1,235 results match your criteria St. Louis Encephalitis


The US11 gene of Herpes Simplex Virus 1 promotes neuroinvasion and periocular replication following corneal infection.

J Virol 2019 Feb 13. Epub 2019 Feb 13.

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, The Geisel School of Medicine at Dartmouth, Lebanon, NH.

Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) cycles between phases of latency in sensory neurons and replication in mucosal sites. HSV-1 encodes two key proteins that antagonize the shutdown of host translation; US11 through preventing PKR activation, and ICP34.5 through mediating eIF2α dephosphorylation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JVI.02246-18DOI Listing
February 2019
1 Read

Bloodmeal Host Selection of Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae) in Las Vegas, Nevada, United States.

J Med Entomol 2019 Jan 22. Epub 2019 Jan 22.

Arbovirus Diseases Branch, Division of Vector Borne Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Fort Collins, CO.

St. Louis encephalitis virus (SLEV) and West Nile virus (WNV) have recently emerged in the southwestern United States. Surveillance for arboviruses in Las Vegas, NV, detected a surge of SLEV activity in the southern house mosquito (Culex quinquefasciatus Say) during 2016. Read More

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https://academic.oup.com/jme/advance-article/doi/10.1093/jme
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jme/tjy237DOI Listing
January 2019
9 Reads
1.953 Impact Factor

Larvicidal Activity of Synthesized Silver Nanoparticles from Essential Oil against .

Insects 2019 Jan 11;10(1). Epub 2019 Jan 11.

Lymphatic Filariasis and Tropical Medicine Research Unit, Chulalongkorn Medical Research Center, Faculty of Medicine, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330, Thailand.

is the major vector of the bancroftian filarial parasite which causes human lymphatic filariasis and St. Louis encephalitis. The simple way to stop the transmission is to control the vector by using synthetic chemicals. Read More

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http://www.mdpi.com/2075-4450/10/1/27
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/insects10010027DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6359542PMC
January 2019
6 Reads

Molecular characterization of viruses associated with encephalitis in São Paulo, Brazil.

PLoS One 2019 14;14(1):e0209993. Epub 2019 Jan 14.

LIM / 46-Laboratory of Medical Parasitology, Institute of Tropical Medicine-IMT, University of São Paulo Medical School USP, São Paulo, Brazil.

The objective of this study was to characterize the prevalence of viral encephalitis due to arbovirus infection of the Togaviridae and Flaviviridae families in São Paulo, Brazil. A total of 500 cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples collected between August 2012 and January 2013, from patients with symptoms of acute encephalitis were analyzed. Findings suggestive of viral encephalitis-elevations in cell concentration, glucose and total protein-were observed in 234 (46. Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0209993PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6331147PMC
January 2019
1 Read

An mRNA Vaccine Protects Mice against Multiple Tick-Transmitted Flavivirus Infections.

Cell Rep 2018 Dec;25(12):3382-3392.e3

Department of Medicine, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO 63110, USA; Department of Pathology & Immunology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO 63110, USA; Department of Molecular Microbiology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO 63110, USA; The Andrew M. and Jane M. Bursky Center for Human Immunology and Immunotherapy Programs, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO 63110, USA. Electronic address:

Powassan virus (POWV) is an emerging tick-transmitted flavivirus that circulates in North America and Russia. Up to 5% of deer ticks now test positive for POWV in certain regions of the northern United States. Although POWV infections cause life-threatening encephalitis, there is no vaccine or countermeasure available for prevention or treatment. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S22111247183187
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.celrep.2018.11.082DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6353567PMC
December 2018
8 Reads

Patient characteristics and outcome associations in AMPA receptor encephalitis.

J Neurol 2019 Feb 17;266(2):450-460. Epub 2018 Dec 17.

Department of Neurology, Washington University in St. Louis, Saint Louis, MO, USA.

Antibody-mediated encephalitis defines a class of diseases wherein antibodies directed at cell-surface receptors are associated with behavioral and cognitive disturbances. One such recently described encephalitis is due to antibodies directed at alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptors (AMPAR). This entity is exceptionally rare and its clinical phenotype incompletely described. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00415-018-9153-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6367044PMC
February 2019
2 Reads

Cryo-EM Structures of Eastern Equine Encephalitis Virus Reveal Mechanisms of Virus Disassembly and Antibody Neutralization.

Cell Rep 2018 Dec;25(11):3136-3147.e5

Department of Biological Sciences, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907, USA. Electronic address:

Alphaviruses are enveloped pathogens that cause arthritis and encephalitis. Here, we report a 4.4-Å cryoelectron microscopy (cryo-EM) structure of eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV), an alphavirus that causes fatal encephalitis in humans. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S22111247183184
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.celrep.2018.11.067DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6302666PMC
December 2018
20 Reads

Reemergence of St. Louis Encephalitis Virus in the Americas.

Emerg Infect Dis 2018 Dec;24(12)

We summarize and analyze historical and current data regarding the reemergence of St. Louis encephalitis virus (SLEV; genus Flavivirus) in the Americas. Historically, SLEV caused encephalitis outbreaks in the United States; however, it was not considered a public health concern in the rest of the Americas. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2412.180372DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6256408PMC
December 2018
3 Reads

A protective human monoclonal antibody targeting the West Nile virus E protein preferentially recognizes mature virions.

Nat Microbiol 2019 Jan 19;4(1):71-77. Epub 2018 Nov 19.

Viral Pathogenesis Section, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA.

West Nile virus (WNV), a member of the Flavivirus genus, is a leading cause of viral encephalitis in the United States. The development of neutralizing antibodies against the flavivirus envelope (E) protein is critical for immunity and vaccine protection. Previously identified candidate therapeutic mouse and human neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) target epitopes within the E domain III lateral ridge and the domain I-II hinge region, respectively. Read More

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http://www.nature.com/articles/s41564-018-0283-7
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41564-018-0283-7DOI Listing
January 2019
33 Reads

Protective antibodies against Eastern equine encephalitis virus bind to epitopes in domains A and B of the E2 glycoprotein.

Nat Microbiol 2019 Jan 19;4(1):187-197. Epub 2018 Nov 19.

Department of Medicine, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO, USA.

Eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV) is a mosquito-transmitted alphavirus with a high case mortality rate in humans. EEEV is a biodefence concern because of its potential for aerosol spread and the lack of existing countermeasures. Here, we identify a panel of 18 neutralizing murine monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against the EEEV E2 glycoprotein, several of which have 'elite' activity with 50 and 99% effective inhibitory concentrations (EC and EC) of less than 10 and 100 ng ml, respectively. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41564-018-0286-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6294662PMC
January 2019
8 Reads

Evaluation of a new West Nile virus nucleic acid test for screening of blood donations.

Transfusion 2019 Feb 14;59(2):623-628. Epub 2018 Nov 14.

Medical and Scientific Affairs, Roche Molecular Systems, Inc., Pleasanton, California.

Background: West Nile virus (WNV) is transmitted to humans through mosquito bites and can be further transmitted to humans through transfusion or transplantation. Because most infected individuals are asymptomatic, blood donor screening is important in areas where WNV is endemic. These studies evaluated the performance of a new test for detection of WNV RNA in blood donations. Read More

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http://doi.wiley.com/10.1111/trf.15022
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/trf.15022DOI Listing
February 2019
9 Reads
3.230 Impact Factor

First detection of Mansonia titillans (Diptera: Culicidae) infected with St. Louis encephalitis virus (Flaviviridae: Flavivirus) and Bunyamwera serogroup (Peribunyaviridae: Orthobunyavirus) in Argentina.

J Vector Ecol 2018 Dec;43(2):340-343

Universidad Nacional de Córdoba. Instituto de Virología "Dr. J. M. Vanella", CONICET, Córdoba, Argentina.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jvec.12320DOI Listing
December 2018

West Nile Virus and Other Nationally Notifiable Arboviral Diseases - United States, 2017.

MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2018 Oct 19;67(41):1137-1142. Epub 2018 Oct 19.

Arthropodborne viruses (arboviruses) are transmitted to humans primarily through the bites of infected mosquitoes or ticks. West Nile virus (WNV) is the leading cause of domestically acquired arboviral disease in the continental United States (1). Other arboviruses, including Jamestown Canyon, La Crosse, Powassan, St. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.15585/mmwr.mm6741a1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6193690PMC
October 2018
6 Reads

Viral Encephalitis and Neurologic Diseases: Focus on Astrocytes.

Trends Mol Med 2018 Nov 9;24(11):950-962. Epub 2018 Oct 9.

Department of Medicine, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO 63110, USA; Department of Pathology and Immunology, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO 63110, USA; Department of Neuroscience, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO 63110, USA. Electronic address:

Neurotropic RNA virus infections cause a major neurological disease burden. Due to the morbidity and mortality rates of viral encephalitides worldwide, there is a need to develop clinical treatments. Features of the central nervous system (CNS), including interconnected cell types and limited regeneration, provide unique challenges. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S14714914183017
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.molmed.2018.09.001DOI Listing
November 2018
12 Reads

Peli1 facilitates virus replication and promotes neuroinflammation during West Nile virus infection.

J Clin Invest 2018 Nov 24;128(11):4980-4991. Epub 2018 Sep 24.

Department of Microbiology and Immunology.

The E3 ubiquitin ligase Pellino 1 (Peli1) is a microglia-specific mediator of autoimmune encephalomyelitis. Its role in neurotropic flavivirus infection is largely unknown. Here, we report that mice deficient in Peli1 (Peli1-/-) were more resistant to lethal West Nile virus (WNV) infection and exhibited reduced viral loads in tissues and attenuated brain inflammation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1172/JCI99902DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6205407PMC
November 2018
13 Reads

St. Louis Encephalitis Virus Disease in the United States, 2003-2017.

Am J Trop Med Hyg 2018 Oct;99(4):1074-1079

Arboviral Diseases Branch, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Fort Collins, Colorado.

St. Louis encephalitis virus (SLEV), an arthropod-borne flavivirus, can cause disease presentations ranging from mild febrile illness through severe encephalitis. We reviewed U. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4269/ajtmh.18-0420DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6159600PMC
October 2018
2 Reads

N-Methyl-d-aspartate Receptor Antibody Encephalitis: A Concise Review of the Disorder, Diagnosis, and Management.

ACS Chem Neurosci 2018 Aug 31. Epub 2018 Aug 31.

Department of Pathology , Keck School of Medicine of the University of Southern California , Los Angeles , California 90033 , United States.

Anti-NMDA ( N-methyl-d-aspartate) receptor (anti-NMDAR) encephalitis is one of the most common paraneoplastic encephalitides. It occurs in both sexes, across all age ranges, and may occur in the presence or absence of an associated tumor. Its pathogenesis and clinical presentation relate to the presence of IgG1 or IgG3 antibodies targeting the NR1 subunit of the NMDA receptor, leading to a disinhibition of neuronal excitatory pathways. Read More

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http://pubs.acs.org/doi/10.1021/acschemneuro.8b00304
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acschemneuro.8b00304DOI Listing
August 2018
33 Reads

North American Culex pipiens and Culex quinquefasciatus are competent vectors for Usutu virus.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2018 08 17;12(8):e0006732. Epub 2018 Aug 17.

Department of Diagnostic Medicine/Pathobiology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Kansas State University, Manhattan, Kansas, United States of America.

Background: Usutu virus (USUV) is a member of the Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) serocomplex in the Flaviviridae family. Emergence of USUV in Europe has led to disease burdens in birds and created increasing concern for the potential zoonotic transmission to humans. Whilst USUV has not been detected in the New World, the identification of competent vector species in North America is critical in the assessment of the likelihood of its dispersal and establishment of enzootic transmission cycles. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0006732DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6114897PMC
August 2018
3 Reads

Autoimmune Dementia.

Semin Neurol 2018 06 16;38(3):303-315. Epub 2018 Jul 16.

Department of Neurology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri.

Dementia refers to an acquired syndrome of intraindividual cognitive decline that ultimately interferes with an individual's ability to manage their usual duties at work or home. As experience with the diagnosis and management of patients with autoimmune and paraneoplastic encephalitis (AE) has expanded, it has become increasingly apparent that dementia may arise as a subacute or chronic complication of immune-mediated injury to the central nervous system. Progressive memory and thinking problems may represent the first (or only) sign of an underlying autoimmune or paraneoplastic disease. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/s-0038-1660480DOI Listing
June 2018
1 Read

Attenuated Herpes Simplex Virus 1 (HSV-1) Expressing a Mutant Form of ICP6 Stimulates a Strong Immune Response That Protects Mice against HSV-1-Induced Corneal Disease.

J Virol 2018 09 16;92(17). Epub 2018 Aug 16.

Department of Molecular Microbiology and Immunology, Saint Louis University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri, USA

We previously isolated a herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) mutant, KOS-NA, that carries two nonsynonymous mutations in , resulting in L393P and R950H amino acid substitutions in infected cell protein 6 (ICP6). Our published data studying KOS-NA pathogenesis strongly suggest that one of these ICP6 substitutions expressed from KOS-NA, R950H, severely impaired acute viral replication in the eyes and trigeminal ganglia of mice after inoculation onto the cornea and consequently impaired establishment and reactivation from latency. Because of its significant neuroattenuation, we tested KOS-NA as a potential prophylactic vaccine against HSV-1 in a mouse model of corneal infection. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JVI.01036-18DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6096795PMC
September 2018
11 Reads

Long-Term Cognitive Outcomes in Patients with Autoimmune Encephalitis.

Can J Neurol Sci 2018 09 25;45(5):540-544. Epub 2018 Jun 25.

4Division of Neurology,University of Toronto,Toronto Western Hospital,Toronto,Canada.

Background: A need exists to characterise the long-term cognitive outcomes in patients who recovered from autoimmune encephalitis and to identify the modifiable factors associated with improved outcomes.

Methods: We retrospectively analysed data from patients diagnosed with autoimmune encephalitis in our outpatient autoimmune encephalitis clinic over a 5-year period, where the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) is routinely administered.

Results: In total, 21 patients met the inclusion criteria, of whom 52% had persistent cognitive impairment at their latest follow-up (median delay to testing=20 months, range 13-182). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/cjn.2018.33DOI Listing
September 2018
16 Reads

Experimental Infection of Syrian Hamsters With Aerosolized Nipah Virus.

J Infect Dis 2018 Oct;218(10):1602-1610

Department of Pathology, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston.

Background: Nipah virus (NiV) is a paramyxovirus (genus Henipavirus) that can cause severe respiratory illness and encephalitis in humans. Transmission occurs through consumption of NiV-contaminated foods, and contact with NiV-infected animals or human body fluids. However, it is unclear whether aerosols derived from aforesaid sources or others also contribute to transmission, and current knowledge on NiV-induced pathogenicity after small-particle aerosol exposure is still limited. Read More

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https://academic.oup.com/jid/article/218/10/1602/5038367
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/infdis/jiy357DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6173575PMC
October 2018
7 Reads

Ilheus and Saint Louis encephalitis viruses elicit cross-protection against a lethal Rocio virus challenge in mice.

PLoS One 2018 13;13(6):e0199071. Epub 2018 Jun 13.

Laboratory of Virology, Department of Clinical Analyses, Toxicology and Food Sciences, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences of Ribeirao Preto, University of Sao Paulo, Ribeirao Preto, Sao Paulo, Brazil.

Rocio virus (ROCV) was the causative agent of an unprecedented outbreak of encephalitis during the 1970s in the Vale do Ribeira, Sao Paulo State, in the Southeast region of Brazil. Surprisingly, no further cases of ROCV infection were identified after this outbreak; however, serological surveys have suggested the circulation of ROCV among humans and animals in different regions of Brazil. Cross-protective immunity among flaviviruses is well documented; consequently, immunity induced by infections with other flaviviruses endemic to Brazil could potentially be responsible for the lack of ROCV infections. Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0199071PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5999289PMC
January 2019
5 Reads

Comparative studies of stenogamous behaviour in the mosquito Culex pipiens complex.

Authors:
S Kim S Trocke C Sim

Med Vet Entomol 2018 12 1;32(4):427-435. Epub 2018 Jun 1.

Department of Biology, Baylor University, Waco, TX, U.S.A.

Understanding the processes of reproductive behaviour in mosquitoes is crucial for improving mating competitiveness and mating specificity for sterile insect release programmes. The Culex pipiens (Linneaus) (Diptera: Culicidae) forms pipiens and molestus (Forskål), two biotypes of the Cx. pipiens complex, are vectors for West Nile virus, St Louis encephalitis virus and lymphatic filariases. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/mve.12309DOI Listing
December 2018
1 Read

Evaluation of Argentinean Bird Species as Amplifying Hosts for St. Louis Encephalitis Virus (Flavivirus, Flaviviridae).

Am J Trop Med Hyg 2018 Jul 10;99(1):216-221. Epub 2018 May 10.

Laboratorio de Arbovirus, Instituto de Virología "Dr. J. M. Vanella," Facultad de Ciencias Médicas, Universidad Nacional de Córdoba, Córdoba, Argentina.

St.Louis encephalitis virus (SLEV) is an emerging human pathogen flavivirus in Argentina. Recently, it has reemerged in the United States. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4269/ajtmh.17-0856DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6085794PMC
July 2018
3 Reads

Human and Equine Infection with Alphaviruses and Flaviviruses in Panamá during 2010: A Cross-Sectional Study of Household Contacts during an Encephalitis Outbreak.

Am J Trop Med Hyg 2018 Jun 3;98(6):1798-1804. Epub 2018 May 3.

Departments of Microbiology & Immunology and Pathology, Institute for Human Infections and Immunity, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, Texas.

Members of the genera (family ) and (family ) are important zoonotic human and equine etiologic agents of neurologic diseases in the New World. In 2010, an outbreak of Madariaga virus (MADV; formerly eastern equine encephalitis virus) and Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) infections was reported in eastern Panamá. We further characterized the epidemiology of the outbreak by studying household contacts of confirmed human cases and of equine cases with neurological disease signs. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4269/ajtmh.17-0679DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6086197PMC
June 2018
8 Reads
2.700 Impact Factor

Scented Sugar Baits Enhance Detection of St. Louis Encephalitis and West Nile Viruses in Mosquitoes in Suburban California.

J Med Entomol 2018 Aug;55(5):1307-1318

Department of Pathology, Microbiology and Immunology, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis, One Shields Avenue, Davis, CA.

Scented sugar baits deployed in California deserts detected early West Nile virus (WNV) transmission by mosquitoes, representing a potential improvement to conventional arbovirus surveillance that relies heavily on infection rates in mosquito pools. In this study, we expanded deployment of scented sugar baits into suburban Sacramento and Yolo (2015, 2016) and Riverside Counties (2016), California. The goal of the study was to determine whether scented sugar baits detect WNV and St. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jme/tjy064DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6113650PMC
August 2018
18 Reads

DNA barcoding of five Japanese encephalitis mosquito vectors (Culex fuscocephala, Culex gelidus, Culex tritaeniorhynchus, Culex pseudovishnui and Culex vishnui).

Acta Trop 2018 Jul 4;183:84-91. Epub 2018 Apr 4.

Department of Agriculture, Food and Environment, University of Pisa, via del Borghetto 80, 56124 Pisa, Italy; The BioRobotics Institute, Sant'Anna School of Advanced Studies, viale Rinaldo Piaggio 34, 56025 Pontedera, Pisa, Italy. Electronic address:

Culex mosquitoes can act as vectors of several important diseases, including Japanese encephalitis, West Nile virus, St. Louis encephalitis and equine encephalitis. Besides the neurological sequelae caused in humans, Japanese encephalitis can lead to abortion in sows and encephalitis in horses. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.actatropica.2018.04.006DOI Listing
July 2018
11 Reads

Description and phylogeny of the mitochondrial genome of Sabethes chloropterus, Sabethes glaucodaemon and Sabethes belisarioi (Diptera: Culicidae).

Genomics 2018 Mar 24. Epub 2018 Mar 24.

Nucleus of Tropical Medicine, Federal University of Pará, Generalíssimo Deodoro Av., District Umarizal, Belém, PA 66.055-240, Brazil. Electronic address:

Mosquitoes as Sabethes chloropterus, Sabethes glaucodaemon, Sabethes belisarioi are species of medical and epidemiological importance for arboviruses transmission such as yellow fever and St. Louis encephalitis. Despite this, no information about these three species mitochondrial DNA has been found in literature. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ygeno.2018.03.016DOI Listing
March 2018
2 Reads

Serological evidence of widespread exposure of Grenada fruit bats to chikungunya virus.

Zoonoses Public Health 2018 08 25;65(5):505-511. Epub 2018 Mar 25.

Pathobiology, School of Veterinary Medicine, St. George's University, St. George, Grenada.

Antibody detection against selected potentially zoonotic vector-borne alphaviruses and flaviviruses was conducted on sera from bats from all six parishes in Grenada, West Indies. Sera were tested for (i) antibodies to flaviviruses West Nile virus, St. Louis encephalitis virus, Ilhéus virus, Bussuquara virus (BSQV), Rio Bravo virus and all four serotypes of dengue virus (DENV) by plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT); (ii) antibodies to alphaviruses western equine encephalitis virus, Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus and eastern equine encephalitis virus by epitope-blocking enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA); and (iii) antibodies to the alphavirus chikungunya (CHIKV) by PRNT. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/zph.12460DOI Listing
August 2018
6 Reads

Development of an improved RT-qPCR Assay for detection of Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) RNA including a systematic review and comprehensive comparison with published methods.

PLoS One 2018 23;13(3):e0194412. Epub 2018 Mar 23.

Lao-Oxford-Mahosot Hospital-Wellcome Trust Research Unit (LOMWRU), Microbiology Laboratory, Mahosot Hospital, Vientiane, Lao P.D.R.

Background: Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) is a major cause of encephalitis in Asia, and the commonest cause of mosquito-borne encephalitis worldwide. Detection of JEV RNA remains challenging due to the characteristic brief and low viraemia, with 0-25% of patients positive, and the mainstay of diagnosis remains detection of anti-JEV IgM antibody.

Methods: We performed a systematic review of published RT-PCR protocols, and evaluated them in silico and in vitro alongside new primers and probes designed using a multiple genome alignment of all JEV strains >9,000nt from GenBank, downloaded from the NCBI website (November 2016). Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0194412PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5865736PMC
July 2018
23 Reads

Viruses have multiple paths to central nervous system pathology.

Curr Opin Neurol 2018 06;31(3):313-317

Department of Medicine.

Purpose Of Review: Although viral infections of the central nervous system (CNS) are known to acutely cause pathology in the form of cytokine-mediated neural tissue damage and inflammation, the pathophysiology of neurologic sequelae after viral clearance is incompletely understood.

Recent Findings: Alterations in microglial and glial biology in response to initial infiltration of immune cells that persist within the CNS have recently been shown to promote neuronal dysfunction and cognitive deficits in animal models of viral encephalitis.

Summary: The current review summarizes the current knowledge on the possible role of innate immune signaling during acute infections as triggers of neurologic sequelae that persist, and may even worsen, after clearance of viral infections within the CNS. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/WCO.0000000000000556DOI Listing

False-Positive Monospot in a Returning Traveler with Dengue Fever.

Mil Med 2018 03;183(3-4):e235-e236

Internal Medicine Department, Naval Medical Center, 620 John Paul Jones Circle, Portsmouth, VA 23708.

The heterophile antibody (Monospot), initial test of choice for Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-associated infectious mononucleosis, is both sensitive (70-92%) and specific (96-100%). False positives have been demonstrated in cases of viral hepatitis, human immunodeficiency virus, leukemia, lymphoma, pancreatic cancer, systemic lupus erythematosus, and rubella. We present a case of a 46-yr-old male who developed fever, chills, headaches, myalgia, fatigue, and photophobia 1 d after returning from the Philippines. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/milmed/usx046DOI Listing
March 2018
5 Reads

Autoimmune Encephalitis With Multiple Autoantibodies: A Diagnostic and Therapeutic Challenge.

Neurologist 2018 Mar;23(2):55-59

Departments of Neurology.

Introduction: Indications for autoantibody testing in patients with rapid-onset cognitive impairment have expanded in step with the growing number of disease-associated autoantibodies and clinical syndromes. Although increased access to autoantibody testing has broadened our understanding of the spectrum of autoimmune encephalitis (AE), it has also produced new challenges associated with deciphering the contributions of disease-associated autoantibodies in patients with atypical clinical features and/or multiple autoantibodies. These challenges are illustrated through presentation of a patient with AE associated with autoantibodies against intracellular and cell-surface neuronal antigens. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/NRL.0000000000000171DOI Listing
March 2018
16 Reads

Mouse and Human Monoclonal Antibodies Protect against Infection by Multiple Genotypes of Japanese Encephalitis Virus.

MBio 2018 02 27;9(1). Epub 2018 Feb 27.

Department of Pathology and Immunology, Washington University School of Medicine, Saint Louis, Missouri, USA

Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) remains a leading cause of viral encephalitis worldwide. Although JEV-specific antibodies have been described, an assessment of their ability to neutralize multiple genotypes of JEV has been limited. Here, we describe the development of a panel of mouse and human neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) that inhibit infection in cell culture of four different JEV genotypes tested. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/mBio.00008-18DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5829823PMC
February 2018
8 Reads

Environmental stochasticity and intraspecific competition influence the population dynamics of Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae).

Parasit Vectors 2018 02 27;11(1):114. Epub 2018 Feb 27.

Department of Environmental Sciences, Emory University, Atlanta, GA, 30322, USA.

Background: Members of the Culex pipiens complex (Cx. pipiens quinquefasciatus in Southern USA) play a critical role in the spillover of urban arboviruses such as West Nile virus or St. Louis encephalitis virus. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13071-018-2711-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5828118PMC
February 2018
10 Reads

Positive Allosteric Modulation as a Potential Therapeutic Strategy in Anti-NMDA Receptor Encephalitis.

J Neurosci 2018 Mar 23;38(13):3218-3229. Epub 2018 Feb 23.

Departments of Psychiatry,

-methyl-d-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) are ionotropic glutamate receptors important for synaptic plasticity, memory, and neuropsychiatric health. NMDAR hypofunction contributes to multiple disorders, including anti-NMDAR encephalitis (NMDARE), an autoimmune disease of the CNS associated with GluN1 antibody-mediated NMDAR internalization. Here we characterize the functional/pharmacological consequences of exposure to CSF from female human NMDARE patients on NMDAR function, and we characterize the effects of intervention with recently described positive allosteric modulators (PAMs) of NMDARs. Read More

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http://www.jneurosci.org/lookup/doi/10.1523/JNEUROSCI.3377-1
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1523/JNEUROSCI.3377-17.2018DOI Listing
March 2018
12 Reads

West Nile and St. Louis encephalitis viral genetic determinants of avian host competence.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2018 02 15;12(2):e0006302. Epub 2018 Feb 15.

Division of Vector-Borne Diseases, Arboviral Disease Branch, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Fort Collins, Colorado, United States of America.

West Nile virus (WNV) and St. Louis encephalitis (SLEV) virus are enzootically maintained in North America in cycles involving the same mosquito vectors and similar avian hosts. However, these viruses exhibit dissimilar viremia and virulence phenotypes in birds: WNV is associated with high magnitude viremias that can result in mortality in certain species such as American crows (AMCRs, Corvus brachyrhynchos) whereas SLEV infection yields lower viremias that have not been associated with avian mortality. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0006302DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5831645PMC
February 2018
5 Reads

Structural Study of the C-Terminal Domain of Nonstructural Protein 1 from Japanese Encephalitis Virus.

J Virol 2018 04 14;92(7). Epub 2018 Mar 14.

Molecular Biophysics Group, Institute of Integrative Biology, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, United Kingdom

Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) is a mosquito-transmitted flavivirus that is closely related to other emerging viral pathogens, including dengue virus (DENV), West Nile virus (WNV), and Zika virus (ZIKV). JEV infection can result in meningitis and encephalitis, which in severe cases cause permanent brain damage and death. JEV occurs predominantly in rural areas throughout Southeast Asia, the Pacific Islands, and the Far East, causing around 68,000 cases of infection worldwide each year. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JVI.01868-17DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5972899PMC
April 2018
25 Reads

West Nile Virus and Other Nationally Notifiable Arboviral Diseases - United States, 2016.

MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2018 Jan 12;67(1):13-17. Epub 2018 Jan 12.

Arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) are transmitted to humans primarily through the bites of infected mosquitoes and ticks. West Nile virus (WNV) is the leading cause of domestically acquired arboviral disease in the continental United States (1,2). Other arboviruses, including La Crosse, Powassan, Jamestown Canyon, St. Read More

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http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/volumes/67/wr/mm6701a3.htm?s_cid=mm6
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http://dx.doi.org/10.15585/mmwr.mm6701a3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5769797PMC
January 2018
11 Reads

Pitfalls Associated With the Use of Molecular Diagnostic Panels in the Diagnosis of Cryptococcal Meningitis.

Open Forum Infect Dis 2017 3;4(4):ofx242. Epub 2017 Nov 3.

Division of Infectious Diseases, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri, USA.

We report the case of a kidney transplantation patient on chronic immunosuppressive therapy presenting with subacute meningitis. The final diagnosis of cryptococcal meningitis was delayed due to 2 false-negative cryptococcal results on a molecular diagnostic panel. Caution with such platforms in suspected cryptococcal meningitis is needed. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ofid/ofx242DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5726458PMC
November 2017
1 Read

Chemokine and cytokine levels in the lumbar cerebrospinal fluid of preterm infants with post-hemorrhagic hydrocephalus.

Fluids Barriers CNS 2017 Dec 12;14(1):35. Epub 2017 Dec 12.

Department of Neurological Surgery and Pediatrics, Washington University in St. Louis School of Medicine, One Children's Way, 4S20, St. Louis, MO, 63110, USA.

Background: Neuroinflammation has been implicated in the pathophysiology of post-hemorrhagic hydrocephalus (PHH) of prematurity, but no comprehensive analysis of signaling molecules has been performed using human cerebrospinal fluid (CSF).

Methods: Lumbar CSF levels of key cytokines (IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12, TNF-α, TGF-β1, IFN-γ) and chemokines (XCL-1, CCL-2, CCL-3, CCL-19, CXCL-10, CXCL-11, CXCL-12) were measured using conventional and multiplexed Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assays and compared between preterm infants with PHH and those with no known neurological injury. The relationships between individual biomarker levels and specific CSF cell counts were examined. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12987-017-0083-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5725948PMC
December 2017
12 Reads

Pediatric Anti--Methyl-d-Aspartate Receptor Encephalitis: A Review with Pooled Analysis and Critical Care Emphasis.

Front Pediatr 2017 24;5:250. Epub 2017 Nov 24.

Division of Pediatric Critical Care Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, United States.

Purpose: Anti--methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) encephalitis is being recognized with increasing frequency among children. Given the paucity of evidence to guide the critical care management of these complex patients, we provide a comprehensive review of the literature with pooled analysis of published case reports and case series.

Methods: We performed a comprehensive literature search using PubMed, Scopus, EMBASE, and Web of Science for relevant published studies. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fped.2017.00250DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5705558PMC
November 2017
36 Reads

The jungle book of neuropsychology: Disentangling the influence of feral childhood from adult brain injury in order to provide effective rehabilitation.

Neuropsychol Rehabil 2018 Mar 7;28(2):293-308. Epub 2017 Dec 7.

b NHS Leeds Community Neurological Rehabilitation Team , Leeds , UK.

Background And Aims: This article considers the complexities of neuropsychological assessment and rehabilitation in brain injury when the client is illiterate, is from a foreign culture with English as a second language, and reports highly atypical childhood feral experiences prior to injury.

Method: MC was a 63-year-old woman referred for neuropsychological rehabilitation with a diagnosis of suspected St Louis encephalitis and global cognitive impairment. In formulating her clinical presentation, consideration was given to a reported history of feral childhood living with monkeys in the Colombian jungle and subsequent physical and emotional abuse. Read More

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https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/09602011.2017.1
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09602011.2017.1408472DOI Listing
March 2018
4 Reads

Heterogeneous distribution of Culex pipiens, Culex quinquefasciatus and their hybrids along the urbanisation gradient.

Acta Trop 2018 Feb 2;178:229-235. Epub 2017 Dec 2.

Universidad Nacional de San Martín, Laboratorio de Ecología de Enfermedades Transmitidas por Vectores (2eTV), 3iA, General San Martín, Buenos Aires, Argentina; Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas, Buenos Aires, Argentina.

The mosquitoes of the Culex pipiens complex, hereafter referred to as the Pipiens Assemblage, are vectors of arbovirus of worldwide concern including West Nile and St. Louis encephalitis. Given their distinct eco-physiology and vectorial capacity, accurate specimen identification and insight in the environmental drivers of their distribution are essential for the understanding of disease transmission patterns. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.actatropica.2017.11.017DOI Listing
February 2018
5 Reads

[Laboratory susceptibility tests of Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus larvae to the entomopathogenic nematode Heterorhabditis bacteriophora].

Biomedica 2017 Mar 29;37(0):67-76. Epub 2017 Mar 29.

Cátedra de Parasitología, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Físicas y Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Córdoba, Córdoba, Argentina.

Introduction: Aedes aegypti is the vector of dengue, yellow fever, Zika and Chikungunya viruses, and Culex quinquefasciatus is the vector of St. Louis and West Nile encephalitis viruses.

Objective: To evaluate infectivity of Heterorhabditis bacteriophora N4 in C. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.7705/biomedica.v37i0.3470DOI Listing
March 2017
1 Read

Chemical composition and insecticidal activity of the essential oil from Helichrysum faradifani endemic to Madagascar.

Nat Prod Res 2018 Jul 3;32(14):1690-1698. Epub 2017 Nov 3.

f School of Pharmacy , University of Camerino , Camerino , Italy.

Helichrysum faradifani (Asteraceae) is a perennial shrub growing in rocky and sandy places of Madagascar. The plant is used in the Malagasy traditional medicine as a wound-healing agent, disinfectant and for the treatment of syphilis, diarrhea, cough and headache. In the present work, we analysed the chemical composition of the essential oil distilled from the aerial parts of H. Read More

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https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/14786419.2017.1
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14786419.2017.1396590DOI Listing
July 2018
14 Reads

From the Cover: Lung-Specific Overexpression of Constitutively Active IKK2 Induces Pulmonary and Systemic Inflammations but Not Hypothalamic Inflammation and Glucose Intolerance.

Toxicol Sci 2017 Nov;160(1):4-14

Cardiology Division, Department of Medicine, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21201.

The lung is constantly exposed to ambient pollutants such as ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5), making it one of the most frequent locations of inflammation in the body. Given the establishment of crucial role of inflammation in the pathogenesis of cardiometabolic diseases, pulmonary inflammation is thus widely believed to be an important risk factor for cardiometabolic diseases. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/toxsci/kfx154DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5837620PMC
November 2017
13 Reads