1,502 results match your criteria Sprue Tropical

Association of human gut microbiota with rare diseases: A close peep through.

Intractable Rare Dis Res 2022 May;11(2):52-62

Department of Microbiology, Sarsuna College (under Calcutta University), Kolkata, India.

The human body harbors approximately 10 cells belonging to a diverse group of microorganisms. Bacteria outnumbers protozoa, fungi and viruses inhabiting our gastrointestinal tract (GIT), commonly referred to as the "human gut microbiome". Dysbiosis occurs when the balanced relationship between the host and the gut microbiota is disrupted, altering the usual microbial population there. Read More

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Malabsorption Spectrums in India.

J Assoc Physicians India 2022 Apr;70(4):11-12

Kakatiya Medical College, Kakatiya.

Among the causes of malabsorption, tropical sprue is one of the leading cause.Several reports indicating that celiac disease, now being recognised more frequently.

Material: 94 patients, aged more than 12 years, presenting with Chronic diarrhoea and malabsorption syndrome were analyzed by clinical presentation, endoscopic and histopathological examination. Read More

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Vitamin B12 absorption and malabsorption.

Vitam Horm 2022 1;119:241-274. Epub 2022 Mar 1.

Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Gastroenterology, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO, United States. Electronic address:

Vitamin B12 is assimilated and transported by complex mechanisms that involve three transport proteins, intrinsic factor (IF), haptocorrin (HC) and transcobalamin (TC) and their respective membrane receptors. Vitamin deficiency is mainly due to inadequate dietary intake in vegans, and B12 malabsorption is related to digestive diseases. This review explores the physiology of vitamin B12 absorption and the mechanisms and diseases that produce malabsorption. Read More

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The Value of Duodenal Biopsies in the Evaluation of Megaloblastic Anemia.

J Lab Physicians 2021 Dec 12;13(4):291-295. Epub 2021 Jul 12.

Department of Gastroenterology, PSG Institute of Medical Sciences and Research, Peelamedu, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu, India.

Megaloblastic anemia is one of the common causes of anemia in India. Duodenal biopsies are routinely performed in the investigation of megaloblastic anemia. The present study was undertaken to analyze the value of duodenal biopsy in megaloblastic anemia and to correlate endoscopic findings with biopsy. Read More

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December 2021

Acquired Hyperzincaemia Due to Zinc-Laden Denture Adhesives Leading to Hypocupraemia as a Cause of Neutropenia.

Eur J Case Rep Intern Med 2021 29;8(11):002983. Epub 2021 Nov 29.

Hematology/Oncology Division, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, Arkansas, United States.

Introduction: Copper deficiency or hypocupraemia is a rare cause of anaemia and neutropenia.

Case Description: We hereby present the case of a 34-year-old female with gastric bypass surgery who presented with neutropenic fever, abdominal pain and diarrhoea, later found to have extended-spectrum beta-lactamase resistant urinary tract infection and small bowel bacterial overgrowth syndrome, with her anaemia and neutropenia being caused by copper deficiency due to hyperzincaemia induced by using zinc denture adhesive cream.

Discussion: Various causes of copper deficiency have been recognized including, but not limited to, malnutrition, gastrectomy, gastric bypass surgery, protein-losing enteropathies (coeliac disease, tropical sprue), Wilson disease and Menkes syndrome. Read More

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November 2021

Postinfection Irritable Bowel Syndrome.

Uday C Ghoshal

Gut Liver 2022 05;16(3):331-340

Department of Gastroenterology, Sanjay Gandhi Postgraduate Institute of Medical Sciences, Lucknow, India.

Following acute gastroenteritis (AGE) due to bacteria, viruses, or protozoa, a subset of patients develop new onset Rome criteria positive irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), called postinfection IBS (PI-IBS). The pooled prevalence of PI-IBS following AGE was 11.5%. Read More

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Anorexia and Starvation Related Duodenal Villous Atrophy in an Adult Patient.

Cureus 2021 Oct 6;13(10):e18536. Epub 2021 Oct 6.

Gastroenterology, Kettering General Hospital, NHS Foundation Trust, Kettering, GBR.

Coeliac disease is the most well-known cause of villous atrophy in duodenal biopsies. Other well recognised causes of villous atrophy include infection with and HIV, peptic duodenitis, drug-induced enteropathy, common variable immunodeficiency, Crohn's disease, Whipple's disease, small intestinal bacterial overgrowth, eosinophilic gastroenteritis, tropical or collagenous sprue and autoimmune enteropathy. While mucosal adaptation due to malnutrition, leading to villous atrophy, has been reported in paediatric populations in Africa and South America, in hibernating animals and animal models of experimental starvation, there is very little literature on adult human subjects. Read More

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October 2021

Casal's Necklace: Extraintestinal Manifestation of Tropical Sprue.

Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 2022 03 10;20(3):e349-e350. Epub 2021 Jan 10.

Department of Gastroenterology, GB Pant Hospital, New Delhi, India.

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The role of histopathology in the diagnosis and management of coeliac disease and other malabsorptive conditions.

Histopathology 2021 Jan;78(1):88-105

Envoi Specialist Pathologists, University of Queensland, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia.

Most absorption of nutrients takes place in the proximal small intestine, and the most common disorders leading to malabsorption are associated with a morphological abnormality in the duodenal mucosa that is appreciable in histological sections of biopsy specimens. Coeliac disease is the most well-known example, causing intraepithelial lymphocytosis, inflammation and villous atrophy in the duodenum. Remarkably similar inflammatory changes can be induced by other processes, including medications, e. Read More

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January 2021

Diarrhea in a Retired Couple From Mexico.

Gastroenterology 2021 03 19;160(4):1039-1040. Epub 2020 Jun 19.

Department of Internal Medicine and Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology.

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Carbohydrate Intolerance and Disaccharidase Measurement - a Mini-Review.

Matthew Burke

Clin Biochem Rev 2019 Nov;40(4):167-174

Chemical Pathology, Pathology Queensland, Herston, Qld 4029, Australia.

Carbohydrate intolerance is one of several syndromes and diseases which together are known as malabsorption syndromes. These include small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO), coeliac disease, intestinal lymphangiectasia, short bowel syndrome, tropical sprue and some inherited metabolic disorders such as galactosaemia and pyruvate kinase deficiency. Specifically, the malabsorption of sugars affects morbidity for millions of sufferers across the world. Read More

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November 2019

Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli Infections.

Curr Infect Dis Rep 2019 Mar 4;21(3). Epub 2019 Mar 4.

Department of Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, Washington University School of Medicine, 660 South Euclid Avenue, Saint Louis, MO, 63110, USA.

Purpose Of Review: Review recent developments pertaining to the epidemiology, molecular pathogenesis, and sequelae of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) infections in addition to discussion of challenges for vaccinology.

Recent Findings: ETEC are a major cause of diarrheal illness in resource poor areas of the world where they contribute to unacceptable morbidity and continued mortality particularly among young children; yet, precise epidemiologic estimates of their contribution to death and chronic disease have been difficult to obtain. Although most pathogenesis studies, and consequently vaccine development have focused intensively on canonical antigens, more recently identified molecules unique to the ETEC pathovar may inform our understanding of ETEC virulence, and the approach to broadly protective vaccines. Read More

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Supplementation With Lactoferrin and Lysozyme Ameliorates Environmental Enteric Dysfunction: A Double-Blind, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Trial.

Am J Gastroenterol 2019 04;114(4):671-678

Department of Pediatrics, Washington University, St. Louis, Missouri, USA.

Introduction: Environmental enteric dysfunction (EED) predisposes children throughout the developing world to high rates of systemic exposure to enteric pathogens and stunting. Effective interventions that treat or prevent EED may help children achieve their full physical and cognitive potential. The objective of this study is to test whether 2 components of breast milk would improve a biomarker of EED and linear growth during the second year of life. Read More

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Synthesis and characterization of Abhraka (mica) bhasma by two different methods.

J Ayurveda Integr Med 2020 Jul - Sep;11(3):236-242. Epub 2019 Feb 28.

Department of Chemistry, Savitribai Phule Pune University, Pune, 411 007, India; C-MET, Pune, 411 008, India.

Background: Bhasmas are traditional Ayurvedic medicines prepared from minerals and metals by tedious process which removes toxic properties of metals and minerals and enhances medicinal properties. We have synthesized abhraka bhasma by two traditional methods and were analyzed during each stage of preparation.

Objective: The present study deals with the synthesis and characterization of abhraka bhasma by two different methods, method-1 is commonly used for treating anemia and tropical sprue and method-2 for treating chronic cough. Read More

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February 2019

Clinical, endoscopic, and histological differentiation between celiac disease and tropical sprue: A systematic review.

J Gastroenterol Hepatol 2019 Jan 30;34(1):74-83. Epub 2018 Aug 30.

Department of Pathology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India.

Background And Aim: While the prevalence of celiac disease (CD) is increasing globally, the prevalence of tropical sprue (TS) is declining. Still, there are certain regions in the world where both patients with CD and TS exist and differentiation between them is a challenging task. We conducted a systematic review of the literature to find out differentiating clinical, endoscopic, and histological characteristics between CD and TS. Read More

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January 2019

Lactoferrin and lysozyme to reduce environmental enteric dysfunction and stunting in Malawian children: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

Trials 2017 Nov 6;18(1):523. Epub 2017 Nov 6.

Department of Pediatrics, Washington University in St. Louis, One Children's Place, Campus Box 8116, Saint Louis, MO, 63110, USA.

Background: Chronic childhood malnutrition, as manifested by stunted linear growth, remains a persistent barrier to optimal child growth and societal development. Environmental enteric dysfunction (EED) is a significant underlying factor in the causal pathway to stunting, delayed cognitive development, and ultimately morbidity and mortality. Effective therapies against EED and stunting are lacking and further clinical trials are warranted to effectively identify and operationalize interventions. Read More

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November 2017

Practical Approach to the Flattened Duodenal Biopsy.

Thomas C Smyrk

Surg Pathol Clin 2017 Dec 23;10(4):823-839. Epub 2017 Sep 23.

Department of Pathology, Mayo Clinic, Hilton 11, 200 First Street Southwest, Rochester, MN 55902, USA. Electronic address:

Celiac disease features duodenal intraepithelial lymphocytosis with or without villous atrophy. Lymphocytosis without villous atrophy will be proven to represent celiac disease in 10% to 20% of cases. The differential diagnosis is broad: Helicobacter pylori gastritis, NSAID injury and bacterial overgrowth are considerations. Read More

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December 2017

Epidemiological and clinical perspectives on irritable bowel syndrome in India, Bangladesh and Malaysia: A review.

World J Gastroenterol 2017 Oct;23(37):6788-6801

Department of Gastroenterology, Sanjay Gandhi Postgraduate Institute of Medical Sciences, Lucknow 226014, India.

Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a chronic gastrointestinal disorder, common in clinic and in the community. It has a significant impact on both society and patients' quality of life. The epidemiology, clinical presentation, and management of IBS may vary in different geographical regions due to differences in diet, gastrointestinal infection, socio-cultural and psycho-social factors, religious and illness beliefs, symptom perception and reporting. Read More

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October 2017

Pros and Cons While Looking Through an Asian Window on the Rome IV Criteria for Irritable Bowel Syndrome: Pros.

Uday C Ghoshal

J Neurogastroenterol Motil 2017 Jul;23(3):334-340

Department of Gastroenterology, Sanjay Gandhi Postgraduate Institute of Medical Sciences, Lucknow, India.

A decade after Rome III, in 2016, Rome IV criteria were published. There are major differences between Rome IV and the earlier iteration, some of which are in line with Asian viewpoints. The clinical applicability of the Rome IV criteria of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) in Asian perspective is reviewed here. Read More

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Tropical Enteropathies.

Curr Gastroenterol Rep 2017 Jul;19(7):29

Blizard Institute, Barts & The London School of Medicine, Queen Mary University of London, Newark Street, London, E1 2AT, UK.

Purpose Of Review: The term 'tropical enteropathy' originated in observations in the 1960s that small intestinal morphology and function differed in the tropics from the norms found in temperate climates. It was subsequently shown that this enteropathy is more closely related to environmental conditions than latitude, and it was re-labelled 'environmental enteropathy'. It is now recognised that environmental enteropathy (also now called environmental enteric dysfunction) has implications for the health and linear growth of children in low- and middle-income countries, and it may underlie poor responses to oral vaccination in these countries. Read More

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Post-infectious IBS, tropical sprue and small intestinal bacterial overgrowth: the missing link.

Nat Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol 2017 Jul 17;14(7):435-441. Epub 2017 May 17.

Department of Medicine, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore, 6A Napier Road, Singapore, 258500.

Evidence is emerging that IBS, a hitherto enigmatic disorder thought to be predominantly related to psychological factors, has a microorganic basis in a subset of patients with the disease. Post-infectious IBS (PI-IBS), commonly of the diarrhoea-predominant subtype (defined as new development of IBS following acute infectious diarrhoea), is one such condition known to occur in up to 10-30% individuals after acute gastroenteritis. However, following acute infectious gastroenteritis, patients can also develop post-infectious malabsorption syndrome (PI-MAS), popularly known as tropical sprue. Read More

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Small Intestinal Bacterial Overgrowth and Other Intestinal Disorders.

Gastroenterol Clin North Am 2017 03;46(1):103-120

Department of Microbiology, Sanjay Gandhi Postgraduate Institute of Medical Sciences, Lucknow 226014, India.

Gut microbiota is the largest organ of the human body. Although growth of bacteria more than 10 colony forming unit (CFU) per milliliter in culture of upper gut aspirate is used to diagnosis small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO), 10 CFU or more is being considered to suggest the diagnosis, particularly if colonic type bacteria are present in the upper gut. Although neither very sensitive nor specific, hydrogen breath tests are widely used to diagnose SIBO. Read More

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A Surprising Case of Acute Diarrhea in the South of France.

Gastroenterology 2017 Jan 26;152(1):e1-e3. Epub 2016 Nov 26.

Département d'Hépatogastroenterologie et Transplantation, CHU Saint Eloi, Université de Montpellier, Montpellier, France.

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January 2017

Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis heralding olmesartan-induced sprue-like enteropathy.

Dig Liver Dis 2016 Nov 15;48(11):1399-1401. Epub 2016 Jul 15.

Outpatient Liver Clinic and Operating Unit of Internal Medicine, Azienda USL di Modena, NOCSAE, Modena, Italy.

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November 2016

Immunohistochemical Expression of Antitissue Transglutaminase 2 in Tissue Injuries: An Interpretation Beyond Celiac Disease.

Appl Immunohistochem Mol Morphol 2018 Jul;26(6):425-430

Departments of Gastroenterology and Human Nutrition, Pathology, and Nephrology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India.

Tissue transglutaminase 2 enzyme plays a diverse role in intracellular and extracellular functioning. Aberrant expression of anti-TG2 antibody has recently been proposed for extraintestinal identification of celiac disease (CeD), but its utility is questionable. To examine whether anti-TG2 immunohistochemical (IHC) staining can be of diagnostic value in identifying extraintestinal involvement in CeD, tissue blocks of patients with IgA nephropathies (IgAN), minimal change disease, membranous glomerulonephritis, membrano-proliferative glomerulonephritis, normal kidney, intestinal biopsies from CeD, tropical sprue, nonspecific duodenitis, and inflammatory bowel disease; liver biopsies from patients with chronic hepatitis B and C, acute liver failure (ALF), and CeD-associated liver diseases were retrieved and subjected to IHC staining for anti-tissue transglutaminase 2 enzyme. Read More

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The maladies of malabsorption.

J Pediatr Neurosci 2016 Jan-Mar;11(1):74-6

Surgical Gastroenterology, Sri Venkateswara Institute of Medical Sciences, Tirupati, Andhra Pradesh, India.

Malabsorption syndrome (MAS) is a common condition in India. In Indian adults, tropical sprue and celiac disease are leading causes of MAS. Sometimes, the diagnosis of MAS may pose a challenge due to the varied signs and symptoms. Read More

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Olmesartan-associated sprue-like enteropathy: a systematic review with emphasis on histopathology.

Hum Pathol 2016 Apr 19;50:127-34. Epub 2015 Dec 19.

Department of Pathology and Cell Biology, New York Presbyterian Hospital-Columbia University Medical Center, New York, NY 10032. Electronic address:

Sprue-like enteropathy associated with the angiotensin II receptor blocker (ARB) olmesartan was first described in 2012, and a number of cases have since been reported. This syndrome is characterized by severe diarrhea and sprue-like histopathologic findings in the intestine, often with increased subepithelial collagen. The incidence of this adverse drug reaction is not entirely clear, although it is thought to be rare. Read More

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