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    1211 results match your criteria St. Louis Encephalitis

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    Ilheus and Saint Louis encephalitis viruses elicit cross-protection against a lethal Rocio virus challenge in mice.
    PLoS One 2018 13;13(6):e0199071. Epub 2018 Jun 13.
    Laboratory of Virology, Department of Clinical Analyses, Toxicology and Food Sciences, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences of Ribeirao Preto, University of Sao Paulo, Ribeirao Preto, Sao Paulo, Brazil.
    Rocio virus (ROCV) was the causative agent of an unprecedented outbreak of encephalitis during the 1970s in the Vale do Ribeira, Sao Paulo State, in the Southeast region of Brazil. Surprisingly, no further cases of ROCV infection were identified after this outbreak; however, serological surveys have suggested the circulation of ROCV among humans and animals in different regions of Brazil. Cross-protective immunity among flaviviruses is well documented; consequently, immunity induced by infections with other flaviviruses endemic to Brazil could potentially be responsible for the lack of ROCV infections. Read More

    Comparative studies of stenogamous behaviour in the mosquito Culex pipiens complex.
    Med Vet Entomol 2018 Jun 1. Epub 2018 Jun 1.
    Department of Biology, Baylor University, Waco, TX, U.S.A.
    Understanding the processes of reproductive behaviour in mosquitoes is crucial for improving mating competitiveness and mating specificity for sterile insect release programmes. The Culex pipiens (Linneaus) (Diptera: Culicidae) forms pipiens and molestus (Forskål), two biotypes of the Cx. pipiens complex, are vectors for West Nile virus, St Louis encephalitis virus and lymphatic filariases. Read More

    Evaluation of Argentinean Bird Species as Amplifying Hosts for St. Louis Encephalitis Virus (Flavivirus, Flaviviridae).
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 2018 May 14. Epub 2018 May 14.
    Laboratorio de Arbovirus, Instituto de Virología "Dr. J. M. Vanella," Facultad de Ciencias Médicas, Universidad Nacional de Córdoba, Córdoba, Argentina.
    St.Louis encephalitis virus (SLEV) is an emerging human pathogen flavivirus in Argentina. Recently, it has reemerged in the United States. Read More

    Human and Equine Infection with Alphaviruses and Flaviviruses in Panamá during 2010: A Cross-Sectional Study of Household Contacts during an Encephalitis Outbreak.
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 2018 Jun 3;98(6):1798-1804. Epub 2018 May 3.
    Departments of Microbiology & Immunology and Pathology, Institute for Human Infections and Immunity, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, Texas.
    Members of the genera (family ) and (family ) are important zoonotic human and equine etiologic agents of neurologic diseases in the New World. In 2010, an outbreak of Madariaga virus (MADV; formerly eastern equine encephalitis virus) and Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) infections was reported in eastern Panamá. We further characterized the epidemiology of the outbreak by studying household contacts of confirmed human cases and of equine cases with neurological disease signs. Read More

    Scented Sugar Baits Enhance Detection of St. Louis Encephalitis and West Nile Viruses in Mosquitoes in Suburban California.
    J Med Entomol 2018 Apr 27. Epub 2018 Apr 27.
    Department of Pathology, Microbiology and Immunology, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis, One Shields Avenue, Davis, CA.
    Scented sugar baits deployed in California deserts detected early West Nile virus (WNV) transmission by mosquitoes, representing a potential improvement to conventional arbovirus surveillance that relies heavily on infection rates in mosquito pools. In this study, we expanded deployment of scented sugar baits into suburban Sacramento and Yolo (2015, 2016) and Riverside Counties (2016), California. The goal of the study was to determine whether scented sugar baits detect WNV and St. Read More

    DNA barcoding of five Japanese encephalitis mosquito vectors (Culex fuscocephala, Culex gelidus, Culex tritaeniorhynchus, Culex pseudovishnui and Culex vishnui).
    Acta Trop 2018 Jul 4;183:84-91. Epub 2018 Apr 4.
    Department of Agriculture, Food and Environment, University of Pisa, via del Borghetto 80, 56124 Pisa, Italy; The BioRobotics Institute, Sant'Anna School of Advanced Studies, viale Rinaldo Piaggio 34, 56025 Pontedera, Pisa, Italy. Electronic address:
    Culex mosquitoes can act as vectors of several important diseases, including Japanese encephalitis, West Nile virus, St. Louis encephalitis and equine encephalitis. Besides the neurological sequelae caused in humans, Japanese encephalitis can lead to abortion in sows and encephalitis in horses. Read More

    Description and phylogeny of the mitochondrial genome of Sabethes chloropterus, Sabethes glaucodaemon and Sabethes belisarioi (Diptera: Culicidae).
    Genomics 2018 Mar 24. Epub 2018 Mar 24.
    Nucleus of Tropical Medicine, Federal University of Pará, Generalíssimo Deodoro Av., District Umarizal, Belém, PA 66.055-240, Brazil. Electronic address:
    Mosquitoes as Sabethes chloropterus, Sabethes glaucodaemon, Sabethes belisarioi are species of medical and epidemiological importance for arboviruses transmission such as yellow fever and St. Louis encephalitis. Despite this, no information about these three species mitochondrial DNA has been found in literature. Read More

    Serological evidence of widespread exposure of Grenada fruit bats to chikungunya virus.
    Zoonoses Public Health 2018 Mar 25. Epub 2018 Mar 25.
    Pathobiology, School of Veterinary Medicine, St. George's University, St. George, Grenada.
    Antibody detection against selected potentially zoonotic vector-borne alphaviruses and flaviviruses was conducted on sera from bats from all six parishes in Grenada, West Indies. Sera were tested for (i) antibodies to flaviviruses West Nile virus, St. Louis encephalitis virus, Ilhéus virus, Bussuquara virus (BSQV), Rio Bravo virus and all four serotypes of dengue virus (DENV) by plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT); (ii) antibodies to alphaviruses western equine encephalitis virus, Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus and eastern equine encephalitis virus by epitope-blocking enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA); and (iii) antibodies to the alphavirus chikungunya (CHIKV) by PRNT. Read More

    Development of an improved RT-qPCR Assay for detection of Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) RNA including a systematic review and comprehensive comparison with published methods.
    PLoS One 2018 23;13(3):e0194412. Epub 2018 Mar 23.
    Lao-Oxford-Mahosot Hospital-Wellcome Trust Research Unit (LOMWRU), Microbiology Laboratory, Mahosot Hospital, Vientiane, Lao P.D.R.
    Background: Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) is a major cause of encephalitis in Asia, and the commonest cause of mosquito-borne encephalitis worldwide. Detection of JEV RNA remains challenging due to the characteristic brief and low viraemia, with 0-25% of patients positive, and the mainstay of diagnosis remains detection of anti-JEV IgM antibody.

    Methods: We performed a systematic review of published RT-PCR protocols, and evaluated them in silico and in vitro alongside new primers and probes designed using a multiple genome alignment of all JEV strains >9,000nt from GenBank, downloaded from the NCBI website (November 2016). Read More

    Viruses have multiple paths to central nervous system pathology.
    Curr Opin Neurol 2018 Jun;31(3):313-317
    Department of Medicine.
    Purpose Of Review: Although viral infections of the central nervous system (CNS) are known to acutely cause pathology in the form of cytokine-mediated neural tissue damage and inflammation, the pathophysiology of neurologic sequelae after viral clearance is incompletely understood.

    Recent Findings: Alterations in microglial and glial biology in response to initial infiltration of immune cells that persist within the CNS have recently been shown to promote neuronal dysfunction and cognitive deficits in animal models of viral encephalitis.

    Summary: The current review summarizes the current knowledge on the possible role of innate immune signaling during acute infections as triggers of neurologic sequelae that persist, and may even worsen, after clearance of viral infections within the CNS. Read More

    False-Positive Monospot in a Returning Traveler with Dengue Fever.
    Mil Med 2018 Mar;183(3-4):e235-e236
    Internal Medicine Department, Naval Medical Center, 620 John Paul Jones Circle, Portsmouth, VA 23708.
    The heterophile antibody (Monospot), initial test of choice for Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-associated infectious mononucleosis, is both sensitive (70-92%) and specific (96-100%). False positives have been demonstrated in cases of viral hepatitis, human immunodeficiency virus, leukemia, lymphoma, pancreatic cancer, systemic lupus erythematosus, and rubella. We present a case of a 46-yr-old male who developed fever, chills, headaches, myalgia, fatigue, and photophobia 1 d after returning from the Philippines. Read More

    Autoimmune Encephalitis With Multiple Autoantibodies: A Diagnostic and Therapeutic Challenge.
    Neurologist 2018 Mar;23(2):55-59
    Departments of Neurology.
    Introduction: Indications for autoantibody testing in patients with rapid-onset cognitive impairment have expanded in step with the growing number of disease-associated autoantibodies and clinical syndromes. Although increased access to autoantibody testing has broadened our understanding of the spectrum of autoimmune encephalitis (AE), it has also produced new challenges associated with deciphering the contributions of disease-associated autoantibodies in patients with atypical clinical features and/or multiple autoantibodies. These challenges are illustrated through presentation of a patient with AE associated with autoantibodies against intracellular and cell-surface neuronal antigens. Read More

    Mouse and Human Monoclonal Antibodies Protect against Infection by Multiple Genotypes of Japanese Encephalitis Virus.
    MBio 2018 Feb 27;9(1). Epub 2018 Feb 27.
    Department of Pathology and Immunology, Washington University School of Medicine, Saint Louis, Missouri, USA
    Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) remains a leading cause of viral encephalitis worldwide. Although JEV-specific antibodies have been described, an assessment of their ability to neutralize multiple genotypes of JEV has been limited. Here, we describe the development of a panel of mouse and human neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) that inhibit infection in cell culture of four different JEV genotypes tested. Read More

    Environmental stochasticity and intraspecific competition influence the population dynamics of Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae).
    Parasit Vectors 2018 02 27;11(1):114. Epub 2018 Feb 27.
    Department of Environmental Sciences, Emory University, Atlanta, GA, 30322, USA.
    Background: Members of the Culex pipiens complex (Cx. pipiens quinquefasciatus in Southern USA) play a critical role in the spillover of urban arboviruses such as West Nile virus or St. Louis encephalitis virus. Read More

    Positive Allosteric Modulation as a Potential Therapeutic Strategy in Anti-NMDA Receptor Encephalitis.
    J Neurosci 2018 Mar 23;38(13):3218-3229. Epub 2018 Feb 23.
    Departments of Psychiatry,
    -methyl-d-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) are ionotropic glutamate receptors important for synaptic plasticity, memory, and neuropsychiatric health. NMDAR hypofunction contributes to multiple disorders, including anti-NMDAR encephalitis (NMDARE), an autoimmune disease of the CNS associated with GluN1 antibody-mediated NMDAR internalization. Here we characterize the functional/pharmacological consequences of exposure to CSF from female human NMDARE patients on NMDAR function, and we characterize the effects of intervention with recently described positive allosteric modulators (PAMs) of NMDARs. Read More

    West Nile and St. Louis encephalitis viral genetic determinants of avian host competence.
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2018 02 15;12(2):e0006302. Epub 2018 Feb 15.
    Division of Vector-Borne Diseases, Arboviral Disease Branch, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Fort Collins, Colorado, United States of America.
    West Nile virus (WNV) and St. Louis encephalitis (SLEV) virus are enzootically maintained in North America in cycles involving the same mosquito vectors and similar avian hosts. However, these viruses exhibit dissimilar viremia and virulence phenotypes in birds: WNV is associated with high magnitude viremias that can result in mortality in certain species such as American crows (AMCRs, Corvus brachyrhynchos) whereas SLEV infection yields lower viremias that have not been associated with avian mortality. Read More

    Structural Study of the C-Terminal Domain of Nonstructural Protein 1 from Japanese Encephalitis Virus.
    J Virol 2018 04 14;92(7). Epub 2018 Mar 14.
    Molecular Biophysics Group, Institute of Integrative Biology, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, United Kingdom
    Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) is a mosquito-transmitted flavivirus that is closely related to other emerging viral pathogens, including dengue virus (DENV), West Nile virus (WNV), and Zika virus (ZIKV). JEV infection can result in meningitis and encephalitis, which in severe cases cause permanent brain damage and death. JEV occurs predominantly in rural areas throughout Southeast Asia, the Pacific Islands, and the Far East, causing around 68,000 cases of infection worldwide each year. Read More

    West Nile Virus and Other Nationally Notifiable Arboviral Diseases - United States, 2016.
    MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2018 Jan 12;67(1):13-17. Epub 2018 Jan 12.
    Arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) are transmitted to humans primarily through the bites of infected mosquitoes and ticks. West Nile virus (WNV) is the leading cause of domestically acquired arboviral disease in the continental United States (1,2). Other arboviruses, including La Crosse, Powassan, Jamestown Canyon, St. Read More

    Pitfalls Associated With the Use of Molecular Diagnostic Panels in the Diagnosis of Cryptococcal Meningitis.
    Open Forum Infect Dis 2017 3;4(4):ofx242. Epub 2017 Nov 3.
    Division of Infectious Diseases, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri, USA.
    We report the case of a kidney transplantation patient on chronic immunosuppressive therapy presenting with subacute meningitis. The final diagnosis of cryptococcal meningitis was delayed due to 2 false-negative cryptococcal results on a molecular diagnostic panel. Caution with such platforms in suspected cryptococcal meningitis is needed. Read More

    Pediatric Anti--Methyl-d-Aspartate Receptor Encephalitis: A Review with Pooled Analysis and Critical Care Emphasis.
    Front Pediatr 2017 24;5:250. Epub 2017 Nov 24.
    Division of Pediatric Critical Care Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, United States.
    Purpose: Anti--methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) encephalitis is being recognized with increasing frequency among children. Given the paucity of evidence to guide the critical care management of these complex patients, we provide a comprehensive review of the literature with pooled analysis of published case reports and case series.

    Methods: We performed a comprehensive literature search using PubMed, Scopus, EMBASE, and Web of Science for relevant published studies. Read More

    The jungle book of neuropsychology: Disentangling the influence of feral childhood from adult brain injury in order to provide effective rehabilitation.
    Neuropsychol Rehabil 2018 Mar 7;28(2):293-308. Epub 2017 Dec 7.
    b NHS Leeds Community Neurological Rehabilitation Team , Leeds , UK.
    Background And Aims: This article considers the complexities of neuropsychological assessment and rehabilitation in brain injury when the client is illiterate, is from a foreign culture with English as a second language, and reports highly atypical childhood feral experiences prior to injury.

    Method: MC was a 63-year-old woman referred for neuropsychological rehabilitation with a diagnosis of suspected St Louis encephalitis and global cognitive impairment. In formulating her clinical presentation, consideration was given to a reported history of feral childhood living with monkeys in the Colombian jungle and subsequent physical and emotional abuse. Read More

    Heterogeneous distribution of Culex pipiens, Culex quinquefasciatus and their hybrids along the urbanisation gradient.
    Acta Trop 2018 Feb 2;178:229-235. Epub 2017 Dec 2.
    Universidad Nacional de San Martín, Laboratorio de Ecología de Enfermedades Transmitidas por Vectores (2eTV), 3iA, General San Martín, Buenos Aires, Argentina; Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas, Buenos Aires, Argentina.
    The mosquitoes of the Culex pipiens complex, hereafter referred to as the Pipiens Assemblage, are vectors of arbovirus of worldwide concern including West Nile and St. Louis encephalitis. Given their distinct eco-physiology and vectorial capacity, accurate specimen identification and insight in the environmental drivers of their distribution are essential for the understanding of disease transmission patterns. Read More

    [Laboratory susceptibility tests of Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus larvae to the entomopathogenic nematode Heterorhabditis bacteriophora].
    Biomedica 2017 Mar 29;37(0):67-76. Epub 2017 Mar 29.
    Cátedra de Parasitología, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Físicas y Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Córdoba, Córdoba, Argentina.
    Introduction: Aedes aegypti is the vector of dengue, yellow fever, Zika and Chikungunya viruses, and Culex quinquefasciatus is the vector of St. Louis and West Nile encephalitis viruses.

    Objective: To evaluate infectivity of Heterorhabditis bacteriophora N4 in C. Read More

    Chemical composition and insecticidal activity of the essential oil from Helichrysum faradifani endemic to Madagascar.
    Nat Prod Res 2018 Jul 3;32(14):1690-1698. Epub 2017 Nov 3.
    f School of Pharmacy , University of Camerino , Camerino , Italy.
    Helichrysum faradifani (Asteraceae) is a perennial shrub growing in rocky and sandy places of Madagascar. The plant is used in the Malagasy traditional medicine as a wound-healing agent, disinfectant and for the treatment of syphilis, diarrhea, cough and headache. In the present work, we analysed the chemical composition of the essential oil distilled from the aerial parts of H. Read More

    Sampling Design and Mosquito Trapping for Surveillance of Arboviral Activity.
    Methods Mol Biol 2018 ;1604:89-100
    Linea de zoonosis Emergentes y Re-emergentes, Grupo Centauro, Facultad de Ciencias Agrarias, Universidad de Antioquia, Calle 62, No. 52-59, Medellin, AA1226, Colombia.
    Mosquitoes are the most important vectors for arboviral human diseases across the world. Diseases such as Dengue Fever (DF), West Nile Virus (WNV), Yellow Fever (YF), Japanese Encephalitis (JE), Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis (VEE), and St. Louis Encephalitis (SLE), among others, have a deep impact in public health. Read More

    Genetic risk factors for pediatric-onset multiple sclerosis.
    Mult Scler 2017 Oct 1:1352458517733551. Epub 2017 Oct 1.
    Department of Neurology, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, USA.
    Background: Strong evidence supports the role of both genetic and environmental factors in pediatric-onset multiple sclerosis (POMS) etiology.

    Objective: We comprehensively investigated the association between established major histocompatibility complex (MHC) and non-MHC adult multiple sclerosis (MS)-associated variants and susceptibility to POMS.

    Methods: Cases with onset <18 years ( n = 569) and controls ( n = 16,251) were included from the United States and Sweden. Read More

    Clausena anisata and Dysphania ambrosioides essential oils: from ethno-medicine to modern uses as effective insecticides.
    Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2018 Apr 1;25(11):10493-10503. Epub 2017 Oct 1.
    Department of Agriculture, Food and Environment, University of Pisa, via del Borghetto 80, 56124, Pisa, Italy.
    Dysphania ambrosioides (L.) Mosyakin & Clemants (Amaranthaceae) and Clausena anisata (Willd.) Hook. Read More

    Diagnosis of Fatal Human Case of St. Louis Encephalitis Virus Infection by Metagenomic Sequencing, California, 2016.
    Emerg Infect Dis 2017 10;23(10):1964-1968
    We used unbiased metagenomic next-generation sequencing to diagnose a fatal case of meningoencephalitis caused by St. Louis encephalitis virus in a patient from California in September 2016. This case is associated with the recent 2015-2016 reemergence of this virus in the southwestern United States. Read More

    St. Louis encephalitis virus possibly transmitted through blood transfusion-Arizona, 2015.
    Transfusion 2017 12 14;57(12):2987-2994. Epub 2017 Sep 14.
    CDC Division of Vector-Borne Diseases, Fort Collins, Colorado.
    Background: St. Louis encephalitis virus is a mosquito-borne flavivirus that infrequently causes epidemic central nervous system infections. In the United States, blood donors are not screened for St. Read More

    Diffusion Basis Spectral Imaging Detects Ongoing Brain Inflammation in Virologically Well-Controlled HIV+ Patients.
    J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 2017 Dec;76(4):423-430
    *Department of Neurology, Washington University in Saint Louis, St. Louis, MO; †Department of Neuroscience, Temple University School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA; ‡Department of Radiology, Washington University in Saint Louis, St. Louis, MO; §Department of Psychology, University of Missouri Saint Louis, St. Louis, MO; and ‖Department of Family Medicine and Public Health, University of California San Diego, San Diego, CA.
    Inflammation occurs after HIV infection and persists, despite highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) measures HIV-associated white matter changes, but can be confounded by inflammation. Currently, the influence of inflammation on white matter integrity in well-controlled HIV+ patients remains unknown. Read More

    Cycluridine: A novel antiviral effective against flaviviruses.
    Antivir Chem Chemother 2017 Aug;25(2):58-67
    6 Faculty of Chemistry and Pharmacy, St. Kliment Ohridski University of Sofia, Bulgaria.
    This review describes the contemporary state of research for antivirals effective against flaviviruses, especially focusing on inhibitors of the pestivirus causative agent of bovine viral diarrhoea virus. We highlight cycluridine, an originally synthesized Mannich's base [a tetrahydro-2(1H)-pyrimidinones derivative], as a highly effective antiviral possessing a strong inhibitory effect on bovine viral diarrhoea virus replication. Cycluridine was active against replication of a wide variety of bovine viral diarrhoea virus strains in cell cultures. Read More

    Mosquito control with green nanopesticides: towards the One Health approach? A review of non-target effects.
    Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2018 Apr 28;25(11):10184-10206. Epub 2017 Jul 28.
    Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, National Central University, Taoyuan, 32001, Taiwan.
    The rapid spread of highly aggressive arboviruses, parasites, and bacteria along with the development of resistance in the pathogens and parasites, as well as in their arthropod vectors, represents a huge challenge in modern parasitology and tropical medicine. Eco-friendly vector control programs are crucial to fight, besides malaria, the spread of dengue, West Nile, chikungunya, and Zika virus, as well as other arboviruses such as St. Louis encephalitis and Japanese encephalitis. Read More

    Serologic Evidence of Various Arboviruses Detected in White-Tailed Deer () in the United States.
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 2017 Aug 19;97(2):319-323. Epub 2017 Jul 19.
    U.S. Department of Agriculture, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, Wildlife Services, National Wildlife Research Center, Fort Collins, Colorado.
    White-tailed deer () are an abundant mammal with a wide geographic distribution in the United States, which make them good sentinels for monitoring arboviral activity across the country. Exposure to various arboviruses has been detected in white-tailed deer, typically in conjunction with another diagnostic finding. To better assess the exposure of white-tailed deer to seven arboviruses, we tested 1,508 sera collected from 2010 to 2016 for antibodies to eastern equine encephalitis (2. Read More

    Propagation of astrovirus VA1, a neurotropic human astrovirus, in cell culture.
    J Virol 2017 Jul 12. Epub 2017 Jul 12.
    Department of Molecular Microbiology and Pathology and Immunology, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, Missouri, USA.
    Astrovirus VA1/HMO-C (VA1; mamastrovirus 9) is a recently discovered astrovirus genotype that is divergent from the classic human astroviruses (mamastrovirus 1). The gastrointestinal tract is presumed to be the primary site of infection and pathogenicity for astroviruses. However, VA1 has been independently detected in brain tissue of five cases of human encephalitis. Read More

    Protective and Pathological Immunity during Central Nervous System Infections.
    Immunity 2017 06;46(6):891-909
    Department of Pathobiology, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA. Electronic address:
    The concept of immune privilege of the central nervous system (CNS) has dominated the study of inflammatory processes in the brain. However, clinically relevant models have highlighted that innate pathways limit pathogen invasion of the CNS and adaptive immunity mediates control of many neural infections. As protective responses can result in bystander damage, there are regulatory mechanisms that balance protective and pathological inflammation, but these mechanisms might also allow microbial persistence. Read More

    Monitoring the Diagnostic Process on an Inpatient Neurology Service.
    Neurohospitalist 2017 Jul 16;7(3):132-136. Epub 2016 Nov 16.
    Department of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco and Medical Service, San Francisco VA Medical Center, San Francisco, CA, USA.
    The Institute of Medicine report called for tools to monitor physicians' diagnostic process. We addressed this need by developing a tool for clinicians to record and analyze their diagnostic process. The tool was a secure web application in which clinicians used a structured grading system to assess the relative impact of clinical, laboratory, and neuroimaging data for every new diagnosis. Read More

    The role of birds in arboviral disease surveillance in Harris County and the City of Houston, Texas.
    US Army Med Dep J 2017 Jan-Jun(1-17):1-12
    Mosquito and Vector Control Division, Harris County Public Health, Houston, Texas.
    Avian arboviral surveillance is an integral part of any disease-based integrated mosquito control program. The Harris County Public Health Mosquito and Vector Control Division has performed arboviral surveillance in the wild birds of Harris County and the City of Houston since 1965. Blood samples from live trapped birds were tested for arboviral antibodies to West Nile virus (WNV), St. Read More

    Virus entry and replication in the brain precedes blood-brain barrier disruption during intranasal alphavirus infection.
    J Neuroimmunol 2017 Jul 1;308:118-130. Epub 2017 May 1.
    Department of Medicine, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO 63110, United States; Department of Pathology and Immunology, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO 63110, United States; Department of Neuroscience, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO 63110, United States. Electronic address:
    Viral infections of the central nervous system (CNS) are often associated with blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption, yet the impact of virus replication and immune cell recruitment on BBB integrity are incompletely understood. Using two-photon microscopy, we demonstrate that Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) strain TC83-GFP, a GFP expressing, attenuated strain with a G3A mutation within the 5' UTR that is associated with increased sensitivity to type I interferons (IFNs), does not directly impact BBB permeability. Following intranasal infection of both wild-type and IFN-induced protein with tetratricopeptide repeats 1 (IFIT1)-deficient mice, which fail to block TC83-specific RNA translation, virus spreads to the olfactory bulb and cortex via migration along axonal tracts of neurons originating from the olfactory neuroepithelium. Read More

    Neuroinvasive St. Louis Encephalitis Virus Infection in Solid Organ Transplant Recipients.
    Am J Transplant 2017 Aug 27;17(8):2200-2206. Epub 2017 May 27.
    Division of Infectious Diseases, Mayo Clinic Hospital, Phoenix, AZ.
    In summer 2015, three unrelated solid organ transplant recipients in Phoenix, Arizona, had meningoencephalitis suggestive of West Nile virus (WNV) infection. Testing was inconclusive but was later confirmed as St. Louis encephalitis (SLE). Read More

    Functional Information Stored in the Conserved Structural RNA Domains of Flavivirus Genomes.
    Front Microbiol 2017 3;8:546. Epub 2017 Apr 3.
    Department of Molecular Biology, Instituto de Parasitología y Biomedicina "López-Neyra," Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (IPBLN-CSIC)Granada, Spain.
    The genus comprises a large number of small, positive-sense single-stranded, RNA viruses able to replicate in the cytoplasm of certain arthropod and/or vertebrate host cells. The genus, which has some 70 member species, includes a number of emerging and re-emerging pathogens responsible for outbreaks of human disease around the world, such as the West Nile, dengue, Zika, yellow fever, Japanese encephalitis, St. Louis encephalitis, and tick-borne encephalitis viruses. Read More

    Evidence for a causal relationship between low vitamin D, high BMI, and pediatric-onset MS.
    Neurology 2017 Apr 29;88(17):1623-1629. Epub 2017 Mar 29.
    From the Division of Epidemiology, School of Public Health (M.A.G., X.S., E.X., H.Q., D.Q., C.M., L.F.B.), and Computational Biology Graduate Group (B.R.), University of California, Berkeley; Department of Clinical Neuroscience and Center for Molecular Medicine (P.S.), Karolinska Institutet at Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden; Department of Neurology (J.S.G., E.W.) and Regional Pediatric MS Center, Neurology (J.H., S.C.), University of California, San Francisco; Partners Pediatric Multiple Sclerosis Center (T.C.), Massachusetts General Hospital for Children, Boston; Division of Neurology (A.W.), Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, PA; Blue Bird Circle Multiple Sclerosis Center (T.L.), Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX; Children's Hospital Colorado (T.S.), University of Colorado, Denver; Lourie Center for Pediatric Multiple Sclerosis (A.B., L.K.), Stony Brook Children's Hospital, NY; Department of Neurology (B.G.), University of Texas Southwestern, Dallas; Pediatric Multiple Sclerosis Center (B.W.-G.), Jacobs Neurological Institute, SUNY Buffalo, NY; Pediatric MS Center at Loma Linda University Children's Hospital (G.A.), CA; Mayo Clinic's Pediatric Multiple Sclerosis Center (J.M.T., M.R.), Rochester, MN; University of Alabama Center for Pediatric-onset Demyelinating Disease (J.N., Y.H.), Children's Hospital of Alabama, Birmingham; Department of Pediatric Neurology (J.R.), Northwestern Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL; Primary Children's Hospital (M.C.), University of Utah, Salt Lake City; Boston Children's Hospital (M.G., L.B.), MA; Pediatric-onset Demyelinating Diseases and Autoimmune Encephalitis Center (S.M.), St. Louis Children's Hospital, Washington University School of Medicine, MO; Children's National Medical Center (I.K.), Washington, DC; Departments of Neurology (J.R.) and Pediatrics (S.R., T.C.C.), University of Utah School of Medicine, Salt Lake City; Kaiser Permanente Division of Research (L.S., C.S., L.F.B.), Oakland, CA; Institute of Environmental Medicine (J.H., M.B., A.H., T.O., I.K., L.A.), Karolinska Institutet; Centre for Occupational and Environmental Medicine (L.A.), Stockholm County Council, Stockholm, Sweden; and Research Program on Genes, Environment and Health (C.S.), Kaiser Permanente, Oakland, CA.
    Objective: To utilize Mendelian randomization to estimate the causal association between low serum vitamin D concentrations, increased body mass index (BMI), and pediatric-onset multiple sclerosis (MS) using genetic risk scores (GRS).

    Methods: We constructed an instrumental variable for vitamin D (vitD GRS) by computing a GRS for 3 genetic variants associated with levels of 25(OH)D in serum using the estimated effect of each risk variant. A BMI GRS was also created that incorporates the cumulative effect of 97 variants associated with BMI. Read More

    Saint Louis Encephalitis Virus, another re-emerging arbovirus: a literature review of worldwide research.
    Infez Med 2017 Mar;25(1):77-79
    Infectious Diseases Research Group, Hospital Universitario de Sincelejo, Sincelejo, Sucre, Colombia; Public Health and Infection Research Group and Incubator, Faculty of Health Sciences, Universidad Tecnologica de Pereira, Pereira, Risaralda, Colombia; Colombian Collaborative Network on Zika and other Arboviruses (RECOLZIKA), Pereira, Risaralda, Colombia.
    Not available. Read More

    Development of a model of Saint Louis encephalitis infection and disease in mice.
    J Neuroinflammation 2017 03 22;14(1):61. Epub 2017 Mar 22.
    Immunopharmacology, Departamento de Bioquímica e Imunologia, Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil.
    Background: Flaviviruses are a genre of closely related viral pathogens which emerged in the last decades in Brazil and in the world. Saint (St.) Louis encephalitis virus (SLEV) is a neglected flavivirus that can cause a severe neurological disease that may lead to death or sequelae. Read More

    Toxicity of β-citronellol, geraniol and linalool from Pelargonium roseum essential oil against the West Nile and filariasis vector Culex pipiens (Diptera: Culicidae).
    Res Vet Sci 2017 Oct 6;114:36-40. Epub 2017 Mar 6.
    Department of Agriculture, Food and Environment, University of Pisa, Italy. Electronic address:
    Insect vectors are responsible for spreading devastating parasites and pathogens. A large number of botanicals have been suggested for eco-friendly control programs against mosquito vectors, and some of them are aromatic plants. Pelargonium roseum, a species belonging to the Geraniaceae family, due to its pleasant rose-like odor may represent a suitable candidate as mosquito repellent and/or larvicide. Read More

    Mutagen resistance and mutation restriction of St. Louis encephalitis virus.
    J Gen Virol 2017 Feb;98(2):201-211
    2​Department of Biomedical Sciences, State University of New York at Albany School of Public Health, Albany, NY, USA 1​The Arbovirus Laboratory, Wadsworth Center, New York State Department of Health, Slingerlands, NY, USA.
    The error rate of the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) of RNA viruses is important in maintaining genetic diversity for viral adaptation and fitness. Numerous studies have shown that mutagen-resistant RNA virus variants display amino acid mutations in the RdRp and other replicase subunits, which in turn exhibit an altered fidelity phenotype affecting viral fitness, adaptability and pathogenicity. St. Read More

    Tissue tropism of Saint Louis encephalitis virus: Histopathology triggered by epidemic and non-epidemic strains isolated in Argentina.
    Virology 2017 05 6;505:181-192. Epub 2017 Mar 6.
    Laboratorio de Arbovirus, Instituto de Virología ''Dr. J. M. Vanella'', Facultad de Ciencias Médicas, Universidad Nacional de Córdoba, Enfermera Gordillo Gómez S/N. CP, 5016, Ciudad Universitaria, Córdoba, Argentina; Instituto de Investigaciones Biológicas y Tecnológicas, CONICET-Universidad Nacional de Córdoba, Av. Velez Sarfield 1611, CP: 5016, Córdoba, Argentina. Electronic address:
    Saint Louis encephalitis virus (SLEV) reemerged in South America, and caused encephalitis outbreaks at the beginning of the 21st century. To enhance our knowledge about SLEV virulence, we performed comparative pathogenesis studies in Swiss albino mice inoculated with two different variants, the epidemic strain CbaAr-4005 and the non-epidemic strain CorAn-9275. Only the infection of mice with SLEV strain CbaAr-4005 resulted in high viremia, invasion of peripheral tissues including the lungs, kidney, and spleen, and viral neuroinvasion. Read More

    Detection of the mosquito-borne flaviviruses, West Nile, Dengue, Saint Louis Encephalitis, Ilheus, Bussuquara, and Yellow Fever in free-ranging black howlers (Alouatta caraya) of Northeastern Argentina.
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2017 Feb 10;11(2):e0005351. Epub 2017 Feb 10.
    Departamento Investigación, Instituto Nacional de Enfermedades Virales Humanas "Dr. Julio I. Maiztegui", ANLIS, Pergamino, Argentina.
    Several medically important mosquito-borne flaviviruses have been detected in Argentina in recent years: Dengue (DENV), St. Louis encephalitis (SLEV), West Nile (WNV) and Yellow Fever (YFV) viruses. Evidence of Bussuquara virus (BSQV) and Ilheus virus (ILHV) activity were found, but they have not been associated with human disease. Read More

    Exploring genetic variation in haplotypes of the filariasis vector Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae) through DNA barcoding.
    Acta Trop 2017 May 23;169:43-50. Epub 2017 Jan 23.
    Department of Agriculture, Food and Environment, University of Pisa, Via del Borghetto 80, 56124 Pisa, Italy. Electronic address:
    Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae) is a vector of many pathogens and parasites of humans, as well as domestic and wild animals. In urban and semi-urban Asian countries, Cx. quinquefasciatus is a main vector of nematodes causing lymphatic filariasis. Read More

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