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    Causes, pathophysiology, and treatment of pruritus in the mature patient.
    Clin Dermatol 2018 Mar - Apr;36(2):140-151. Epub 2017 Oct 17.
    Department of Dermatology & Miami Itch Center at the University of Miami, Leonard M. Miller School of Medicine, Miami, FL, USA. Electronic address:
    Chronic itch is a common and debilitating health condition in the elderly. There are several common causes of itch in the mature population, such as skin xerosis, immunosenescence, and neuropathic changes. In addition, skin diseases, such as seborrheic dermatitis and stasis dermatitis, systemic conditions (end-stage renal disease and diabetes), or psychogenic derailments, such as depression, anxiety, and dementia, can all serve as triggers of pruritus. Read More

    Treatment of flat and elevated pigmented disorders with a 755-nm alexandrite picosecond laser: clinical and histological evaluation.
    Lasers Med Sci 2018 Feb 9. Epub 2018 Feb 9.
    Dermatology Department, Laser Unit, Hospital Universitario Ramón y Cajal, Ctra Colmenar Viejo Km 9,100, 28034, Madrid, Spain.
    The novel picosecond lasers, initially developed for faster tattoo removal, have also shown great efficacy in endogenous pigmentary disorders. To describe the efficacy and safety profile of an alexandrite (755-nm) picosecond laser in a wide range of pigmented flat and elevated cutaneous lesions. A retrospective study was performed in which we collected all the clinical images of patients treated with the 755-nm alexandrite picosecond laser for 12 months (November 2016-November 2017). Read More

    Kaposi's sarcoma concealed by stasis dermatitis in a patient with psoriasis.
    Acta Dermatovenerol Alp Pannonica Adriat 2017 09;26(3):69-71
    Department of Pathology, Eskisehir Osmangazi University, Eskisehir, Turkey.
    Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) is a multifocal and angioproliferative neoplasm. KS may be accompanied by psoriasis; however, in most of these cases the main mechanism involves iatrogenic KS associated with the immunosuppressive drugs that are used in psoriasis treatment. In angioproliferative lesions as a result of venous insufficiency and stasis dermatitis, acroangiodermatitis (pseudo-KS) is initially considered. Read More

    Alitretinoin treatment of lichen amyloidosis.
    Dermatol Ther 2017 Nov 14;30(6). Epub 2017 Sep 14.
    Department of Dermatology, Hanyang University Hospital, Seoul, South Korea.
    Lichen amyloidosis (LA) is characterized by the deposition of amyloid that may respond to chronic scratching that may be secondary to atopic dermatitis, stasis dermatitis, or interface dermatitis. Despite the development of several therapeutic strategies, including topical steroids, oral antihistamines, cyclosporine, and retinoids, an effective treatment for LA has not been established. A 49-year-old woman who has been treated irregularly for atopic dermatitis for 7 years presented with localized brownish papules on the left forearm and right elbow. Read More

    Classification and possible bacterial infection in outpatients with eczema and dermatitis in China: A cross-sectional and multicenter study.
    Medicine (Baltimore) 2017 Sep;96(35):e7955
    aDepartment of Dermatology, Beijing Shijitan Hospital, Capital Medical University bDepartment of Dermatology, Beijing Friendship Hospital, Capital Medical University cMarket Research Department, China Telecom Corporation Limited, Beijing Research Institute, Beijing, China.
    Little is known about the classification and bacterial infection in outpatients with eczema and dermatitis in China.To investigate the prevalence of eczema and dermatitis in outpatients of dermatology clinics in China, examine classification and proportion of common types of dermatitis and the possible bacterial infection, and analyze the possible related factors.Outpatients with eczema or dermatitis from 39 tertiary hospitals of 15 provinces in mainland China from July 1 to September 30, 2014, were enrolled in this cross-sectional and multicenter study. Read More

    Punctate Radiation Dermatitis of the Foot and Ankle Caused by Distal Embolization of 90Y Microspheres During Liver Directed Therapy.
    Clin Nucl Med 2017 Sep;42(9):e422-e423
    From the *College of Medicine, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX; †Department of Medical Imaging, and ‡Section of Hematology/Oncology, Department of Medicine, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ.
    A 41-year-old man with gastric adenocarcinoma presented with hepatic metastases. The metastases were refractory to systemic chemotherapy, so radioembolization with Y microspheres was performed. Because of stasis or saturation of the tumor with embolic particles, 79% of the microspheres were injected. Read More

    It's not what it looks like: atypical rash in cryoglobulinaemic vasculitis.
    BMJ Case Rep 2017 Mar 27;2017. Epub 2017 Mar 27.
    Reading Health System, West Reading, Pennsylvania, USA.
    A 48-year-old man with a history of intravenous drug use and chronic, untreated hepatitis C presented to the emergency room with acute bilateral lower extremity swelling, erythema and maculopapular rash. Serum C4 levels were low, but dermatology felt the rash was due to venous stasis dermatitis. The patient was discharged with compression stockings, but returned to the hospital 5 days later with no improvement in his symptoms. Read More

    Common spongiotic dermatoses.
    Semin Diagn Pathol 2017 May 10;34(3):226-236. Epub 2017 Feb 10.
    Department of Radiation Oncology, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, USA.
    This review article focuses on the spongiotic tissue reaction pattern and some of the common entities that practicing pathologists can frequently encounter in their practice. The spongiotic tissue reaction pattern is the single most common one encountered in the routine analysis of inflammatory dermatoses, and the most non-specific one as well. Spongiotic dermatoses include a very large list of disorders which are best grouped under neutrophilic, eosinophilic, miliarial, follicular and pityriasiform forms of spogiosis. Read More

    Study on Mucin in Normal-Appearing Leg Skin.
    Am J Dermatopathol 2017 Mar;39(3):163-170
    Consultant Histopathologist, Department of Cellular Pathology, Hospital El Bierzo, Ponferrada, Spain.
    Dermal deposits of mucin in the legs have been described associated with venous insufficiency. However, some degree of stasis dermatitis is generally common in aged individuals. Therefore, some amount of mucin is expected a priori in the reticular dermis of aged patients, even in the absence of clinical lesions. Read More

    The current spectrum of contact sensitization in patients with chronic leg ulcers or stasis dermatitis - new data from the Information Network of Departments of Dermatology (IVDK).
    Contact Dermatitis 2017 Sep 14;77(3):151-158. Epub 2017 Feb 14.
    Department of Dermatology, University Hospital Erlangen, 91054, Erlangen, Germany.
    Background: Patients with lower leg dermatitis, chronic venous insufficiency or chronic leg ulcers have a high prevalence of contact sensitization.

    Objectives: To identify the current spectrum of contact allergens in these patients.

    Patients And Methods: Data of the Information Network of Departments of Dermatology on 5264 patients with the above diagnoses from the years 2003 to 2014 (study group) were compared with data on 4881 corresponding patients from 1994 to 2003 (historical control group) and with a current control group without these diagnoses (n = 55 510). Read More

    Stasis Dermatitis: Pathophysiology, Evaluation, and Management.
    Am J Clin Dermatol 2017 Jun;18(3):383-390
    Department of Dermatology, University of Texas McGovern Medical School at Houston, 6655 Travis St, Ste 980, Houston, TX, 77030, USA.
    Stasis dermatitis commonly occurs in older age. It is caused by venous hypertension resulting from retrograde flow due to incompetent venous valves, valve destruction, or obstruction of the venous system. Further tissue changes arise from an inflammatory process mediated by metalloproteinases, which are up-regulated by ferric ion from extravasated red blood cells. Read More

    Recent Advances in Pharmacotherapeutic Paradigm of Mild to Recalcitrant Atopic Dermatitis.
    Crit Rev Ther Drug Carrier Syst 2016 ;33(3):213-263
    Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Jalan Raja Muda Abdul Aziz 50300, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.
    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a common, chronic skin inflammatory disorder characterized by perivascular infiltration of immunoglobulin E (IgE), T lymphocytes, and mast cells. The key factors responsible for the pathophysiology of this disease are immunological disorders and defects in epidermal barrier properties. Pruritus, intense itching, psychological stress, deprived physical and mental performance, and sleep disturbance are the hallmark features of this dermatological disorder. Read More

    The Death of Balzac (1799-1850) and the Treatment of Heart Failure During the Nineteenth Century.
    J Card Fail 2016 Nov 13;22(11):930-933. Epub 2016 Sep 13.
    Department of Public Health and Pediatric Sciences, Legal Medicine Section, University of Turin, Turin, Italy; Unité Mixte de Recherche (UMR) 7268, Laboratoire d'Anthropologie bio-culturelle, Droit, Etique & Santé (Adés), Faculté de Médecine de Marseille, Marseille, France.
    Overweight, workaholic, and a caffeine abuser, Honoré de Balzac lived a life of excess. He prematurely died at the age of 51 owing to gangrene associated with congestive heart failure. Textual sources allow us to take a glimpse into his last 3 months of life. Read More

    Mesenchymal stromal cells: properties and role in management of cutaneous diseases.
    J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol 2017 Mar 19;31(3):414-423. Epub 2016 Sep 19.
    Department of Dermatology, Virgen de las Nieves University Hospital, Granada, Spain.
    This review describes the current understanding and the potential use of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) in cell-based therapies for clinical management of difficult wounds and other dermatoses. MSCs have been shown to possess many advantageous properties that make them a promising therapeutic modality in dermatology still under investigation. In fact, MSCs' ability to promote wound healing through its paracrine function and pro-angiogenic properties have generated increasing interest for treating acute and chronic wounds. Read More

    Isolation and Characterization of an Atypical Metschnikowia sp. Strain from the Skin Scraping of a Dermatitis Patient.
    PLoS One 2016 9;11(6):e0156119. Epub 2016 Jun 9.
    Department of Medical Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.
    A yeast-like organism was isolated from the skin scraping sample of a stasis dermatitis patient in the Mycology Unit Department of Medical Microbiology, University Malaya Medical Centre (UMMC), Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. The isolate produced no pigment and was not identifiable using chromogenic agar and API 20C AUX. The fungus was identified as Metschnikowia sp. Read More

    A Case of Patch Stage of Kaposi's Sarcoma and Discussion of the Differential Diagnosis.
    Rare Tumors 2016 Mar 31;8(1):6123. Epub 2016 Mar 31.
    Department of Pathology and Molecular Medicine, St. Joseph's Healthcare Hamilton, ON, Canada.
    A 55 year old HIV positive male had a skin lesion biopsy which showed atypical vascular proliferation within the superficial and deep dermis with mild atypia of lining endothelial cells. A sparse lymphoplasmacytic infiltrate surrounding the irregular vascular channels was noted. Immunohistochemistry highlighted the atypical blood vessels with the vascular markers CD31, CD34 and Factor VIII. Read More

    Dermatological Complaints of the Elderly Attending a Dermatology Outpatient Clinic in Turkey: A Prospective Study over a One-year Period.
    Acta Dermatovenerol Croat 2015 ;23(4):277-81
    Assoc. Prof. Muhterem Polat, MD, Gazi University School of Medicine, Department of Dermatology, Ankara, Turkey;
    The geriatric population is continuously growing, which leads to more aged patients being admitted to dermatology clinics. The aim of this study is to determine the dermatological complaints of the elderly attending a dermatology outpatient clinic. All of the patients aged 65 years and older admitted to our dermatology outpatient clinic over a 1-year period were included. Read More

    Ruocco's immunocompromised cutaneous district.
    Int J Dermatol 2016 Feb 16;55(2):135-41. Epub 2015 Oct 16.
    Dermatology and Pathology, Rutgers New Jersey Medical School, Newark, NJ, USA.
    The concept of 'locus minoris resistentiae' (lmr) is an old but still effective way of thinking in Medicine. In Dermatology, there are many reports of privileged localization of cutaneous diseases on injured skin, which therefore represents a typical condition of lmr. Lately the innovative concept of immunocompromised cutaneous district (ICD) has been introduced to explain why a previously injured cutaneous site may become in time a privileged location for the outbreak of opportunistic infections, tumors, and immune reactions. Read More

    Bilateral cellulitis.
    BMJ Case Rep 2015 Sep 21;2015. Epub 2015 Sep 21.
    Department of Pathology, Johns Hopkins, Baltimore, Maryland, USA.
    We present a case of bilateral lesions in a 50-year-old man, which were on first impression mistaken for and initially treated as bilateral cellulitis. We propose that bilateral cellulitis, as opposed to unilateral, is rare and that other aetiologies should be considered in evaluating a patient with bilateral lesions. The differential diagnosis includes stasis-dermatitis, lipodermatosclerosis, lymphoedema and vascular lesions such as Kaposi sarcoma, as was identified in this case. Read More

    Physiological and lifestyle factors contributing to risk and severity of peri-orbital dark circles in the Brazilian population.
    An Bras Dermatol 2015 Jul-Aug;90(4):494-503
    Medcin Instituto da Pele, Osasco, SP, BR.
    Background: Peri-orbital dark circles are a cosmetic concern worldwide, and have been attributed to hyperpigmentation from allergy or atopic dermatitis, blood stasis, structural shadowing effects, and a thin epidermis/dermis under the eye. It is of interest to better understand lifestyle and demographic risk factors and the relative impact of melanin, blood and epidermal/dermal factors on the severity of Peri-orbital dark circles.

    Objective: To compare by non-invasive imaging the impact of biological factors to a visual grading scale for Peri-orbital dark circles, and test the correlation of various demographic factors with Peri-orbital dark circles. Read More

    [Contact allergies in the elderly].
    Hautarzt 2015 Sep;66(9):665-73
    Hautklinik Universitätsklinikum Erlangen, Ulmenweg 18, 91054, Erlangen, Deutschland.
    The percentage of seniors (> 65 years of age) in the general population continues to rise. Their sensitization profile may be influenced by lifelong work-related and nonwork-related exposures and comorbidities requiring local or systemic treatment. Recent analysis of the IVDK (Information Network of Departments of Dermatology) cohort concerning the most frequently recognized contact allergens in the age group above 65 (2009-2013: N = 14,841) revealed significant differences compared to the age group up to 65 years of age. Read More

    Lipodermatosclerosis: a clinicopathologic correlation.
    Int J Dermatol 2016 Mar 14;55(3):303-8. Epub 2015 Aug 14.
    Division of Dermatology, Department of Medicine, Srinagarind Hospital Medical School, Faculty of Medicine, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen, Thailand.
    Background: Lipodermatosclerosis (LDS) is a chronic fibrosing panniculitis associated with venous insufficiency. Although LDS is often a clinical diagnosis, it can be confused with other panniculitides. Microscopic examination is therefore essential to support the diagnosis in this condition. Read More

    Clinical and microbiological characteristics of purulent and non-purulent cellulitis in hospitalized Taiwanese adults in the era of community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.
    BMC Infect Dis 2015 Aug 5;15:311. Epub 2015 Aug 5.
    Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, Kaohsiung Veterans General Hospital, Kaohsiung, Taiwan.
    Background: The risk factors, microbial etiology, differentiation, and clinical features of purulent and non-purulent cellulitis are not well defined in Taiwan.

    Methods: We conducted a retrospective cohort study of hospitalized adults with cellulitis in Taiwan in 2013. The demographic characteristics, underlying diseases, clinical manifestations, laboratory and microbiological findings, treatments, and outcomes were compared for patients with purulent and non-purulent cellulitis. Read More

    Stasis papillomatosis with cardiac complications and vein insufficiency.
    Acta Dermatovenerol Croat 2015 ;23(2):138-43
    Aldona Pietrzak MD, PhD, Chair and Department of Dermatology, Venereology and Pediatric Dermatology , Medical University of Lublin . Lublin. Poland;
    We report the case of a 73-year-old man with massive swelling of the lower extremities, with a chronic and rather uncommon form of stasis dermatitis - stasis papillomatosis. The patient was also diagnosed with severe heart failure, including dilated cardiomyopathy, hypothyroidism that required a substantial dose of exogenous tyrosine, microcytic and megaloblastic anemia, iron deficiency, and type 2 diabetes. The cause of stasis dermatitis lesions is not completely understood. Read More

    Non-HIV-related Kaposi sarcoma in 2 Hispanic patients arising in the setting of chronic venous insufficiency.
    Cutis 2015 Jun;95(6):E30-3
    Ronald O. Perelman Department of Dermatology, New York University School of Medicine, 530 1st Ave, Ste 7J, New York, NY 10016, USA.
    Kaposi sarcoma (KS) is a vascular neoplasm associated with human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8) infection that can be confused with the clinical and histological findings of chronic venous insufficiency. Definitive diagnosis of KS can only be achieved by performing a polymerase chain reaction for HHV-8 or by immunostaining for the HHV-8 antigen. We describe 2 unusual clinical presentations of KS in the setting of chronic venous insufficiency with clinical and histologic features consistent with stasis dermatitis but positive HHV-8 immunostaining. Read More

    Inpatient dermatology consultation aids diagnosis of cellulitis among hospitalized patients: A multi-institutional analysis.
    J Am Acad Dermatol 2015 Jul;73(1):70-5
    Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts. Electronic address:
    Background: Given its nonspecific physical examination findings, accurately distinguishing cellulitis from a cellulitis mimicker (pseudocellulitis) is challenging.

    Objective: We sought to investigate the national incidence of cellulitis misdiagnosis among inpatients.

    Methods: We conducted a retrospective review of inpatient dermatology consultations at Massachusetts General Hospital, University of Alabama at Birmingham Medical Center, University of California Los Angeles Medical Center, and University of California San Francisco Medical Center in 2008. Read More

    Venous status ulcers due to congenital agenesis of the inferior vena cava in a 16-year-old male.
    Vascular 2016 Feb 13;24(1):106-8. Epub 2015 May 13.
    Division of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery, Department of Cardiovascular and Thoracic Surgery, Montefiore Medical Center, Bronx, New York, USA.
    We report a case of agenesis of the infrarenal inferior vena cava in a 16-year-old male presenting with venous stasis dermatitis and ulceration in the gaiter region bilaterally. Duplex imaging was performed revealing absence of infrarenal inferior vena cava and iliofemoral venous system. Magnetic resonance venography then confirmed the above findings along with revealing extensive lumbar and pelvic collateralization. Read More

    Keratinocyte Migration and a Hypothetical New Role for Extracellular Heat Shock Protein 90 Alpha in Orchestrating Skin Wound Healing.
    Adv Wound Care (New Rochelle) 2015 Apr;4(4):203-212
    Department of Dermatology, USC Laboratories for Investigative Dermatology, USC/Norris Cancer Center, The Keck Medical Center and the Los Angeles Greater VA Healthcare System, University of Southern California , Los Angeles, California.
    The treatment and care of patients with skin wounds are a major healthcare expenditure. Burn wounds, iatrogenic surgical wounds, venous stasis dermatitis ulcers, diabetic lower limb ulcers, pressure ulcers, and skin wounds from peripheral neuropathies are largely treated with only supportive care. Despite a great deal of research into using growth factors as therapeutic agents, to date, the field has been disappointing. Read More

    New therapy using omega-3-Acid ethyl esters for decubitus ulcers and stasis dermatitis: a case report.
    Iran Red Crescent Med J 2014 Dec 15;16(12):e19500. Epub 2014 Dec 15.
    Department of Radiology, Saiseikai Yokohama-shi Nanbu Hospital, Yokohama, Japan.
    Introduction: In daily practice, it is common to experience difficulty in treating decubitus ulcers (pressure ulcers, also known as decubitus ulcers) and stasis dermatitis of the lower limbs. We hereby report that omega-3-acid ethyl esters were remarkably effective when administered to cases of refractory pressure ulcers and stasis dermatitis for the purpose of improving the blood flow and promoting blood circulation.

    Case Presentation: Case 1: A 21-year-old Japanese female with lower-body paralysis. Read More

    Risk factors associated with a reduced response in the treatment of erysipelas.
    J Dtsch Dermatol Ges 2015 Mar 23;13(3):217-25. Epub 2015 Feb 23.
    Klinik für Dermatologie, Venerologie und Allergologie, Universitätsmedizin Mannheim, Ruprecht-Karls-Universität Heidelberg, Mannheim, Germany.
    Background: In most cases, erysipelas may be adequately treated using first-line antibiotic therapy. However, clinicians are sometimes confronted with complicated cases, in which patients do not respond to initial antibiotic therapy. The objective of this study was to identify risk factors associated with a reduced response to antibiotic therapy and, thus, a more complicated disease course. Read More

    Chronic pruritus in the elderly: pathophysiology, diagnosis and management.
    Drugs Aging 2015 Mar;32(3):201-15
    Department of Dermatology and Itch Center, Temple University School of Medicine, 3322 North Broad Street, Medical Office Building, Suite 212, Philadelphia, PA, 19140, USA.
    Chronic itch in the elderly is a common problem, with a significant impact on quality of life and sleep in elderly patients. Chronic itch may be attributable to several causes, including dry skin, immunosenescence and neural degeneration. Itch may also be caused by skin diseases, such as seborrhoeic dermatitis and stasis dermatitis; systemic conditions, such as end-stage renal disease and diabetes; and psychogenic conditions, such as depression and anxiety. Read More

    Cellulitis Recurrence Score: a tool for predicting recurrence of lower limb cellulitis.
    J Am Acad Dermatol 2015 Jan 16;72(1):140-5. Epub 2014 Oct 16.
    Dermatology Unit, Singapore General Hospital, Singapore. Electronic address:
    Background: Cellulitis is the most common skin and soft tissue infection and is associated with frequent recurrences.

    Objectives: An objective of our study was to identify factors for recurrence in patients who present with a first episode of lower-limb cellulitis. A secondary aim was to formulate a score based on observed clinical risk factors that might predict recurrence within a year. Read More

    Effects of Hypochlorous Acid Solutions on Venous Leg Ulcers (VLU): Experience With 1249 VLUs in 897 Patients.
    J Am Coll Clin Wound Spec 2014 Dec 21;6(3):32-7. Epub 2016 Jan 21.
    Wound Clinics and Vascular Laboratories, Lake Health District, Lake District Hospital, 700 South J Street, Lakeview, OR 97630, USA; Lake Wound Clinic - Klamath Falls, LLC, 2301 B Mountain View Boulevard, Klamath Falls, OR 97601, USA.
    In order to assess the impact of comorbidities and identify factors that accelerate the healing rate of venous leg ulcers we performed an extensive, retrospective analysis of our experience in a diverse population. From June, 2006 to June, 2014, 897 patients with 1249 venous leg ulcers were treated at Lake Wound Clinics. Treatment protocols utilized the standard regimen of wound cleaning, debridement and compression bandaging. Read More

    Lymphedema and subclinical lymphostasis (microlymphedema) facilitate cutaneous infection, inflammatory dermatoses, and neoplasia: A locus minoris resistentiae.
    Clin Dermatol 2014 Sep-Oct;32(5):599-615
    Divisions of Dermatopathology and Dermatology, Department of Pathology, Albany Medical College, MC-81, Albany, NY 12208. Electronic address:
    Whether primary or secondary, lymphedema is caused by failure to drain protein-rich interstitial fluid. Typically affecting a whole limb, it has become apparent that lymphedema can also affect localized regions of the skin, or it can be clinically silent but histologically evident, denoted by dilated lymphangiectases (latent lymphedema). Chronic lymph stasis has numerous consequences, including lipogenesis, fibrosis, inflammation, lymphangiogenesis, and immunosuppression. Read More

    The immunocompromised district in dermatology: A unifying pathogenic view of the regional immune dysregulation.
    Clin Dermatol 2014 Sep-Oct;32(5):569-76
    Dermatology Unit, Kaplan Medical Center, Rehovot, Israel. Affiliated to The School of Medicine, Hebrew University and Hadassah, Jerusalem.
    Besides the systemic immune deficiency, a sectorial default in immune control may occur in immunocompetent subjects. This regional immune defect can appear and remain confined to differently damaged skin areas, lately labeled immunocompromised districts (ICDs). An ICD is a skin area more vulnerable than the rest of the body for genetic or acquired reasons. Read More

    Pseudo-Kaposi sarcoma worsening after leg vein harvest for coronary artery bypass grafting.
    Ann Saudi Med 2014 Mar-Apr;34(2):179-81
    Dr. Muzamil Amin Chisti, Department of Dermatology,, King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre,, Riyadh 11211, Saudi Arabia, T: +966114424608, F: +966114424603,
    Acroangiodermatitis (AAD) (synonym, pseudo-Kaposi sarcoma) is a term that encompasses 2 different conditions: (1) AAD of Mali, which refers to skin lesions that mainly develop bilaterally on the lower extremities of patients with chronic venous insufficiency and is an extreme form of stasis dermatitis and (2) Stewart-Bluefarb syndrome, which consists of an arteriovenous malformation that mainly affects the limbs of young patients unilaterally. We present a case of a 68-year-old lady with progressive skin lesions on both lower limbs (right > left) as a result of chronic venous insufficiency that became worse after the leg-vein harvest for coronary artery bypass grafting was taken from the right leg. Up to our knowledge this is the first case of its kind to be reported. Read More

    Prevalence and associated factors of comorbid skin diseases in patients with schizophrenia: a clinical survey and national health database study.
    Gen Hosp Psychiatry 2014 Jul-Aug;36(4):415-21. Epub 2014 Mar 5.
    Division of Preventive Medicine, Institute of Public Health, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei 112, Taiwan (R.O.C.). Electronic address:
    Objectives: To examine the epidemiology of and possible risk factors for skin diseases in patients with schizophrenia.

    Methods: All of 337 patients with schizophrenia were recruited from the therapeutic community of a psychiatric hospital and underwent a detailed skin examination. The National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD) was used to compare the prevalence of skin diseases between patients with schizophrenia and those without. Read More

    The routine use of iron stain for biopsies of dermatoses of the legs.
    J Cutan Pathol 2015 Oct 19;42(10):717-21. Epub 2014 Mar 19.
    St. Joseph Dermatopathology, Houston, TX, USA.
    Background: Our goal was to study the utility of the routine use of the Gomori iron stain in the evaluation of leg biopsies of inflammatory lesions.

    Methods: One hundred consecutive skin biopsies from the legs were evaluated with hematoxylin and eosin and Gomori iron stains. Iron positivity was semi-quantitatively graded from trace to 4+. Read More

    Stasis dermatitis as a complication of recurrent levofloxacin-associated bilateral leg edema.
    Dermatol Online J 2013 Nov 15;19(11):20399. Epub 2013 Nov 15.
    University of Texas Medical School at Houston; University of Texas, Houston.
    Introduction: Several drugs have been associated with the development of peripheral edema. Leg edema can result in dermatitis of the lower extremities. We describe levofloxacin-induced peripheral leg edema, which progressed to stasis dermatitis. Read More

    All-cause and disease-related health care costs associated with recurrent venous thromboembolism.
    Thromb Haemost 2013 Dec 2;110(6):1288-97. Epub 2013 Oct 2.
    François Laliberté, Senior Economist, Groupe d'analyse, Ltée, 1000 rue de la Gauchetière Ouest, Bureau 1200, Montréal, Québec H3B 4W5, Canada, Tel.: +1 514 394 4488, Fax: +1 514 394 4461, E-mail:
    It was the objective of this study to quantify the risk of complications and the incremental health care costs associated with recurrent VTE events. Health care insurance claims from the Ingenix IMPACT database from 01/2004-09/2008 were analysed. Subjects aged ≥18 years on the date of first recurrent VTE diagnosis with ≥12 months of baseline observation prior to the index recurrent VTE were matched 1:1 with no-recurrent VTE patients based on propensity scores. Read More

    Edema: diagnosis and management.
    Am Fam Physician 2013 Jul;88(2):102-10
    Thomas Jefferson University Hospital, Philadelphia, PA 19107, USA.
    Edema is an accumulation of fluid in the interstitial space that occurs as the capillary filtration exceeds the limits of lymphatic drainage, producing noticeable clinical signs and symptoms. The rapid development of generalized pitting edema associated with systemic disease requires timely diagnosis and management. The chronic accumulation of edema in one or both lower extremities often indicates venous insufficiency, especially in the presence of dependent edema and hemosiderin deposition. Read More

    Non-healing ulcer on the foot: early onset unilateral Mali-type acroangiodermatitis.
    Acta Dermatovenerol Alp Pannonica Adriat 2013 ;22(2):49-51
    Bezmiâlem Vakif University, Medical Faculty, Department of Dermatology, Istanbul, Turkey.
    Acroangiodermatitis (pseudo-Kaposi's sarcoma, AAD) is a benign vascular dermatosis that resembles Kaposi's sarcoma clinically and histopathologically (1). Four types have been defined: the Stewart-Bluefarb type accompanying chronic arteriovenous malformations, the Mali type accompanying stasis dermatitis, a type accompanying the first gestation, and a type accompanying arteriovenous shunts in patients with chronic kidney failure (3). Although AAD development is associated with chronic venous failure, less frequently AAD can develop as a complication of extremity paralysis, hemodialysis, post-traumatic arteriovenous fistula, amputated extremities, and vascular malformations (e. Read More

    Treatment of refractory venous stasis ulcers with autologous platelet-rich plasma and light-emitting diodes: a pilot study.
    J Dermatolog Treat 2013 Oct 27;24(5):332-5. Epub 2013 Jun 27.
    Department of Dermatology, Chung-Ang University, College of Medicine, Seoul, South Korea.
    Background: Stasis dermatitis with secondary ulcer formation is not only therapeutically challenging but also significantly decreases the quality of life for affected individuals. Recently, autologous platelet-rich plasma (PRP) has entered the therapeutic regimen for leg ulcers, while light-emitting diodes (LEDs) are now used to accelerate wound healing.

    Objective: To assess the efficacy and safety of autologous PRP with concomitant LED therapy for the treatment of venous stasis dermatitis with secondary ulceration. Read More

    Sclerotherapy in the management of varicose veins and its dermatological complications.
    Indian J Dermatol Venereol Leprol 2013 May-Jun;79(3):383-8
    Department of DVL, Sapthagiri Institute of Medical Sciences and Research Center, Bangalore, Karnataka, India.
    Background: Varicose veins and its dermatological complications like stasis dermatitis, ulcers, spontaneous bleeding are commonly seen in the dermatology clinics. Surgery has been the most often used treatment for varicose veins. Sclerotherapy refers to introduction of sclerosing solution into the varicose veins, which causes endothelial damage and subsequent fibrosis. Read More

    Id-like reaction to BCG therapy for bladder cancer.
    Cutis 2013 Mar;91(3):145-6, 151
    Big Horn Basin Skin Center, Cody, Wyoming, USA.
    Id reaction, also known as autoeczematization, is the development of dermatitis that is distant to an initial site of infection or sensitization. Clinical findings typically include an acute, intensely pruritic maculopapular or papulovesicular eruption that most frequently involves the extremities. Histology typically reveals spongiotic dermatitis that often is vesicular, and eosinophils may be present in the infiltrate. Read More

    Hypersensitivity reactions to corticosteroids.
    Clin Rev Allergy Immunol 2014 Aug;47(1):26-37
    Division of Rheumatology, Allergy and Clinical Immunology, University of California at Davis School of Medicine, 451 Health Sciences Drive, Suite 6510, Davis, CA, 95616, USA.
    Hypersensitivity reactions to corticosteroids (CS) are rare in the general population, but they are not uncommon in high-risk groups such as patients who receive repeated doses of CS. Hypersensitivity reactions to steroids are broadly divided into two categories: immediate reactions, typically occurring within 1 h of drug administration, and non-immediate reactions, which manifest more than an hour after drug administration. The latter group is more common. Read More

    Stewart-Bluefarb syndrome: review of the literature and case report of chronic ulcer treatment with heparan sulphate (Cacipliq20®).
    Int Wound J 2015 Apr 5;12(2):169-72. Epub 2013 Apr 5.
    Division of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, American University of Beirut Medical Center, Beirut, Lebanon.
    Stewart-Bluefarb syndrome (SBS), also known as acroangiodermatitis or pseudo-Kaposi, is a condition rarely encountered. It involves skin lesions that are clinically similar to Kaposi sarcoma but are histologically different, and are usually secondary to an underlying arteriovenous fistula. Treatment of this disease usually involves the correction of the underlying vascular abnormality, with the mainstay of therapy ranging from compression devices for venous stasis, limited oral medications (dapsone and erythromycin) and local wound care including topical steroids. Read More

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