1,221 results match your criteria St. Louis Encephalitis


Peli1 facilitates virus replication and promotes neuroinflammation during West Nile virus infection.

J Clin Invest 2018 Sep 24. Epub 2018 Sep 24.

Department of Microbiology and Immunology.

The E3 ubiquitin ligase Pellino 1 (Peli1) is a microglia-specific mediator of autoimmune encephalomyelitis. Its role in neurotropic flavivirus infection is largely unknown. Here, we report that mice deficient in Peli1 (Peli1-/-) were more resistant to lethal West Nile virus (WNV) infection and exhibited reduced viral loads in tissues and attenuated brain inflammation. Read More

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September 2018

St. Louis Encephalitis Virus Disease in the United States, 2003-2017.

Am J Trop Med Hyg 2018 Sep 4. Epub 2018 Sep 4.

Arboviral Diseases Branch, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Fort Collins, Colorado.

St. Louis encephalitis virus (SLEV), an arthropod-borne flavivirus, can cause disease presentations ranging from mild febrile illness through severe encephalitis. We reviewed U. Read More

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September 2018

N-Methyl-d-aspartate Receptor Antibody Encephalitis: A Concise Review of the Disorder, Diagnosis, and Management.

ACS Chem Neurosci 2018 Aug 31. Epub 2018 Aug 31.

Department of Pathology , Keck School of Medicine of the University of Southern California , Los Angeles , California 90033 , United States.

Anti-NMDA ( N-methyl-d-aspartate) receptor (anti-NMDAR) encephalitis is one of the most common paraneoplastic encephalitides. It occurs in both sexes, across all age ranges, and may occur in the presence or absence of an associated tumor. Its pathogenesis and clinical presentation relate to the presence of IgG1 or IgG3 antibodies targeting the NR1 subunit of the NMDA receptor, leading to a disinhibition of neuronal excitatory pathways. Read More

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August 2018
11 Reads

North American Culex pipiens and Culex quinquefasciatus are competent vectors for Usutu virus.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2018 Aug 17;12(8):e0006732. Epub 2018 Aug 17.

Department of Diagnostic Medicine/Pathobiology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Kansas State University, Manhattan, Kansas, United States of America.

Background: Usutu virus (USUV) is a member of the Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) serocomplex in the Flaviviridae family. Emergence of USUV in Europe has led to disease burdens in birds and created increasing concern for the potential zoonotic transmission to humans. Whilst USUV has not been detected in the New World, the identification of competent vector species in North America is critical in the assessment of the likelihood of its dispersal and establishment of enzootic transmission cycles. Read More

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August 2018
1 Read

Autoimmune Dementia.

Semin Neurol 2018 Jun 16;38(3):303-315. Epub 2018 Jul 16.

Department of Neurology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri.

Dementia refers to an acquired syndrome of intraindividual cognitive decline that ultimately interferes with an individual's ability to manage their usual duties at work or home. As experience with the diagnosis and management of patients with autoimmune and paraneoplastic encephalitis (AE) has expanded, it has become increasingly apparent that dementia may arise as a subacute or chronic complication of immune-mediated injury to the central nervous system. Progressive memory and thinking problems may represent the first (or only) sign of an underlying autoimmune or paraneoplastic disease. Read More

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Attenuated Herpes Simplex Virus 1 (HSV-1) Expressing a Mutant Form of ICP6 Stimulates a Strong Immune Response That Protects Mice against HSV-1-Induced Corneal Disease.

J Virol 2018 09 16;92(17). Epub 2018 Aug 16.

Department of Molecular Microbiology and Immunology, Saint Louis University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri, USA

We previously isolated a herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) mutant, KOS-NA, that carries two nonsynonymous mutations in , resulting in L393P and R950H amino acid substitutions in infected cell protein 6 (ICP6). Our published data studying KOS-NA pathogenesis strongly suggest that one of these ICP6 substitutions expressed from KOS-NA, R950H, severely impaired acute viral replication in the eyes and trigeminal ganglia of mice after inoculation onto the cornea and consequently impaired establishment and reactivation from latency. Because of its significant neuroattenuation, we tested KOS-NA as a potential prophylactic vaccine against HSV-1 in a mouse model of corneal infection. Read More

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September 2018
8 Reads

Long-Term Cognitive Outcomes in Patients with Autoimmune Encephalitis.

Can J Neurol Sci 2018 Sep 25;45(5):540-544. Epub 2018 Jun 25.

4Division of Neurology,University of Toronto,Toronto Western Hospital,Toronto,Canada.

Background: A need exists to characterise the long-term cognitive outcomes in patients who recovered from autoimmune encephalitis and to identify the modifiable factors associated with improved outcomes.

Methods: We retrospectively analysed data from patients diagnosed with autoimmune encephalitis in our outpatient autoimmune encephalitis clinic over a 5-year period, where the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) is routinely administered.

Results: In total, 21 patients met the inclusion criteria, of whom 52% had persistent cognitive impairment at their latest follow-up (median delay to testing=20 months, range 13-182). Read More

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September 2018
5 Reads

Experimental Infection of Syrian Hamsters with Aerosolized Nipah virus.

J Infect Dis 2018 Jun 15. Epub 2018 Jun 15.

Department of Pathology, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX, USA.

Background: Nipah virus (NiV) is a paramyxovirus (genus henipavirus) that can cause severe respiratory illness and encephalitis in humans. Transmission occurs through consumption of NiV-contaminated foods, and contact with NiV-infected animals or human body fluids. However, it is unclear whether aerosols derived from aforesaid sources or others also contribute to transmission, and current knowledge on NiV-induced pathogenicity after small particle aerosol exposure is still limited. Read More

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June 2018
2 Reads

Ilheus and Saint Louis encephalitis viruses elicit cross-protection against a lethal Rocio virus challenge in mice.

PLoS One 2018 13;13(6):e0199071. Epub 2018 Jun 13.

Laboratory of Virology, Department of Clinical Analyses, Toxicology and Food Sciences, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences of Ribeirao Preto, University of Sao Paulo, Ribeirao Preto, Sao Paulo, Brazil.

Rocio virus (ROCV) was the causative agent of an unprecedented outbreak of encephalitis during the 1970s in the Vale do Ribeira, Sao Paulo State, in the Southeast region of Brazil. Surprisingly, no further cases of ROCV infection were identified after this outbreak; however, serological surveys have suggested the circulation of ROCV among humans and animals in different regions of Brazil. Cross-protective immunity among flaviviruses is well documented; consequently, immunity induced by infections with other flaviviruses endemic to Brazil could potentially be responsible for the lack of ROCV infections. Read More

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June 2018
1 Read

Comparative studies of stenogamous behaviour in the mosquito Culex pipiens complex.

Authors:
S Kim S Trocke C Sim

Med Vet Entomol 2018 Jun 1. Epub 2018 Jun 1.

Department of Biology, Baylor University, Waco, TX, U.S.A.

Understanding the processes of reproductive behaviour in mosquitoes is crucial for improving mating competitiveness and mating specificity for sterile insect release programmes. The Culex pipiens (Linneaus) (Diptera: Culicidae) forms pipiens and molestus (Forskål), two biotypes of the Cx. pipiens complex, are vectors for West Nile virus, St Louis encephalitis virus and lymphatic filariases. Read More

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June 2018
1 Read

Evaluation of Argentinean Bird Species as Amplifying Hosts for St. Louis Encephalitis Virus (Flavivirus, Flaviviridae).

Am J Trop Med Hyg 2018 Jul 10;99(1):216-221. Epub 2018 May 10.

Laboratorio de Arbovirus, Instituto de Virología "Dr. J. M. Vanella," Facultad de Ciencias Médicas, Universidad Nacional de Córdoba, Córdoba, Argentina.

St.Louis encephalitis virus (SLEV) is an emerging human pathogen flavivirus in Argentina. Recently, it has reemerged in the United States. Read More

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Human and Equine Infection with Alphaviruses and Flaviviruses in Panamá during 2010: A Cross-Sectional Study of Household Contacts during an Encephalitis Outbreak.

Am J Trop Med Hyg 2018 Jun 3;98(6):1798-1804. Epub 2018 May 3.

Departments of Microbiology & Immunology and Pathology, Institute for Human Infections and Immunity, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, Texas.

Members of the genera (family ) and (family ) are important zoonotic human and equine etiologic agents of neurologic diseases in the New World. In 2010, an outbreak of Madariaga virus (MADV; formerly eastern equine encephalitis virus) and Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) infections was reported in eastern Panamá. We further characterized the epidemiology of the outbreak by studying household contacts of confirmed human cases and of equine cases with neurological disease signs. Read More

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June 2018
6 Reads
2.70 Impact Factor

Scented Sugar Baits Enhance Detection of St. Louis Encephalitis and West Nile Viruses in Mosquitoes in Suburban California.

J Med Entomol 2018 Aug;55(5):1307-1318

Department of Pathology, Microbiology and Immunology, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis, One Shields Avenue, Davis, CA.

Scented sugar baits deployed in California deserts detected early West Nile virus (WNV) transmission by mosquitoes, representing a potential improvement to conventional arbovirus surveillance that relies heavily on infection rates in mosquito pools. In this study, we expanded deployment of scented sugar baits into suburban Sacramento and Yolo (2015, 2016) and Riverside Counties (2016), California. The goal of the study was to determine whether scented sugar baits detect WNV and St. Read More

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August 2018
6 Reads

DNA barcoding of five Japanese encephalitis mosquito vectors (Culex fuscocephala, Culex gelidus, Culex tritaeniorhynchus, Culex pseudovishnui and Culex vishnui).

Acta Trop 2018 Jul 4;183:84-91. Epub 2018 Apr 4.

Department of Agriculture, Food and Environment, University of Pisa, via del Borghetto 80, 56124 Pisa, Italy; The BioRobotics Institute, Sant'Anna School of Advanced Studies, viale Rinaldo Piaggio 34, 56025 Pontedera, Pisa, Italy. Electronic address:

Culex mosquitoes can act as vectors of several important diseases, including Japanese encephalitis, West Nile virus, St. Louis encephalitis and equine encephalitis. Besides the neurological sequelae caused in humans, Japanese encephalitis can lead to abortion in sows and encephalitis in horses. Read More

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July 2018
4 Reads

NMDA receptor antibody encephalitis presenting with enhancing lesion and seizures.

Neurol Clin Pract 2017 Oct;7(5):433-435

HealthPartners (MHR, MKS, MEB), St. Paul; and Park-Nicollet (TAT-L), Saint Louis Park, MN.

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October 2017

Description and phylogeny of the mitochondrial genome of Sabethes chloropterus, Sabethes glaucodaemon and Sabethes belisarioi (Diptera: Culicidae).

Genomics 2018 Mar 24. Epub 2018 Mar 24.

Nucleus of Tropical Medicine, Federal University of Pará, Generalíssimo Deodoro Av., District Umarizal, Belém, PA 66.055-240, Brazil. Electronic address:

Mosquitoes as Sabethes chloropterus, Sabethes glaucodaemon, Sabethes belisarioi are species of medical and epidemiological importance for arboviruses transmission such as yellow fever and St. Louis encephalitis. Despite this, no information about these three species mitochondrial DNA has been found in literature. Read More

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March 2018
1 Read

Serological evidence of widespread exposure of Grenada fruit bats to chikungunya virus.

Zoonoses Public Health 2018 08 25;65(5):505-511. Epub 2018 Mar 25.

Pathobiology, School of Veterinary Medicine, St. George's University, St. George, Grenada.

Antibody detection against selected potentially zoonotic vector-borne alphaviruses and flaviviruses was conducted on sera from bats from all six parishes in Grenada, West Indies. Sera were tested for (i) antibodies to flaviviruses West Nile virus, St. Louis encephalitis virus, Ilhéus virus, Bussuquara virus (BSQV), Rio Bravo virus and all four serotypes of dengue virus (DENV) by plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT); (ii) antibodies to alphaviruses western equine encephalitis virus, Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus and eastern equine encephalitis virus by epitope-blocking enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA); and (iii) antibodies to the alphavirus chikungunya (CHIKV) by PRNT. Read More

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August 2018
3 Reads

Development of an improved RT-qPCR Assay for detection of Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) RNA including a systematic review and comprehensive comparison with published methods.

PLoS One 2018 23;13(3):e0194412. Epub 2018 Mar 23.

Lao-Oxford-Mahosot Hospital-Wellcome Trust Research Unit (LOMWRU), Microbiology Laboratory, Mahosot Hospital, Vientiane, Lao P.D.R.

Background: Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) is a major cause of encephalitis in Asia, and the commonest cause of mosquito-borne encephalitis worldwide. Detection of JEV RNA remains challenging due to the characteristic brief and low viraemia, with 0-25% of patients positive, and the mainstay of diagnosis remains detection of anti-JEV IgM antibody.

Methods: We performed a systematic review of published RT-PCR protocols, and evaluated them in silico and in vitro alongside new primers and probes designed using a multiple genome alignment of all JEV strains >9,000nt from GenBank, downloaded from the NCBI website (November 2016). Read More

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July 2018
5 Reads

Viruses have multiple paths to central nervous system pathology.

Curr Opin Neurol 2018 Jun;31(3):313-317

Department of Medicine.

Purpose Of Review: Although viral infections of the central nervous system (CNS) are known to acutely cause pathology in the form of cytokine-mediated neural tissue damage and inflammation, the pathophysiology of neurologic sequelae after viral clearance is incompletely understood.

Recent Findings: Alterations in microglial and glial biology in response to initial infiltration of immune cells that persist within the CNS have recently been shown to promote neuronal dysfunction and cognitive deficits in animal models of viral encephalitis.

Summary: The current review summarizes the current knowledge on the possible role of innate immune signaling during acute infections as triggers of neurologic sequelae that persist, and may even worsen, after clearance of viral infections within the CNS. Read More

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False-Positive Monospot in a Returning Traveler with Dengue Fever.

Mil Med 2018 Mar;183(3-4):e235-e236

Internal Medicine Department, Naval Medical Center, 620 John Paul Jones Circle, Portsmouth, VA 23708.

The heterophile antibody (Monospot), initial test of choice for Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-associated infectious mononucleosis, is both sensitive (70-92%) and specific (96-100%). False positives have been demonstrated in cases of viral hepatitis, human immunodeficiency virus, leukemia, lymphoma, pancreatic cancer, systemic lupus erythematosus, and rubella. We present a case of a 46-yr-old male who developed fever, chills, headaches, myalgia, fatigue, and photophobia 1 d after returning from the Philippines. Read More

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March 2018
4 Reads

Autoimmune Encephalitis With Multiple Autoantibodies: A Diagnostic and Therapeutic Challenge.

Neurologist 2018 Mar;23(2):55-59

Departments of Neurology.

Introduction: Indications for autoantibody testing in patients with rapid-onset cognitive impairment have expanded in step with the growing number of disease-associated autoantibodies and clinical syndromes. Although increased access to autoantibody testing has broadened our understanding of the spectrum of autoimmune encephalitis (AE), it has also produced new challenges associated with deciphering the contributions of disease-associated autoantibodies in patients with atypical clinical features and/or multiple autoantibodies. These challenges are illustrated through presentation of a patient with AE associated with autoantibodies against intracellular and cell-surface neuronal antigens. Read More

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March 2018
9 Reads

Mouse and Human Monoclonal Antibodies Protect against Infection by Multiple Genotypes of Japanese Encephalitis Virus.

MBio 2018 Feb 27;9(1). Epub 2018 Feb 27.

Department of Pathology and Immunology, Washington University School of Medicine, Saint Louis, Missouri, USA

Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) remains a leading cause of viral encephalitis worldwide. Although JEV-specific antibodies have been described, an assessment of their ability to neutralize multiple genotypes of JEV has been limited. Here, we describe the development of a panel of mouse and human neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) that inhibit infection in cell culture of four different JEV genotypes tested. Read More

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February 2018
2 Reads

Environmental stochasticity and intraspecific competition influence the population dynamics of Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae).

Parasit Vectors 2018 02 27;11(1):114. Epub 2018 Feb 27.

Department of Environmental Sciences, Emory University, Atlanta, GA, 30322, USA.

Background: Members of the Culex pipiens complex (Cx. pipiens quinquefasciatus in Southern USA) play a critical role in the spillover of urban arboviruses such as West Nile virus or St. Louis encephalitis virus. Read More

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February 2018

Positive Allosteric Modulation as a Potential Therapeutic Strategy in Anti-NMDA Receptor Encephalitis.

J Neurosci 2018 Mar 23;38(13):3218-3229. Epub 2018 Feb 23.

Departments of Psychiatry,

-methyl-d-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) are ionotropic glutamate receptors important for synaptic plasticity, memory, and neuropsychiatric health. NMDAR hypofunction contributes to multiple disorders, including anti-NMDAR encephalitis (NMDARE), an autoimmune disease of the CNS associated with GluN1 antibody-mediated NMDAR internalization. Here we characterize the functional/pharmacological consequences of exposure to CSF from female human NMDARE patients on NMDAR function, and we characterize the effects of intervention with recently described positive allosteric modulators (PAMs) of NMDARs. Read More

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March 2018
7 Reads

West Nile and St. Louis encephalitis viral genetic determinants of avian host competence.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2018 02 15;12(2):e0006302. Epub 2018 Feb 15.

Division of Vector-Borne Diseases, Arboviral Disease Branch, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Fort Collins, Colorado, United States of America.

West Nile virus (WNV) and St. Louis encephalitis (SLEV) virus are enzootically maintained in North America in cycles involving the same mosquito vectors and similar avian hosts. However, these viruses exhibit dissimilar viremia and virulence phenotypes in birds: WNV is associated with high magnitude viremias that can result in mortality in certain species such as American crows (AMCRs, Corvus brachyrhynchos) whereas SLEV infection yields lower viremias that have not been associated with avian mortality. Read More

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February 2018
3 Reads

Structural Study of the C-Terminal Domain of Nonstructural Protein 1 from Japanese Encephalitis Virus.

J Virol 2018 04 14;92(7). Epub 2018 Mar 14.

Molecular Biophysics Group, Institute of Integrative Biology, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, United Kingdom

Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) is a mosquito-transmitted flavivirus that is closely related to other emerging viral pathogens, including dengue virus (DENV), West Nile virus (WNV), and Zika virus (ZIKV). JEV infection can result in meningitis and encephalitis, which in severe cases cause permanent brain damage and death. JEV occurs predominantly in rural areas throughout Southeast Asia, the Pacific Islands, and the Far East, causing around 68,000 cases of infection worldwide each year. Read More

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April 2018
17 Reads

West Nile Virus and Other Nationally Notifiable Arboviral Diseases - United States, 2016.

MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2018 Jan 12;67(1):13-17. Epub 2018 Jan 12.

Arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) are transmitted to humans primarily through the bites of infected mosquitoes and ticks. West Nile virus (WNV) is the leading cause of domestically acquired arboviral disease in the continental United States (1,2). Other arboviruses, including La Crosse, Powassan, Jamestown Canyon, St. Read More

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January 2018
5 Reads

Pitfalls Associated With the Use of Molecular Diagnostic Panels in the Diagnosis of Cryptococcal Meningitis.

Open Forum Infect Dis 2017 3;4(4):ofx242. Epub 2017 Nov 3.

Division of Infectious Diseases, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri, USA.

We report the case of a kidney transplantation patient on chronic immunosuppressive therapy presenting with subacute meningitis. The final diagnosis of cryptococcal meningitis was delayed due to 2 false-negative cryptococcal results on a molecular diagnostic panel. Caution with such platforms in suspected cryptococcal meningitis is needed. Read More

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November 2017
1 Read

Chemokine and cytokine levels in the lumbar cerebrospinal fluid of preterm infants with post-hemorrhagic hydrocephalus.

Fluids Barriers CNS 2017 Dec 12;14(1):35. Epub 2017 Dec 12.

Department of Neurological Surgery and Pediatrics, Washington University in St. Louis School of Medicine, One Children's Way, 4S20, St. Louis, MO, 63110, USA.

Background: Neuroinflammation has been implicated in the pathophysiology of post-hemorrhagic hydrocephalus (PHH) of prematurity, but no comprehensive analysis of signaling molecules has been performed using human cerebrospinal fluid (CSF).

Methods: Lumbar CSF levels of key cytokines (IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12, TNF-α, TGF-β1, IFN-γ) and chemokines (XCL-1, CCL-2, CCL-3, CCL-19, CXCL-10, CXCL-11, CXCL-12) were measured using conventional and multiplexed Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assays and compared between preterm infants with PHH and those with no known neurological injury. The relationships between individual biomarker levels and specific CSF cell counts were examined. Read More

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December 2017
8 Reads

Pediatric Anti--Methyl-d-Aspartate Receptor Encephalitis: A Review with Pooled Analysis and Critical Care Emphasis.

Front Pediatr 2017 24;5:250. Epub 2017 Nov 24.

Division of Pediatric Critical Care Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, United States.

Purpose: Anti--methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) encephalitis is being recognized with increasing frequency among children. Given the paucity of evidence to guide the critical care management of these complex patients, we provide a comprehensive review of the literature with pooled analysis of published case reports and case series.

Methods: We performed a comprehensive literature search using PubMed, Scopus, EMBASE, and Web of Science for relevant published studies. Read More

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November 2017
18 Reads

The jungle book of neuropsychology: Disentangling the influence of feral childhood from adult brain injury in order to provide effective rehabilitation.

Neuropsychol Rehabil 2018 Mar 7;28(2):293-308. Epub 2017 Dec 7.

b NHS Leeds Community Neurological Rehabilitation Team , Leeds , UK.

Background And Aims: This article considers the complexities of neuropsychological assessment and rehabilitation in brain injury when the client is illiterate, is from a foreign culture with English as a second language, and reports highly atypical childhood feral experiences prior to injury.

Method: MC was a 63-year-old woman referred for neuropsychological rehabilitation with a diagnosis of suspected St Louis encephalitis and global cognitive impairment. In formulating her clinical presentation, consideration was given to a reported history of feral childhood living with monkeys in the Colombian jungle and subsequent physical and emotional abuse. Read More

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March 2018
3 Reads

Heterogeneous distribution of Culex pipiens, Culex quinquefasciatus and their hybrids along the urbanisation gradient.

Acta Trop 2018 Feb 2;178:229-235. Epub 2017 Dec 2.

Universidad Nacional de San Martín, Laboratorio de Ecología de Enfermedades Transmitidas por Vectores (2eTV), 3iA, General San Martín, Buenos Aires, Argentina; Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas, Buenos Aires, Argentina.

The mosquitoes of the Culex pipiens complex, hereafter referred to as the Pipiens Assemblage, are vectors of arbovirus of worldwide concern including West Nile and St. Louis encephalitis. Given their distinct eco-physiology and vectorial capacity, accurate specimen identification and insight in the environmental drivers of their distribution are essential for the understanding of disease transmission patterns. Read More

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February 2018
5 Reads

[Laboratory susceptibility tests of Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus larvae to the entomopathogenic nematode Heterorhabditis bacteriophora].

Biomedica 2017 Mar 29;37(0):67-76. Epub 2017 Mar 29.

Cátedra de Parasitología, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Físicas y Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Córdoba, Córdoba, Argentina.

Introduction: Aedes aegypti is the vector of dengue, yellow fever, Zika and Chikungunya viruses, and Culex quinquefasciatus is the vector of St. Louis and West Nile encephalitis viruses.

Objective: To evaluate infectivity of Heterorhabditis bacteriophora N4 in C. Read More

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March 2017
1 Read

Chemical composition and insecticidal activity of the essential oil from Helichrysum faradifani endemic to Madagascar.

Nat Prod Res 2018 Jul 3;32(14):1690-1698. Epub 2017 Nov 3.

f School of Pharmacy , University of Camerino , Camerino , Italy.

Helichrysum faradifani (Asteraceae) is a perennial shrub growing in rocky and sandy places of Madagascar. The plant is used in the Malagasy traditional medicine as a wound-healing agent, disinfectant and for the treatment of syphilis, diarrhea, cough and headache. In the present work, we analysed the chemical composition of the essential oil distilled from the aerial parts of H. Read More

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July 2018
5 Reads

From the Cover: Lung-Specific Overexpression of Constitutively Active IKK2 Induces Pulmonary and Systemic Inflammations but Not Hypothalamic Inflammation and Glucose Intolerance.

Toxicol Sci 2017 Nov;160(1):4-14

Cardiology Division, Department of Medicine, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21201.

The lung is constantly exposed to ambient pollutants such as ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5), making it one of the most frequent locations of inflammation in the body. Given the establishment of crucial role of inflammation in the pathogenesis of cardiometabolic diseases, pulmonary inflammation is thus widely believed to be an important risk factor for cardiometabolic diseases. Read More

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November 2017
5 Reads

Sampling Design and Mosquito Trapping for Surveillance of Arboviral Activity.

Methods Mol Biol 2018 ;1604:89-100

Linea de zoonosis Emergentes y Re-emergentes, Grupo Centauro, Facultad de Ciencias Agrarias, Universidad de Antioquia, Calle 62, No. 52-59, Medellin, AA1226, Colombia.

Mosquitoes are the most important vectors for arboviral human diseases across the world. Diseases such as Dengue Fever (DF), West Nile Virus (WNV), Yellow Fever (YF), Japanese Encephalitis (JE), Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis (VEE), and St. Louis Encephalitis (SLE), among others, have a deep impact in public health. Read More

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June 2018
8 Reads

Genetic risk factors for pediatric-onset multiple sclerosis.

Mult Scler 2017 Oct 1:1352458517733551. Epub 2017 Oct 1.

Department of Neurology, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, USA.

Background: Strong evidence supports the role of both genetic and environmental factors in pediatric-onset multiple sclerosis (POMS) etiology.

Objective: We comprehensively investigated the association between established major histocompatibility complex (MHC) and non-MHC adult multiple sclerosis (MS)-associated variants and susceptibility to POMS.

Methods: Cases with onset <18 years ( n = 569) and controls ( n = 16,251) were included from the United States and Sweden. Read More

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October 2017
14 Reads

Clausena anisata and Dysphania ambrosioides essential oils: from ethno-medicine to modern uses as effective insecticides.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2018 Apr 1;25(11):10493-10503. Epub 2017 Oct 1.

Department of Agriculture, Food and Environment, University of Pisa, via del Borghetto 80, 56124, Pisa, Italy.

Dysphania ambrosioides (L.) Mosyakin & Clemants (Amaranthaceae) and Clausena anisata (Willd.) Hook. Read More

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April 2018
7 Reads

Diagnosis of Fatal Human Case of St. Louis Encephalitis Virus Infection by Metagenomic Sequencing, California, 2016.

Emerg Infect Dis 2017 10;23(10):1964-1968

We used unbiased metagenomic next-generation sequencing to diagnose a fatal case of meningoencephalitis caused by St. Louis encephalitis virus in a patient from California in September 2016. This case is associated with the recent 2015-2016 reemergence of this virus in the southwestern United States. Read More

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October 2017
8 Reads

St. Louis encephalitis virus possibly transmitted through blood transfusion-Arizona, 2015.

Transfusion 2017 12 14;57(12):2987-2994. Epub 2017 Sep 14.

CDC Division of Vector-Borne Diseases, Fort Collins, Colorado.

Background: St. Louis encephalitis virus is a mosquito-borne flavivirus that infrequently causes epidemic central nervous system infections. In the United States, blood donors are not screened for St. Read More

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December 2017
30 Reads

Diffusion Basis Spectral Imaging Detects Ongoing Brain Inflammation in Virologically Well-Controlled HIV+ Patients.

J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 2017 Dec;76(4):423-430

*Department of Neurology, Washington University in Saint Louis, St. Louis, MO; †Department of Neuroscience, Temple University School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA; ‡Department of Radiology, Washington University in Saint Louis, St. Louis, MO; §Department of Psychology, University of Missouri Saint Louis, St. Louis, MO; and ‖Department of Family Medicine and Public Health, University of California San Diego, San Diego, CA.

Inflammation occurs after HIV infection and persists, despite highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) measures HIV-associated white matter changes, but can be confounded by inflammation. Currently, the influence of inflammation on white matter integrity in well-controlled HIV+ patients remains unknown. Read More

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December 2017
1 Read

Cycluridine: A novel antiviral effective against flaviviruses.

Antivir Chem Chemother 2017 Aug;25(2):58-67

6 Faculty of Chemistry and Pharmacy, St. Kliment Ohridski University of Sofia, Bulgaria.

This review describes the contemporary state of research for antivirals effective against flaviviruses, especially focusing on inhibitors of the pestivirus causative agent of bovine viral diarrhoea virus. We highlight cycluridine, an originally synthesized Mannich's base [a tetrahydro-2(1H)-pyrimidinones derivative], as a highly effective antiviral possessing a strong inhibitory effect on bovine viral diarrhoea virus replication. Cycluridine was active against replication of a wide variety of bovine viral diarrhoea virus strains in cell cultures. Read More

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August 2017
12 Reads

Mosquito control with green nanopesticides: towards the One Health approach? A review of non-target effects.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2018 Apr 28;25(11):10184-10206. Epub 2017 Jul 28.

Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, National Central University, Taoyuan, 32001, Taiwan.

The rapid spread of highly aggressive arboviruses, parasites, and bacteria along with the development of resistance in the pathogens and parasites, as well as in their arthropod vectors, represents a huge challenge in modern parasitology and tropical medicine. Eco-friendly vector control programs are crucial to fight, besides malaria, the spread of dengue, West Nile, chikungunya, and Zika virus, as well as other arboviruses such as St. Louis encephalitis and Japanese encephalitis. Read More

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April 2018
21 Reads
1 PubMed Central Citation(source)
2.83 Impact Factor

Serologic Evidence of Various Arboviruses Detected in White-Tailed Deer () in the United States.

Am J Trop Med Hyg 2017 Aug 19;97(2):319-323. Epub 2017 Jul 19.

U.S. Department of Agriculture, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, Wildlife Services, National Wildlife Research Center, Fort Collins, Colorado.

White-tailed deer () are an abundant mammal with a wide geographic distribution in the United States, which make them good sentinels for monitoring arboviral activity across the country. Exposure to various arboviruses has been detected in white-tailed deer, typically in conjunction with another diagnostic finding. To better assess the exposure of white-tailed deer to seven arboviruses, we tested 1,508 sera collected from 2010 to 2016 for antibodies to eastern equine encephalitis (2. Read More

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August 2017
6 Reads

Propagation of astrovirus VA1, a neurotropic human astrovirus, in cell culture.

J Virol 2017 Jul 12. Epub 2017 Jul 12.

Department of Molecular Microbiology and Pathology and Immunology, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, Missouri, USA.

Astrovirus VA1/HMO-C (VA1; mamastrovirus 9) is a recently discovered astrovirus genotype that is divergent from the classic human astroviruses (mamastrovirus 1). The gastrointestinal tract is presumed to be the primary site of infection and pathogenicity for astroviruses. However, VA1 has been independently detected in brain tissue of five cases of human encephalitis. Read More

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July 2017
1 Read

Protective and Pathological Immunity during Central Nervous System Infections.

Immunity 2017 06;46(6):891-909

Department of Pathobiology, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA. Electronic address:

The concept of immune privilege of the central nervous system (CNS) has dominated the study of inflammatory processes in the brain. However, clinically relevant models have highlighted that innate pathways limit pathogen invasion of the CNS and adaptive immunity mediates control of many neural infections. As protective responses can result in bystander damage, there are regulatory mechanisms that balance protective and pathological inflammation, but these mechanisms might also allow microbial persistence. Read More

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June 2017
9 Reads

Monitoring the Diagnostic Process on an Inpatient Neurology Service.

Neurohospitalist 2017 Jul 16;7(3):132-136. Epub 2016 Nov 16.

Department of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco and Medical Service, San Francisco VA Medical Center, San Francisco, CA, USA.

The Institute of Medicine report called for tools to monitor physicians' diagnostic process. We addressed this need by developing a tool for clinicians to record and analyze their diagnostic process. The tool was a secure web application in which clinicians used a structured grading system to assess the relative impact of clinical, laboratory, and neuroimaging data for every new diagnosis. Read More

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July 2017
5 Reads

The role of birds in arboviral disease surveillance in Harris County and the City of Houston, Texas.

US Army Med Dep J 2017 Jan-Jun(1-17):1-12

Mosquito and Vector Control Division, Harris County Public Health, Houston, Texas.

Avian arboviral surveillance is an integral part of any disease-based integrated mosquito control program. The Harris County Public Health Mosquito and Vector Control Division has performed arboviral surveillance in the wild birds of Harris County and the City of Houston since 1965. Blood samples from live trapped birds were tested for arboviral antibodies to West Nile virus (WNV), St. Read More

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February 2018
12 Reads

Virus entry and replication in the brain precedes blood-brain barrier disruption during intranasal alphavirus infection.

J Neuroimmunol 2017 Jul 1;308:118-130. Epub 2017 May 1.

Department of Medicine, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO 63110, United States; Department of Pathology and Immunology, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO 63110, United States; Department of Neuroscience, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO 63110, United States. Electronic address:

Viral infections of the central nervous system (CNS) are often associated with blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption, yet the impact of virus replication and immune cell recruitment on BBB integrity are incompletely understood. Using two-photon microscopy, we demonstrate that Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) strain TC83-GFP, a GFP expressing, attenuated strain with a G3A mutation within the 5' UTR that is associated with increased sensitivity to type I interferons (IFNs), does not directly impact BBB permeability. Following intranasal infection of both wild-type and IFN-induced protein with tetratricopeptide repeats 1 (IFIT1)-deficient mice, which fail to block TC83-specific RNA translation, virus spreads to the olfactory bulb and cortex via migration along axonal tracts of neurons originating from the olfactory neuroepithelium. Read More

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July 2017
40 Reads