1,267 results match your criteria St. Louis Encephalitis


The continued threat of emerging flaviviruses.

Nat Microbiol 2020 Jun 4;5(6):796-812. Epub 2020 May 4.

Departments of Medicine, Molecular Microbiology, Pathology & Immunology, Andrew M. and Jane M. Bursky Center for Human Immunology and Immunotherapy Programs, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO, USA.

Flaviviruses are vector-borne RNA viruses that can emerge unexpectedly in human populations and cause a spectrum of potentially severe diseases including hepatitis, vascular shock syndrome, encephalitis, acute flaccid paralysis, congenital abnormalities and fetal death. This epidemiological pattern has occurred numerous times during the last 70 years, including epidemics of dengue virus and West Nile virus, and the most recent explosive epidemic of Zika virus in the Americas. Flaviviruses are now globally distributed and infect up to 400 million people annually. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41564-020-0714-0DOI Listing

Assessment of Immunoglobulin M Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay Ratios to Identify West Nile Virus and St. Louis Encephalitis Virus Infections During Concurrent Outbreaks of West Nile Virus and St. Louis Encephalitis Virus Diseases, Arizona 2015.

Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis 2020 Apr 21. Epub 2020 Apr 21.

Arboviral Diseases Branch, Division of Vector-Borne Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Fort Collins, Colorado, USA.

West Nile virus (WNV) and St. Louis encephalitis virus (SLEV) are closely related mosquito-borne flaviviruses that cause clinical disease ranging from febrile illness to encephalitis. The standard for serological diagnosis is immunoglobulin M (IgM) testing followed by confirmatory plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT) to differentiate the infecting virus. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/vbz.2019.2571DOI Listing

Comparison of Characteristics of Patients with West Nile Virus or St. Louis Encephalitis Virus Neuroinvasive Disease During Concurrent Outbreaks, Maricopa County, Arizona, 2015.

Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis 2020 Apr 6. Epub 2020 Apr 6.

Arboviral Diseases Branch, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Fort Collins, Colorado.

West Nile virus (WNV) and St. Louis encephalitis virus (SLEV) are closely related mosquito-borne flaviviruses that can cause neuroinvasive disease. No concurrent WNV and SLEV disease outbreaks have previously been identified. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/vbz.2019.2572DOI Listing

Assessment of Culex pipiens bioforms in the world's southernmost distribution limit.

Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz 2020 7;115:e190390. Epub 2020 Feb 7.

Universidad Nacional de San Martin-Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas, Instituto de Investigación e Ingeniería Ambiental, Ecología de Enfermedades Transmitidas por Vectores (2eTV), San Martín, Provincia de Buenos Aires, Argentina.

The mosquito Culex pipiens s.s. L. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/0074-02760190390DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7012581PMC

Encephalitic Alphaviruses Exploit Caveola-Mediated Transcytosis at the Blood-Brain Barrier for Central Nervous System Entry.

mBio 2020 02 11;11(1). Epub 2020 Feb 11.

Department of Medicine, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri, USA

Venezuelan and western equine encephalitis viruses (VEEV and WEEV, respectively) invade the central nervous system (CNS) early during infection, via neuronal and hematogenous routes. While viral replication mediates host shutoff, including expression of type I interferons (IFN), few studies have addressed how alphaviruses gain access to the CNS during established infection or the mechanisms of viral crossing at the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Here, we show that hematogenous dissemination of VEEV and WEEV into the CNS occurs via caveolin-1 (Cav-1)-mediated transcytosis (Cav-MT) across an intact BBB, which is impeded by IFN and inhibitors of RhoA GTPase. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/mBio.02731-19DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7018649PMC
February 2020

Mosquito Iridescent Virus: New Records from Nature and Infections Using Strelkovimermis spiculatus (Mermithidae) as a Vector Under Laboratory Conditions.

Neotrop Entomol 2020 Apr 6;49(2):268-274. Epub 2020 Jan 6.

Centro de Estudios Parasitológicos y Vectores (CEPAVE CONICETCCT-La Plata-UNLP), La Plata, Buenos Aires, Argentina.

Iridoviridae is a DNA virus family that affects both vertebrates and invertebrates. Immature aquatic stages of many dipteran species infected with iridovirus have been found in different places worldwide. The most represented genera of the Culicidae family are Aedes and Psorophora. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13744-019-00755-9DOI Listing

Antiviral activity of ribavirin and favipiravir against human astroviruses.

J Clin Virol 2020 Feb 17;123:104247. Epub 2019 Dec 17.

Department of Molecular Microbiology, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO, United States; Department of Pathology and Immunology, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO, United States.

Background: Recent recognition of invasive astrovirus infections, including encephalitis and viremia in humans, have highlighted the need for effective anti-astrovirus therapeutics. However, there is a paucity of data regarding the in vitro activity of broad-spectrum RNA antivirals against astroviruses, including ribavirin and favipiravir.

Objectives: We quantified the EC50 values for ribavirin and favipiravir against two human astrovirus strains, astrovirus VA1 (VA1) and human astrovirus 4 (HAstV4). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcv.2019.104247DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7034780PMC
February 2020

Specific diagnostic method for St. Louis encephalitis virus using a non-structural protein as the antigen.

J Gen Virol 2020 Feb 13;101(2):168-174. Epub 2019 Dec 13.

Laboratorio de Virus Emergentes, Departamento de Ciencia y Tecnología, Universidad Nacional de Quilmes. Bernal, Buenos Aires, Argentina.

St. Louis encephalitis virus (SLEV) is a mosquito-borne re-emerging flavivirus in Argentina. It is currently necessary to develop specific serological tests that can efficiently discriminate the flaviviruses that circulate in our country. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1099/jgv.0.001359DOI Listing
February 2020

Serological evidence of arboviruses and coccidia infecting horses in the Amazonian region of Brazil.

PLoS One 2019 12;14(12):e0225895. Epub 2019 Dec 12.

Virology Research Center, Ribeirão Preto Medical School, University of São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, Brazil.

Background: Arboviruses and protozoans can cause neurologic disorders in horses. In Brazilian Amazon, several horses presenting signs compatible with disorders caused by these infectious agents have been observed.

Objective: To contribute to the knowledge of this epidemiological picture, we sought to construct a serological diagnostic panel for neurotrophic infectious agents in local horses. Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0225895PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6907776PMC

Comparative Analysis of Roseoloviruses in Humans, Pigs, Mice, and Other Species.

Viruses 2019 11 30;11(12). Epub 2019 Nov 30.

Institute of Virology, Freie Universität Berlin, 14163 Berlin, Germany.

Viruses of the genus belong to the subfamily , family Roseoloviruses have been studied in humans, mice and pigs, but they are likely also present in other species. This is the first comparative analysis of roseoloviruses in humans and animals. The human roseoloviruses human herpesvirus 6A (HHV-6A), 6B (HHV-6B), and 7 (HHV-7) are relatively well characterized. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/v11121108DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6949924PMC
November 2019

Surveillance of a kdr Resistance Mutation in Culex pipiens (Diptera: Culicidae) and Culex quinquefasciatus in California.

J Med Entomol 2020 Feb;57(2):645-648

California Department of Public Health, Vector-Borne Disease Section, Richmond, VA.

Culex pipiens Linnaeus and Culex quinquefasciatus Say are the primary vectors of West Nile and St. Louis encephalitis viruses in California. Pyrethrins and pyrethroids (synthetic pyrethrins) are the most widely used insecticides to control adult stage mosquitoes to prevent disease transmission. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jme/tjz208DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7044724PMC
February 2020

CD8 Encephalitis in a Treatment-Naive and a Virologically Suppressed Patient with HIV.

Can J Neurol Sci 2019 11;46(6):773-775

Department of Molecular Virology and Microbiology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/cjn.2019.288DOI Listing
November 2019

A rural-urban latitudinal study of the distributions of Culex quinquefasciatus and Culex pipiens bioforms in their southernmost sympatric fringe.

Med Vet Entomol 2020 03 14;34(1):34-43. Epub 2019 Aug 14.

Ecología de Enfermedades Transmitidas por Vectores (2eTV), Instituto de Investigación e Ingeniería Ambiental, UNSAM, CONICET, San Martín, Prov. de Buenos Aires, Argentina.

Mosquitoes grouped in the complex Culex pipiens L. (Diptera: Culicidae) are important vectors of medical and veterinary diseases. In the South American sympatric region, Cx. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/mve.12400DOI Listing
March 2020
4 Reads

West Nile Virus and Other Domestic Nationally Notifiable Arboviral Diseases - United States, 2018.

MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2019 Aug 9;68(31):673-678. Epub 2019 Aug 9.

Arthropodborne viruses (arboviruses) are transmitted to humans primarily through the bites of infected mosquitoes and ticks. West Nile virus (WNV) is the leading cause of domestically acquired arboviral disease in the continental United States (1). Other arboviruses, including eastern equine encephalitis, Jamestown Canyon, La Crosse, Powassan, and St. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.15585/mmwr.mm6831a1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6687196PMC
August 2019
9 Reads

Identification of Protective CD8 T Cell Responses in a Mouse Model of Zika Virus Infection.

Front Immunol 2019 17;10:1678. Epub 2019 Jul 17.

Department of Molecular Microbiology and Immunology, Saint Louis University, St. Louis, MO, United States.

Many flaviviruses including dengue (DENV), and Zika (ZIKV) have attracted significant attention in the past few years. As many flaviviruses are spread by arthropods, most of the world's population is at risk of encountering a flavivirus, and infection with these viruses has created a significant disease burden worldwide. Vaccination against flaviviruses is thought to be one of the most promising avenues for reducing the disease burden associated with these viruses. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2019.01678DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6652237PMC
July 2019
2 Reads

Differential Infection of Neural Cells by Astroviruses.

mBio 2019 07 9;10(4). Epub 2019 Jul 9.

Department of Pathology and Immunology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri, USA

Recent advances in unbiased pathogen discovery have implicated astroviruses as pathogens of the central nervous system (CNS) of mammals, including humans. However, the capacity of astroviruses to be cultured in CNS-derived cells has not been reported to date. Both astrovirus VA1/HMO-C (VA1; mamastrovirus 9) and classic human astrovirus 4 (HAstV4; mamastrovirus 1) have been previously detected from cases of human encephalitis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/mBio.01455-19DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6747723PMC
July 2019
3 Reads

Recent advances in managing HIV-associated cryptococcal meningitis.

F1000Res 2019 28;8. Epub 2019 May 28.

Molecular Mycology Unit and National Reference Centre for Invasive Mycoses, UMR2000, CNRS, Institut Pasteur, Paris, France.

The recent development of highly sensitive and specific point-of-care tests has made it possible to diagnose HIV-associated cryptococcal meningitis within minutes. However, diagnostic advances have not been matched by new antifungal drugs and treatment still relies on old off-patent drugs: amphotericin B, flucytosine and fluconazole. Cryptococcal meningitis treatment is divided in three phases: induction, consolidation and maintenance. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.12688/f1000research.17673.1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6544127PMC
June 2020
4 Reads

T cells promote microglia-mediated synaptic elimination and cognitive dysfunction during recovery from neuropathogenic flaviviruses.

Nat Neurosci 2019 08 24;22(8):1276-1288. Epub 2019 Jun 24.

Department of Internal Medicine, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO, USA.

T cells clear virus from the CNS and dynamically regulate brain functions, including spatial learning, through cytokine signaling. Here we determined whether hippocampal T cells that persist after recovery from infection with West Nile virus (WNV) or Zika virus (ZIKV) impact hippocampal-dependent learning and memory. Using newly established models of viral encephalitis recovery in adult animals, we show that in mice that have recovered from WNV or ZIKV infection, T cell-derived interferon-γ (IFN-γ) signaling in microglia underlies spatial-learning defects via virus-target-specific mechanisms. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41593-019-0427-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6822175PMC
August 2019
6 Reads

Severe influenza pneumonitis in children with inherited TLR3 deficiency.

J Exp Med 2019 09 19;216(9):2038-2056. Epub 2019 Jun 19.

St. Giles Laboratory of Human Genetics of Infectious Diseases, Rockefeller Branch, The Rockefeller University, New York, NY

Autosomal recessive IRF7 and IRF9 deficiencies impair type I and III IFN immunity and underlie severe influenza pneumonitis. We report three unrelated children with influenza A virus (IAV) infection manifesting as acute respiratory distress syndrome (IAV-ARDS), heterozygous for rare variants (P554S in two patients and P680L in the third) causing autosomal dominant (AD) TLR3 deficiency. AD TLR3 deficiency can underlie herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1) encephalitis (HSE) by impairing cortical neuron-intrinsic type I IFN immunity to HSV-1. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1084/jem.20181621DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6719423PMC
September 2019
28 Reads
12.515 Impact Factor

miRNA contributions to pediatric-onset multiple sclerosis inferred from GWAS.

Ann Clin Transl Neurol 2019 Jun 15;6(6):1053-1061. Epub 2019 May 15.

Division of Epidemiology School of Public Health University of California Berkeley California.

Objective: Onset of multiple sclerosis (MS) occurs in childhood for approximately 5% of cases (pediatric MS, or ped-MS). Epigenetic influences are strongly implicated in MS pathogenesis in adults, including the contribution from microRNAs (miRNAs), small noncoding RNAs that affect gene expression by binding target gene mRNAs. Few studies have specifically examined miRNAs in ped-MS, but individuals developing MS at an early age may carry a relatively high burden of genetic risk factors, and miRNA dysregulation may therefore play a larger role in the development of ped-MS than in adult-onset MS. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/acn3.786DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6562070PMC
June 2019
9 Reads

Mouse Models of Heterologous Flavivirus Immunity: A Role for Cross-Reactive T Cells.

Front Immunol 2019 9;10:1045. Epub 2019 May 9.

Department of Molecular Microbiology and Immunology, Saint Louis University, St. Louis, MO, United States.

Most of the world is at risk of being infected with a flavivirus such as dengue virus, West Nile virus, yellow fever virus, Japanese encephalitis virus, tick-borne encephalitis virus, and Zika virus, significantly impacting millions of lives. Importantly, many of these genetically similar viruses co-circulate within the same geographic regions, making it likely for individuals living in areas of high flavivirus endemicity to be infected with multiple flaviviruses during their lifetime. Following a flavivirus infection, a robust T cell response is generated and the memory recall of this response has been demonstrated to provide long-lasting immunity, protecting against reinfection with the same pathogen. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2019.01045DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6520664PMC
May 2019
6 Reads

Unusual Imaging Findings Associated with Germ Cell Tumors.

Radiographics 2019 Jul-Aug;39(4):1019-1035. Epub 2019 May 24.

From the Departments of Radiology (K.M., M.M.H.) and Pathology (J.W.C.), Brigham and Women's Hospital, 75 Francis St, Boston, MA 02115; Department of Radiology, Mayo Clinic Scottsdale, Scottsdale, Ariz (C.O.M.); Mallinckrodt Institute of Radiology, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, Mo (S.B.); and Department of Radiology, University of Texas Health Science Center, San Antonio, Tex (V.S.K.).

Germ cell tumors, because they contain immature and mature elements, can differentiate into different tissue types. They can exhibit unusual imaging features or manifest in a syndromic fashion. The authors describe these features and assign them to one of the following categories: unusual manifestations of metastatic disease (growing teratoma syndrome, choriocarcinoma syndrome, ossified metastases, and gliomatosis peritonei); autoimmune manifestations (sarcoidlike reaction and paraneoplastic syndromes); endocrine syndromes (sex hormone production, struma ovarii, and struma carcinoid); or miscellaneous conditions (ruptured dermoid cyst, squamous cell carcinoma arising from a mature teratoma, Currarino triad, fetus in fetu, pseudo-Meigs syndrome, and pancreatitis). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1148/rg.2019180050DOI Listing
May 2020
21 Reads

Lyme borreliosis and other tick-borne diseases. Guidelines from the French Scientific Societies (I): prevention, epidemiology, diagnosis.

Med Mal Infect 2019 Aug 13;49(5):318-334. Epub 2019 May 13.

Service des maladies infectieuses et réanimation médicale, hôpital Pontchaillou, CHU Pontchaillou, 35033 Rennes cedex, France. Electronic address:

Lyme borreliosis is transmitted en France by the tick Ixodes ricinus, endemic in metropolitan France. In the absence of vaccine licensed for use in humans, primary prevention mostly relies on mechanical protection (clothes covering most parts of the body) that may be completed by chemical protection (repulsives). Secondary prevention relies on early detection of ticks after exposure, and mechanical extraction. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.medmal.2019.04.381DOI Listing
August 2019
7 Reads
0.912 Impact Factor

Detection of antibodies against Icoaraci, Ilhéus, and Saint Louis Encephalitis arboviruses during yellow fever monitoring surveillance in non-human primates (Alouatta caraya) in southern Brazil.

J Med Primatol 2019 08 29;48(4):211-217. Epub 2019 Apr 29.

Escola de Ciências, Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, Brazil.

Background: Free-ranging non-human primates (NHPs) can host a variety of pathogenic microorganisms, such as arboviruses, which include the yellow fever virus (YFV). This study aimed to detect the circulation of YF and other arboviruses in three wild Alouatta caraya populations in forests in southern Brazil.

Methods: We collected 40 blood and serum samples from 26 monkeys captured/recaptured up to four times from 2014 to 2016, searching for evidence of arboviruses by virus isolation, PCR, and neutralization tests. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jmp.12417DOI Listing
August 2019
9 Reads

Neuroinflammation During RNA Viral Infections.

Annu Rev Immunol 2019 04;37:73-95

Department of Medicine, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri 63110, USA; email:

Neurotropic RNA viruses continue to emerge and are increasingly linked to diseases of the central nervous system (CNS) despite viral clearance. Indeed, the overall mortality of viral encephalitis in immunocompetent individuals is low, suggesting efficient mechanisms of virologic control within the CNS. Both immune and neural cells participate in this process, which requires extensive innate immune signaling between resident and infiltrating cells, including microglia and monocytes, that regulate the effector functions of antiviral T and B cells as they gain access to CNS compartments. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-immunol-042718-041417DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6731125PMC
April 2019
24 Reads

Vector Competence for West Nile Virus and St. Louis Encephalitis Virus () of Three Tick Species of the Genus (Acari: Ixodidae).

Am J Trop Med Hyg 2019 05;100(5):1230-1235

Instituto de Virología "Dr. J. M. Vanella", Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (CONICET), Facultad Ciencias Médicas, Universidad Nacional de Córdoba, Enfermera Gordillo Gómez s/n, Ciudad Universitaria, Córdoba, Argentina.

Many species of ticks are commonly found infesting wild birds in South America, where birds are important hosts for several arboviruses, such as West Nile virus (WNV) and St. Louis encephalitis virus (SLEV). In this study, WNV and SLEV transmission experiments were performed to evaluate the vector competence of three South American tick species: , , and . Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4269/ajtmh.18-0134DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6493942PMC
May 2019
14 Reads

Molecular analyses and phylogeny of the herpes simplex virus 2 US9 and glycoproteins gE/gI obtained from infected subjects during the Herpevac Trial for Women.

PLoS One 2019 8;14(3):e0212877. Epub 2019 Mar 8.

Department of Molecular Microbiology and Immunology, Saint Louis University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri, United States of America.

Herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) is a large double-stranded DNA virus that causes genital sores when spread by sexual contact and is a principal cause of viral encephalitis in newborns and infants. Viral glycoproteins enable virion entry into and spread between cells, making glycoproteins a prime target for vaccine development. A truncated glycoprotein D2 (gD2) vaccine candidate, recently tested in the phase 3 Herpevac Trial for Women, did not prevent HSV-2 infection in initially seronegative women. Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0212877PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6407778PMC
December 2019
12 Reads

The US11 Gene of Herpes Simplex Virus 1 Promotes Neuroinvasion and Periocular Replication following Corneal Infection.

J Virol 2019 05 17;93(9). Epub 2019 Apr 17.

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, The Geisel School of Medicine at Dartmouth, Lebanon, New Hampshire, USA

Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) cycles between phases of latency in sensory neurons and replication in mucosal sites. HSV-1 encodes two key proteins that antagonize the shutdown of host translation, US11 through preventing PKR activation and ICP34.5 through mediating dephosphorylation of the α subunit of eukaryotic initiation factor 2 (eIF2α). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JVI.02246-18DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6475787PMC
May 2019
9 Reads

Bloodmeal Host Selection of Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae) in Las Vegas, Nevada, United States.

J Med Entomol 2019 04;56(3):603-608

Arbovirus Diseases Branch, Division of Vector Borne Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Fort Collins, CO.

St. Louis encephalitis virus (SLEV) and West Nile virus (WNV) have recently emerged in the southwestern United States. Surveillance for arboviruses in Las Vegas, NV, detected a surge of SLEV activity in the southern house mosquito (Culex quinquefasciatus Say) during 2016. Read More

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https://academic.oup.com/jme/advance-article/doi/10.1093/jme
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jme/tjy237DOI Listing
April 2019
29 Reads
1.953 Impact Factor

Larvicidal Activity of Synthesized Silver Nanoparticles from Essential Oil against .

Insects 2019 Jan 11;10(1). Epub 2019 Jan 11.

Lymphatic Filariasis and Tropical Medicine Research Unit, Chulalongkorn Medical Research Center, Faculty of Medicine, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330, Thailand.

is the major vector of the bancroftian filarial parasite which causes human lymphatic filariasis and St. Louis encephalitis. The simple way to stop the transmission is to control the vector by using synthetic chemicals. Read More

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http://www.mdpi.com/2075-4450/10/1/27
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/insects10010027DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6359542PMC
January 2019
28 Reads

Molecular characterization of viruses associated with encephalitis in São Paulo, Brazil.

PLoS One 2019 14;14(1):e0209993. Epub 2019 Jan 14.

LIM / 46-Laboratory of Medical Parasitology, Institute of Tropical Medicine-IMT, University of São Paulo Medical School USP, São Paulo, Brazil.

The objective of this study was to characterize the prevalence of viral encephalitis due to arbovirus infection of the Togaviridae and Flaviviridae families in São Paulo, Brazil. A total of 500 cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples collected between August 2012 and January 2013, from patients with symptoms of acute encephalitis were analyzed. Findings suggestive of viral encephalitis-elevations in cell concentration, glucose and total protein-were observed in 234 (46. Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0209993PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6331147PMC
September 2019
11 Reads

An mRNA Vaccine Protects Mice against Multiple Tick-Transmitted Flavivirus Infections.

Cell Rep 2018 12;25(12):3382-3392.e3

Department of Medicine, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO 63110, USA; Department of Pathology & Immunology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO 63110, USA; Department of Molecular Microbiology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO 63110, USA; The Andrew M. and Jane M. Bursky Center for Human Immunology and Immunotherapy Programs, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO 63110, USA. Electronic address:

Powassan virus (POWV) is an emerging tick-transmitted flavivirus that circulates in North America and Russia. Up to 5% of deer ticks now test positive for POWV in certain regions of the northern United States. Although POWV infections cause life-threatening encephalitis, there is no vaccine or countermeasure available for prevention or treatment. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S22111247183187
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.celrep.2018.11.082DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6353567PMC
December 2018
31 Reads

Patient characteristics and outcome associations in AMPA receptor encephalitis.

J Neurol 2019 Feb 17;266(2):450-460. Epub 2018 Dec 17.

Department of Neurology, Washington University in St. Louis, Saint Louis, MO, USA.

Antibody-mediated encephalitis defines a class of diseases wherein antibodies directed at cell-surface receptors are associated with behavioral and cognitive disturbances. One such recently described encephalitis is due to antibodies directed at alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptors (AMPAR). This entity is exceptionally rare and its clinical phenotype incompletely described. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00415-018-9153-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6367044PMC
February 2019
34 Reads

Cryo-EM Structures of Eastern Equine Encephalitis Virus Reveal Mechanisms of Virus Disassembly and Antibody Neutralization.

Cell Rep 2018 12;25(11):3136-3147.e5

Department of Biological Sciences, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907, USA. Electronic address:

Alphaviruses are enveloped pathogens that cause arthritis and encephalitis. Here, we report a 4.4-Å cryoelectron microscopy (cryo-EM) structure of eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV), an alphavirus that causes fatal encephalitis in humans. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S22111247183184
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.celrep.2018.11.067DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6302666PMC
December 2018
53 Reads

Reemergence of St. Louis Encephalitis Virus in the Americas.

Emerg Infect Dis 2018 12;24(12)

We summarize and analyze historical and current data regarding the reemergence of St. Louis encephalitis virus (SLEV; genus Flavivirus) in the Americas. Historically, SLEV caused encephalitis outbreaks in the United States; however, it was not considered a public health concern in the rest of the Americas. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2412.180372DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6256408PMC
December 2018
8 Reads

A protective human monoclonal antibody targeting the West Nile virus E protein preferentially recognizes mature virions.

Nat Microbiol 2019 01 19;4(1):71-77. Epub 2018 Nov 19.

Viral Pathogenesis Section, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA.

West Nile virus (WNV), a member of the Flavivirus genus, is a leading cause of viral encephalitis in the United States. The development of neutralizing antibodies against the flavivirus envelope (E) protein is critical for immunity and vaccine protection. Previously identified candidate therapeutic mouse and human neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) target epitopes within the E domain III lateral ridge and the domain I-II hinge region, respectively. Read More

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http://www.nature.com/articles/s41564-018-0283-7
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41564-018-0283-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6435290PMC
January 2019
70 Reads

Protective antibodies against Eastern equine encephalitis virus bind to epitopes in domains A and B of the E2 glycoprotein.

Nat Microbiol 2019 01 19;4(1):187-197. Epub 2018 Nov 19.

Department of Medicine, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO, USA.

Eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV) is a mosquito-transmitted alphavirus with a high case mortality rate in humans. EEEV is a biodefence concern because of its potential for aerosol spread and the lack of existing countermeasures. Here, we identify a panel of 18 neutralizing murine monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against the EEEV E2 glycoprotein, several of which have 'elite' activity with 50 and 99% effective inhibitory concentrations (EC and EC) of less than 10 and 100 ng ml, respectively. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41564-018-0286-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6294662PMC
January 2019
54 Reads

Evaluation of a new West Nile virus nucleic acid test for screening of blood donations.

Transfusion 2019 02 14;59(2):623-628. Epub 2018 Nov 14.

Medical and Scientific Affairs, Roche Molecular Systems, Inc., Pleasanton, California.

Background: West Nile virus (WNV) is transmitted to humans through mosquito bites and can be further transmitted to humans through transfusion or transplantation. Because most infected individuals are asymptomatic, blood donor screening is important in areas where WNV is endemic. These studies evaluated the performance of a new test for detection of WNV RNA in blood donations. Read More

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http://doi.wiley.com/10.1111/trf.15022
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/trf.15022DOI Listing
February 2019
25 Reads
3.230 Impact Factor

First detection of Mansonia titillans (Diptera: Culicidae) infected with St. Louis encephalitis virus (Flaviviridae: Flavivirus) and Bunyamwera serogroup (Peribunyaviridae: Orthobunyavirus) in Argentina.

J Vector Ecol 2018 12;43(2):340-343

Universidad Nacional de Córdoba. Instituto de Virología "Dr. J. M. Vanella", CONICET, Córdoba, Argentina.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jvec.12320DOI Listing
December 2018
3 Reads

Distinct cytokine profiles in human brains resilient to Alzheimer's pathology.

Neurobiol Dis 2019 01 15;121:327-337. Epub 2018 Oct 15.

Massachusetts General Hospital ADRC, Harvard University, 15 Parkman St #835, Boston, MA 02114, United States. Electronic address:

Our group has previously studied the brains of some unique individuals who are able to tolerate robust amounts of Alzheimer's pathological lesions (amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles) without experiencing dementia while alive. These rare resilient cases do not demonstrate the patterns of neuronal/synaptic loss that are normally found in the brains of typical demented Alzheimer's patients. Moreover, they exhibit decreased astrocyte and microglial activation markers GFAP and CD68, suggesting that a suppressed neuroinflammatory response may be implicated in human brain resilience to Alzheimer's pathology. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nbd.2018.10.009DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6437670PMC
January 2019
57 Reads

West Nile Virus and Other Nationally Notifiable Arboviral Diseases - United States, 2017.

MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2018 Oct 19;67(41):1137-1142. Epub 2018 Oct 19.

Arthropodborne viruses (arboviruses) are transmitted to humans primarily through the bites of infected mosquitoes or ticks. West Nile virus (WNV) is the leading cause of domestically acquired arboviral disease in the continental United States (1). Other arboviruses, including Jamestown Canyon, La Crosse, Powassan, St. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.15585/mmwr.mm6741a1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6193690PMC
October 2018
45 Reads

Viral Encephalitis and Neurologic Diseases: Focus on Astrocytes.

Trends Mol Med 2018 11 9;24(11):950-962. Epub 2018 Oct 9.

Department of Medicine, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO 63110, USA; Department of Pathology and Immunology, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO 63110, USA; Department of Neuroscience, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO 63110, USA. Electronic address:

Neurotropic RNA virus infections cause a major neurological disease burden. Due to the morbidity and mortality rates of viral encephalitides worldwide, there is a need to develop clinical treatments. Features of the central nervous system (CNS), including interconnected cell types and limited regeneration, provide unique challenges. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S14714914183017
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.molmed.2018.09.001DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6546292PMC
November 2018
31 Reads

Peli1 facilitates virus replication and promotes neuroinflammation during West Nile virus infection.

J Clin Invest 2018 11 24;128(11):4980-4991. Epub 2018 Sep 24.

Department of Microbiology and Immunology.

The E3 ubiquitin ligase Pellino 1 (Peli1) is a microglia-specific mediator of autoimmune encephalomyelitis. Its role in neurotropic flavivirus infection is largely unknown. Here, we report that mice deficient in Peli1 (Peli1-/-) were more resistant to lethal West Nile virus (WNV) infection and exhibited reduced viral loads in tissues and attenuated brain inflammation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1172/JCI99902DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6205407PMC
November 2018
33 Reads

St. Louis Encephalitis Virus Disease in the United States, 2003-2017.

Am J Trop Med Hyg 2018 10;99(4):1074-1079

Arboviral Diseases Branch, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Fort Collins, Colorado.

St. Louis encephalitis virus (SLEV), an arthropod-borne flavivirus, can cause disease presentations ranging from mild febrile illness through severe encephalitis. We reviewed U. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4269/ajtmh.18-0420DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6159600PMC
October 2018
9 Reads

N-Methyl-d-aspartate Receptor Antibody Encephalitis: A Concise Review of the Disorder, Diagnosis, and Management.

ACS Chem Neurosci 2019 01 31;10(1):132-142. Epub 2018 Aug 31.

Department of Pathology , Keck School of Medicine of the University of Southern California , Los Angeles , California 90033 , United States.

Anti-NMDA ( N-methyl-d-aspartate) receptor (anti-NMDAR) encephalitis is one of the most common paraneoplastic encephalitides. It occurs in both sexes, across all age ranges, and may occur in the presence or absence of an associated tumor. Its pathogenesis and clinical presentation relate to the presence of IgG1 or IgG3 antibodies targeting the NR1 subunit of the NMDA receptor, leading to a disinhibition of neuronal excitatory pathways. Read More

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http://pubs.acs.org/doi/10.1021/acschemneuro.8b00304
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acschemneuro.8b00304DOI Listing
January 2019
67 Reads

Production of recombinant NS1 protein and its possible use in encephalitic flavivirus differential diagnosis.

Protein Expr Purif 2019 01 17;153:18-25. Epub 2018 Aug 17.

Área de Virosis Emergentes y Zoonóticas (AVEZ), Laboratorio de Ingeniería Genética y Biología Celular y Molecular (LIGBCM), Departamento de Ciencia y Tecnología (DCyT), Universidad Nacional de Quilmes (UNQ), Roque Sáenz Peña 352, B1876BXD, Bernal, Buenos Aires, Argentina. Electronic address:

Saint Louis encephalitis virus (SLEV) and West Nile virus (WNV) are two of the major causes of arboviral encephalitis in the Americas. The co-circulation of related flaviviruses in the Americas and prior vaccination against flaviviruses pose problems to the diagnostic specificity of serological assays due to the development of cross-reactive antibodies. An accurate diagnosis method capable of differentiating these related viruses is needed. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pep.2018.08.008DOI Listing
January 2019
7 Reads

North American Culex pipiens and Culex quinquefasciatus are competent vectors for Usutu virus.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2018 08 17;12(8):e0006732. Epub 2018 Aug 17.

Department of Diagnostic Medicine/Pathobiology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Kansas State University, Manhattan, Kansas, United States of America.

Background: Usutu virus (USUV) is a member of the Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) serocomplex in the Flaviviridae family. Emergence of USUV in Europe has led to disease burdens in birds and created increasing concern for the potential zoonotic transmission to humans. Whilst USUV has not been detected in the New World, the identification of competent vector species in North America is critical in the assessment of the likelihood of its dispersal and establishment of enzootic transmission cycles. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0006732DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6114897PMC
August 2018
7 Reads

Autoimmune Dementia.

Semin Neurol 2018 06 16;38(3):303-315. Epub 2018 Jul 16.

Department of Neurology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri.

Dementia refers to an acquired syndrome of intraindividual cognitive decline that ultimately interferes with an individual's ability to manage their usual duties at work or home. As experience with the diagnosis and management of patients with autoimmune and paraneoplastic encephalitis (AE) has expanded, it has become increasingly apparent that dementia may arise as a subacute or chronic complication of immune-mediated injury to the central nervous system. Progressive memory and thinking problems may represent the first (or only) sign of an underlying autoimmune or paraneoplastic disease. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/s-0038-1660480DOI Listing
June 2018
5 Reads

Attenuated Herpes Simplex Virus 1 (HSV-1) Expressing a Mutant Form of ICP6 Stimulates a Strong Immune Response That Protects Mice against HSV-1-Induced Corneal Disease.

J Virol 2018 09 16;92(17). Epub 2018 Aug 16.

Department of Molecular Microbiology and Immunology, Saint Louis University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri, USA

We previously isolated a herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) mutant, KOS-NA, that carries two nonsynonymous mutations in , resulting in L393P and R950H amino acid substitutions in infected cell protein 6 (ICP6). Our published data studying KOS-NA pathogenesis strongly suggest that one of these ICP6 substitutions expressed from KOS-NA, R950H, severely impaired acute viral replication in the eyes and trigeminal ganglia of mice after inoculation onto the cornea and consequently impaired establishment and reactivation from latency. Because of its significant neuroattenuation, we tested KOS-NA as a potential prophylactic vaccine against HSV-1 in a mouse model of corneal infection. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JVI.01036-18DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6096795PMC
September 2018
20 Reads

Long-Term Cognitive Outcomes in Patients with Autoimmune Encephalitis.

Can J Neurol Sci 2018 09 25;45(5):540-544. Epub 2018 Jun 25.

4Division of Neurology,University of Toronto,Toronto Western Hospital,Toronto,Canada.

Background: A need exists to characterise the long-term cognitive outcomes in patients who recovered from autoimmune encephalitis and to identify the modifiable factors associated with improved outcomes.

Methods: We retrospectively analysed data from patients diagnosed with autoimmune encephalitis in our outpatient autoimmune encephalitis clinic over a 5-year period, where the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) is routinely administered.

Results: In total, 21 patients met the inclusion criteria, of whom 52% had persistent cognitive impairment at their latest follow-up (median delay to testing=20 months, range 13-182). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/cjn.2018.33DOI Listing
September 2018
22 Reads