise an epilepsy is essential in the study of causes, trajectories, and treatment responses. The Human Phenotype Ontology (HPO) is used widely in clinical and research genetics for concise communication and modeling of clinical features, allowing extracted data to be harmonized using logical inference. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Efficacy and safety of lacosamide in the treatment of status epilepticus in a patient with comorbidities.

Acta Biomed 2021 Apr 30;92(S1):e2021090. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

UOC Neurologia, Department of Systems Medicine, University of Tor Vergata.

Efficacy, safety and tolerability of lacosamide in the treatment of status epilepticus are well described. However, other evidence of its pharmacologic profile in elderly patients with other comorbidities seems warranted. We describe the case of an 80 year-old woman with an history of arterial hypertension, ischemic cardiomyopathy, COPD, CKD, previous laryngeal cancer, a stoma positioning for diverticular disease and previous surgery for a left frontal meningioma. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

An uncommon case of nonconvulsive status epilepticus successfully treated with enteral Brivaracetam.

Acta Biomed 2021 Apr 30;92(S1):e2021156. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Department of Neuroscience, Stroke Unit San Camillo Hospital, Rome.

Background And Aim Of The Work: We present a case of a woman affected by nonconvulsive status epilepticus (NCSE) caused by cerebral hyperperfusion syndrome (CHS) after carotid endarterectomy (CEA) who was successfully treated with Brivaracetam (BRV) administered via nasogastric tube (NGT).

Case Presentation: An 82-years old woman was referred for increasing blood pressure, severe headache and two focal motor seizures on postoperative day four after right CEA. CT scan showed edema of the right hemisphere with a midline shift of 5 mm. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Erythropoietin-Associated Posterior Reversible Encephalopathy Syndrome.

Neurologist 2021 May 5;26(3):98-100. Epub 2021 May 5.

Department of Neuroscience, NYU Winthrop Hospital, Mineola, NY.

Introduction: This case demonstrates an underrecognized cause of posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES).

Case Report: We report a 51-year-old male with a history of essential hypertension without preexisting renal impairment who presented with 3 days of occipital headache and convulsive status epilepticus in the setting of refractory hypertension. He had been receiving outpatient human recombinant erythropoietin injections for virally mediated bone marrow suppression, which worsened his baseline hypertension. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Hyperammonemia in Patients With Status Epilepticus Treated With or Without Valproic Acid.

Neurologist 2021 May 5;26(3):80-82. Epub 2021 May 5.

Department of Neurology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN.

Background: Hyperammonemia is a common side effect of valproic acid (VPA) and can occur after generalized seizures, but the clinical significance is unclear. The aim of this study was to better understand the clinical practice and utility of ammonia testing in status epilepticus (SE) treated with or without VPA.

Methods: Charts of adult patients with SE from St. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

A comparison of intravenous midazolam and diazepam in management of status epilepticus in children.

J Pak Med Assoc 2021 Feb;71(2(B)):640-644

Government College University Faisalabad, Pakistan.

Objective: To compare the efficacy of intravenous midazolam and diazepam in the management of status epilepticus seizures in children.

Methods: The comparative study was conducted in the paediatric neurological emergency unit of The Children's Hospital and the Institute of Child Health, Multan, Pakistan, from December 15, 2018, to May 14, 2019, and comprised paediatric patients of status epilepticus seizures which were divided into Diazepam and Midazolam groups. Data was analysed using Graph-Pad Prism 5. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
February 2021

An autopsy study of the spectrum of severe COVID-19 in children: From SARS to different phenotypes of MIS-C.

EClinicalMedicine 2021 May 26;35:100850. Epub 2021 Apr 26.

Departamento de Patologia, Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo. Av. Dr. Arnaldo, 455, 01246-903 São Paulo, SP, Brasil.

Background: COVID-19 in children is usually mild or asymptomatic, but severe and fatal paediatric cases have been described. The pathology of COVID-19 in children is not known; the proposed pathogenesis for severe cases includes immune-mediated mechanisms or the direct effect of SARS-CoV-2 on tissues. We describe the autopsy findings in five cases of paediatric COVID-19 and provide mechanistic insight into the mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of the disease. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

An Intelligent Rule-based System for Status Epilepticus Prognostication.

J Biomed Phys Eng 2021 Apr 1;11(2):185-196. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

PhD, Department of Health Information Management, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran.

Background: Status epilepticus is one of the most common emergency neurological conditions with high morbidity and mortality.

Objective: The aim of this study is to propose an intelligent approach to determine prognosis and the most common causes and outcomes based on clinical symptoms.

Material And Methods: In this descriptive-analytic study, a perceptron artificial neural network was used to predict the outcome of patients with status epilepticus on discharge. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Acute Symptomatic Seizures in Critically Ill Children: Frequency, Etiology and Outcomes.

J Pediatr Neurosci 2020 Oct-Dec;15(4):375-378. Epub 2021 Jan 19.

Department of Pediatrics and Child Health, Aga Khan University Karachi, Karachi, Pakistan.

Background: Critically ill individuals have an increased risk of acute symptomatic seizures secondary to systemic illnesses; unrecognized or untreated seizures can quickly convert into status epilepticus, which is associated with high morbidity and mortality.

Objective: The aim of this study was to determine frequency, etiology, and outcome of seizures in critical ill children admitted in intensive care unit of a tertiary care hospital.

Materials And Methods: Retrospective review of medical records of all children admitted in pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) of the Aga Khan University from January 2016 to December 2018 and who had a new-onset seizure irrespective of underlying diagnosis was carried out after ethical review committee approval. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
January 2021

Levetiracetam versus fosphenytoin as a second-line treatment after diazepam for status epilepticus: study protocol for a multicenter non-inferiority designed randomized control trial.

Trials 2021 May 2;22(1):317. Epub 2021 May 2.

Department of Emergency and Critical Care Medicine, Tsukuba University Hospital, 1-1-1 Tennodai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, 305-8577, Japan.

Background: Status epilepticus (SE) is an emergency condition for which rapid and secured cessation is important. Phenytoin and fosphenytoin, the prodrug of phenytoin with less severe adverse effects, have been recommended as second-line treatments. However, fosphenytoin causes severe adverse events, such as hypotension and arrhythmia. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF