1,355 results match your criteria St. Louis Encephalitis


Titration and neutralizing antibody quantification by focus forming assay for Powassan virus.

STAR Protoc 2022 Sep 17;3(3):101473. Epub 2022 Jun 17.

Department of Molecular Microbiology and Immunology, Saint Louis University, St. Louis, MO 63104, USA.

The development of high-throughput assays measuring Powassan virus (POWV) lineage I and II represents an important step in virological and immunological studies. By adapting focus-forming assays previously optimized for West Nile virus and Zika virus, this protocol is able to determine viral load, evaluate antivirals, and measure neutralizing antibodies. Although limited by its requirement of a detection antibody, this protocol includes a rapid and high-throughput assay for measuring viral titer. Read More

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September 2022

Effect of Agroecosystems on Seroprevalence of St. Louis Encephalitis and West Nile Viruses in Birds, La Pampa, Argentina, 2017-2019.

Emerg Infect Dis 2022 07;28(7):1393-1402

In Argentina, the Pampa ecoregion has been almost completely transformed into agroecosystems. To evaluate the environmental (agricultural area, tree coverage, distance to the nearest water body and urban site) and biological (dove, cowbird, and sparrow abundance) effects on free-ranging bird exposure to St. Louis encephalitis virus (SLEV) and West Nile virus (WNV), we used generalized linear mixed models. Read More

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Neuropathology of Pediatric SARS-CoV-2 Infection in the Forensic Setting: Novel Application of Imaging in Analysis of Brain Microvasculature.

Front Neurol 2022 24;13:894565. Epub 2022 May 24.

Office of Chief Medical Examiner, New York, NY, United States.

Two years into the COVID-19 pandemic, there are few published accounts of postmortem SARS-CoV-2 pathology in children. We report 8 such cases (4 infants aged 7-36 weeks, 4 children aged 5-15 years). Four underwent magnetic resonance neuroimaging, to assist in identification of subtle lesions related to vascular compromise. Read More

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A Powassan virus domain III nanoparticle immunogen elicits neutralizing and protective antibodies in mice.

PLoS Pathog 2022 06 9;18(6):e1010573. Epub 2022 Jun 9.

Department of Biochemistry, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York, United States of America.

Powassan virus (POWV) is an emerging tick borne flavivirus (TBFV) that causes severe neuroinvasive disease. Currently, there are no approved treatments or vaccines to combat POWV infection. Here, we generated and characterized a nanoparticle immunogen displaying domain III (EDIII) of the POWV E glycoprotein. Read More

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Microorganisms associated with increased risk of Parkinson's disease.

Neurologia (Engl Ed) 2022 May 26. Epub 2022 May 26.

Laboratorio de Neurología Molecular, Universidad de Sevilla, Sevilla, Spain; Red Andaluza de Investigación Clínica y Traslacional en Neurología (Neuro-RECA), Málaga, Spain. Electronic address:

Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder that affects more than 7 million people worldwide. Its aetiology is unknown, although the hypothesis of a genetic susceptibility to environmental agents is accepted. These environmental agents include fungi, bacteria, and viruses. Read More

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Widespread interspecific phylogenetic tree incongruence between mosquito-borne and insect-specific flaviviruses at hotspots originally identified in Zika virus.

Virus Evol 2022 18;8(1):veac027. Epub 2022 Apr 18.

UMR "Unité des Virus Emergents", Aix-Marseille Université-IRD 190-Inserm 1207-IHU Méditerranée Infection, Marseille, France.

Intraspecies (homologous) phylogenetic incongruence, or 'tree conflict' between different loci within the same genome of mosquito-borne flaviviruses (MBFV), was first identified in dengue virus (DENV) and subsequently in Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), St Louis encephalitis virus, and Zika virus (ZIKV). Recently, the first evidence of phylogenetic incongruence between interspecific members of the MBFV was reported in ZIKV and its close relative, Spondweni virus. Uniquely, these hybrid proteomes were derived from four incongruent trees involving an -associated DENV node (1 tree) and three different -associated flavivirus nodes (3 trees). Read More

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Development of HEK-293 Cell Lines Constitutively Expressing Flaviviral Antigens for Use in Diagnostics.

Microbiol Spectr 2022 May 9:e0059222. Epub 2022 May 9.

U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Preventiongrid.416738.f, Fort Collins, Colorado, USA.

Flaviviruses are important human pathogens worldwide. Diagnostic testing for these viruses is difficult because many of the pathogens require specialized biocontainment. To address this issue, we generated 39 virus-like particle (VLP)- and nonstructural protein 1 (NS1)-secreting stable cell lines in HEK-293 cells of 13 different flaviviruses, including dengue, yellow fever, Japanese encephalitis, West Nile, St. Read More

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West Nile Virus and Other Domestic Nationally Notifiable Arboviral Diseases - United States, 2020.

MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2022 May 6;71(18):628-632. Epub 2022 May 6.

Arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) are transmitted to humans primarily through the bite of infected mosquitoes and ticks. West Nile virus (WNV), mainly transmitted by Culex species mosquitos, is the leading cause of domestically acquired arboviral disease in the United States (1). Other arboviruses cause sporadic cases of disease and occasional outbreaks. Read More

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Neurologic Manifestations of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 Infection in Hospitalized Patients During the First Year of the COVID-19 Pandemic.

Crit Care Explor 2022 Apr 25;4(4):e0686. Epub 2022 Apr 25.

Department of Anesthesiology and Perioperative Medicine, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN.

To describe the prevalence, associated risk factors, and outcomes of serious neurologic manifestations (encephalopathy, stroke, seizure, and meningitis/encephalitis) among patients hospitalized with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection.

Design: Prospective observational study.

Setting: One hundred seventy-nine hospitals in 24 countries within the Society of Critical Care Medicine Discovery Viral Infection and Respiratory Illness Universal Study COVID-19 Registry. Read More

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Socioeconomic risk markers of arthropod-borne virus (arbovirus) infections: a systematic literature review and meta-analysis.

BMJ Glob Health 2022 04;7(4)

Health Equity Action Lab, Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, London, UK

Introduction: Arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) are of notable public health importance worldwide, owing to their potential to cause explosive outbreaks and induce debilitating and potentially life-threatening disease manifestations. This systematic review and meta-analysis aims to assess the relationship between markers of socioeconomic position (SEP) and infection due to arboviruses with mosquito vectors.

Methods: We conducted a systematic search on PubMed, Embase, and LILACS databases to identify studies published between 1980 and 2020 that measured the association of SEP markers with arbovirus infection. Read More

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Differential Performance of the FilmArray Meningitis/Encephalitis Assay To Detect Bacterial and Viral Pathogens in Both Pediatric and Adult Populations.

Microbiol Spectr 2022 04 11;10(2):e0277421. Epub 2022 Apr 11.

Department of Virology, St Antoine - Tenon - Trousseau University Hospitals, Assistance Publique Hôpitaux de Paris, Paris, France.

Meningitis/encephalitis (ME) syndromic diagnostic assays can be applied for the rapid one-step detection of the most common pathogens in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). However, the comprehensive performance of multiplex assays is still under evaluation. In our multisite university hospital of eastern Paris, France, ME syndromic testing has been gradually implemented since 2017 for patients with neurological symptoms presenting to an adult or pediatric emergency unit. Read More

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Neutralizing antibodies protect mice against Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus aerosol challenge.

J Exp Med 2022 04 17;219(4). Epub 2022 Mar 17.

Department of Medicine, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO.

Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) remains a risk for epidemic emergence or use as an aerosolized bioweapon. To develop possible countermeasures, we isolated VEEV-specific neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) from mice and a human immunized with attenuated VEEV strains. Functional assays and epitope mapping established that potently inhibitory anti-VEEV mAbs bind distinct antigenic sites in the A or B domains of the E2 glycoprotein and block multiple steps in the viral replication cycle including attachment, fusion, and egress. Read More

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Mechanisms of coronavirus infectious disease 2019-related neurologic diseases.

Authors:
Robyn S Klein

Curr Opin Neurol 2022 06 11;35(3):392-398. Epub 2022 Mar 11.

Center for Neuroimmunology & Neuroinfectious Diseases, Departments of Medicine, Pathology & Immunology, and Neuroscience, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri, USA.

Purpose Of Review: As of January 8, 2022, a global pandemic caused by infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV)-2, a new RNA virus, has resulted in 304,896,785 cases in over 222 countries and regions, with over 5,500,683 deaths (www.worldometers.info/coronavirus/). Read More

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West Nile Virus and Eastern Equine Encephalitis Virus High Probability Habitat Identification for the Selection of Sentinel Chicken Surveillance Sites in Florida.

J Am Mosq Control Assoc 2022 03;38(1):1-6

To mitigate the effects of West Nile virus (WNV) and eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV), the state of Florida conducts a serosurveillance program that uses sentinel chickens operated by mosquito control programs at numerous locations throughout the state. Coop locations were initially established to detect St. Louis encephalitis virus (SLEV), and coop placement was determined based on the location of human SLEV infections that occurred between 1959 and 1977. Read More

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Mosquito Larvicidal Activity of Compounds from Unripe Fruit Peel of Avocado (Persea americana Mill.).

Appl Biochem Biotechnol 2022 Feb 24. Epub 2022 Feb 24.

Laboratory of Pharmacognosy and Natural Products Chemistry, Kagawa School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Tokushima Bunri University, 1314-1 Shido, Sanuki City, Kagawa, 769-2193, Japan.

Mosquitoes are important vectors responsible for spreading a number of diseases affecting both humans and animals. Many diseases as dengue, chikungunya, yellow fever, malaria, filariasis and Japanese encephalitis are spread by mosquitoes. There are many reports of plant extracts and their active constituents showing anti-mosquito activities as larvicidal, pupicidal, ovicidal and adulticidal activities. Read More

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February 2022

Balanced T and B cell responses are required for immune protection against Powassan virus in virus-like particle vaccination.

Cell Rep 2022 02;38(7):110388

Department of Molecular Microbiology and Immunology, Saint Louis University, St. Louis, MO 63104, USA. Electronic address:

Powassan virus (POWV) is a tick-borne pathogen for which humans are an incidental host. POWV infection can be fatal or result in long-term neurological sequelae; however, there are no approved vaccinations for POWV. Integral to efficacious vaccine development is the identification of correlates of protection, which we accomplished in this study by utilizing a murine model of POWV infection. Read More

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February 2022

Focal Seizures in a Child Following COVID-19 Infection: A Case Report.

Cureus 2022 Feb 10;14(2):e22083. Epub 2022 Feb 10.

Research, College of Public Health and Social Justice, Saint Louis University, St. Louis, USA.

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has been shown to impact multiple organs, even in instances where patients did not show any symptoms. In this case report, we detail a six-year-old male child presenting with focal seizures without an antecedent history of epilepsy. The child presented with twitching movements on the right side of the face involving the oral cavity. Read More

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February 2022

Distinct Cellular Tropism and Immune Responses to Alphavirus Infection.

Annu Rev Immunol 2022 04 8;40:615-649. Epub 2022 Feb 8.

Laboratory of Viral Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, USA; email:

Alphaviruses are emerging and reemerging viruses that cause disease syndromes ranging from incapacitating arthritis to potentially fatal encephalitis. While infection by arthritogenic and encephalitic alphaviruses results in distinct clinical manifestations, both virus groups induce robust innate and adaptive immune responses. However, differences in cellular tropism, type I interferon induction, immune cell recruitment, and B and T cell responses result in differential disease progression and outcome. Read More

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Nipah Virus V Protein Binding Alters MDA5 Helicase Folding Dynamics.

ACS Infect Dis 2022 01 8;8(1):118-128. Epub 2021 Dec 8.

Division of Infectious Diseases, John T. Milliken Department of Medicine, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri 63110, United States.

Nipah virus (NiV) is an emerging and deadly zoonotic paramyxovirus that is responsible for periodic epidemics of acute respiratory illness and encephalitis in humans. Previous studies have shown that the NiV V protein antagonizes host antiviral immunity, but the molecular mechanism is incompletely understood. To address this gap, we biochemically characterized NiV V binding to the host pattern recognition receptor MDA5. Read More

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January 2022

Corrigendum to: "IL-1 reprogramming of adult neural stem cells limits neurocognitive recovery after viral encephalitis by maintaining a proinflammatory state" [Brain Behav. Immun. 99 (2022) 383-396].

Brain Behav Immun 2022 May 7;102:387. Epub 2022 Jan 7.

Center for Neuroimmunology & Neuroinfectious Diseases, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO 63110, United States; Department of Medicine, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO 63110, United States; Department of Pathology and Immunology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO 63110, United States; Department of Neuroscience, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO 63110, United States. Electronic address:

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Encephalitic Arboviruses of Africa: Emergence, Clinical Presentation and Neuropathogenesis.

Authors:
Robyn S Klein

Front Immunol 2021 23;12:769942. Epub 2021 Dec 23.

Center for Neuroimmunology & Neuroinfectious Diseases, Departments of Medicine, Neuroscience, and Pathology & Immunology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO, United States.

Many mosquito-borne viruses (arboviruses) are endemic in Africa, contributing to systemic and neurological infections in various geographical locations on the continent. While most arboviral infections do not lead to neuroinvasive diseases of the central nervous system, neurologic diseases caused by arboviruses include flaccid paralysis, meningitis, encephalitis, myelitis, encephalomyelitis, neuritis, and post-infectious autoimmune or memory disorders. Here we review endemic members of the and families that cause neurologic infections, their neuropathogenesis and host neuroimmunological responses in Africa. Read More

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February 2022

Association Between Time Spent Outdoors and Risk of Multiple Sclerosis.

Neurology 2022 01 8;98(3):e267-e278. Epub 2021 Dec 8.

From the Australian National University Medical School (P.S.), Centre for Research on Ageing, Health and Wellbeing (N.C.), and National Centre for Epidemiology and Population Health (R.L.), Australian National University, Canberra; Division of Epidemiology (L.F.B.), University of California Berkeley; Department of Pediatrics (S.R., C.C.), University of Utah School of Medicine, Salt Lake City; Pediatric Multiple Sclerosis Center (J.H.) and Department of Neurology (E.W.), University of California San Francisco; Pediatric Multiple Sclerosis Center (G.S.A.), Loma Linda University Children's Hospital, CA; MS Comprehensive Care Center (L.K.), New York University Langone, NY; Pediatric Multiple Sclerosis and Related Disorders Program (L.B., M. Gorman), Boston Children's Hospital, MA; Division of Pediatric Neurology (M.C.), University of Utah Primary Children's Hospital, Salt Lake City; Partners Pediatric Multiple Sclerosis Center (T.C.), Massachusetts General Hospital for Children, Boston; Department of Radiology (M. Goyal), Washington University St. Louis, MO; Department of Neurology (B.G.), University of Texas Southwestern, Dallas; Pediatric-Onset Demyelinating Diseases and Autoimmune Encephalitis Center (S.M.), St. Louis Children's Hospital, Washington University School of Medicine, MO; Mayo Clinic Pediatric Multiple Sclerosis Center (M.R.), Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN; Department of Pediatric Neurology (J.R.), Northwestern Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL; Children's Hospital Colorado (T.S.), University of Colorado, Denver; Division of Neurology (A.W.), Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, PA; Pediatric Multiple Sclerosis Center (B.W.-G.), Jacobs Neurological Institute, State University of New York Buffalo; and Department of Neurosciences (J.G.), University of California San Diego.

Background And Objectives: This study aims to determine the contributions of sun exposure and ultraviolet radiation (UVR) exposure to risk of pediatric-onset multiple sclerosis (MS).

Methods: Children with MS and controls recruited from multiple centers in the United States were matched on sex and age. Multivariable conditional logistic regression was used to investigate the association of time spent outdoors daily in summer, use of sun protection, and ambient summer UVR dose in the year before birth and the year before diagnosis with MS risk, with adjustment for sex, age, race, birth season, child's skin color, mother's education, tobacco smoke exposure, being overweight, and Epstein-Barr virus infection. Read More

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January 2022

An Advax-Adjuvanted Inactivated Cell-Culture Derived Japanese Encephalitis Vaccine Induces Broadly Neutralising Anti-Flavivirus Antibodies, Robust Cellular Immunity and Provides Single Dose Protection.

Vaccines (Basel) 2021 Oct 23;9(11). Epub 2021 Oct 23.

Vaxine Pty Ltd., Adelaide 5046, Australia.

ccJE+Advax is an inactivated cell culture Japanese encephalitis (JE) vaccine formulated with Advax, a novel polysaccharide adjuvant based on delta inulin. This vaccine has previously shown promise in murine and equine studies and the current study sought to better understand its mechanism of action and assess the feasibility of single dose vaccine protection. Mice immunised with ccJE+Advax had higher serum neutralisation titres than those immunised with ccJE alone or with alum adjuvant. Read More

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October 2021

Emergence potential of mosquito-borne arboviruses from the Florida Everglades.

PLoS One 2021 22;16(11):e0259419. Epub 2021 Nov 22.

Department of Pathology, Center for Tropical Diseases and Institute for Human Infection and Immunity, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, Texas, United States of America.

The Greater Everglades Region of South Florida is one of the largest natural wetlands and the only subtropical ecosystem found in the continental United States. Mosquitoes are seasonally abundant in the Everglades where several potentially pathogenic mosquito-borne arboviruses are maintained in natural transmission cycles involving vector-competent mosquitoes and reservoir-competent vertebrate hosts. The fragile nature of this ecosystem is vulnerable to many sources of environmental change, including a wetlands restoration project, climate change, invasive species and residential development. Read More

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January 2022

IL-1 reprogramming of adult neural stem cells limits neurocognitive recovery after viral encephalitis by maintaining a proinflammatory state.

Brain Behav Immun 2022 01 22;99:383-396. Epub 2021 Oct 22.

Center for Neuroimmunology & Neuroinfectious Diseases, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO 63110, United States; Department of Medicine, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO 63110, United States; Department of Pathology and Immunology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO 63110, United States; Department of Neuroscience, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO 63110, United States. Electronic address:

Innate immune responses to emerging RNA viruses are increasingly recognized as having significant contributions to neurologic sequelae, especially memory disorders. Using a recovery model of West Nile virus (WNV) encephalitis, we show that, while macrophages deliver the antiviral and anti-neurogenic cytokine IL-1β during acute infection; viral recovery is associated with continued astrocyte inflammasome-mediated production of inflammatory levels of IL-1β, which is maintained by hippocampal astrogenesis via IL-1R1 signaling in neural stem cells (NSC). Accordingly, aberrant astrogenesis is prevented in the absence of IL-1 signaling in NSC, indicating that only newly generated astrocytes exert neurotoxic effects, preventing synapse repair and promoting spatial learning deficits. Read More

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January 2022

Detection of Saint Louis encephalitis virus in two Brazilian states.

J Med Virol 2022 02 1;94(2):776-781. Epub 2021 Nov 1.

School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, São Paulo State University (UNESP), Araraquara, São Paulo, Brazil.

We describe the circulation of Saint Louis encephalitis virus (SLEV) in two Brazilian States during outbreaks of Dengue and Zika viruses. We detected the virus in a patient from Araraquara, State of São Paulo, and in patients and in a mosquito pool of Culex quinquefasciatus from Sinop, State of Mato Grosso. Phylogenetic analysis grouped samples from this study within genotype V, which are closely related to other strains that previously circulated in other parts of the country. Read More

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February 2022

External quality assessment of molecular testing of 9 viral encephalitis-related viruses in China.

Virus Res 2021 12 13;306:198598. Epub 2021 Oct 13.

National Center for Clinical Laboratories, Institute of Geriatric Medicine, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Beijing Hospital/National Center of Gerontology, P. R. China; Graduate School of Peking Union Medical College, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Beijing, P. R. China; Beijing Engineering Research Center of Laboratory Medicine, Beijing Hospital, Beijing, P. R. China. Electronic address:

Background: Eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV), Western equine encephalitis virus (WEEV), Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV), Hendra virus (HeV), Nipah virus (NiV), Yellow fever virus (YFV), West Nile virus (WNV), Saint Louis encephalitis virus (SLEV) and Tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) have been detected in travelers returning to China and potentially pose a serious threat to public health. Real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR) plays an important role in the detection of these viruses. Although these viruses are not mainly prevalent in China, occasionally imported cases have been reported with the increase in population mobility and entry-exit activities. Read More

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December 2021

Detection of Antibodies to Lokern, Main Drain, St. Louis Encephalitis, and West Nile Viruses in Vertebrate Animals in Chihuahua, Guerrero, and Michoacán, Mexico.

Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis 2021 11 14;21(11):884-891. Epub 2021 Oct 14.

Department of Veterinary Microbiology and Preventive Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa, USA.

We conducted serologic surveillance for flaviviruses and orthobunyaviruses in vertebrate animals in Mexico in 2018-2019. Sera were collected from 856 vertebrate animals, including 323 dogs, 223 horses, and 121 cows, from 16 species. The animals were from 3 states: Chihuahua in northwest Mexico (704 animals) and Guerrero and Michoacán on the Pacific Coast (27 and 125 animals, respectively). Read More

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November 2021

Structure of Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus in complex with the LDLRAD3 receptor.

Nature 2021 10 13;598(7882):672-676. Epub 2021 Oct 13.

Department of Pathology & Immunology, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO, USA.

LDLRAD3 is a recently defined attachment and entry receptor for Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV), a New World alphavirus that causes severe neurological disease in humans. Here we present near-atomic-resolution cryo-electron microscopy reconstructions of VEEV virus-like particles alone and in a complex with the ectodomains of LDLRAD3. Domain 1 of LDLRAD3 is a low-density lipoprotein receptor type-A module that binds to VEEV by wedging into a cleft created by two adjacent E2-E1 heterodimers in one trimeric spike, and engages domains A and B of E2 and the fusion loop in E1. Read More

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October 2021

Zika Virus Non-Structural Protein 1 Antigen-Capture Immunoassay.

Viruses 2021 09 5;13(9). Epub 2021 Sep 5.

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, School of Medicine, Tulane University, New Orleans, LA 70112, USA.

Infection with Zika virus (ZIKV), a member of the genus of the family, typically results in mild self-limited illness, but severe neurological disease occurs in a limited subset of patients. In contrast, serious outcomes commonly occur in pregnancy that affect the developing fetus, including microcephaly and other major birth defects. The genetic similarity of ZIKV to other widespread flaviviruses, such as dengue virus (DENV), presents a challenge to the development of specific ZIKV diagnostic assays. Read More

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September 2021